Anatomy and Physiology II
Anatomy and Physiology II BIOL 2402
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mekhi Botsford on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2402 at Lamar University taught by James Armacost in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see /class/222341/biol-2402-lamar-university in Biology at Lamar University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Test 1 Notes Background I Anatom O 0 Study of the structure of the body Describing parts of body I Physiology 0 O The study of function of body Understand how body works Form is related to Function Form anatomy is determined by function physiology Body structures take the forms that they do in order to perform particular functions 6 Levels of Structural Organization 1 39 2 Cellular 3 Tissue 4 Organs 5 Systems 6 Organisms 11 major organ systems in the body 1 Integument 2 Skeletal 3 Muscular 4 Nervous 5 Endocrine 6 Circulatory 7 Lymphatic 8 Respiratory 9 Digestive 10 Excretory 11 Reproductive Endocrine System Ch 18 I Endocrine System A FWD 9quot Coordinate functions of all body systems i Especially homeostasis and metabolism Works closely in conjunction with nervous system Able to detect and respond to environment stimuli Regulates the growth development and reproduction Complimentary to nervous system Works with hormones i Hormones 1 Mediator molecules of endocrine system 2 Released by cells one point in the body 3 Regulates target cells another point in the body Comparison of nervous and endocrine i Nervous system 1 Release mediators a Celledneurotransmitters 2 Mediators close to site and release 3 Action of mediators rapid and brief ii Endocrine System 1 Releases mediator called hormone 111 VI VII 2 Mediators act far from site of release 3 Action of mediator H Comparison of Endocrine and Exocrine Glands i Exocrine Glands 1 Secrete products into ducts that carry them into body cavity lumen or organ or to body surface ii Endocrine Glands 1 Secrete products into interstitial uid 2 Products transported by circulatory system 3 Exclusively endocrine in function 4 5 major a Pituitary Gland b Thyroid Gland c Parathyroid Gland d Adrenal Gland e Pineal Gland 5 Other organs and tissues also secrete hormones Hypothalamus Thymus Pancreas Gonads Kidneys Stomach Liver Small Intestine Skin Heart Adipose tissue Placenta Farrmama 519572 Hormone Activity A Chemical substance produced B Site of hormone action is a target cell C Hormones act on target cell by binding to receptor molecules on or in the target cells D Target cells have receptors that bind to and recognize different hormones i Down regulation decrease in receptors ii Up regulation increase in receptors Circulating Hormones A Act on distant target cells B Transport in blood C Inactivated by liver and excreted by kidneys Local Hormones A Have more local effects B Act on near by cells paracrines C Acts on same cell that secreted them autocrines D Less common Chemical Classes of Hormones A Lipidsoluble hormones B Water soluble hormones Hormone Transport in Blood A Lipidsoluble hormones i Circulatebound to transport protein B Water soluble hormones i Circulate in a free form in watery blood plasma Mechanisms of Horone Action most common A LipidSoluble hormones i Diffuse through phospholipids bilayer of plasma membrane of target cells ii Hormones binds to receptor molecules in cytosol or nucleus and gene expression is altered iii New mRNA is formed during transcription and new proteins are synthesized iv The new proteins after cell activity B Water Soluble Hormones i First messenger binds to receptor molecules on outer surface of plasma mem ran ii Cant enter cell directly so have to form an indirect effect ATP is converted to camp on inner surface of plasma membrane iii cAMP second messenger activates one or more protein kinasis in cytosol or on inner surface of plasma membrane iv Activated protein kinases then activate or inactivate other cellular proteins v Cellular proteins alter cell activity vi cAMP is inactivated VIII Hormone Activity A Sensitivity of target cell to hormone depends on i Hormone concentration ii Number of receptor molecules on surface of target cell iii In uences of other hormones IX Hormone Interaction A Permissive effect i Action of 1 hormone requires simultaneous or recent presence of second hormone B Synergistic Effect i Action of one hormone is increased by presence of second hormone ii Has antoposite C Antagonistic Effect