World Since 1918
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Salvatore Kertzmann on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 103 at Lander University taught by Jean Paquette in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/222343/hist-103-lander-university in History at Lander University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Chapter 4 War and Revolution Page 70 Causes of WWI LONG RANGE European con ict 7 rivalry especially between Germany and Great Britain Imperialismthe act of taking over a foreign nation Britain had a world empire and Germany wanted one Arms race7Dreadnoughts Entangling Alliances 7 TripleAlliance AustriaHungary Germany and eventually Turkey Triple Entente made up of G B France Russia and eventually the US The Von Schlie en Plan 7 a strategic gambit to keep Germany from entering a two front war Russian mobilization caused the plan to be put into operation with IMMEDIATE CAUSE I assassination of Franz Ferdinand heir to the AustroHungarian Empire That event gave AustriaHungary an excuse to act and led to gt AustriaHungary invades Serbia gt Belgian neutrality violated by Germany bringing Great Britain THE GREAT WAR To be over in six weeks The six month war turned into the Great Slaughter No quick or easy victory 7 trench warfare MAP p 71 WWI spread to the MidEast Africa British Empire became involved as well By 1917 Arab tribes were fighting against Germany s ally Turkey stirred up by T E Lawrence In Africa the Allies grabbed Germany s colonies while the Japanese took Germany possessions in the Pacific The United States joined the Triple Entente against Germany because 0f Unrestricted submarine warfare Lusitania May 5 1915 Zimmerman telegram sent by the Germans to Mexican officials promising aid if the Mexicans would attack the U S U S declared war on April 6 1917 Total war 7 Increased production Rationing of food amp materials gasoline rubber Conscription Propaganda Women in the work place 7 G B 1345100vote in 1918 Germany as well Censorship 7 Defense of the Realm DORA complaints against the war prison In Fr civil rights suppressed In March of 1918 despite the terrible loss in 1917 General von Ludendorff tried one more big push that was defeated by the newly arrived American troops By September informed the Kaiser that all was lost War amp Revolution in Russia Nicholas II Lost RussoJapanese war of 1905 little democracy veto WWI disaster led to in ation 0 food shortages 0 government corruption 0 high casualties 2 million 19141916 March 1917 a protest began in St Petersburg Almost all segments of population involved 7 military workers middle class strikes and riots Nicholas II abdicated 7 gave way to the provisional government A provisional government was formed and led by Alexander Kerensky V Lenin leader of the Bolsheviks Communist Party Told the people what they wanted to hear Peace N ow Bread Now Land Now Lenin and CCP made speeches harping on 0 peace 0 bread 0 reform The Provisional government was overthrown in November of 1917 0 Russia and Germany entered into the Treaty of Brest Litovsk Russia lost a fourth of Russia 1 3 of the population but had peace 0 The Western powers felt betrayed while fearing Russia s socialist regime as a challenge to capitalism o Lenin s seizure of power did not end the fighting Russia entered into a civil war Bolsheviks took Petrograd 0 Did not share power with moderates formed the CHEKA secret police 7 extraordinary commissioners White Russian forces 7 opposed Lenin 7 had western support to defeat the Red Menace The attempt failed More War on the Western Front With Russia out Germany one last push before U S entry could be felt March July 1918 could not sustain attack US entry into the war in 1917 had turned the tide General von Ludendorff s ploy failed By September 1918 Ludendorff acknowledged defeat and Germany attempted a negotiated peace David LloydGeorge Hang the Kaiser Georges Clemenceau the Tiger W Wilson the Kaiser must go Germany Sailors mutinied soviet style group forming Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated A new government Social Democrats under Frederick Ebert formed what became known as the Weimar Republic November 11 1918 Armistice Day Versailles Peace Conference 1919 Some optimistic Harold Nicolson We were journeying to Paris not merely to liquidate the war but to found a new order in Europe We were preparing not peace only but Eternal peace P 84 W Wilson wrote the Fourteen Points as a basis for this eternal peace Open diplomatic treaties fewer weapons selfdetermination worked in Europe but began nationalistic movements in colonial countries League of Nations Bring countries into an organization that could insure peace U S did notjoin USSR Russia not allowed in The Peace Settlement June 28 1919 o guilt clauseGermany and Austria responsible for WWI but mostly Germany Ger reparations Ger loss of territory Polish corridor cut off Prussia from Germany Map P 85 Ger loss of terr AlsaceLorraine expected Demilitarized Rhineland Reduction of military 100000 men no artillery tanks planes subs poison gas Treaty of BrestLitovsk null amp void Selfdetermination Romania Hungary Serbs Croats amp Slovenes Yugoslavia Finland Latvia Estonia Lithuania Poland Czechoslovakia Results of Versailles Peace Treaty Germany saw the peace as dictated Reparations undermining economy in ation Loss of territory AlsaceLorraine Polish Corridor the Sudetenland Pride Establishment of Yugoslavia Germany unable to pay reparations Results FrBelgium send troops into the Ruhr Valley Germans passive resistance turned to violence In ationmiddle class those on retirement 7 anger led to the growth of nationalist parties Example Adolf Hitler and his National Socialist Workers Party the Nazis Communist Party New German Government Gustav Stresemann August 1924 ended resistance in Ruhr German to carry out provisions of Versailles Treaty DAWES PLAN and recovery reduced Germany s reparation payments granted Germany 200 million for recovery encouraged US investment in Germany successful 7 Germany prospered 1924 7 1929 1926 German was allowed into the League of Nations The Great Depression 1929 Causes Recession in Europe Crash of U S StockMarket I fall of farm prices I stock speculation I overproduction under consumption I use of cheap oil in place of coal GB 1 out of4 unemployed Fr not badly hit economically but government unstable 7 19321933 siX cabinets Germany 4 million by 1930 I The Great Depression renewed the attack on the government led by extremist parties Nazis and German communists US Herbert Hoover was ousted by Democrat Franklin D Roosevelt in 1932 He introduced the NEW DEAL Tried to get public works going to employ people Examples I Works Progress Administration I Social Security I Tennessee Valley Authority I Civilian Conservation Corps CCC Much opposition to Roosevelt s plan Great Depression did not end until U S entered W W 11 P89 USSR Socialism not involved in world crises but had its own immediately after success of the revolution Going by Karl Marx s thinking the new USSR needed to Get rid itself of capitalism Indoctrinate the people Create new institutions I Nationalize large industries I Eliminate private land holdings New Economic Policy The USSR was not industrialized enough to follow such a dramatic change Lenin devised the NEP as a bridge to a more communist society The NEP combined socialism and capitalism 7 increase production by using the pro t incentive I the government directed both the politicaleconomy areas including heavy industry banking utilities foreign trade I The NEP worked Problem 7 Lenin s health V Lenin health problems led to a scurry for power Two of the strongest candidates were Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin Stalin succeeded Lenin selling himself as a moderate which he was not Stalin s impact Once in power Stalin began a rapid socialization of the o Soviet economy No more capitalism 7 meaning no more private industry Instead there were 0 Five year plans that hit farmers as their land holdings were eliminated o In their place large collective farms 0 Those who objected were purged or eliminated Stalin s industrialization saw increases in steel production coal and electrical power 0 By 1938 most of the Soviet people were better off than they had been Many however were also in slave labor camps 476 complexes ithousands of camps To P 91
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