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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by James Wierman on Tuesday November 25, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to 200 at University of Washington taught by Anand Yang in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see JSIS in International Studies at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 11/25/14
James Wierman J SIS Lecture 20 Notes Professor Yang New Imperialism 1870 s1910 Heyday of expansion Conquest of tropical Africa Southeast Asia island Pacific Eu military invasion amp occupation of 186 million sq miles or 20 of earth s land surface British Empire alone grew from about 95 to 127 million sq miles Also expansion by France Germany Netherlands Italy amp Portugal Japan seized Taiwan and other western Pacific islands US occupied Philippines amp Guam also Cuba amp Puerto Rico Definitions Imperialism Term often associated with Eu empires Refers to extension of sovereignty or control direct or indirect pol or ec by one govt nation or soc over another together with ideas justifying this process Imperialism about power both as ends amp means Underlying premise imperial agent or nation has inherent right based on moral or material superiority to impose its preeminent values amp techniques over an indigenous society or nation it regards as inferior More comprehensive term than colonialism Colonialism domination of people of another culture Curtin a relationship of dominance between an indigenous or forcibly imported majority amp a minority of foreign invaders Generally dominant group small administrators missionaries teachers doctors businessmen mil so on Rulers the colonizers colonizers assert their superiority amp right to rule Colonization outcome of imperialism process whereby people from imperial country move and permanently settle in annexed regions Informal Empires eg US Theories of Imperialism Theories of imperialism Lenin s 1916 notion that imperialism represents monopoly stage of capitalism Or stems from Workings of or aws in workings of Eu s industrial capitalist economies Hobson 1902 critic of expansion Need to expand to shore up unstable industrial economies or develop overseas markets amp resources Pol cultural mil theories Important to recognize extent to which Eudorninated World system created severe ec and pol crises that destabilized Asia Africa amp other parts of World Theories of Imperialism cont Conservative Theories egs Disraeli Rhodes Kipling To preserve existing social order in more developed countries Necessary to secure trade markets maintain employment amp capital exports channel energies amp social conflicts of metropolitan pops to foreign countries Assumption of W superiority Liberal Theories egHobson A policy choice not inevitable result of capitalism Increasing wealth concentration in rich countries leads to underconsumption for masses Overseas expansion reduces costs amp increases or maintains profit levels amp secures new consumption Expansion not inevitable State solves underconsumption by increasing income levels of maj pop thru legis wage amp child labor laws unions or thru income transfers unemployment compensation welfare Marxist Theories cg Lenin Increased wealth concentration leads to underconsumption not possible to reduce thru liberal strategies that take away money from bourgeoisie because state represents capitalist interests Ultimately world divided amp rich countries fight over redivision of world Thus WW 1 Political Theories cg Morgenthau Cohen Manifestation of balance of power amp process by which nations try to achieve favorable change in status quo Purpose decrease strategic amp political vulnerability of nation SocialPsychological Theories eg Schumpeter Imperialism objectless expansion learned from behavior of other nations amp institutionalized into domestic pol processes of state by quotwarriorquot class This class created for defense over time it manufactures reasons to perpetuate its existence usually thru manipulation of crises Imperialism AND expansion Imperial century from end of Napoleonic Wars amp Congress of Vienna in 1815 to beginning of WW I in 1914 Differences between Eu empires in Americas in 16 17 amp early 18 amp Eu Empires in Asia Africa amp Pacific in 18 19 amp 20 c Shift from maritime to land empires Importance of industrial imperialism High Imperialism Late 19 1914 when Eu amp its possessions incl excolonies845 of world Eu global hegemony accompanied by deVt of Eucentered global communications network amp world capitalist system Imperialism and its effects on culture Cultural Imperialism political amp economic power in uenced Values amp everyday practices Power based on cultural technologies Knowledge for conquest amp control colonialism has cultural effects Culture of west best amp over rest subordination Psychology racial attitudes gender relations Exhibitions cinema architecture ornamentalism lifestyle food clothing Or did it lead to advances Human rights democracy modern medicine Postcolonial legacy of colonialism European Dominance 1 Eu empires of 15 h 16 c maritime trading posts sugar islands coastal areas Not much beyond reach of ship s cannons except in Americas Siberia Australasia Interests Christians amp spices ie commercial amp religious Why restricted 2nd amp 3 wave by 17 18 amp19 hearly 20 hc penetrated into interior deVt of inland empires powered by industrialization by new weapons by steamships industrial imperialism repeating rifles machine guns New powers Dutch British French Heyday of Imperialism 1870 1914 Scramble for Africa expansion across Asia M East amp Pacific Islands Why hegemony Europe amp its possessions incl ex colonies extended over 845 of world s land surface Shift from AbuLughod world where Europe 1 segment of larger system to Pomeranz world where Asia amp Eu neck to neck to N Ferguson world where Europe amp N America at core Processes of Imperialism Ascendancy facilitated by Economic amp military superiority Importance of local allies Internal Weaknesses Psychological amp Cultural Structure amp Effects of imperialism Systems of Rule amp Control Role of local collaborators amp allies Colonial Bureaucracies Related Processes of Colonization Colonialism Modernization amp Westernization Population movements Anticolonial movements amp rebellions Use of barracks in the Oriental seas to fight other Wars e g Indian army Cultural imperialism
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