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Organismal Biology

by: Mr. Loraine Bruen

Organismal Biology BIOL 128

Mr. Loraine Bruen
Lansing Community College
GPA 3.9


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This 261 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Loraine Bruen on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 128 at Lansing Community College taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/222381/biol-128-lansing-community-college in Biology at Lansing Community College.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
As of late 2002 6288 species of bacteria had been discovered and catalogued But that many species can be found among the 10 billion bacteria living in only one gram of soil and an astonishing 4 million species have been estimated to exist in a ton of soil At least 700 bacterial species thrive as symbionts in the human mouth EO Wilson The Creation 2006 Prokaryotic organisms fall into two Domains amp These two Domains differ from Eukaryotes in that 1 No 2 No 3 Circular 4 present some bacteria have peptidoglycan in cell wall In general they are usually smaller than Eukarya and Bacteria amp Archaea are unicellular or form mats or colonies Table 272 A Comparison of the Three Domains of Life CHARACTERISTIC DOMAIN Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Nuclear envelope Absent Absent Present Membraneenclosed Absent Absent Present organelles Peptidoglycan in Present Absent Absent cell wall Membrane lipids Unbranched Some Unbranched hydrocarbons branched hydrocarbons hydrocarbons RNA polymerase One kind Several kinds Several kinds Initiator amino acid Formyl Methionine Methionine for protein synthesis methionine lntrons in genes Very rare Present in Present in some genes many genes Response to the Growth Growth not Growth not antibiotics inhibited inhibited inhibited streptomycin and chloramphenicol Histories associated Absent Present in Present with DNA some species Circular Present Present Absent chromosome Growth at temp No Some species No eratures gt lOO C Structure of Prokaryotes There are three common shapes 1 Structure of Prokaryotes Nearly all prokaryotic cells have a Maintains shape Provides Prevents of cell in hypotonic environments In a hypertonic environment most prokaryotes lose water amp shrink away from their wall this inhibits their ability to reproduce Why is this important Structure of Prokaryotes Cell wall construction differs from Eukarya Eukarya cell walls are usually made of cellulose or chitin whereas most bacterial cell walls contain Using a technique developed by Hans Christian Gram 19th Century Danish physician called Gram stain many bacteria are classified based upon the composition of their cell wall Grampositive bacteria have cell walls with large amounts of that is exposed Gramnegative bacteria have more cell walls with less that is covered with an outer membrane containing lipopolysaccharides a Grampositive bacteria peptidoglycan traps crystal violet Grampositive bacteria b Gramnegative bacteria crystal violet ls easily rinsed away revealing red dye Gramnegative bacteria Carbohydrate portion of lipopolysaccharide Ce Peptido Outer wall glycan membrane layer P eptldo Plasma glycan membrane layer Plasma membrane Structure of Prokaryotes In general bacteria are more threatening as pathogens and are usually more resistant to antibiotics eg Chlamydia trachomatis most common cause of in the world amp the most common USA Gram negative In b Gramnegative bacteria crystal violet is easily rinsed away revealing red dye Carbohydrate portion of lipopolysaccharide Outer membrane Cell glycan layer x I Plasmamembrane 539 39 I Structure of Prokaryotes Some prokaryotic cell walls are covered by gt a sticky layer of polysaccharide or protein the capsule allows the bacteria to or other individuals in a colony it may also protect the prokaryote from a host s Bacterial h capsule 1 Bacterial cell wall strep Structure of Prokaryotes Other prokaryotes stick to the substrate or form colonies by the use of hairlike projections called Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes uses fimbriae to attach itself to the mucous membranes of urogenital tracts Fimbriae Motility in Prokaryotes About half of the prokaryotes are capable of locomotion and the most common structures for movement are Y Filament Specialized internal structure amp genetic organization Prokaryotic cells are simpler than eukaryotic cells Prokaryotes lack membranebound organelles but they do have membranes that can perform essential metabolic functions such as respiration amp 139 a V72 1pm a Aerobic prokaryote b Photosynthetic prokaryote Specialized internal structure amp genetic organization The genetic material of a prokaryote is not enclosed within a nuclear membrane as it is in eukaryotes but it may be located within a region in the prokaryotic cell called the The DNA in a prokaryote typically consists of a single chromosome Some bacteria have plasmids which are smaller rings of DNA that consist of Chromosome Plasnds often plasmids offer Parts of chromosomes or whole plasmids can be transferred btwn two prokaryotic cells Cell wall Reproduction in prokaryotes Origin of replication Plasma Bacteria as a group are highly Ecoll Bacfe glb m successful in part because Two copies 1 chromosome of origin they are able to reproduce at a remarkable rate and adapt to changes very quickly i resistance to antibiotics for 9quot 7 7 9i example Most reproduce by Reproduction in prokaryotes Others cope with harsh environmental conditions by forming resistant cells called endospores These endospores represent a bacteria in a state of suspended animation and they are very durable