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Organismal Biology

by: Mr. Loraine Bruen

Organismal Biology BIOL 128

Mr. Loraine Bruen
Lansing Community College
GPA 3.9

Robin Wagner

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This 53 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Loraine Bruen on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 128 at Lansing Community College taught by Robin Wagner in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see /class/222379/biol-128-lansing-community-college in Biology at Lansing Community College.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
Chapter 5 Mendel and the Gene Idea Gregor Mendel 0 Born and raised on a farm in the Czech Republic 0 1840 s began a monastic lifestyle and studied science during this time many scientists were monks 0 In 1857 Mendel began to perform experiments with garden peas to gain an understanding of inheritance Why Peas Advantages 1 gt No random breeding gt And no the male portions of the P t i aren a flowers were removed generation V i 1 prior to maturity p Carpel gt Mendel performed cross 6 pomna on 2 Lots of varieties of peas Mendel kept records of gt Heritable features gt is a character gt Variants for a character gt or are traits Mendel also made sure his experiments began with pea varieties that were truebreeding only produces offspring that are of the same variety In a typical breeding experiment Mendel would cross pollinate two contrasting truebreeding pea vane es Hybridization gt crossing of two truebreeding parents gt Hybrid offspring of the P generation represent the first filial generation Mendel carried out most of his experiments at least to the gt Allowing the generation to selfpollinate EXPERIMENT i i P Generation x 4 x truebreeding parents Purple White flowers l flowers F1 Generation hybrids All plants had purple flowers Self or crosspollination F2 Generation 3 4 g 705 purple 224 white flowered flowered plants plants It was the second filial qeneration where Mendel noticed the fundamental principles of heredity From these simple experiments Law of Segregation Law of Independent Assortment Keep in mind that all of this occurred well before the technology to understand how meiosis worked was developed Some say Mendel got lucky Others say he cheated and fudged the data Lets look at one of Mendel s experiments What happened to the white flowers in F1 If it were totally lost then how could there be white flowers in the F2 Mendel collected data on the number of offspring F2 705 purple 224 white approx ratio Mendel described traits as amp truebreeding EXPERIMENT x4 NM Purple White flowers l flowers P Generation parents F1 Generation hybrids All plants had purple flowers Self or crosspollinationl F2 Generation l AM Y 705 purple 224 white flowered flowered plants plants Mendel developed a model to explain the 31 inheritance ratios 1 account for variations in inherited characters these are called they correspond to loci on chromosomes 2 For each character an organism inherits two alleles one one 3 If the two alleles at a locus differ the determines the physical appearance the has no noticeable effect on an organism s appearance 4 These two alleles for an inherited character separate segregate during gamete formation and end up in different gametes Meiosis I Separates Prophase I Metaphase I Anaphase I Te vt gz ilsgd Centromere I With klnetochore H m Homologous c ror ggg is chromosomes separate Cleavage urrow Fragments Microtubule of nuclear attached to envelope klnetochore Keep in mind Mendel had no idea about homologous chromosomes what these alleles were actually made of Allele for purple flowers Pair of homologous chromosomes Allele for white flowers uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu nc gt Punnett squares are useful tOOIS to illustrate PGeneration x If combinations of alleles 1 Appearance Purple flowers White flowers Genetic makeup PP pp gt Also gives Insught Into ratios Gametes 13 133 and probabilities of offspring a given F1 Generation GenOtype Appearance Purple flowers Genetic makeup h Pp n Gametes 1215 12ij Sperm from F Pp plant Phenotype F2 Generation 13 PP P E f P Thev I Fr lrnt d 3 btwn orqanisms of Pp 35 known qenotvloesH segregation 31gij gt Phenotype ratio gt Genotype ratio Homozygous gt Homozygous dominant or Homozygous recessive Heterozygous gt Phenotype Purple 3 lt Purple Purple 1 White Ratio 31 Genotype PP homozygous Pp heterozygous Pp heterozygous PP homozygous Ratio 121 i 1 Keys to doing punnett squares 1 Must have a genotype for each parent 2 Designate one parent as male and the other as female Make the gametes for each parent 3 Draw the punnett square There will be as many rows and columns as there are gametes for each parent Then place the sperm on the top and the eggs on the left side or vice versa it doesn t matterll 4 Complete the punnett square and find the genotypes of the offspring In these experiments where Mendel tracked a single character all of the F1 offspring produced were hybrids of truebreeding parents for a single character He didn t just test this with only one character eg flower color but used several different characters and came up with the same results Table 141 The Results of Mendel39s F1 Crosses for Seven Characters in Pea P ants Dominant Recesslve Trait F2 Generation Damman t Character Trait ecessive Ratio Flower Purple x White 705224 3l51 color 1 711 Flower Axial x Terminal 657207 3741 position Seed Yellow X Green 5022z001 3011 cola Seed Round X Wrinkled 54741850 2961 shap I P d Inflated x Constritted 882299 2951 h pa Ex Jar Ema X Yellow 423152 2321 7 Stem 787277 2841 length Tall x Dwarf Law of Independent Assortment gt To derive his second law Mendel had to track two characters at one time gt Used two truebreeding pea varieties Yellow Round seeds YYRR x green wrinkled seeds yyrr The F1 offspring are known as Yer Genotype phenotype When the dihybrid cross is performed the phenotypical ratio of 31 is not seen This means that the