i Action of one hormone is inhibited by presence of second hormone X Endocrine Glands and Their major hormones A 5 glands are exclusively endocrine infunction i Pituitary Gland ii Thyroid Gland iii Parathyroid multiple small groups 4 iv Adrenal single or paire v Pineal Gland B Hypothalamus and Pituitary i Hypothalamus 1 Region of the brain below thalamus 2 Receives input from nervous system and internal organs 3 Secrets nine hormones ii Pituitary 1 Attached to the hypothalamus 2 Anterior and posterior lobe secreting different hormones Secretes seven hormones Hypothalamus controls pituitary and pituitary controls other endocrine glands 7 Hormones of Anterior Pituitary Glands Human growth hormone hGH Thyroidstimulating hormone TSH Follicle stimulating hormone FSH Adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH Melanocytestimulating hormone MSH Luteinizing Hormone LH WWPF W G Prolactin PRL i many act on other endocrine glands XII Functions of Human Growth Hormone hGH A Targets liver skeletal muscle bones etc B Causes target cells to secrete insulinlike growth factors IGFs i IGF functions 1 Stimulate cell growth 2 Stimulate liver cells to release glucose into blood C hGH regulation 39 Secretion of hGH by anterior pituitary is regulated by 2 hypothalamic hormones 1 Growth hormones releasing hormone GHRH 2 Growth hormoneinhibited hormone GHIH i GHRH 8 GHIH are regulated by blood glucose level IN general hypothalamus controls pituitary glands hGH Regulation whypoglycemia 1 Hypoglycemia low blood pressure causes hypothalamus to secrete GHRH 2 GHRH causes anterior pituitary to secrete hGH 3 hGH stimulates release of IGFs 4 IGFs cause liver to release more glucose to blood hGH Regulation whyperglycemia 1 Hyperglycemia high blood pressure causes hypothalamus to secrete GHIH 2 GHIH inhibits secretion of hGH by anterior pituitary 3 IGF secretion is inhibited 4 Liver releases less glucose XIII Posterior Pituitary Gland A Does not synthesis hormones B Stores some hormones created in hypothalamus and releases them slowly i Oxytocin 0T ii Antidiuretic Hormone ADH 1 Decreases urine production 2 Alcohol inhibits secretion of ADH XIV Regulation of ADH A High blood osmotic pressure from dehydration stimulates osmoreceptors in hypothalamus B Osmoreceptors cause hypothalamus to secrete ADH to posterior pituitary C Posterior pituitary releases ADH into bloodstream D Functions i ADH has 3 targets 1 Kidneys a Retain more water 2 Sweat Glands Decrease activity 3 Smooth muscle in blood vessel walls a Constrict to increase blood pressure XV Thyroid Gland A Located in throat below the larynx B Consists of 2 lateral lobes C Secretes 3 hormones i Tetraidothyronine ii Triiodothyronin D Functions of thyroid hormones T3 and T4 39 Increase basal metabolic rate BMR Increase use of ATP generating heat Increase protein synthesis Increase action of norephinephrine and epinephrine adrenalin Increase body growth 1 Along with human growth hormone hGH M ltlt Low metabolic rate Hypothalamus releases TRH high blood T3 inhibits TRH release 4 six Anterior Pituitary releases TSH l 4 999 Thyroid Gland Releases T3 8 T4 TRH Thyrotropin TSH Tyroidstimulating Example of control by hypothalamus and anterior pituitary Negative Feedback XVI Parathyroid Glands Located in posterior surface of lateral loves of thyroid glands B Secretes parathyroid hormones PTH C Target cells are osteoclasts in skeletal systems D Osteoclasts release Ca into blood XVII Parathyroid Hormone and Calcitonin regulate High blood Ca Low blood Ca 4 4 Thyroid Elease CT Parathyrid release PTH CT inhibiis osteoclasts activity PTH proriotes osteoclasts activity 4 4 9 9 99 Blood Ca decreases 9 9 99 Blood Ca increases XVIII Adrenal Gland A Located superior to each kidney B Consists of two distinct regions i Adrenal corteX ii Adrenal medulla C Adrenal medulla is a modi ed sympathetic ganglion of the autonomic nervous system ANS XIX Hormones of Adrenal CorteX A Adrenal corteX secretes three groups of hormones i Miner alocorticoids ii Gluecorticoids iii Androgens B Aldosterone is the primary mineral cocorticoid i Regulates levels of blood Na and K ii Regulates excretion of H in the urine C Glucocorticoids include i Cortisol most abundant ii Corticosterane iii Cortisone D Glucocorticoids regulate metabolism and resistance to stress XX Hormones of Adrenal Medulla A Adrenal medulla secrets two hormones i Epinephrine adrenaline ii N orephinephrine NE noradrenoline B Epinephrine and