when it comes to temperature extremes This is why Domain Archaea Extremophiles Extreme halophiles live in I e Extreme thermophiles thrive in Eukarya Archaea Bacteria Importance of Prokaryotes They serve as important many of which can switch from aerobic respiration to anaerobic respiration to continue to break down waste products in the absence of Some even have the ability to Rhizobium A n Nitrogen fixing nodules 39 x bacteria peas soybeans alfalfa amp clover Importance of Prokaryotes Many form symbiotic living together relationships with other organisms Host gt Symbiont Types of symbiosis 1 Mutualism gt host symbiont 2 Parasitism gt host symbiont 3 Commensalism gt host symbiont Mutualism examples in the eye of a deep water fish bacteria in the gut of help digest bacteria i Each person s entire body harbors more bacterial cells than human cells If biological classification were based on preponderance of cells a human being would be classified as a bacterial ecosystem J ES UiiSm examples Most of the bacteria we are familiar with are pathogenic parasites that cause some type of disease bacteria Parasitism examples cont Other pathogenic bacteria Vibrio spp Clostridium botulinum Escherichia coli E coll usually a harmless symbiont in humans lower GI tract But strains have evolved that can cause There is a grandeur in this view of ifein which endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been and are being evolvedquot Charles Darwin Chapter 22 Descent with Modification gt The earth is a dynamic place everchanging In order for life to survive it too must change This represents an interesting parody Evolutionary change cannot be seen at the level it is only noticed overtime as organisms develop adaptations This occurs very slowly and may take many many generations Evolution is the History of Evolutionary Thought Over time views of the world changed by the growth of a large body of evidence Most give DanNin all the credit for the concepts and ideology behind evolution however his revolutionary proposal actually had its roots in the work of many other individuals Early Philosophy on Changing Lifeforms Aristotle 24OO ybp gt viewed lifeforms as however he thought that life could be arranged or placed on a scale based on Wig complexity 39 degrees of perfection of species with humans on top Not much advancement in evolutionary thought progressed until the 1700 s Why consider the science of biology lots of other things were happening anatomy other reasons Robert Hooke 16351703 gt Examined distributions of fossils observed fossilized clams on concluded that some of the highest and considerable mountains in the world must have been An outrageous claim at that time Carolus Linnaeus 17071778 Swedish Founder of taxonomy gt science of Developed a hierarchical system of classification Developed system of binomial nomenclature which is still used today eg Texas horned lizard This system of classification infer evolutionary kinship at the time James Hutton 17261797 Scottish Geologist Concept of gradualism mostly dealt with geological change eg formation of valleys by rivers JeanBaptiste de Lamarck 17441829 French Introduced two key principles 1 idea that parts of the body that are used extensively become larger and stronger while those that are not used deteriorate 2 Inheritance of acquired characters eg a giraffe s neck is long bc it continually stretched its neck out to reach food high in trees we now know this is not the case Believed in evolution but mechanism for belief was wrong r 5 q Georges Cuvier 17691832 French Father of paleontology gt study of fossils fossil gt Cuvier studied fossils and began to understand the deeper the strata layers of sedimentary rock the more dissimilar the fossils are from current lifeforms Made references to extinctions Did not believe in evolution but believed in extinctions Layers of deposited sediment Younger stratum with more recent fossils Older stratum with older fossils Each of these individuals had influence in the life of a young scientist from Shrewsbury England Charles DanNin 18091882 He went to Cambridge intending on becoming a clergyman studied botany In 1831 DanNin 22 yrs old set sail on the HMS Beagle which charted poorly known stretches of the South American coastline A key stop on the voyage was the Galapagos Islands Voyage of the HMS Beagle approx Darwin in 1840 after his return from the voyage HMS Beagle in port 3 g 3 D G eat I Britair39i7 EUROPE NORTH a i 05 AMERICA ATLANTIC 4 OCEAN a The Galapagos mum s Islands aGelmvesa Ma ph Equator SOUTH Equator Santlago Daphne AM39ERICA O Islands g Brazil Fernandin P quot1gquot PACIFIC E I w J Cape f Santa Santa lt57 OCEAN Ia G d Fe 55quot 39 Argentina 0 0Pe Cristobal lt Tasmania Dr 4 q 9 Flaranza w r Kilometers EsPanala cape HOTquot New Zealand Darwin amp the Galapagos Islands Gls Darwin noted that most of the animals he found on the Gls resembled animals he had seen on the mainland but they were in fact different species He even noted that some species on the Gls very closely resembled each other however there were subtle differences in their appearance or behaviors from island to island or even habitat to habitat DanVin kept detailed records of his observations a Cactuseater b Insecteater 9141 c Seedeater Putting it all together After his return to England 18361840 DanNin began to compile his notes and formulated an idea that adaptations traits to the environment and the process of forming new species might be closely related By 1840 DanNin had formulated his theory of as the mechanism of evolution descent with modification gt where new species are formed based upon the premise that the environment selects individual members of a species