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Organismal Biology

by: Mr. Loraine Bruen

Organismal Biology BIOL 128

Mr. Loraine Bruen
Lansing Community College
GPA 3.9

Katherine LaCommare

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Katherine LaCommare
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This 45 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Loraine Bruen on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 128 at Lansing Community College taught by Katherine LaCommare in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see /class/222374/biol-128-lansing-community-college in Biology at Lansing Community College.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
Chapter 25 The History of Life on Earth Multiple Choice Questions 1 Which gas was least abundant in Earth39s early atmosphere prior to 2 billion years ago A 02 B C02 CH4 D H20 E NH3 0 Answer A Topic Concept 251 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 2 In their laboratory simulations of the early Earth Miller and Urey observed the abiotic synthesis of A amino acids B complex organic polymers C DNA D lip osomes E genetic systems Answer A Topic Conce t251 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 3 Which of the factors below weaken the hypothesis of abiotic synthesis of organic monomers in early Earth39s atmosphere the relatively short time between intense meteor bombardment and appearance of the first life forms 2 the lack of experimental evidence that organic monomers can form by abiotic synthesis 3 uncertainty about which gases comprised early Earth39s atmosphere A 1 B 2 C 3 D 1 and 3 E 2 and 3 Answer D Topic Concept 251 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 4 Which of the following has not yet been synthesized in laboratory experiments studying the origin of life A lip osomes B lip osomes with selectively permeable membranes C oligopep tides and other oligomers D protobionts that use DNA to program protein synthesis E amino acids Answer D Topic Concept 251 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 1 5 In what way were conditions on the early Earth of more than 3 billion years ago different from those on today39s Earth A Only early Earth had water vapor in its atmosphere B Only early Earth was intensely bombarded by large space debris C Only early Earth had an oxidizing atmosphere D Less ultraviolet radiation penetrated Earth39s early atmosphere E Earth39s early atmosphere had significant quantities of ozone Answer B Topic Concept 251 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 6 What is true of the amino acids that might have been delivered to Earth within carbonaceous chondrites A They had the same proportion of L and D isomers as Earth does today B The proportion of the amino acids was similar to those produced in the Miller Urey experiment C There were fewer kinds of amino acids on the chondrites than are found in living organisms today D They were delivered in the form of polypeptides Answer B Topic Concept 251 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 7 Which of the following is the correct sequence of these events in the origin of life formation of protobionts II synthesis of organic monomers II synthesis of organic polymers IV formation of DNA based genetic systems A I II III IV B I III II IV C II III I IV D IV III I II E III II I IV Answer C Topic Concept 251 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 8 Which is a defining characteristic that all protobionts had in common A the ability to synthesize enzymes B a surrounding membrane or membrane like structure C RNA genes D a nucleus E the ability to replicate RNA Answer B Topic Concept 251 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 9 Although absolute distinctions between the quotmost evolved protobiont and the first living cell are unclear biologists generally agree that one major difference is that the typical protobiont could not A possess a selectively permeable membrane boundary B perform osmosis C grow in size D perform controlled precise reproduction E absorb compounds from the external environment Answer D Topic Concept 251 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 2 10 The first genes on Earth were probably A DNA produced by reverse transcriptase from abiotically produced RNA B DNA molecules whose information was transcribed to RNA and later translated in polypeptides C auto catalytic RNA molecules D RNA produced by autocatalytic proteinaceous enzymes E oligopep tides located within protobionts Answer C Topic Concept 251 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 11 RNA molecules can both carry genetic information and be catalytic This supports the proposal that A RNA was the first hereditary information B protobionts had an RNA membrane C RNA could make energy D free nucleotides would not have been necessary ingredients in the synthesis of new RNA molecules E RNA is a polymer of amino acids Answer A Topic Concept 251 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 12 What probably accounts for the switch to DNA based genetic systems during the evolution of life on Earth A DNA is chemically more stable and replicates with fewer errors mutations than RNA B Only DNA can replicate during cell division C RNA is too involved with translation of proteins and cannot provide multiple functions D DNA forms the rod shaped chromosomes necessary for cell division E Replication of RNA occurs too slowly Answer A Topic Concept 251 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 13 The synthesis of new DNA requires the prior existence of oligonucleotides to serve as primers On Earth these primers are small RNA molecules This latter observation is evidence in support of the hypothesized existence of A a snowball Earth the abiotic synthesis of organic monomers the delivery of organic matter to Earth by meteors and comets earlier genetic systems than those based on DNA 000 E the endosymbiotic origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts Answer B Topic Concept 251 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 14 Several scientific laboratories across the globe are involved in research concerning the origin of life on Earth Which of these questions is currently the mostproblematic and would have the greatest impact on our understanding if we were able to answer it A How can amino acids simple