Norepinephrine stimulate the ght or ight response i Increase 1 Heart rate 2 Stroke volume ii Dilate airways to lung iii Increase blood level of glucose and fatty acids XXI Pineal Gland A Location i Within the epithalamus of the brain B Hormone secreted i Melatonin C Function of melatonin i Promotes sleep ii Regulates biological clock XXII Selected other tissues with endocrine functions A Pancreatic islets B Gonads C Thymus XXIII Pancreas A Location i In curve of duodenum rst part of small intestine B Anatomy 1 Includes acini and pancreatic islets C Acini exocrine cells secrete digestive enzymes D Pancreatic islets secrete endocrine cells hormones 4 i Glucagon ii Insulin XXIV Pancreatic Hormones A Glucagon i Functions increase blood glucose levels ii Target cells hepatocytes in liver which convert glycogen into glucose B Insulin i Function decrease blood glucose levels ii Target cells various 1 EX insulin accelerates uptake of glucose by skeletal muscle Glucagon and Insulin Function Hypoglycemia Hyperglycemia 4 4 Pancreas Secretes glucagon Pancreasfecretes insulin Liver reliases glucose Insulin acis on various target cells 99 99 Blood glucose increases 99 9 9 blood glucose decreases b0th negative feedback XXV 5 Gonads A B Ovaries in females Secrete several hormones include i Estrogens ii Progesterone Functions of estrogens and progesterone i Development of female secondary seX characteristics ii Regulation of menstrual cycle iii Maintenance of pregnancy Testies in males i Secrete testosterone ii Functions of testosterone iii Development of male secondary seX characteristics iv Regulation of sperm production Circulatory System 1 Components of Circulatory System A Fluid i Blood 1 Circulated and many things are dissolved in this uid B Pump i Heart 1 Moves Fluids C Tubes i Blood vessels 1 Passage ways 11 Functions of Circulatory System A Transport 02 and nutrients and hormones B Transports C02 and other metabolic waste C Regulates body PH and temperature D Protects body from pathogens III Blood A A connective tissue i Liquid extracellular matrix plasma ii Cells and cell fragments formed elements B Physical Properties 1 ii 735745 pH alkaline iii 5 6 liters in adult males iv 45 liters in adult females C Components of Blood 39 Blood plasma 1 Liquid matrix 2 55 ofblood ii Formed elements 1 Cells and cell fragments 2 45 ofblood D Formed elements in blood i Red blood cells RBC Constitute 99 of formed elements ii Hematocrit 1 Percentage of totalblood volume occupiedby RBC39s a Average 42 for female b Average 47 for male iii White Blood Cells VVBC iv Platelets cell fragments 1 WBC39s and Platelets together constitute 1 E Red Blood Cells erythrocytes i Anatomy 1 Biconcave disc 2 Lack a nucleus and other organelles a Have few or no other organelles as well mitochondria 3 Contain hemoglobin molecules packed full with them a About 280 million ii Function 1 Specialized for 02 transport 2 Hemoglobin is the transport molecule a Protein Globin i 4 polypeptide chains b Heme group i Contains iron ion Fe 2 ii 02 combines reversibly with Fe 2 iii Red blood cell destruction 1 Macrophage cells in spleen and liver phagocytize damaged RBCs a Macro bi 2 Globin and heme groups are split apart a Globin protein broken down into amino acids 3 Heme group a Fe 3 removed and transported to red bone marrow by a transport protein transferring Noniron portion of heme group converted to stercobilin and removed in feces ET 0xygenated blood is reddish 39v emopoiesis Formation of formed elements of blood 2 Occurs in red bone marrow in adults a Red bone marrow i Stem cells that can continue to divide and produce more cells 3 Begins with pluripotent stem cells a Can give rise to all the blood cells F White Blood Cells leucocytes i Anatomy 1 Contains nucleus 2 Two Groups a Granular b Agranular ii General Function 1 Protecting body from pathogens iii Granular White Blood Cells 1 Neutrophils a Small granules b 2 to 5 lobed nucleus c Phagocytosis of pathogens 2 Eosinophils a Large granules b 2 lobed nucleus c Moderate in ammation at site of injury d Phagocytosis of pathogens 3 Basophils a Variablesixed granules i Distinguishing factor b 2lobed nucleus obscured by granules c Intensify in ammation at site of injury or infection iv Agranular White Blood Cells 1 Lymphocytes a Round nucleus b Immune response c B cells attackbacterial cells d T cells attackviruses and fungal cells e Natural killer NK cells attack a wide variety of pathogens 2 Monocytes