based upon traits they possess which allow them to and He was hesitant to publish these findings due to the controversy he knew this could create he was consulted by several other scientists like Charles Lyell Charles Lyell 17971875 A geologist Took the work of Hutton a step further Uniformitarianism gt proposed that the causes of geological change are constant over time Both Lyell and Hutton s concepts influenced DanNin as their ideas both supponed DanNin agreed that the Earth must be older than 6000 years and that living things might be governed by a similar process of slow change Darwin was not alone in his ideas that slow changes to the Earth as well as living things ability to change slowly over time could produce different species We have already discussed UseDisuse and Inheritance of acquired characters Provided insight into living things ability to change and pass on these changes somehow to offspring But it was another scientist who had developed his own idea of natural selection while working in the West lndes Alfred Russel Wallace 18231913 Wallace knew of Darwin and sent Darwin a manuscript of his theory for review Lyell had been urging DanVin to publish his findings before someone else didnow Wallace would be first 1858 DanVin quickly finished his work and published The Origin of Species the next year 1859 23 years after voyage Wallace was a great admirer of DanVin and agreed that DanVin should get the credit as the architect of natural selection Two main themes to the book Natural selection is the of descent with modification evolution Natural Selection is based on the following 3 facts THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES Ht ms 0 IMTI39IHI Sianzrmv l39iHN luAnIN ur m u lll win is nu miruuu Km L m vim mlm lx i iu quotle mnx m39lmn Amunme s39rnnm39 new 1 Darwin Members of same species vary amongst themselves Today 2 Parents pass their traits onto their offspring 3 Some individuals leave more offspring than others Individuals whose inherited traits give them a higher probability of surviving and reproducing in a given environment tend to leave more offspring than other individuals over time these accumulate in the population F a A flower mantid in Malaysia b A leaf mantid in Borneo The natural environment for beneficial traits example oPopulation eElimination 0Reproduction olncreasing with varied of individuals of survivors frequency inherited traits with certain of traits that traits enhance survival and reproductive success Darwin also based his theory of evolution on familiar examples of how humans had modified living things gt Breeds of dogs livestock and plants are created to produce desired traits Selection for apical tip bud Brussels Broccoli Selectlon for flowers and stems Selection V for stems r M Selection for leaves Kohlrabi Summary of Natural Selection Natural Selection gt If some heritable traits are advantageous adaptations these will accumulate in the population and this will increase the frequency of individuals with those traits If the environment changes over time or if living things move to a new environment natural selection may result in new adaptations to these new environments Darwin s views portray mfg the history of life as a 53393995 tree many branches WWW dre39a ives arising from a common 39 trunk and then Ba39ymm a continuing to branch De39quot quot quot Mammut a substantial amount of We I evidence supports this view including direct observations of mm k evolution fossil zzlasmim evidence homology and 3mm 2 C5quot biogeography Am V at 2 4 55 2354 4 1i Millions of years ago Years ago Evidence of Evolution Direct Observations of Evolution eg methicillin resistant S aureus Does a drug create resistant pathogens Also read the Inquiry Fig 13 on pg 179 Evidence of Evolution Homology Humerus Radius V At some stage during embryonic development all vertebrates have 39 Pharyngeal pouches Posbanal taH Chhkembwo jm Humanembwo Lungfishesjy zW Branch point v Amphibians E i a i J 8 Digit quot Mammals 5 a bearing J I g a rn limbs I quot 39 u Lizards Ammoquot I 0 and snakes Crocodiles I Homologous m V e characteristic I Ostrichesf mbvX ii 4 o Feathers EL Hawks and W other birds spars Evidence of Evolution Fossil record Most mammals Cetaceans and eventeed ungulates V a Canis dog b Pakicetus c Sus pig d Odocoileus deer Evidence of Evolution extinct cetaceans Other i VII eventoed a ungulates Fossil record H lt Hippopotamuses 1 J TPakicetus m r TRodhocetuW Common 1 gt 7 ancestor a r of cetaceans TDOrUdOquot quot 339 Living X cetaceans 7390 60 5390 4390 3390 2390 1390 0 Key Pelvis Tibia Millions of years ago i Femur I Foot Both in space amp time we seem to be brought somewhere near to that great fact that mystery of mysteries the first appearance of new beings on Earth Danvin from his diaries kept aboard the HMS Beagle commenting on the life found on the Galapagos Islands Chapter 10 The Origin of Species 7 z 7 t 7 J 7 r y i b Flightless cormorant Phaacrocorax harrisi A common misconception about the process of evolution is that change It is true that natural selection acts upon the individual testing its fitness survival reproduction but the effects of natural selection are only noticed at the level Recall the levels of biological organization The environment puts selective pressures on populations speciation may result Speciation The focal point of evolutionary theory because the appearance of new species is the source of biological diversity Species gt A group of actually or potentially naturally organisms that share a common gene pool and produce viable fertile offspring from others The biological species concept is based on the potential to interbreed rather than on physical similarity