sugars and nucleotides be synthesized abiotically B How can RNA molecules catalyze reactions C How did RNA sequences come to carry the code for amino acid sequences D How could polymers involving lipids andor proteins form membranes in aqueous environments E How can RNA molecules act as templates for the synthesis of complementary RNA molecules Answer C Topic Concept 251 Skill SynthesisEvaluation Page 3 15 Several scientific laboratories across lhe globe are involved in research concerning lhe origin of life on Earth Which graph below if lhe resulls were produced abiolically would have lhe grealesl promise for revealing L L or p A Amonnl of Hybridizatlan by Hyd roger Eondlng L DNAV HNAV HNAV RNAV DNA7 DNA RNA DNA amino ammo acid acid Amounl o Hybndlza on by NA FlNA HNA RNA DN DNA FINA DNA amino amino acid acid Amounl 039 Hybridlzahon by Hydrogen Bondan DNA HNA HNA RNA DNA DNA HNA DNA ammo ammo acld acld D Amount 01 Hybridlzalron by Hydrogen Bonding 3NA HNA HNAA RNA DNA DNA RNA DNA ammo amino acld acid Answer B Topic Concept 251 Skill ApplicationAnalysis Page 4 16 If natural selection in a particular environment favored genetic systems that permitted the production of daughter quotcellsquot that were genetically dissimilar from the mother quotcellsquot then one should expect selection for l polynucleotide polymerase with low mismatch error rates H p 39 r without 1 quot O capability lll batteries of efficient polynucleotide rep air enzymes lV p 39 r with 1 f 139 O capability V polynucleotide polymerases with high mismatch error rates A I only B land IV C I III and IV D H and V E II III and V Answer D Topic Concepts 162 251 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 17 If relatively small carbonaceous chondrites from space were a significant source ofEarth39s original amino acids then which two of these would have been most important in permitting their organic materials to survive imp act with Earth I Carbonaceous chondrites must contain no D amino acids ll Earth39s early atmosphere must have had little free oxygen Ill The chondrites must have arrived on Earth before 42 billion years ago lV Earth39s early atmosphere must have been dense enough to dramatically slow the chondrites before they impacted V The chondrites must have imp acted land rather than a large body of water A l amp H B H amp III C H amp IV D H amp V E III amp lV Answer C Topic Concept 251 Skill SynthesisEvaluation 18 If the half life of carbon 14 is about 5730 years then a fossil that has one sigtltteenth the normal proportion of carbon 14 to carbon 12 should be about how many years old A 1400 B 2800 C 11200 D 16800 E 22400 Answer E Topic Concept 252 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 19 Which measurement would help determine absolute dates by radiometric means A the accumulation of the daughter isotope B the loss of parent isotopes C the loss of daughter isotopes D all three of these E only A and B Answer E Topic Concept 252 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 5 20Howmanyhafelivesshould 139 0 l l 39 39 afn ilatthetimeot analysis Answer D Topic Concept252 skill ApplicationAnalysis 2n J Jr unLn U 4 i r J A 5000 years 3500000 years r quotrecord 39 r 5000000 years 3500000000 years E 5000000000000 years Answer D Topic Concept 252 Skin KnowledgeComprehension One The following questions refer to the description and figure below through a mideocean rift Valley with alternating patches of black and polariue At the arrow labeled quot1quot the rift valley the igneous rock of the sea oor is so young that it can be accurately dated using carbon 714 dating At the arrow labeled quot111quot however the igneous rock is about 1 million years old and potassium e40 dating is typically used to date such rocks NOTE the dashed horizontal le dieriol 39 quot l uuul me IJJI rule The gure represents a cross section of the sea oor quot39 39 sea oor quot 39 Figure 251 22 Assuming that l i n spreading J 39 le 1 1quot period depicted above Fanh 39 39 al A 10000 years B 25000 years C 100000 years D 250000 years E 1000000 years Answer Topic Concept252 Skin ApplicationAnalysis Page a 23 If a particular marine organism is fossilized in the sediments immediately overlying the igneous rock at the arrow labeled quotHquot at which other location labeled AiE would a search be most likely to find more fossils of this organism Answer C Topic Concept 252 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 24 Earth39s current magnetic field is the same as it had been when which sea floor areas solidified area B H area C III area D lV area E E H and IV Answer E Topic Concept 252 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 25 Assuming that the rate of sea floor spreading was constant during the l million year period depicted above what should be the approximate age of marine fossils found in J39 t J quot y rock 39 quot overlying the igneous rock at the arrow labeled quotHquot A 10000 years B 250000 years C 500000 years D 1000000 years Answer C Topic Concept 252 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 26 Argon 40 the daughter isotope of potassium 40 is a gas Elemental potassium has an atomic mass of about 39 If the submersible robot which is equipped with a drill that is long enough to get to the igneous rock ascends from depth too quickly gases trapped within igneous rock may rapidly expand fracture the rock and escape from the sample before it can be dated aboard the floating research vessel Rock samples can also absorb argon gas Which of these techniques has the highest chance of providing inaccurate dates of igneous rocks distant from the rift valley and what type of inaccuracy would it cause A if the date of the rock is determined by comparing the ratio of potassium 40 to potassium 39 underestimation of age B if the submersible robot is retrieved from the sea floor at avery slow speed overestimation of age C if the submersible robot is equipped with a decompression chamber for the samples underestimation of age D if the submersible robot keeps the sample in a chamber of pure argon at high pressure overestimation of age Answer D Topic Concept 252 Skill SynthesisEvaluation Page 7 27 What is true of the fossil record of mammalian origins A It is a good example of punctuated equilibrium B It shows that mammals and birds evolved from the same kind of dinosaur C It includes transitional forms with progressively