alleles are segregated or separated at some point This illustrates the Law of Independent Assortment gt each pair of alleles of other pairs of alleles during gamete formation EXPERIMENT P Generation YYRR o i yyrr i i Gametes x a o w Hypothesis of F1 Generation Predictions Hypothesis of dependent assortment independent assortment P d39 t d Sperm re Ic e or Offspring 039 Sperm 14 1 1 V QD F2 generation 2 2 12 I g nyr Eggs 12 Eggs Yer rr 14 34 a 14K 14 Phenotypic ratio 31 915 g 3I6 o 316 116 Phenotypic ratio 9331 14 4 YYrr Mendel was lucky He chose characters with alleles located on different chromosomes Genes located near each other on the same chromosome tend to be inherited together and have more complex inheritance patterns He chose characters which exhibited of one allele over another He chose characters controlled by only two alleles NO gt2 Spectrum of Dominance gt Complete Dominance gt allele determines the phenotype over the allele Eg purple PP vs white pp pea flowers gt Codominance gt both alleles affect the phenotype in Eg MN blood groups NOT blood type Codominant alleles for the synthesis of two different glycoproteins individuals that are MM have RBC with glycoproteins individuals that are NN have RBC with glycoproteins individuals that are MN have glycoproteins Spectrum of Dominance p Generation Fled x 39 White gt Incomplete Dominance ckck a Cwa alleles for some Gametes characters fall in the middle of the spectrum of F1 Generation dominance j phenotype represents a of the two parental varieties Gametes 12 12 eg snapdragon flower Sperm color F2 Generation 12 12 F ratio 121 3 2 12 1 2 Eggs CRCR CRCW How is this different from 12 a a codominance CRCW CWCW Dominance sometimes determined at which level you examine phenotypes TaySachs disease Inherited Brain disease Enzyme de ciency Cannot Alleles Allele Carbohydrate IA AA 13 B lt3 i none a The three alleles for the ABO blood groups gt e 9 Human Blood Type and their associated carbohydrates there are four possible Red blood cell Phenotype phenotypes Genotype appearance blood group there are 3 alleles for the WA or m A enzyme I that attaches the A or B carbohydrate to the sz or 3 RBC IA IB or i neither o Matching blood type is W AB essen aHH if a person with type blood ii 0 receives type blood then their immune system attacks the cells AB O So far we have treated inheritance as though each gene affects only one phenotypic character This is the norm Most genes have multiple phenotypic effects gt Pleiotropic alleles are responsible for multiple symptoms associated with some hereditary diseases Sicklecell disease sicklecell anemia Cystic Fibrosis Most common lethal disorder in the US Most common in lineages It is a recessively inherited disorder must be homozygous recessive It is estimated that 1 in 25 Americans of European descent are heterozygotes and have normal phenotypes normal allele codes for membrane protein that functions in chloride transport across mucous membranes Homozygous recessive phenotypes exhibit multiple effects chronic bronchitis amp recurrent bacterial infections Cystic Fibrosis If left untreated it is usually lethal before age Aggressive treatment with antibiotics can allow for survival into early adulthood Sicklecell disease Most common in lineages estimated that it affects 1 in 400 African Americans Recessively inherited disorder Homozygous recessive individuals have malformed RBCs due to a slight change in hemoglobin protein poor oxygen transport irregular clottingclumping of sickle shaped cells pleiotropic effects Also exhibits incomplete dominance heterozygotes about African Americans may suffer some reduced symptoms Why so common possible link to Polygenic Inheritance or e x effect of two or more on a AaBch AaBch Sperm 142 142 142 14 14 14 14 13 opposite of 18000 13000 39 i similar to multiple 13 oo 1 00 a I I but thlS tlme Eggs 48 usmg multiple 18 300 eg Skin Pigmentation Vamlo o 1 0 ln Humans quot controlled by at least Phenotypes Number of separate genes darkskin alleles o Not all human genetic disorders are Achondroplasia gt of humans are homozygous recessive About 1 in 250000 exhibit this phenotype or i r Not all human genetic disorders are Achondroplasia gt of humans are homozygous recessive About 1 in 250000 exhibit this phenotype or Is it possible for two dwarf parents to produce a child of normal height punnett square Huntington s Disease gt Usually fatal by age 40 Approx 1 in 10000 births in the US Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Multiple Choice Questions 1 The legless condition that is observed in several groups of extant rep tiles is the result of A their common ancestor having been legless B a shared adaptation to an arboreal living in trees lifestyle C several instances of the legless condition arising independently of each other D individual lizards adapting to a fossorial living in burrows lifestyle during their lifetimes Answer C Topic Concept 261 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 2 The scientific discipline concerned with naming organisms is called A taxonomy B cladistics C binomial nomenclature D systematics E phylocode Answer A Topic Concept 261 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 3 The various taxonomic levels viz genera classes etc of the hierarchical classification system differ from each other on the basis of A how widely the organisms assigned to each are distributed throughout the environment B the body sizes of the organisms assigned to each C their inclusiveness D the relative genome sizes of the organisms assigned to each E morphological characters that are applicable to all organisms Answer C Topic Concept 261 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 4 Which of these illustrates the correct representation of the binomial scientific name for the African lion A Panthera leo B panthera leo C Panthera leo D Panthera Leo E Punthem leo Answer E Topic Concept 261 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 5 A phylogenetic tree