a Kidney shaped nucleus i Distinguishing factor b Migrate to various tissues and become macrophages c Phagocytosis of pathogens v Platelets 1 Anatomy a Cell fragments b Cytoplasm enclosed by plasma membrane c Nonnucleus 2 Function a Stopping blood loss i Platelet plug formation ii Blood clotting G Hemostasis i Series of actions that stops bleeding 1 Not the same as homeostasis ii Mechanisms of homeostasis 1 Vascular spasm a Contraction of smooth muscles in walls of arteries or arterioles in response to i Nerve impulse from pain receptors ii Chemical signals released from platelets 2 Platelet plug formation a Platelets adhere to blood vessel wall and aggregate to from a platelet plug b Platelets are loosely bound together 3 Blood clotting coagulation a Series of chemical reactions b Produce fibrin threads i Fibrin threads tightly bind platelets and other formed elements toget er c Requires activity of several clotting coagulation factors d Clot retraction i Fibrin threads of blood clot contract 1 Pulling clot together 2 Pulling damaged edges of blood vessel to ether e Clot Degradation brinolysis 39 Blood clots are dissolved after tissue damage is repaired or when clot isn39t necessary Plasmin brinolysin enzyme digests brin threads pt I IV Heart A Location and Size i In thoracic cavity ii Near midline About 23 of mass to left of midline iii Above diaphragm 1 Sheet of muscle divides the thoracic cavity from abdominal cavity iv Size 1 250 g 8 oz in adult female 2 300 g 10 oz in adult male B Pericardium 39 Membrane surrounding the heart 1 Anchors heart but allows movement without rubbing against other tissues ii Composed of 3 layers 1 Fibrous pericardium Outside layer adjacent to surrounding tissues 2 Parietal layer of serous pericardium 3 Visceral layer of pericardium epicardium a Little space between the parietal and visceral iii Pericardial Cavi 1 Between parietal and visceral layers 2 Filled with pericardial uid 3 Cushions the heart but allows the heart to move as it needs iv Heart Wall 1 3 layers a Epicardium i Considered both part of the pericardium and part of the heart wall ii Epithelial tissue connective tissue iii Thin pink line b Myocardium i Cardiac muscle tissue Striated like skeletal muscle 2 Involuntary like smooth muscle c Endocardium i Endothelial lining v Chambers 1 Atria entry hall Right atrium Left atrium 2 Ventricles little belly a Right ventricle b Left ventricle 3 Myocardial thickness and function Atria have thin walls i Pump blood to adjacent ventricles b Ventricles have thickwalls i Pump blood to lungs right ventricle or to body left ventricle ii Left ventricle has thicker wall than right ventricle 1 Left ventricle pumps blood farther than right ventricle vi Heart Valves 1 Prevent blood from owing in wrong direction or back ow or 2 Atrioventricularvalves Between atrium and ventricle Right AV valve tricuspid valve i etween right atrium and ventricle Left AV valve fbicuspid valve i Between left atrium and ventricle When AV valve is open i Papillary muscles are relaxed ii Chordae tendineae are slack iii Valve cusps project into ventricle e When AV valve is closed i Papillary muscles contract ii Chordae tendineae become taut iii Preventing valve cusps from everting P 53 El 3 Semilunar valves a Between ventricle and artery pulmonary trunk or aorta vii Path of Blood through the Heart DEOXTGENATED Body Vena Cava Right Atrium Tricuspid Valve a Right AV valve Right Ventricle Pulmonary Valve Pulmonary Trunk Lungs 0XYGENATED 9 Lungs Pulmonary Veins Left Atrium Bicuspid Valve a Left AV valve Left Ventricle Aortic Valve L39PPJNEquot mNW gt gt gt NHO gt w w gt 919 Veins to the heart Arteries away from heart viii Separation of the systemic pulmonary circuits Heart pumps blood in 2 closed circuits 2 Pulmonary circuits a Right side of heart b Receives deoxygenated blood from body 3 Systemic circuit a Left side of heart b Receives oxygenated blood from lungs c Sends oxygenated blood to body III Coronary Circulation Coronary Arteries a Surrounds heart like a crown b Many anastomoses c Carry oxygenated blood to cardiac muscle Coronary Veins a Return deoxygenated blood to right atrium Cardiac Musc e a 2 types of cardiac muscle fibers b Contractile bers i 99 of all cardiac bers c Autorhythmic fibers i 1 of all cardiac fibers Contractile Fibers a Similar to skeletal muscle in structure and function b Ioined by intercalated discs i Desmosomes connect cells ii Gap junctions allow direct transmission of