specialized teeth D It indicates that mammals and dinosaurs did not overlap in geologic time E It includes a series that shows the gradual change of scales into fur Answer C Topic Concept 252 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 28 If a fossil is encased in a stratum of sedimentary rock without any strata of igneous rock eg lava volcanic ash nearby then it should be A easy to determine the absolute age of the fossil because the radioisotopes in the sediments will not have been quotresetquot by the heat of the igneous rocks B easy to determine the absolute age of the fossil because the igneous rocks will not have physically obstructed the deposition of sediment of a single age next to the fossil C difficult to determine the absolute age of the fossil because the quotmarker fossils common to igneous rock will be absent D difficult to determine the absolute age of the fossil because radiometric dating of sedimentary rock is less accurate than that of igneous rock Answer D Topic Concept 252 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 29 Let39s say that a hypothetical submersible robot was used to collect samples of sedimentary rock from the sea floor along the section illustrated The robot moved back and forth along the transect collecting first from site A then site 111 then site B then site II and lastly site D Assuming that sedimentation has occurred at a constant rate along the transect over the past million years rearrange the sites mentioned above on the basis of the thickness of the sediments overlying the igneous rock from thickest to thinnest A A B H D 111 B I II III C III II D B A D 111 A H B D E 111 D H B A Answer E Topic Concept 253 Skill SynthesisEvaluation 30 An early consequence of the release of oxygen gas by plant and bacterial photosynthesis was to A make life on land difficult for aerobic organisms B change the atmosphere from oxidizing to reducing C make it easier to maintain reduced molecules D cause iron in ocean water and terrestrial rocks to rust oxidize E prevent the formation of an ozone layer Answer D Topic Concept 253 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 8 31 Arrange these events from earliest to most recent emission of lava in what is now Siberia at time of Permian extinctions emission of lava that solidified at the same time as iron bearing terrestrial rocks began to rust emission of lava that solidified at the same time as rusted iron precipitated from seawater emission of lava in what is now India at time of Cretaceous extinctions A 3 1 2 4 B 3 2 1 4 C 3 1 4 2 D 1 3 2 4 E 1 2 3 4 Answer B Topic Concept 253 Skill KnowledgeComprehension ugtozgo 32 Which free living cells were the earliest contributors to the formation of Earth39s oxidizing atmosphere A cyanobacteria B chloroplasts C mitochondria D seaweeds E endosymbionts Answer A Topic Concept 253 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 33 Which of the following statements provides the strongest evidence that prokaryotes evolved before eukaryotes A the primitive structure of plants l3 meteorites that have struck Earth C abiotic laboratory experiments that produced liposomes D Liposomes closely resemble prokaryotic cells E The oldest fossilized cells resemble prokaryotes Answer E Topic Concept 253 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 34 What is thought to be the correct sequence of these events from earliest to most recent in the evolution of life on Earth origin of mitochondria origin of multicellular eukaryotes origin of chloroplasts origin of cyanobacteria mewwe origin of fungal plant symbioses A 4 3 2 1 5 B 4 1 2 3 5 C 4 1 3 2 5 D 4 3 1 5 2 E 3 4 1 2 5 Answer C Topic Concept 253 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 9 35 If it were possible to conduct sophisticated microscopic and chemical analyses of microfossils found in 32 billion year old stromatolites then within such microfossils one should be suip rised to observe evidence of I double stranded DNA H a nuclear envelope III a nucleoid IV a nucleolus V nucleic acids A ll only 111 only H and IV II III and IV E all five of these 000 Answer C Topic Concepts 62 253 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 36 Recent evidence indicates that the first major quot 39 39 39 of 39 J may have coincided in time with the A origin of prokaryotes B switch to an oxidizing atmosphere C melting that ended the quotsnowball Earth period D origin of multicellular organisms E massive eruptions of deep sea vents Answer C Topic Concept 253 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 37 Which of these observations fails to support the endosymbiotic theory for the origin of eukaryotic cells A the existence of structural and molecular differences between the plasma membranes ofprokaryotes and 1 1 the internal of 39 ia and B the existence of size differences between the cytosolic ribosomes of eukaryotes and the ribosomes within mitochondria and chloroplasts C the existence of size differences between some prokaryotic cells and mitochondria D the existence of rRNA sequence differences between the cytosolic ribosomes of eukaryotes and the ribosomes within mitochondria and chloroplasts Answer A Topic Skill SynthesisEvaluation 38 Which event is nearest in time to the end of the period known as snowball Earth A oxygenation of Earth39s seas and atmosphere B evolution of mitochondria C Cambrian explosion D evolution of true multicellularity E Permian extinction Answer C Topic Concept 253 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 10 39 The snowball Earth hypothesis provides a possible explanation for the A diversification of animals during the late Proterozoic B oxygenation ofEarth39s seas and atmosphere C colonization of land by plants and fungi D origin of Oz releasing photosynthesis E existence of prokaryotes around hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor Answer A Topic Concept 253 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 40 If two continental land masses converge and are united then the collision should cause A anet loss of intertidal zone and coastal habitat B the extinction of any species adapted to intertidal and coastal habitats C an overall decrease in the surface area located in the continental interior D a decrease in climatic extremes in the interior of the new super continent E the maintenance of the previously existing ocean currents and wind