a Similarity between different speCIes don t just look at morphology but also dlfferences In b Diersity within a species The key to defining a species can be found in the definition of a species gt A group of actually or potentially naturally interbreeding organisms that share a common gene pool and produce viable fertile offspring from other such groups this definition is known as the coined by Ernst Mayr in 1942 Species are differentiated based upon that impede members of two different species from producing viable fertile offspring These barriers can be classified according to whether they contribute to reproductive isolation before or after fertilization Prezygotic barriers gt Postzygotic barriers gt prevent hybrid zygote from developing into a fertile adult Prezygotic Barriers abitat Temporal Behavioral Mechanical Gametic Isolation Isolation Isolation Isolation Isolation A lndi uals di gi39ent s sp ies 1 Prezygotic Barriers Habitat Isolation Prezygotic Barriers Temporal Isolation v 7 Eastern Spotted Skunk Western Spotted Skun Prezygotic Barriers Behavioral Isolation Bluefooted booby Prezygotic Barriers Mechanical Isolation Bradybaena with shells spiraling in opposite directions Prezygotic Barriers Gametic Isolation Postzygotic Barriers Reduced Hybrid Reduced Hybrid Hybrid Viability Fertility Breakdown Postzygotic Barriers Reduced Hybrid Viability Ensaz ina Postzygotic Barriers Reduced Hybrid Fertility Male donkey Female horse Another eg Postzygotic Barriers Hybrid Breakdown Strains of cultivated rice accumulated 7quot different mutant alleles So the biological species concept directs our attention to how speciation occurs however Limitations of the Biological Species Concept The biological species concept cannot be applied to fossils or including all prokaryotes It emphasizes absence of gene flow However gene flow can occur between distinct species eg grizzly bears and polar bears can mate to produce Alternative species concepts are useful in certain situations over 20 other definitions eg morphological species concept What causes speciation There are two main ways that speciation can occur depending on how the between members of a population is interrupted a Allopatric speciation b Sympatric speciation A population forms a A subset of a population new species while forms a new species geographically isolated without geographic from its parent population separation 1 Allopatric Speciation Fairly easily visualized some type of separates a population into isolated subpopulations resulting in an abrupt stop of gene flow between the entire gene pool now there are two gene pools and selective pressures act upon each subpopulation if this geographic isolation and gene pool divergence occurs over a long enough period of time can occur How formidable must a geographic barrier be to promote Allopatric Speciation A harrlsi 7 A Ieucurus Harris s antelope squirrel Whitetailed antelope squirrel inhabits south rim inhabits north rim Reproductive Isolation may arise as a result of genetic divergence eg mosquitofish in the Bahamas EXPERIMENT V AAalpopulakA 1 39 in of fruit flies 1 M Mia Drosophila quot52 1 3 I i pseudoobscura Some flies raised on maltose medium Some flies raised on starch medium Mating experiments after 40 generations RESULTS Female 39 Female St rc Starch 7 Starch Maltese population 1 population 2 E 395 3 22 9 5 2 18 15 o a m m E T quota D E m E t w 2 g 8 20 E g 12 15 s quot g n Number of matings Number of matings in experimental group in control group 2011 Pearson Education inc Sympatric Speciation A little more difficult to picture because the process of reproductive isolation does not coincide with a separation of the population by a visible barrier Polyploidy gt eg autopolyploid more than 2 chromosome sets all derived from the results in failure to reduce the chromosome number during cell division of gametes b 5 F MP a gt eraim gt 729 fetal lt s t g 5 s 2n6 4n 2 2n 4n Failure of cell Gametes Offspring with division after produced tetraploid chromosome are diploid karyotypes may duplication gives be viable and rise to tetraploid fertile tissue Sympatric speciation is more common in plants than animals but it is not limited to the plant kingdom animal examples do occur feeding on quickly ripening fruit in the apple maggot fly cichlids Monochromatic Normal light orange light P pundamilia P nyererei How can speciation produce so much biological diversity Adaptive radiation evolution of many diverser adapted species from a new habitats islands mass extinction opens up new niches for survivors But we still must consider the tempo of speciation in order to explain the cumulative biological diversity of Eanh Close Nrth Amer an relative the tarweed Carlquistia muirii KAUAI lt3 million QDMOLOKAI 13 years OAHu 1quot million 37 years million 1 MAUI years N HAWAII 04 git million years Dubautia alalealae i Dubautia scabra r Dubautia Iinearis mm H Penman gallium IrII The number of species of organisms discovered to date comprising all known plants animals and microorganisms lies somewhere between 15 and 18 million Estimates of the true number including those discovered plus those still unknown range widely according to the method used ranging from 36 million on the low end to 1120 million at the high end The 100millionplus figure if it is ever reached will come from the diversity of invisible organisms EO Wilson Chapter 14 Protists Domain Eukarya Key characteristic Compartmentalization Prokaryotic cell Eukaryotic cell DNA no nucleus 39 Membrane Cytoplasm Nucleus membrane enclosed Membrane I DNA throughout enclosed organelles nucleus 1 pm Remember the theory of endosymbiosis l Membranes F l are represented 39One DISCS Of