muscle action potentials between muscle bers Autorhythmic fibers a enerate action potentials b Don39t require stimulus from nervous system c Conduct action potentials throughout the heart d Functions i Act as a pacemaker for the heart 1 Pacemaker function a Autorhythmic fibers generate action potential at relatively constant rate b Selfexcitable c Established base heart rate d Rate can be modi ed somewhat by external stimuli nerve impulses from autorhythmic nervous system e Hormones ii Form an electrical conduction system through heart 1 Conduction system function a Autorhythmic fibers conduct action potentials throughout eart b Step 1 i Action potential generated in sinoatrial SA node of right atrium ii Action potential propagates through myocardium of both atria c Step 2 i Action potential reaches atrioventricular AV node between atria and ventric es ii Propagation of action potential slows at AV node iii Atria empty blood into ventricles d Step 3 i Action potential enters atrioventricular AV bundle e Step 4 VI VII VIII I Action potential propagates along conducted along AV bundle and right and left bundle branches between ventricles f Step 5 I Action potential conducted along purkinje fibers to ventricular myocardium Ventricles contract together pt I Conduction System of the heart a Coordinates contraction of cardiac muscle in different parts of the heart b Cardiac muscle in different parts of the heart contract at different times c This establishes a cardiac cycle i Cardiac Cycle 1 Systolecontraction phase 2 Diastolerelaxationphase 3 Phases a First atria contract i Atrial systole ii Ventricles in diastole b Second ventricles contract i Ventricular systole ii Atria in diastole Electrocardium ECG or EKG a Composite of action potentials produced by all cardiac bers during contraction b 3 recognizable waves 1 P wave ii QRS complex iii T wave c P wave i Small peak associated with atrial systole d QRS complex i Dip Strong peak and second dip associated with ventricular systole e T wave i Small peak associated with ventricular diastole Cardiac Output Volume of blood ejected from ventricle per minute b C0 is dependent on two other factors c C0 SV X HR i Stroke volume SV volume of blood ejected from ventricle per contraction ii Heart Rate HR number ofheartbeats contractions per minute 1 HR 75beatsmin 2 C0 70 X 75 5250 mLmin to 525 Lmin a 525 L is close to the total volume ofblood in the body b So entire blood volume ows through systemic and pulmonary circuits each minute d Regulation of Cardiac output i Cardiac output varies depending on metabolic demands ii Both intrinsic internal to the heart and extrinsic external to the heart factors iii Cardiac output can be regulated by changing 1 Stroke volume 2 Heart rate e Intrinsic Regulation of Stroke Volume 39 FrankStarling law of the heart 1 As a heart chamber lls with blood cardiac muscles in heart wall are stretche 2 The more the cardiac muscles are stretched during diastole the more forcefully they contract during systole 3 Equalizes input and output f Extrinsic Regulation of Stroke Volume i Stimulation by sympathetic division of autonomic nervous system ANS INCREASES strength of contraction and thus stroke volume 1 By releasing epinephrine and norepinephrine 2 Ephinephrine and norepinephrine are neurotransmitters and hormones ii There is no equivalent mechanism by which the ANS can actively decrease stroke volume 1 Stroke volume will decrease passively as concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine decrease g Extrinsic Regultion of Heart Rate i Stimulation by sympathetic division of autonomic nervous system increases heart rate 1 By releasing norephinephrine ii Stimulation by parasympathetic division of ANA decreases heart rate 1 By releasing acetylcholine iii The ANS can actively increase or decrease heart rate 1 Due to the opposing effects of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions compare to regulation of stoke volume QUESTION S 1 What is the term for the products of endocrine glands 2 What are the female and male gonads Produce seX cells Males testes Females ovaries 3 How would down regulation and upregulation affect the sensitivity of the target cell to a hormone o More receptors more sensitive 4 What group of hormones lipid or water can pass through a cell membrane Lipid soluble hormones 5 Does the hormone act on the surface of or inside of target cell insi e
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