that is quotrootedquot is one A that extends back to the origin of life on Earth B at whose base is located the common ancestor of all taxa depicted on that tree C that illustrates the ramp ant gene swapping that occurred early in life39s history D that indicates our uncertainty about the evolutionary relationships of the taxa depicted on the tree E with very few branch points Answer B Topic Concept 261 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 1 6 The correct sequence from the most to the least comprehensive of the taxonomic levels listed here is A family phylum class kingdom order species and genus B kingdom phylum class order family genus and species C kingdom phylum order class family genus and species D phylum kingdom order class species family and genus E phylum family class order kingdom genus and species Answer B Topic Concept 261 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 7 The common housefly belongs to all of the following taxa Assuming you had access to textbooks or other scientific literature knowing which of the following should provide you with the most specific information about the common housefly A order Diptera B family Muscidae C genus Muscu D class Hexapoda E phylum Arthropoda Answer C Topic Concept 261 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 8 If organisms A B and C belong to the same class but to different orders and if organisms D E and F belong to the same order but to different families which of the followingpairs of organisms would be expected to show the greatest degree of structural homology A A and B B A and C C B and D D C and F E D and F Answer E Topic Concept 261 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 9 Darwin analogized the effects of evolution as the above ground portion of a many branched tree with extant species being the tips of the twigs The common ancestor of two species is most analogous to which anatomical tree p art A a single twig that gets longer with time B anode where two twigs diverge C a twig that branches with time D the trunk E neighboring twigs attached to the same stem Answer B Top39c Concept 261 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 2 10 Dozens of potato varieties exist differing from each other in potato tuber size skin color flesh color and shape One might construct a classification of potatoes based on these morphological traits Which of these criticisms of such a classification scheme is most likely to come from an adherent of the phylocode method of classification A Flesh color rather than skin color is avalid trait to use for classification because it is less susceptible to change with the age of the tuber B Flower color is a better classification criterion because below ground tubers can be influenced by minerals in the soil as much as by their genes C A more useful classification would codify potatoes based on the texture and flavor of their flesh because this is what humans are concerned with D The most accurate phylogenetic code is that of Linnaeus Classify potatoes based on Linnaean principles not according to their color E The only biologically valid classification of potato varieties is one that accurately reflects their genetic and evolutionary relatedness Answer E Topic Concept 261 Skill SynthesisEvaluation 11 The term quothomoplasyquot is most applicable to which of these features A the legless condition found in various types of extant lizards B the 5 digit condition of human hands and bat wings C the beta hemoglobin genes of mice and of humans D the fur that covers Australian moles and North American moles E the basic skeletal features of dog forelimbs and cat forelimbs Answer A Topic Concept 262 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 12 If someday an archaean cell is discovered whose SSU rRNA sequence is more similar to that of humans than the sequence of mouse SSU rRNA is to that of humans the best explanation for this apparent discrepancy would be A homology B homoplasy C common ancestry D retro evolution by humans E co evolution of humans and that archaean Answer B Topic Concept 262 Skill Applicati nAnalysis 13 The best classification system is that which most closely A unites organisms that possess similar morphologies B conforms to traditional Linnaean taxonomic practices C reflects evolutionary history D corroborates the classification scheme in use at the time of Charles Darwin E reflects the basic separation of prokaryotes from eukaryotes Answer C Topic Concept 262 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 3 14 Which of the following pairs are the best examples of homologous structures A bat wing and human hand B owl wing and hornet wing C porcupine quill and cactus spine D bat forelimb and bird wing E Australian mole and North American mole Answer A Topic Concept 262 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 15 Some molecular data place the giant panda in the bear family Ursidae but place the lesser panda in the raccoon family Procyonidae Consequently the morphological similarities of these two species are probably due to A inheritance of acquired characteristics B sexual selection C inheritance of shared derived characters D possession of analogous structures E possession of shared primitive characters Answer D Topic Concept 262 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 16 In angiosperm plants flower morphology can be very intricate If a tree such as a New Mexico locust has flowers that share many morphological intricacies with flowers of the sweet pea vine then the most likely explanation for these floral similarities is the same general explanation for the similarities between the A dorsal fins of sharks and of dolphins B reduced eyes of Australian moles and North American moles C scales on moth wings and the scales of fish skin D cranial bones of humans and those of chimpanzees E adaptations for flight in birds and adaptations for flight in bats Answer D Topic Concept 262 Skill SynthesisEvaluation 17 The