as dark lines in EVldence in the cellgtH plasmids of Cyanobacterium red and green algae closely Red alga resembles the DNA in Heterotrophic eukarVOte One of these membranes was lost in red and green algal descendants Green alga New Info Revises our Understanding King Amoebas w I 39ular slime molds R a K 39 Mitochondrion I V l a Spirochetes x V t Chlamydia COMMON ANCESTOFl 39 J va e quot 7 Hi HI 395 x quot 5 xix GEeen i sulfur bacterla Bacteria f Cyanobacteria quot o Methanabaclerium Plastids including 39 chloroplasts Archaea Protista Traditionally a Kingdom level taxon Current evidence places organisms in as many as 5 Supergroups We will classify all or simple colonial organisms that are not fungi plants or animals as members of Members of the Protista Are traditionally studied by breaking the kingdom into three informal groups 1 Protozoans gt 2 Algae gt 3 Slime and Water Molds gt There are exceptions to all three of these We will study the protists in this manner but keep in mind that ongoing research is elucidating their evolutionary relationships and some of the protists we group together are currently not grouped phylogenetically 1 Protozoans Giardia Giardia intestinalis nhab s Causes giardiasis aka from drinking 1 Protozoans Trichomonas Trichomonas vaginalis 5 million peopleyear Characteristics undulating membrane Undulating membrane 1 Protozoans Trichonympha Trichonympha in guts of many species Photo from wwwbiologyunmedu 1 Protozoans Trypenosomes Trypanosoma brucei causes Life cycle includes a vectoir gt The vector for African Sleeping Sickness is Glossina the How do they evade host s immune system Trypanosomes cont TIypanosoma cruzi causes Chaga s disease leads to Present in South Central and parts of North America Vector is an insect Tums ullllliuz Will Con rmed Tryp Inasmu vid39n iiy 1 Protozoans Apicomplexans Characteristics nearly all are parasites of animals spread through host as tiny infectious cells called gt These sporozoites have at one end a of organelles used for penetrating host cells amp tissues hence apicomplexans gt complex life cycle with both sexual amp asexual stages gt Example Plasmodium spp causes malaria Vector is a Currently affects over 300 million worldwide die each year Know the life cycle of Plasmodiumll Figure 10 Inside mosquito Inside human Me rozoite Sporozoites I1 Red blood I I cell 0395 m Haploid n Diploid 2n 1 Protozoans Ciliates Use cilia for Generally reproduce asexually by binary fission Do have a sexual process as well gt simply for genetic diversity Pair of nuclei marconucleus amp micronucleus quot Example Paramecium 1 Protozoans Amoebas Uses false foot for locomotion mv feeding endocytosis called 1 Protozoans Amoeba examples Entamoebas parasites we are a host to at least 6 speciesl only one is pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica gt causes Gymnamoebas live in soil marine and freshwater Nageria fowleri gt causes only 300 recorded cases as of 2008 fatality rate 2 Algae Euglena Euglena when sunlight is available and Common in freshwater habitats does this hypotonic environment cause a problem Long flagellum Eyespot 7 Short flagellum v kLight detector Contractile vacuole Nucleusl i3r JD Chloroplastg 7 V Plasma membrane A l at Pellicle 2 Algae Dinoflagellates Characteristics cells reinforced by in grooves of this armor spin them important components of marine and freshwater photosynthetic mixotroph and heterotroph species P esteria shumwayae 2 Red Tide due to in their plastids some produce that cause massive kills of invertebrates and fishes 2 Algae DIatoms Unicellular algae with a unique qlasslike wall made of Marine amp Freshwater forms 100000 extant speciesll Uses of diatoms Producers in ecosystems Diatomaceous earth deposits Help reduce CO2 levels Q I 2 Algae grown Multicellular marine algae largest algae Resemble plants superficially only as similar structures found in plants are not Structure plantlike body consisting of stipe blades and holdfast Importance of Brown Algae in marine ecosystems Gelforming substance in cell walls used to thicken processed foods such as salad dressing and 4 pudding 15739 2 Algae Marine algae smaller in general than green Multicellular red accessory pigments for photosynthesis 6000 species Importance of Red Algae Important in marine ecosystems seaweeds Porphyra 2 Algae I Named for Closely related to plants the ancestor of land plants was probably a green algae both have Very diverse phylum some are unicellular while others are rnulticllular or oolonial v W Ia Ulva or sea lettuce Chapter 1 Introduction Themes in the Study of Life Why study life Medical technology amp understanding our own bodies n x Understanding our role as members of a living ecosystem Why study ife Understanding the environent around us Biologists ask questions such as How does a single cell develop into an organism What happens to that hamburger after we swallow it How does the human mind work Why does a reptile flick it s tongue Why does a peacock have all those spots on its tail feathers Some Subclasses of Biology Anatomy gt of organisms what is it Physiology gt of organisms how does it work Zoology gt study of Herpetology gt chthyoogy gt Botany gt study of Ecology gt study of the relationships between amp What is life gt Life defies a simple onesentence definition gt Life is recognized by Some of the properties amp processes we associate with life Evolutionary 39 adaptation Order Response to the environment IA Reproduction Growth and development Energy processing Heart 1260 beatsmin Regulation Several themes help to organize biological information 1 New properties emerge at each level in the biological hierarchy Life can be studied at different levels From