patterns Answer A Topic Concept 254 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 41 A major evolutionary episode that corresponds in time most closely with the formation of Pangaea was the A origin of humans B Cambrian explosion C Permian extinctions D Pleistocene ice ages E Cretaceous extinctions Answer C Topic Concept 254 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 42 On the basis of their morphologies how might Linnaeus have classified the Hawaiian silverswords A He would have placed them all in the same species B He would have classified them the same way that modern botanists do C He would have placed them in more species than modern botanists do D He would have used evolutionary relatedness as the primary criterion for their classification E Both B and D are correct Answer C Topic Concept 254 Skill ApplicationAnalysis Page 11 Refer to the following information to answer the questions below Fossils of Lystrosuums a dicynodont therapsid are most common in parts of modern day South America South Africa Madagascar India South Australia and Antarctica lt apparently lived in arid regions and was mostly herbivorous lt originated during the mid Permian period survived the Permian extinction and dwindled by the late Triassic though there is evidence of a relict population in Australia during the Cretaceous The dicynodonts had two large tusks extending down from their upperjaws the tusks were not used for food gathering and in some species were limited to males Food was gathered using an otherwise toothless beak Judging from the fossil record these pig sized organisms were the most common mammal like reptiles of the Permian 43 Anatomically what was true of Lystrosuums A lts jaw would have been hinged the same way as the jaws of the early reptiles were hinged B It was a tetrapod C It had thin moist skin without scales D lts dentition tooth pattern was typical of modern mammals E It would have had no temp oral fenestra in its skull Answer B Topic Concept 254 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 44 Which of Lystrosuums39 features help explain why these organisms fossilized so abundantly l the presence of hard parts such as tusks ll its herbivorous diet lll its persistence across at least two geological eras lV its widespread geographic distribution V its mixture of reptilian and mammalian features l and Ill Ill and V Ill and V I III and IV E II III IV and V Answer D To ic Concept 254 Skill KnowledgeComprehension A 00051 45 Which of these is the most likely explanation for the modern day distribution of dicynodont fossils A There had been two previous super continents that existed at different times long before the Permian period B The dicynodonts were evenly distributed throughout all of Pangaea C The dicynodonts were distributed more J 0 C J J than 0 any other land mass D The dicynodonts were able to swim long distances up to thousands of kilometers E The dicynodonts could survive forperiods of months aboard quotraftsquot of vegetation which carried them far and wide but not to the northern hemisphere Answer C Topic Concept 254 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 12 46 The observation that tusks were limited to males in several species and were apparently not used in food gathering is evidence that the tusks probably A were used by males during the sex act B served as heat dissip ation structures C are homologous to claws D were insignificant to the survival andor reproduction of dicynodonts E were maintained as the result of sexual selection Answer E Topic Concepts 234 254 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 47 Which of these is the most likely explanation for the existence of dicynodont fossils on modern day Antarctica A They arrived there aboard quotraftsquot of vegetation and quickly adapted to the bitterly cold climate B Earth39s polar regions were once so warm especially immediately after the quotsnowball Earth period that rep tiles and mammal like reptiles flourished there C The landmass that is now the Antarctic continent was formerly located at a more northerly position and was also united to other landmasses D Dicynodonts originated on the island continent of Antarctica and went extinct as the continent migrated to its current position at the South Pole Answer C Topic Concept 254 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 48 Dicynodonts survived the Permian extinction and therefore existed during both the A Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras B Proterozoic and Archaean eons C Proterozoic and Phanerozoic eons D Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras E Carboniferous and Permian periods Answer A Topic Concept 254 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 49 There are at least a dozen known species in the extinct genus Lystrosuums If each species was suited to a quite different environment then this relatively large number of species is likely due to A sexual selection B adaptive radiation C heterochrony D polyploidy E species selection Answer B Topic Concept 254 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 50 The dicynodonts survived the mass extinction that was most closely correlated in time if not in cause with A snowball Earth B a large 10 km meteor striking the Earth C an intense period of sun sp ot formation with subsequent increase in solar radiation D the formation of Pangaea and lava flows that covered large portions of Pangaea E the pleistocene Ice Age Answer D Topic Concept 254 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 13 51 The dicynodonts that survived the Permian extinction would initially have had to endure or escape from the physical effects of and subsequently the biological effects of A warm temperatures decreased metabolism B arid conditions disease C meteorite shock waves lack of food D increased sea level lack of freshwater E volcanic ash in the atmosphere increased predation Answer E Topic Concept 254 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 52 If an increase in dicynodont species diversity ie number of species occurred soon after the Permian extinction and if it occurred for the same general reason usually given for the increase in mammalian diversity following the Cretaceous extinction then it should be attributed to A an innovation among the dicynodonts that allowed them to fill brand new niches B the availability