importance of computers and of computer software to modern cladistics is most closely linked to advances in A light microscopy DU radiometric dating C fossil discovery techniques Linnaean classification m0 molecular genetics Answer E Topic Concept 262 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 4 18 Which mutation should least require realignment of homologous regions of a gene that is common to several related species A 3 base insertion B l base substitution C 4 base insertion D l base deletion E 3 base deletion Answer B Topic Concept 262 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 19 The common ancestors of birds and mammals were very early stem rep tiles which almost certainly possessed 3 chambered hearts 2 atria 1 ventricle Birds and mammals however are alike in having 4 chambered hearts 2 atria 2 ventricles The 4 chambered hearts of birds and mammals are best described as A structural homologies B vestiges C homoplasies D the result of shared ancestry E molecular homologies Answer C Topic Concept 262 Skill Applicati nAnalysis 20 Generally within a lineage the largest number of shared derived characters should be found among two organisms that are members of the same A kingdom B class C domain D family E order Answer D Topic Concept 263 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 5 Use Figure 26 to answer thefollowing questions Present B C D Time 10 MYA Genetic Relatedness Figure 261 21 A common ancestor for both species C and E could be at position number Answer D Topic Concept 263 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 22 The two extant species that are most closely related to each other are A and B B B and C C C and D D D and E E E and A Answer C Topic Concept 263 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 23 Which species are extinct A A and E B A and B C C and D D D and E E cannot be determined from the information provided Answer A Topic Concept 263 Skill ApplicationAnalysis Page 6 24 Which extinct species should be the best candidate to serve as the outgroup for the clade whose common ancestor occurs at position 2 A A B B C C D D E E Answer A Topic Concept 263 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 25 If this evolutionary tree is an accurate depiction of relatedness then which of the following should be correct 1 The entire tree is based on maximum parsimony 2 If all species depicted here make up a taxon this taxon is monophyletic 3 The last common ancestor of species B and C occurred more recently than the last common ancestor of species D and E 4 Species A is the direct ancestor of both species B and species C 5 The species present at position 3 is ancestral to C D and E A 2 and 5 B 1 and 3 C 3 and 4 D 2 3 and 4 E 1 2 and 3 Answer E Topic Concept 263 Skill ApplicationAnalysis Thefollowing questions refer to the hypothetical patterns oftaxonomic hierarchy shown in Figure 262 1 2 3 4 5 Taxa Ancestors Figure 262 26 Which of the following numbers represents a polyphyletic taxon A 2 B 3 C 4 D 5 E more than one of these Answer B Topic Concept 263 Skill ApplicationAnalysis Page 7 27 If this figure is an accurate depiction of relatedness then which taxon is unacceptable based on cladistics Answer C Topic Concept 263 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 28 Which of the following is not true of all horizontally oriented phylogenetic trees where time advances to the right A Each branch point represents a point in absolute time B Organisms represented at the base of such trees are ancestral to those represented at higher levels C The more branch points that occur between two taxa the more divergent their DNA sequences should be D The common ancestor rep resented by the rightmost branch point existed more recently in time than the common ancestors represented at branch points located to the left E The more branch points there are the more taxa are likely to be rep resented Answer A Topic Concept 263 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 29 Ultimately which of these serves as the basis for both the principle of maximumparsimony and the principle that shared complexity indicates homology rather than analogy A the laws of thermodynamics B Boyle39s law C the laws of probability D chaos theory E Hutchinson39s law Answer C Topic Concept 263 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 30 Shared derived characters are most likely to be found in taxa that are A paraphyletic B polyphyletic C monophyletic Answer C Topic Concept 263 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 31 A taxon all of whose members have the same common ancestor is A paraphyletic B polyphyletic C monophyletic Answer C Topic Concept 263 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 8 32 The term that is most appropriately associated with elude is A paraphyletic B polyphyletic C monophyletic Answer C Topic Concept 263 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 33 If birds are excluded from the class Reptilia the term that consequently describes the class Rep tilia is A paraphyletic B polyphyletic C monophyletic Answer A Topic Concept 263 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 34 If the eukaryotic condition arose independently several different times during evolutionary history and if ancestors of these different lineages are extant and are classified in the domain Eukarya then the domain Eukarya would be A paraphyletic B polyphyletic C monophyletic Answer B Topic Concept 263 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 35 When using a cladistic approach to systematics which of the following is considered most important for classification A shared primitive characters B analogous primitive characters C shared derived characters D the number of homoplasies E overall phenotypic similarity Answer C Topic Concept 263 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 36 The four chambered hearts of birds and the four chambered hearts of mammals evolved independently of each other If one were