the biosphere to molecules Tissues Ecosystems 5 Organs and organ systems Communities Organelles u 2 Populations Molecules 2011 Pearson Education Inc EMERGENT PROPERTIES 11 63 Emergent properties result from the arrangement 7 i and interaction of Q quot within a system fori39si sngem System characteristics not evident in the components alone SYSTEM the whole is more than the sum of the parts Tree 5 Leaves Chloroplast 39 oo a c 39 27 Acorn Branches Trunk Water C0 M PON ENTS Reductionism gt opposite of For example the molecular structure of DNA An understanding of biology balances reductionism with the study of emergent properties For example new understanding comes from studying the interactions of DNA with other molecules 2 Organisms interact With other organisms and their physical environment Sunlight 4439 a Leaves absorb light energy from the su Leaves take in carbon dioxide from the air and release oxygen Cycling of 39 chemical 39 nutrients Hw 4quot Leaves fall to the ground and are decomposed by organisms that return an minerals to the quot soil 7 Water and minerals in the soil are I A taken up by the tree through its roots leaves and fruit 39 from the tree quot 3 Life Reqn res Energy Transfer r 6 Living things must use to carry out their life s activities energy transformations occur 1 7 Sunlight Heat 7 quot 7 i i When energy 5 used i Producers absorb light a r to do work some I energy and transform it into energy is converted to chemical energy 39 thermal energy which is lost as heat TH An animal s muscle 5 v cells convert Chemical 39 39 chemical energy i energy it 39 i 39 from food to kinetic V energy the energy v r s J Chemical energy in f motion f I food is transferred M from plants to 390 consumers r39gv 39 57 A plant s cells use chemical energy to do work such as growing new leaVes a Energy flow from sunlight to b Using energy to do work producers to consumers 4 Structure and function are correlated at all levels of biological organization Structure and function of living organisms are closely related For example a leaf is thin and flatwhy Bird Wing Bones Erythrocytes Red Blood Cells Side view Used to carry no mitochondria biconcave shape mostly hemoglobin flexible Top View 5 Cells are an organism s basic unit of structure and function The cell is the lowest level of organization that can perform all activities required for life humans l different cell types in humans first 8 weeks All cells Are enclosed by a Use as their genetic information 2 maior types of cells 1 eukaryotic cell gt has Prokaryotic cell Eukaryotic cell DNA the largest of no which is usually the Cytoplasm f nucleus A 2 prokaryotic cell gt simpler and usually smaller and contain a nucleus or quot Nucleus 39 membrane other membrane amused enclosed organelles Membrane DNA hmughwt H enclosed organelles nucleus 1 pm 02011 Pearson Emmaquot Inc 6 The continuity of life is based on heritable information in the form of DNA Chromosomes contain most of a cell s genetic material gt deoxyribonucleic acid Genes are the units of inheritance that transmit information from parents to offspring Each chromosome is one long DNA molecule with of genes along its length The Core Theme 7 EVOLUTION accounts for the unity and diversity of life Organisms are of common ancestors Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution Theodosius Dobzhansky Diversity Three Domains of Life a Domain Bacteria b Domain Al39cha ea 2 pm KingdomAnim l 100 pm Unity underlies the diversity of life Among eukaryotes unity is evident in many features of cell structure 15 me l l it A 13 I Cilia of I Cllla of Paramecmm l I n wmdplpe cells 01 gm l l Cross section of a cilium as viewed with an electron microscope How do scientists account for life s dual nature of unity amp diversity The process of explains both the similarities amp differences among living things In 1858 Charles DanNin and Alfred Wallace both independently proposed as the mechanism cause for evolution and as a way to explain the great variety of living things We will talk about Descent with Modification evolution in more detail later in the semester Taxonomy gt the branch of biology that and species into of increasing breadth and Taxonomy gt the branch of biology that of increasing species into breadth Why classify species have been identified and named to date and thousands more are identified each year so it leads to a more Estimates of the total number of species that actually exist range from Workable method for classification was developed by Carl Linne in the 18th Century his Hierarchical System gt Eukarya I Animalia Chordata Amphibia gt Anura Rana The Leopard Frog Binomial nomenclature gt Ranidae pipiens Species enus Fil r Class Plum Kinom ai r r Science in Reality 3 mummcsm Hmm I wonder if How is Science Done gt Process 3 Public Perception of Science P 399 Hmm I wonder ifquot GHMLHIEE REGIME 3 2 i The word Science is derived from Latin and means It I Observations can lead us to ask questions and propose explanations called Someone tell us about an observation or question concerning life that has peaked their interest hypothesis gt A scientific hypothesis leads to predictions that can be tested by performing experiments o For example Observation Your ashlight doesn t work Question Hypothesis 1 Hypothesis 2 0 Both these hypotheses are The Scientific Method Does this mean that we groved our hypothesis to be unquestionably true eg flashlight experiment What is the difference between a hypothesis and a scientific theory In the context of science a theory is than a hypothesis Supported by a in comparison to a hypothesis Why would it be unreasonable to state Gravity is just a theory Science cannot support or falsify