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Human Anatomy

by: Mr. Loraine Bruen

Human Anatomy BIOL 201

Mr. Loraine Bruen
Lansing Community College
GPA 3.9

Joseph Ortiz

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Joseph Ortiz
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Loraine Bruen on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 201 at Lansing Community College taught by Joseph Ortiz in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see /class/222373/biol-201-lansing-community-college in Biology at Lansing Community College.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
LECTURE NOTES CHAPl INTRO 2004 7 39 i 511 13331 fiLTJJiti ViCInji at 39 are long to carry im ulses long distances etc This will be covered as a separate course The body works to maintain i quot quot 2 eX temp BP pH blood glucose etc Normal ph 725 to 735 m J Levels of organization 1 chemical level atoms made of protons neutrons and electrons molecules 2 or more atoms bonded together ions charged atom or molecule Na K Cl compounds 2 or more atoms of different elements bonded together NaCl glucose CO2 etc organic compounds large molecules from living material usually contain carbon eX carbohydrates lipids proteins made of amino acids nucleic acids inorganic molecules smaller molecules HCl NaCl C02 2 minim lw ll x nil cell basic unit of life cells contain organelles more later Lots of variety 11 1 tissue composed of many similar cells doing similar function Also contain 21m between the cells it 12w 1 epithelial skin respiratory tract lining of the gut usually eXposed to the outside connective dermis blood and bone falls under this category never eXposed to open area muscle skeletal cardio smooth nerve 4 um um la a organs are composed of 2 or more different tissues which function together EX stomach heart liver etc several different organs working together 11 systems integumentary skeletal muscular cardiovascular lymphatic nervous endocrine respiratory digestive urinary reproductive m the whole thing Characteristics 0flife 1 N DJ 0 movement from place to place or within the body or cell metabolism all chemical processes in cell body a anabolism build large molecules from smaller uses energy b catabolism breakdown of large molecules to smaller yields energy c assimilation making something part of yourself ex pig protein 9 Anderson protein respiration exchange of gases a external respiration bring oxygen in from outside body exchange from lungs to blood b internal respiration exchange from blood to cells carried by RBC s part of metabolism occurs in mitochondria C6H1206 602 9 6C02 6H20 energy this is how we make ATP growth increase in size due to increase in size of cell or number of cells responsiveness ability to detect and respond to stimulus a stimulus change in environment b receptor specific structurecells which respond to certain stimuli ex photo sound etc c effectors muscle or gland which reactsresponds reproduction formation of new cells or new individual Qliif LFrquottsmiM Him unspecialized cells E lu 7 cellj 9 cells specialized to perform certain function LECTURE NOTES CHAP 2 CELL 2004 Cell basic unit of life composed of plasma membrane surrounds cell cytoplasm composed of cytosol liquid and organelles nucleus actually an organelle I plasma membrane holds cell together controls what moves in and out of cell a structure lipid bilayer 2 layers of lipids mostly phospholipids and glycolipids on outside cholesterol proteins transmembrane protein one type of integral protein pass thru lipid bilayer these form channels pores act as transporters carrier proteins and receptors peripheral proteins attached to surface b function 1 shape and protection 2 selective permeability controls what moves in and out of cell c movement across cell membrane uids 2 uid compartments in bod and between tissues Examples of Interstitial uid ECF of blood in lymphatic vessels involve with the passive processes require N O ADDED ENERGY FROM ATP move from area of high concentration to low concentration down the concentration gradient 1 diffusion molecules move in both directions but more move from area of high concentration to low concentration until equilibrium is reached then they move equally in both directions eX oxygen from blood to cells C02 from cells to blood J facilitated diffusion from high to low concentration but uses specific transmembrane protein or carrier protein an integral protein in cell membrane eX glucose 3 osmosis movement of water thru membrane from high concentration of water to low moves thru pores til equilibrium is reached A ltration movement thru a membrane due to gravity andor a mechanical force eX blood pressure active processes these require added energy from ATP and move material up a concentration gradient from low to high concentration 1 active transport uses carrier protein but goes up concentration gradient 2 vesicular transport uses vesicles small sac that buds off membrane to move material a endocytosis brings material into the cell by surrounding substance 1phagocytosis cell uses pseudopod to engulf solid particle 9phagocytic vesicle phagosome lysosome then pours enzyme in to digest substance 2pinocytosis cell membrane dents in and cell engulfs a liquid no pseudopod here 3receptor mediated endocytosis cell engulfs a speci c substance ligand after it binds to specific receptor on cell surface b exocytosis secretory vesicles form inside the cell these bind with cell membrane and open to outside 9 contents are dumped outside the cell This may be waste or useful product II cytoplasm all material between cell membrane and nuclear membrane A cytosol liquid portion mostly water contains organelles PLEASE NOTE The cell organelles will not be covered individually in lecture but Will be covered on a homework assignment Much ofthis information should be familiar Ifnot students are responsible for learning this material on their own It will be covered on the exam B cell organelles many specialized structures often membrane bounded contained in cytoplasm 1 nucleus control center contains hereditary information genes DNA usually lcell except RBC which have none and skeletal muscle which have manycell surrounded by nuclear envelope like double cell membrane continuous with rough ER contains nucleolus used to produce rRNA which makes up ribosomes DNA makes up threadlike chromatin during cell division this becomes chromosomes 2 ribosomes made in nucleolus of rRNA and protein used for protein synthesis often attached to endoplasmic reticulum or may be free in cytoplasm 3 endoplasmic reticulum network of membranebounded channels for transportation inside cell continuous with nuclear envelope rough ER has ribosomes for protein synthesis smooth ER no ribosomes fatty acid phospholipid and steroid synthesis transport vesicle buds off ER to Golgi 4Golgi complex system of sacstubes used to package secretory products 9vesicles or wrap membrane around an enzyme lysosome 5 vesicle membrane bound sac that contains something 6 lysosome membrane bounded sac which forms from Golgi and contains an enzyme used to attach to vesicle during phagocytosis etc Enzyme digests contents of vesicle gt1 mitochondria membrane bounded organelle which contains a membrane folded up to form cristae produce ATP during Krebs cycle C6 H1206 02 9 C02 H20 energy ADP energy 9 ATP 8 micro laments thin filaments actin near cell surface which help with movement within the cell and movement of the cell also support and shape 9 microtubules made of tubulin help support and shape cell form cilia and agella and centriole 10 centrosome located near nucleus contains 2 centrioles


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