unaware of this independence then one might logically conclude that A the birds were the first to evolve a 4 chambered heart B birds and mammals are more distantly related than is actually the case C early mammals possessed feathers D the common ancestor of birds and mammals had a four chambered heart E birds and mammals should be placed in the same family Answer D Topic Concept 263 Skill ApplicationAnalysis Page 9 37 Phylogenetic hypotheses such as those represented by phylogenetic trees are strongest when A they are based on amino acid sequences from homologous proteins as long as the genes that code for such proteins contain no introns B each clade is defined by a single derived character C they are supported by more than one kind of evidence such as when fossil evidence corroborates molecular evidence D they are accepted by the foremost authorities in the field especially if they have won Nobel Prizes E they are based on a single DNA sequence that seems to be a shared derived sequence Answer C Topic Concept 263 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 38 Cladograms a type of phylogenetic tree constructed from evidence from molecular systematics are based on similarities in A morphology B the pattern of embryological development C biochemical pathways D habitat and lifestyle choices E mutations to homologous genes Answer E Top39c Concept 263 Skill KnowledgeComprehension The following questions refer to the information below A researcher compared the nucleotide sequences of a homologous gene from five different species of mammals with the homologous human gene The sequence homology between each species39 version of the gene and the human gene is presented as a percentage of similarity Species Percentage Chimpanzee Orangutan 98 6 Baboon 97 2 Rhesus Monkey 969 Rabbit 937 Figure 263 39 What probably explains the inclusion of rabbits in this research A Their short generation time provides a ready source of DNA B They possess all of the shared derived characters as do the other species listed C They are the closest known relatives of rhesus monkeys D They are the outgroup E They are the most recent common ancestor of the primates Answer D Topic Concept 263 Skill ApplicationAnalysis Page 10 40 What conclusion can be drawn validly from these data A Humans and other primates evolved from rabbits within the past 10 million years B Most of the genes of other organisms are paralogous to human genes or with chimpanzee genes C Among the organisms listed humans shared a common ancestor most recently with chimpanzees D Humans evolved from chimpanzees somewhere in Africa within the last 6 million years Answer C Topic Concepts 263 264 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 41 When sufficient heat is applied double stranded DNA denatures into two single stranded molecules as the heat breaks all of the hydrogen bonds In an experiment molecules of single stranded DNA from species X are separately hybridized with putatively homologous single stranded DNA molecules from five species A E The hybridized DNAs are then heated and the temperature at which complete denaturation occurs is recorded Based on the data below which species is probably most closely related to species X Temperature at Which Species llybridized DNA Denatures 30 C A B 85 C C 74 C D 60 C E 61 C Answer B Topic Concepts 263 264 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 42 A researcher wants to determine the genetic relatedness of several breeds of dog Cunisfumiliuris The researcher should compare homologous sequences of that are known to be A carbohydrates poorly conserved B fatty acids highly conserved C lip ids poorly conserved D proteins or nucleic acids poorly conserved E amino acids highly conserved Answer D Topic Concepts 264 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 43 Concerning growth in genome size over evolutionary time which of these does not belong with the others A orthologous genes B gene duplications C paralogous genes D gene families Answer A Topic Concept 264 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 11 44 Nucleic acid sequences that undergo few changes over the course of evolutionary time are said to be conserved Conserved sequences of nucleic acids A are found in the most crucial portions ofproteins B include all mitochondrial DNA C are abundant in ribosomes D are proportionately more common in eukaryotic introns than in eukaryotic exons E comp rise a larger proportion of pre mRNA immature mRNA than of mature mRNA Answer C Topic Concept 264 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 45 Species that are not closely related and that do not share many anatomical similarities can still be placed together on the same phylogenetic tree by comparing their A plasmids B chloroplast genomes C mitochondrial genomes D homologous genes that are poorly conserved E homologous genes that are highly conserved Answer E Top39c Concept 264 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 46 Typically mutations that modify the active site of an enzyme are more likely to be harmful than mutations that affect other parts of the enzyme A hypothetical enzyme consists of four domains AiD and the amino acid sequences of these four domains have been determined in five related species Given the proportion of amino acid homologies among the five species at each of the four domains which domain probably contains the active site Percentage of Homologous Domain Amino Acids A 32 B 8 C 78 D 45 Answer C Topic Concept 264 Skill Applicati nAnalysis Page 12 47 Which of these items does not necessarily exist in a simple linear relationship with the number of generduplication events when placed as the label on the vertical axis of the graph be w Gene DuplicaIions A number of genes B number of DNA base pairs C genome size D mass in picograms of DNA E phenotypic complexity Answer E Topic Concept 264 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 48 Which kind of DNA should provide 39 39 39 l k severa i L