of previously occupied niches C the extinction of the dinosaurs except the birds D the evolution of humans Answer B Topic Concept 254 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 53 An organism has a relatively large number of Hox genes in its genome Which of the following is not true of this organism A It evolved from evolutionary ancestors that had fewer Hox genes B It must have multiple paired appendages along the length of its body C It has the genetic potential to have a relatively complex anatomy D At least some of its Hox genes owe their existence to gene duplication events E lts Hox genes cooperated to produce the positional patterns of this organism as it developed Answer B Topic Concept 255 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 54 Bagworm moth caterpillars feed on evergreens and carry a silken case or bag around with them in which they eventually pupate Adult female bagworm moths are larval in appearance they lack the wings and other structures of the adult male and instead retain the appearance of a caterpillar even though they are sexually mature and can lay eggs within the bag This is a good example of A allometric growth B paedomorphosis C sympatric speciation D adaptive radiation E changes in homeotic genes Answer B Topic Concept 255 Skill Applicati nAnalysis Page 14 55 As rat pups mature the growth of their snouts and tails outpaces growth of the rest of their bodies producing the appearance of sexually mature males It is found that sexually mature female rats prefer to mate with mutant sexually mature males that possess snouts and tails with juvenile proportions Which of the following terms is are appropriately applied to this situation A sexual selection B paedomorphosis C allometric growth D B and C only E A B and C Answer E Topic Concept 255 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 56 A hypothetical mutation in a squirrel population produces organisms with eight legs rather than four Further these mutant squirrels survive successfully invade new habitats and eventually give rise to anew species The initial event giving rise to extra legs would be a good example of A punctuated equilibrium l3 species selection C habitat selection D changes in homeotic genes E allometry Answer D Topic Concept 255 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 57 The loss of ventral spines by modern freshwater sticklebacks is due to natural selection operating on the phenotypic affects of Pitxl gene A duplication gain in number B elimination loss C mutation change D silencing loss of expression E up regulation increase in expression Answer D Topic Concept 255 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 15 The following questions refer to this hypothetical situation A female fly full of fertilized eggs is swept by high winds to an island far out to sea She is the first fly to arrive on this island and the only fly to arrive in this way Thousands of years later her numerous offspring occupy the island but none of them resembles her There are instead several species each of which eats only a certain type of food None of the species can fly for their flight wings are absent and their balancing organs ie halteres are now used in courtship displays The male members of each species bear modified halteres that are unique in appearance to their species Females bear vestigial halteres The ranges of all of the daughter species overlap 58 If these fly species lost the ability to fly independently of each other as a result of separate mutation events in each lineage then the flightless condition in these species could be an example of A adaptive radiation B species selection C sexual selection D allometric growth E habitat differentiation Answer B Topic Concept 256 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 59 In each fly species the entire body segment that gave rise to the original flight wings is missing The mutations that led to the flightless condition could have A duplicated all of the Hox genes in these flies39 genomes B altered the nucleotide sequence within a Hox gene C altered the expression of a Hox gene D either A or B E either B or C Answer E Topic Concept 256 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 60 If the foods preferred by each species are found on different parts of the island and if the flies mate and lay eggs on their food sources regardless of the location of the food sources then the speciation events involving these fly species may have been driven at least in part by which of the following A autopolyploidy B allopolyploidy C species selection D genetic drift E habitat differentiation Answer E Topic Concepts 242 256 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 61 If the males39 halteres have species specific size shape color and use in courtship displays and if the species39 ranges overlap then the speciation events may have been driven at least in part by which of the following A autopolyploidy B allopolyploidy C species selection D sexual selection E habitat differentiation Answer D Topic Concepts 242 256 Skill ApplicationAnalysis Page 16 62 Fly species W found in a certain part of the island produces fertile offspring with species Y Species W does not produce fertile offspringwith species X or Z If no other species can hybridize then species W and Y A have genomes that are still similar enough for successful meiosis to occur in hybrid flies B have more genetic similarity with each other than either did with the other two species C may fuse into a single species if their hybrids remain fertile over the course of many generations D A and B only E A B and C Answer E Topic Concepts 243 256 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 63 Which of these fly organs as they exist in current fly populations best fits the description of an exaptation A wings B balancing organs C mouthp arts D thoraxes E walking appendages Answer B Topic Concept 256 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 64 The existence of the phenomenon of exap tation is most closely associated with which of the following reasons that natural selection cannot fashion perfect organisms A Natural selection and sexual selection can work at cross purp oses to each other B Evolution is limited by historical constraints C Adaptations are often compromises D Chance events affect the quot y history of p r 39 in 39 that can change