supernatural explanations which are outside the bounds of science ie A Case Study in Scienti c Inquiry Investigating Mimiery in Snake Populations Many poisonous species are brightly colored which warns potential predators aposematic signals Batesian Mimics are Why Hypothesis This hypothesis was tested with the venomous eastern coral snake and its mimic the nonvenomous scarlet kingsnake g Key Range of scarlet kingsnake only Overlapping ranges of scarlet kingsnake and eastern coral snake North Carolina a 39 391 quot 9 Eastern coral snake venomous p725 r Scarlet kingsnake nonvenomous 2011 Pearson Education Inc Both species live in the Carolinas but the kingsnake is also found in regions venomous coral snakes coral snakes are found only in areas where kingsnakes are found If predators inherit an avoidance of the coral snake s coloration then the colorful kingsnake will be attacked less often in the regions where are present Field Experiments with Artificial Snakes To test this mimicry hypothesis researchers made hundreds of artificial snakes An experimental group resembling kingsnakes A control group resembling plain brown snakes Equal numbers of both types were placed at field sites including areas without venomous coral snakes Fig 126 b Brown artificial snake that has been attacked RESULTS Chapter 29 Plant Diversity I How Plants Colonized Land Multiple Choice Questions 1 The most recent common ancestor of all land plants was probably similar to modern day members of which group A green algae B red algae C charophytes D brown algae E angiosperms Answer C Topic Concept 291 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 2 The structural integrity of bacteria is to peptidoglycan as the structural integrity of plant spores is to A lignin B cellulose C secondary compounds D sporopollenin Answer D Topic Concept 291 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 3 Which kind of plant tissue should lack phragmoplasts A bryophyte tissues B diploid tissues of charophytes C spore producing tissues of all land plants D tissues performing nuclear division without intervening cytokineses E the meristematic tissues of fern gametophytes Answer D Topic Concept 291 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 4 The following are common to both charophytes and land plants except A sporopollenin B lignm C chlorophyllu D cellulose E chlorophyll 17 Answer B Topic Concept 291 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 5 A number of characteristics are very similar between charophytes and members of the kingdom Plantae Of the following which characteristic does not provide evidence for a close evolutionary relationship between these two groups A alternation of generations B chloroplast structure C cell plate formation during cytokinesis D sperm cell structure E ribosomal RNA nucleotide sequences Answer A Topic Concept 291 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 1 6 A researcher wants to develop a test that will distinguish charophytes and land plants from green algae Which of the following chemicals would be the best subject for such an assay A chlorophyllia photosynthetic pigment B carotenoidsia class of accessory photosynthetic pigments C starchia food storage material D glycolate oxidaseian peroxisomal enzyme that is associated with photorespiration E flavonoidsia class of phenolic compounds that is often associated with chemical signaling Answer D Topic Concept 291 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 7 In animal cells and in the meristem cells of land plants the nuclear envelope disintegrates during mitosis This disintegration does not occur in the cells of most protists and fungi According to our current knowledge of plant evolution which group of organisms should feature mitosis most similar to that of land plants A unicellular green algae B cyanobacteria C charophytes D red algae E multicellular green algae Answer C Topic Concept 291 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 8 On a field trip a student in a marine biology class collects an organism that has differentiated organs cell walls of cellulose and chloroplasts with chlorophyll 11 Based on this description the organism could be a brown alga a red alga a green alga a charophyte recently washed into the ocean from a freshwater or brackish water source or a land plant washed into the ocean The presence of which of the following features would definitively identify this organism as a land plant A alternation of generations B sporopollenin C rosette cellulose synthesizing complexes D flagellated sperm E embryos Answer E Topic Concept 291 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 9 Some green algae exhibit alternation of generations All land plants exhibit alternation of generations No charophytes exhibit alternation of generations Keeping in mind the recent evidence from molecular systematics the correct interpretation of these observations is that A charophytes are not related to either green algae or land plants B plants evolved alternation of generations independently of green algae C alternation of generations cannot be beneficial to charophytes D land plants evolved directly from the green algae that perform alternation of generations E scientists have no evidence to indicate whether or not land plants evolved from any kind of alga Answer B Topic Concept 291 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 2 11gt 10 Which of the following characteristics if observed in an unidentified green organism would make it unlikely to be a charophyte phragmoplast DU peroxisome C apical meristem D chlorophylls a and b E rosette cellulose synthesizing complex Answer C Topic Concept 291 