ancestor L quot A that cooling for ribosomal R B intronic DNA bel u 1 gauging 39 quot fyears ago elaedne of nging to a gene whose product performs a crucial function C paralogous DNA that has lost its function ie no longer codes for functional gene product D mitochondrial DNA E exon39 DNA that codes for a nonecrucial part of a polypeptide Answer A Topic Concept 254 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 49 A phylogenetic 1 discerning the evolutionary relatedness of eans and bacteria B fungi and animals C Hawaiian silverswords D sharks and dolphins E mosses and ferns Answer C Topic Concept 254 Skill ApplicationAnalysis DN would be most valid for Page 13 50 The lakes of northern Minnesota are home to many similar species of damselflies of the genus Enullugmu that have apparently undergone speciation from ancestral stock since the last glacial retreat about 10000 years ago Sequencing which of the following would probably be most useful in sorting out evolutionary relationships among these closely related species A nuclear DNA B mitochondrial DNA C small nuclear RNA D ribosomal RNA E amino acids in proteins Answer B Topic Concept 264 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 51 Which statement represents the best explanation for the observation that the nuclear DNA of wolves and domestic dogs has a very high degree of homology A Dogs and wolves have very similar morphologies B Dogs and wolves belong to the same order C Dogs and wolves are both members of the order Carnivora D Dogs and wolves shared a common ancestor very recently E Convergent evolution has occurred Answer D Topic Concept 264 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 52 The reason that paralogous genes can diverge from each other within the same gene pool whereas orthologous genes diverge only after gene pools are isolated from each other is that A having multiple copies of genes is essential for the occurrence of sympatric speciation in the wild l3 paralogous genes can occur only in diploid species thus they are absent from most prokaryotes C polyploidy is a necessary precondition for the occurrence of sympatric speciation in the wild U having an extra copy of a gene permits modifications to the copy without loss of the original gene product Answer D Topic Concept 264 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 53 If the genes of yeast are 50 orthologous to those of humans and if the genes of mice are 99 orthologous to those of humans then what percentage of the genes of fish might one validly predict to be orthologous to the genes of humans Answer E Topic Concept 264 Skill ApplicationAnalysis Page 14 Morphologically Species A is very similar to four other species B 7E Yet the nucleotide sequence deep within an intron in a gene shared by al five of these eukaryotic species is quite different in Species A compared to that of the other four species when one studies the nucleotides present at each position position 1 position lo position 20 SpeciesA T T T A c A c A a T c c c a A T T G T A SpeciesB T T A A C A a T c c c s A T T G T A A SpeciesC T T A c A c A G T c C c a G T T A T A A SpeciesD T T A t A c A G T c c c s A T T A T A A SpeciesE T T A c A C A G c C C c G a T T A T A A Figurele 54 1f the sequence of SpeciesA differs from that of the other four species due to simple misalignment then what should the computer software find when it compares the sequence of Species A to those of the other four species A The nucleotide at position 1 should be different in Species A but the same in species 137E B The nucleotide sequence of Species A should have long sequences that are nearly identical to those of the other species but offset in terms of position number C The sequences of species 137E though different from that of Species A should be identical to each other without exception D If the software compares not nucleotide sequence but rather the amino acid sequence of the actual rotein product then the amino acid sequences of species BcE should be similar to each other but very different from that of Species A E Computer software is useless in determining sequences of introns it can only be used with exons Answer B Topic Concept 254 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 55 Whatis f A pl r OTE A A It is a type ofpoint mutation B Its occurrence is limited to diploid species DN erepair enzymes quot isa quot quot39 DNAleplication 1 mi e D It is most similar in its effects to a deletion mutation E It can increase the size of a genome over evolutionary time Answer E Topic Concept 254 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 15 56 Paralogous genes that have lost the function of coding for a functional gene product are known as quotpseudogenesquot Which of these is a valid prediction regarding the fate ofpseudogenes over evolutionary time A They will be preserved by natural selection B They will be highly conserved C They will ultimately regain their original function D They will be transformed into orthologous genes E They will have relatively high mutation rates Answer E Topic Concepts 264 265 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 57 Theoretically molecular clocks are to molecular phylogenies as radiometric dating is to phylogenies that are based on the A fossil record B geographic distribution of extant species C morphological similarities among extant species D amino acid sequences of homologous polypeptides Answer A Topic Concept 265 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 58 The most important feature that permits a gene to act as a molecular clock is A having a large number of base pairs B having a larger proportion of exonic DNA than of intronic DNA C having a reliable average rate of mutation D its recent origin by a gene duplication event E its being acted upon by natural selection Answer C Topic Concept 265 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 59 Neutral theory proposes that A molecular clocks are more reliable when the surroundinng