unpredictably Answer B Topic Concept 234 256 Skill KnowledgeComprehension The following questions are based on the observation that several dozen different proteins comprise the prokaryotic agellum and its attachment to the prokaryotic cell producing a highly complex structure 65 If the complex protein assemblage of the prokaryotic flagellum arose by the same general processes as those of the complex eyes of mollusks such as squids and octop i then A natural selection cannot account for the rise of the prokaryotic flagellum B ancestral versions of this protein assemblage were either less functional or had different functions than modern prokaryotic flagella C scientists should accept the conclusion that neither eyes nor flagella could have arisen by evolution D we can conclude that both of these structures must have arisen through the direct action of an quotintelligent designer E Both A and C are true Answer B Topic Concept 256 Skill ApplicationAnalysis Page 17 66 If the prokaryotic flagellum developed from assemblages of proteins that originally were not involved with cell motility but with some other function instead then the modern prokaryotic flagellum is a A vestigial organ B adoption C exaptation D homogeneous organ E allometric organ Answer C Topic Concept 256 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 67 In certain motile prokaryotes dozens of different proteins comprise the motor that powers the prokaryotic flagellum The motor has a complicated structure and its various proteins interact to carry out its function Based on Darwin39s explanation for the existence of human eyes how would he probably have explained the existence of such motors A Because he could not have explained their existence he would have used supernatural agents as a temporary explanation until the gap in scientific knowledge had been filled B Because he could not have explained their existence he would have concluded that the human brain has not and probably cannot evolve the capability to solve such complex problems C He would have proposed that these motors were the products of aliens and had been delivered to Earth by extraterrestrial visitors D He would have proposed that less complicated but still functional versions maybe even with a different function had existed in ancestral prokaryotes Answer D Topic Concept 256 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 68 It has been found that certain proteins of the complex motor that drives bacterial flagella are modified versions of proteins that had previously belonged to plasma membrane pumps This is evidence in support of the claim that A some structures are so complex that natural selection cannot and will not explain their origins B the power of natural selection allows it to act in an almost predictive fashion producing organs that will be needed in future environments C the motors of bacterial flagella were originally synthesized abiotically D natural selection can produce new structures by cobbling together parts of other structures E bacteria that possess flagella must have lost the ability to pump certain chemicals across their plasma membranes Answer D Topic Concept 256 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 69 An explanation for the evolution of insect wings suggests that wings began as lateral extensions of the body that were used as heat dissipaters for thermoregulation When they had become sufficiently large these extensions became useful for gliding through the air and selection later refined them as flight producing wings If this hypothesis is correct insect wings could best be described as A adaptations B mutations C exaptations D isolating mechanisms E examples of natural selection39s predictive ability Answer C Topic Concept 256 Skill ApplicationAnalysis Page 18 70 If one organ is an exaptation of another organ then what must be true of these two organs A They are both vestigial organs B They are homologous organs C They are undergoing convergent evolution D They are found together in the same hybrid species E They have the same function Answer B Topic Concept 256 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 71 Many species of snakes lay eggs but in the forests of northern Minnesota where growing seasons are short only live bearing snake species are present This trend toward species that perform live birth is an example of A natural selection sexual selection 001 species selection D goal direction in evolution E directed selection Answer C Topic Concept 256 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 72 In the 5 77 million years that the hominid lineage has been diverging from its common ancestor with the great apes dozens of hominid species have arisen often with several species coexisting in time and sp ace As recently as 30000 years ago Homo supiens coexisted with Homo neunderthulensis Both species had large brains and advanced intellects The fact that these traits were common to both species is most easily explained by which of the following A species selection l3 uniformitarianism C sexual selection D A and B only E A B and C Answer A Topic Concept 256 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 73 The existence of evolutionary trends such as increasing body sizes among horse species is evidence that A a larger volume to surface area ratio is beneficial to all mammals B an unseen guiding force is at work C evolution always tends toward increased complexity or increased size D in particular environments similar adaptations can be beneficial in more than one species E evolution generally progresses toward some predetermined goal Answer D Topic Concept 256 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 19 74 Fossil evidence indicates that several kinds of flightless dinosaurs possessed feathers If some of these feather bearing dinosaurs incubated clutches of eggs in carefully constructed nests this might be evidence supporting the claim that A dinosaurs were as fully endothermal warm blooded as modern birds and mammals B their feathers originally served as insulation and only later became flight surfaces C the earliest reptiles could fly and the feathers of flightless dinosaurs were vestigial flight surfaces D the feathers were plucked from the bodies of other adults to provide nest building materials E all fossils with feathers are actually some kind of bird Answer B Topic Concept 