Organismal Biology BIOL 128
Lansing Community College
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This 25 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Loraine Bruen on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 128 at Lansing Community College taught by Timothy Periard in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see /class/222371/biol-128-lansing-community-college in Biology at Lansing Community College.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Chapter 22 Introduction to Ecology What environmental factors limit the geographic distribution of harlequin toads How do variations in their food supply or interactions with other species such as pathogens affect their population size Based on these questions what is your definition of Ecology from Greek oikos scientific study of the Ecological interactions occur at a hierarchy of scales from single organisms to the globe Euphau r 5 illka Humans Smaller Baleen Sperm toothed whales whalesxwmles Crab Elephant seals eater nggfgd seals r7 r J 4 Birds Fishes gt Squids y a a Carni vorous plankton Cope i5 suds pods 1 krill V Phyto plankton Global ecology Landscape ecology Community ecology 7 Population ecology Organismal ecology The most significant influence on the distribution of organisms on land and in the oceans is Climate prevailing weather conditions in an area Macroclimate regional and landscape level Microclimate localized patterns community level eg community of organisms that live in a microhabitat Global Climate Macroclimates Global Patterns determined by Solar Energy and Movement in Space Patterns of temperature and precipitation Modifying Global Climate Patterns Seasonality equinox vs solstice Atmosphere I 90 N North Pole I 60 N TEbihiIAr I glieidf i l i gf lig f39 30 N V 235 N Tropic of i 39 1 Cancer uw39czvemga faifen iiapxC 1 3EbWT idfii E ii f i li ht 60 S 90 S South Pole 235 s Tropic of Capricorn March equinox r 7 77 December SOIStice Constant of 235 June solstice September equinox Macroclimates cont Modifying Global Climate Patterns cont Bodies of Water Labrador Current rrent 30quotN North Pacific Subtropical Gyre l3 u h Equator m an b Indian 39 u 39 f Ocean V Subtropical South Pacific Gyre 3 30 Subtropical Gyre Gyre a 27 I i s g J Antarctic Circumpolarcm H Macroclimates cont Modifying Global Climate Patterns cont Mountains Leeward side of mountains Air flow The climate is changing eg American beech I V I Current range D Predicted range Overlap a 45 C warming over next b 65 C warming over next century century Since 1900 F Expected to warm F more by 2100 Climate determines the nature and location of Earth s 30 N 39 5 Tropic 6f Cancer Equator Iter3i59EQePri99trl 39 30 S e 3 Tropical forest 3 Temperate broadleaf forest 5 Savanna 2 Northern coniferous forest Desert Tundra Chaparral High mountains Temperate grassland E Polar ice Same type of quotecosystemquot different species r s A Euphorbia canariensis 4 Cereus peru Vianus Convergent Evolution Highlighting Importance of Climate on Biomes Temperature Precipitation Annual mean temperature C 219 w Desert forest Northern coniferous forest Arctic and alpine tundra l 0 100 i I 200 300 Annual mean precipitation cm 400 Tropical Rain Forest LI ma ae t Factors that affect the distribution of organisms Kangarooskm2 001 Dispersal 011 lg 15 I 5 1 0 1020 gt 20 Limits of distribution 77 Behavior Biotic Abiotic Often need to consider when attempting to explain the distribution of a species Why is species X absent from an area Yes Area inaccessible or insufficient time Yes predation Does dispersal Habltat selection parasitism limit its Yes competition Does behavior 9 d39smbmlon39 No limit its Do bioticfactors dlsease distribution No other species limit its Do abiotic distribution No factors limit its distribution Physical Chemical factors factors Temperature Water Oxygen Soil structure Salinity Ire pH Moisture etc Soil nutrients etc Dispersal Kangaroo vs Cattle Egret Behavior maybe behavior is stopping them Habitat selection by an organism is one of the least understood ecological processes One eg larvae of European corn borer can feed on a wide variety of plants but feed almost exclusively on corn maize bc egg laying females are attracted to odors produced by the plant Biotic Factors RESULTS 100 Both limpets and urchins Other species may y k be responsible for 8 quot Sea urchin 3 Only urchins limiting another E 60 remmd I I I I o 7 speCIes distribution g Limpet predation 4o 0 disease quot 20 Only limpets removed 39 C0m pEtltlon Control both urchins and limpets present 0 August February August February 1982 1983 1983 1984 another eg removing wolves and coyotes in Michigan Abiotic Factors Examples of Temperature need 39 489 F need 44 55 F Examples of Water and Oxygen Amphibians skin used for gas so can t escape water freshwater that is adaptation Mangroves have specialized roots that project above water to Examples of Salinity Ever see an amphibian in the ocean Salmon have behavioral and physiological adaptations to help w varying salt concentrations Abiotic Factors cont Examples of Sunlight Are coral reefs found in shallow or deep seas Michigan Aspen Examples of Rocks and Soils Substrate of river and lake can limit Nutrient composition limits growth What abiotic factors is are limiting the growth of the alpine trees
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