is close to 70 B most mutations of highly conserved DNA sequences should have no functional effect C DNA is less susceptible to mutation when it codes for amino acid sequences whose side groups or R groups have a neutral pH D DNA is less susceptible to mutation when it codes for amino acid sequences whose side groups or R groups have a neutral electrical charge E a significant proportion of mutations is not acted up on by natural selection Answer E Topic Concept 265 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 16 50 Which curve in the graph below best depicts the way that mutation rate varies over time in a gene that can serve as a reliable molecular cloc Mutation Hale Answer C Topic Concept 255 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 51 When it acts upon a gene which of these processes consequently makes that gene an accurate molecular clock A transcription B directional natural selection C mutation D proofreading E reverse transcription Answer B Topic Concept 255 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 52 Which of these would if it had acted upon a gene I acting as a quot L39 39 39 l k A eu ra mutaio s B genetic ri t C mutationswithin introns D natural selection E L 39 39 39 39 39 A 39 l position Answer D Topic Concept 255 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 53 The HIV genome39s reliably high rate of change permits it to serve as a molecular Clock Which of these features is most responsible for this genome39s high rate of Change A the relatively low number ofnucleotides in the genome B the relatively small number of genes in the genome C the genome39s ability to insert itself into the genome of the host D the lack of proofreading by the enzyme that converts HIV39s RNA genome into a DNA genome Answer D Topic Concept 255 Skill ApplicationAnalysis The following questions refer to the table below which compares the sequence homology offour different parts 2 introns and ZeXons ofagenethatisfound39 39 439 l 39 I 39 P h 39 h 39 39 t 39 39 the promoter eg Intron Iis that closest to the promoter The data reported for speciesA were obtained by comparing NA no member of species A to another member of species A Sequence Homolo species Intron 1 Exon 1 Intron v1 Exon v A 100 100 100 100 B 98 99 82 95 Page 17 D150 98 99 89 99 99 92 970 98 99 80 94 ces vertically which cladogram a type of r 84 Based on the tabular data and assuming that time advan phylogenetic tree is the most likely depiction of L DBACE D CDA Answer D Topic Concepts 262 Skill SynthesisEvaluation 65 Which of these is the best explanation for the high degree of sequence homology observed in Exon I among ies these five speci A t is the mosteupstream exon of this gene C It codes for a polype tide domain that has a crucial function pec a B Due to alternative gene splicing this exon is often treated as an intron P D These five species must actually constitute a single s E This exon is rich in GrC base pairs thus is more s b Answer C Topic Concepts 262 Skill SynthesisEvaluation Page 18 66 Regarding these sequence homology data the principle of maximum parsimony would be applicable in A distinguishing introns from exons B determining degree of sequence homology C selecting appropriate genes for comparison among species D inferring evolutionary relatedness from the number of sequence differences Answer D Topic Concept 263 Skill SynthesisEvaluation 67 Which of these is the best explanation for the relatively low level of sequence homology observed in lntron VI A Mutations that occur here are neutral thus are neither selected for nor against and thereby accumulate over time B lts higher mutation rate has resulted in its highly conserved nature C The occurrence of molecular homoplasy explains it D This intron is not actually homologous having resulted from separate bacteriophage induced transduction events in these five species Answer A Topic Concepts 262 264 265 Skill SynthesisEvaluation 68 Which of these is the best explanation for lntron l39s relatively high sequence homology among these five sp ecies A It is the most upstream of this gene39s introns B It was once an exon but became intronic in the common ancestor of these five species C Due to alternative gene splicing it is often treated as an exon in these five species as an exon it codes for an important part of a polypeptide D It has a relatively high average rate of mutation Answer C Topic Concepts 262 264 265 Skill SynthesisEvaluation 69 Which of these four gene parts should allow the construction of the most accurate phylogenetic tree assuming that this is the only part of the gene that has acted as a reliable molecular clock A lntron l B Exon 1 C lntron Vl D Exon V Answer C Topic Concept 265 Skill SynthesisEvaluation 70 Which process hinders clarification of the deepest branchings in a phylogenetic tree that depicts the origins of the three domains A binary fission B mitosis C meiosis D horizontal gene transfer E gene duplication Answer D Topic Concept 266 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 19 71 What kind of evidence has recently made it necessary to assign the prokaryotes to either of two different domains rather than assigning all prokaryotes to the same kingdom A molecular B behavioral C nutritional D anatomical E ecological Answer A Topic Concept 266 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 72 What important criterion was used in the late 1960s to distinguish between the three multicellular eukaryotic kingdoms of the five kingdom classification system A the number of cells present in individual organisms B the geological stratum in which fossils first appear C the nutritional modes they employ D the biogeographic province where each first appears E the features of their embryos Answer C Topic Concept 266 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 73 Which is an obsolete kingdom that includes prokaryotic organisms A Plantae B Fungi C Animalia D Protista E Monera Answer E Topic Concept 266 