256 Skill ApplicationAnalysis The following questions refer to the description below All animals with eyes or eyespots that have been studied so far share a gene in common When mutated the gene Fax 6 causes lack of eyes in fruit flies tiny eyes in mice and missing irises and other eye parts in humans The sequence of Fax6 in humans and mice is identical There are so few sequence differences with fruit fly Fax6 that the humanmouse version can cause eye formation in eyeless fruit flies even though vertebrates and invertebrates last shared a common ancestor more than 500 million years ago 75 The appearance of Fax6 in all animals with eyes can be explained in multiple ways Based on the information above which explanation is most likely A Fax6 in all of these animals is not homologous it arose independently in many different animal phyla due to intense selective pressure favoring vision B The Fax6 gene is really not quotonequot gene It is many different genes that over evolutionary time and due to convergence have come to have a similar nucleotide sequence and function C The Fax6 gene was an innovation of an ancestral animal of the early Cambrian Animals with eyes or eyespots are descendants of this ancestor D The perfectly designed Fax6 gene appeared instantaneously in all animals created to have eyes or eyespots Answer C Topic Concept 254 Skill SynthesisEvaluation 76 Fruit fly eyes are of the compound type structurally very different from the camera type eyes of mammals Even the camera type eyes of mollusks such as octopi are structurally quite different from those of mammals Yet fruit flies octopi and mammals possess very similar versions of Fax6 The fact that the same gene helps produce very different types of eyes is most likely due to A the few differences in nucleotide sequence among the Fax6 genes of these organisms B variations in the number of Fax6 genes among these organisms C the independent evolution of this gene at many different times during animal evolution D differences in the control of Fax6 expression among these organisms Answer D Topic Concept 255 Skill SynthesisEvaluation Page 20 77 Fax6 usually causes the production of a type of light receptor pigments ln vertebrate eyes though a different gene the 7h gene family is responsible for the light receptor pigments of the retina The 7h gene like Fax6 is ancient In the marine ragworm for example the 7h gene causes production of c opsin which helps regulate the worms biological clock Which of these most likely accounts for vertebrate vision A The Fax6 gene mutated to become the 7h gene among early mammals B During vertebrate evolution the 7h gene for biological clock opsin was co opted as a gene for visual receptor pigments C In animals more ancient than ragworms the 7h genes coded for visual receptor pigments in lineages more recent than ragworms 7h has flip flopped several times between producing biological clock opsins and visual receptor pigments D Fax6 was lost from the mammalian genome and replaced by the 7h gene much later Answer B Topic Concept 256 Skill SynthesisEvaluation Self Quiz Questions 1 Fossilized stromatolites A all date from 27 billion years ago B formed around deep sea vents C resemble structures formed by bacterial communities that are found today in some warm shallow salty bays D provide evidence that plants moved onto land in the company of fungi around 500 million years ago E contain the first undisputed fossils of eukaryotes and date from 21 billion years ago Answer C Topic Skill 2 The oxygen revolution changed Earth39s environment dramatically Which of the following adaptations took advantage of the presence of free oxygen in the oceans and atmosphere A the evolution of cellular respiration which used oxygen to help harvest energy from organic molecules B the persistence of some animal groups in anaerobic habitats C the evolution of photosynthetic pigments that protected early algae from the corrosive effects of oxygen D the evolution of chloroplasts after early protists lJLU11JU1rJlCLJ J 39 ia E the evolution of multicellular eukaryotic colonies from communities ofprokaryotes Answer A Topic Skill 3 Select the factor most likely to have caused the animals and plants of India to differ greatly from species in nearby Southeast Asia A The species have become separated by convergent evolution B The climates of the two regions are similar C India is in the process of separating from the rest of Asia D Life in India was wiped out by ancient volcanic eruptions E India was a separate continent until 55 million years ago Page 21 4 Adaptive radiations can be a direct consequence of four of the following five factors Select the exception A vacant ecological niches B genetic drift C colonization of an isolated region that contains suitable habitat and few competitor species D evolutionary innovation E an adaptive radiation in a group of organisms such as plants that another group uses as food Answer B Topic Skill 5 A genetic change that caused a certain Hox gene to be expressed along the tip of a vertebrate limb bud instead of farther back helped to make possible the evolution of the tetrapod limb This type of change is illustrative of A the influence of environment on development B paedomorphosis C a change in a developmental gene or in its regulation that altered the spatial organization of body parts D heterochrony E gene duplication Answer C Topic Skill 6 Which of the following steps has not yet been accomplished by scientists studying the origin of life A synthesis of small RNA polymers by ribozymes B abiotic synthesis of polypeptides C formation of molecular aggregates with selectively permeable membranes D formation ofprotobionts that use DNA to direct the polymerization of amino acids E abiotic synthesis of organic molecules Answer D Topic Skill 7 A swim bladder is a gas filled sac that helps fish maintain buoyancy The evolution of the swim bladder from lungs of an ancestral fish is an example of A an evolutionary trend B paedomorphosis C exaptation D adaptive radiation E changes in the Hox gene expression Page 22 Chapter 4 Meiosis amp Sexual Life Cycles Living organisms are distinguished by their ability to reproduce their own kind Reproduction involves the transmission of traits from one generation to the next gt ie Heredity heres heir Along with inherited similarities there is also Offspring differ from parents and