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 74 Members of which kingdom have cell walls and are all heterotrophic A Plantae B Fungi C Animalia D Protista E Monera Answer B Topic Concept 266 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 75 Which kingdom has been replaced with two domains A Plantae B Fungi C Animalia D Protista E Monera Answer E Topic Concept 266 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 20 76 Which eukaryotic kingdom is polyphyletic and therefore not acceptable based on cladistics A Plantae B Fungi C Animalia D Protista E Monera Answer D Topic Concept 266 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 77 Which eukaryotic kingdom includes members that are the result of endosymbioses that included an ancient proteobacterium and an ancient cyanobacterium A Plantae B Fungi C Animalia D Protista E Monera Answer A Topic Concept 266 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 78 The human nuclear genome includes hundreds of genes that are orthologs of bacterial genes and hundreds of other genes that are orthologs of archaean genes This finding can be explained by proposing that A neither archaea nor bacteria contain paralogous genes B the eukaryotic lineage leading to humans involved at least one fusion of an ancient bacterium with an ancient archaean C the infection of humans by bacteriophage introduced prokaryotic genes into the human genome D horizontal gene transfer did not occur to any significant extent among the prokaryotic ancestors of humans Answer B Topic Concept 266 Skill ApplicationAnalysis Page 21 The following questions refer instlmc es ofgene or genoni turn 2 to this phylogenetic tree depie ting the origins of life mid of the three domm39ns Honzontnl lines indiente s r Time 79 If the early history of life on Earth is accurately depicted by this phylogenetic tree then which statement is least in agreement with the hypothesis proposed by this tree A The last universal common ancestor of all extant species is better described as a community of organisms rather than an individual species B The origin ofthe three domain appears as a pol tomy C Archaean genomes should contain genes that originated in bacteria and vice versa D Eukaryotes are more closely related to archaeans than to bacte 39 An wer D Topic Concepts 262 Skill SynthesisEvaluation 80 Which r 39 A r y t A 39 I 39L39 the oerticnl r t t the and archaean lineages A mitosis B meiosis C sexual reproduction D binary fission Answer D Topic Co cept 266 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 81 Which of these processes can be included among 39 quot 39 39 phylogen A endosymbiosis B mitosis C binary fission D point mutations E s phase of the cell cycle Answer A Topic Concept 266 Skill ApplicationAnalysis this Page 22 82 Which portion of this tree may ultimately be better depicted as a quotringquot A the bacterial lineage B the archaean lineage C the eukaryotic lineage D the weblike part near the base of the tree E the part corresponding to the first living cell on Earth Answer D Topic Concept 266 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 83 A large proportion of archaeans are quotextremophilesquot so called because they inhabit extreme environments with high acidity andor high temperature Such environments are thought to have been much more common on the primitive Earth Thus modern extremophiles survive only in places that their ancestors became adapted to long ago Which of these is consequently a valid statement about modern extremophiles assuming that their habitats have remained relatively unchanged A Among themselves they should share relatively few ancestral traits especially those that enabled ancestral forms to adapt to extreme conditions B On a phylogenetic tree whose branch lengths are proportional to amount of genetic change the branches of the extremophiles should be shorter relative to branches of the non extremophilic archaeans C They should contain genes that originated in eukaryotes that are the hosts for numerous species of bacteria D They should currently be undergoing a high level of horizontal gene transfer with non extremophilic archaeans Answer B Topic Concepts 263 266 Skill SynthesisEvaluation Self Quiz Questions 1 In Figure 264 from your textbook which similarly inclusive taxon descended from the same common ancestor as Canidae A Felidae B Mustelidae C Carnivora D Cam39s 2 Three living species X Y and Z share a common ancestor T as do extinct species U and V A grouping that includes species T X Y and Z makes up A avalid taxon B a monophyletic clade C an ingroup with species U as the outgroup D a paraphyletic grouping E a polyphyletic grouping Answer D Topic Skill Page 23 3 In a comparison of birds with mammals having four appendages is A a hared ancestral character B a shared der39ved character C a character useful for disti nguishing b D an example of a irds from mammals nalogy rat er than homology E a character useful for sorting bird species A lion 4 If you were using cladistics to build a phylogenetic tree of cats which of the followingwould be the best outgroup B domestic cat w f 5 The relative lengths of the amphibian and mouse branches in the phylogeny in Figure 2612 in your textbook indicalet at A amphibians evolved before mice B mice evolved before amphi 39 an C the genes of amphibians and mice have only coincidental homoplasies D the homologous gene has evolved more slowly in mice E the homologous gene has evolved more rapidly in mice 6 Based on this tree which of the following statements is not correct Salamandel Lizard GUM Human A The lineage leading to salamanders was the first to diverge from the other lineages B Salamanders are a sister group to the group containing lizards goats and humans C Salamanders are as closely related to goats as they are t o humans D Lizards are more closely related to salamanders than lizards are to humans E The group highlighted by shading is paraphyletic Page 24


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