siblings Inheritance is in your GENES gt Genes gt units of Genes are along the sugarphosphate backbone Most genes code for the synthesis of gt The DNA of eukaryotic organisms is subdivided into Each species has a characteristic number of chromosomes eg humans have pairs in their somatic cells gt is termed its locus 3i 55 ii i ii i 3 DEquot 4 H E 422 329 Where did you get your genes gt Inheritance from parents reproduction gt There are two basic forms of reproduction 1 Asexual gt 2 Sexual gt involves 1 Asexual Reproduction gt Singlecelled organisms reproduce by division gt Multicellular organisms can also reproduce asexually eg budding by gt Organisms produced asexually are clones gt Parent gt How does variation between parent amp offspring occur gt changes in DNA sequences 2 Sexual Reproduction gt Sex sexus to divide as in different sexes male and female Male gamete Female gamete or gt Parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes ie l Two questions have to be asked 1 How does this genetic variation arise 2 How are offspring produced with the correct number of chromosomes Recall that each species has a predetermined number of chromosomes gt In each human somatic normal body cell there are chromosomes gt These occur as homoloqous pairs pairs One member of each pair is a chromosome The other member is a chromosome Each pair of homologous chromosomes carries genes controlling the same inherited trait gt Cells that have pairs of homologous chromosomes gt 2n In humans pair is the diploid number gt Cells that have half of a homologous chromosome pair are n In humans are haploid they have chromosomes NOT pair P z 1 1139 It amt 39 IX 1 339 339 n the i g k g m I g 7 39ME E T I3 about this male What is different quot ill I v i x irkswja 1 15 f 313 7111 mun33 1 futquot v v n quot L a m e we a 4 I f JugJam 4 in laf L39 c What does this have to do with sex gt Sex involves the fusion of h during Keyeepeie elap39 game fs 133 fertilization forming a Dquot 39 id2quot M 1 2 gt Zygote gt Spermquot j 739 j quot i i mm gt Zygote grows and develops by Ovary Testis K i Into an organism Dipioid quot7 zygote 2 46 gt In order to reproduce 391 l Mitosis and sexually the gametes development m ust be lll Multicellular diploid adults 2n 46 We need a cell division process to produce haploid cells for reproduction Homologous pair of chromosomes in diploid parent cell A single replication of l I I genetic material followed replicate by Homologous pair of replicated chromosomes l replicated nuclear divisions quot Meiosis Meiosis ll h 39rnx end result x chromosomes separate Haploid cells with 1 9 Sister chrom emu separate x R 5 x K l l K l I 4 Haplnid cells with unreplioated chromosomes atids gt Process of meiosis is very similar to gt Be sure to note the differencesllll gt These subtle differences allow for genetic variation in cells to be produced gt It begins with a cell that has completed interphase So what has already happened Meiosis I Separates Prophase I Metaphase I Anaphase I Te vt gz ils d 5 39 s p i39r Centromere I Chiasmata wuth klnetochore 4 Spindle Homologous Cleavage chromosomes furrow separate Homologous chromosomes Fragments Microtubule of nuclear attached to envelope klnetochore Go from a cell to cells Meiosis I results in Homologous pair of chromosomes in diploid parent oell Chromosomes replicate Homologous pair of replicated chromosomes 39 Diploid cell with plioamed re chromosomes l mHomologous l K ohromosomes separate l Meiosis ll Separates Telophase II and Cylokinesis Prophase ll Metaphase ll Anaphase ll Sister chromatids separate Just like Homologous pair of chromosomes in diploid parent ce ll t I l Chromosomes replicate Homologous pair of replicated chromosomes A Diploid cell with licated rep chromosomes Sister chromatids mHomologous 39 chromosomes separate Haploid cells with replicated chromosomes Genetic Variation gt Due to two processes that occur during meiosis 1 during groghase 2 during metaphase amp One aspect adds to the genetic variation that arises from meiosis 3 Random Fertilization gt During Prophase l gt gt 1 Crossing Over Prophase I Nonsister I of mEIOSIS l chromatids Repllcated homologous Pairof I he39dmgether chromosome pairs line up homologs T during synapsis and are physically EChiasma connected l fl Form Chiasma CentromereL Anaphase I Anaphase yquot y X ThlS produces recombinant chromosomes 39 a Daughter I V j ll 2 5 cells r I Recombinant chromosomes 2 Independent Assortment gt metaphase I Possibility1 POSSibi39ityz gt Tetrads arrange Two equally probable arrangements of at chromosomes at meta haseI i i Metaphase II 6 cells Combination1 Combination2 Combination3 Combination4 gt There is a chance that each sister chromatid either maternal or paternal in the tetrad will move to one side of the cell or the other 2 Independent Assortment gt Metaphase II gt line up at metaphase plate gt for each chromosome in the sister chromatid to move to either pole Possibility 1 Possibility 2 Two equally probable arrangements of chromosomes at metaphase I 6 69 s 6 cells Combination1 Combination2 Combination3 Combination4 gt The possible number of combinations when chromosomes sort independently is 2n where n haploid number of the organism In humans 223 8388608 gt Couple this with the probabilities that factor in with crossing over and then random fertilization one from male and one from female 223 x 223 a zygote with any of about 70000000000000 diploid combinations WOW we ARE truly unique Differences between Mitosis and Meiosis gt Tetrads gt Crossing Over gt Separation of gt Meiosis reductional division gt Meiosis equational division MITOSIS Chiasma MEIOSIS I chromosome Chromosome prophase replication replication Prophase I V N v Homolo ous 2 chfomogome Replicated chromosome quot pair A Metaphase I Parent cell Metaphase Anaphase Anaphase I Telophase JTelophase I Haploid n 3 meiosis I MElOSISII 553quot 5 Daughter cells of meiosis 11 Zn 2n Daughter cells of mitosis Figure 9 is good to look over Variations in Life Cycles A Animals same as B Plants Alternation of generations Both Haploid and Diploid generations are multicellular Sporophyte Gametophyte Key Haploid n Diploid 2n Haploid multi cellular organism gametophyte Mitosis l n Mitosis Spore Gametes I 2n 1 quot 2 Diplold rf ng te multicellular organism Mitosis sporophvte v t b Plants and some algae l n


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