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 11 Whereas the zygotes of charophytes may remain within maternal tissues during their initial development one should not expect to observe A any nutrients from maternal tissues being used by the zygotes B specialized placental transfer cells surrounding the zygotes C the zygotes undergoing nuclear division D mitochondria in the maternal tissues or in the tissues of the zygotes E the zygotes digested by enzymes from maternal lysosomes Answer B Topic Concept 291 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 12 Which taxon is essentially equivalent to the quotembryophytesquot7 A Viridiplantae B Plantae C Pterophyta D Bryophyta E Charophycea Answer B Topic Concept 291 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Choose the adaptation below that best meets each particular challengefor life on land 13 protection from predators A tracheids and phloem B secondary compounds C cuticle D alternation of generations Answer B Topic Concept 291 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 14 protection from desiccation A tracheids and phloem B secondary compounds C cuticle D alternation of generations Answer C Topic Concept 291 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 3 15 transport of water minerals and nutrients A tracheids and phloem B secondary compounds C cuticle D alternation of generations Answer A Topic Concept 291 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 16 Which of the following was not a challenge for survival of the first land plants A sources of water B sperm transfer C desiccation D animal predation E absorbing enough light Answer D Topic Concept 291 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 17 The following are all adaptations to life on land except A rosette cellulose synthesizing complexes B cuticles C tracheids D reduced gametophyte generation E seeds Answer A Top39c Concept 291 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 18 Mitotic activity by the apical meristem of a root makes which of the following more possible A increase of the above ground stem B decreased absorption of mineral nutrients C increased absorption of C02 D increased number of chloroplasts in roots E effective lateral growth of the stem Answer A Topic Concept 291 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 19 Which of the following is a secondary compound of embryophytes A adenosine triphosphate B alkaloids C GDP D chlorophyll a E chlorophyll 17 Answer B Topic Concept 291 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 4 20 Which event during the evolution of land plants probably made the synthesis of secondary compounds most beneficial A the greenhouse effect present throughout the Devonian period B the reverse greenhouse effect during the Carboniferous period C the association of the roots of land plants with fungi D the rise ofherbivory E the rise ofwind pollination Answer D Topic Concept 291 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 21 Which of the following taxa includes the largest amount of genetic diversity among plantlike organisms A Embryophyta B Viridiplantae C Plantae D Charophyceae E Tracheophyta Answer B Topic Concept 291 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 22 Bryophytes have all of the following characteristics except A multicellularity B specialized cells and tissues C lignified vascular tissue D walled spores in sporangia E a reduced dependent sporophyte Answer C Topic Concept 292 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 23 Plant spores are produced directly by A sporophytes B gametes C gametophytes D gametangia E seeds Answer A Topic Concept 292 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 24 Which of the following statements is true of archegonia A They are the sites where male gametes are produced B They may temporarily contain sp orophyte embryos C They are the same as sporangia D They are the ancestral versions of animal gonads E They are asexual reproductive structures Answer B Topic Concept 292 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 5 25 Which of the following is a true statement about plant reproduction A quotEmbryophytesquot are small because they are in an early developmental stage B Both male and female bryophytes produce gametangia C Gametangia protect gametes from excess water D Eggs and sperm of bryophytes swim toward one another E Bryophytes are limited to asexual reproduction Answer B Topic Concepts 291 292 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 26 Assuming that they all belong to the same plant arrange the following structures from smallest to largest 1 antheridia 2 gametes 3 gametophytes 4 gametangia A 1 4 3 2 B 3 1 2 4 C 3 4 2 1 D 3 4 1 2 E 4 3 1 2 Answer D Topic Concept 292 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 27 The leaflike appendages of moss gametophytes may be one to two cell layers thick Consequently which of these is least likely to be found associated with such appendages A cuticle l3 rosette cellulose synthesizing complexes C stomata D peroxisomes E phenolics Answer C Topic Concept 292 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 28 Each of the following is a general characteristic of bryophytes except A a cellulose cell wall B vascular tissue C chlorophylls u and b D being photosynthetic autotrophs E being eukaryotic Answer B Topic Concept 292 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 29 The following are all true about the life cycle of mosses except A external water is required for fertilization B flagellated sperm are produced C antheridia and archegonia are produced by gametophytes D the gametophyte generation is dominant E the growing embryo gives rise to the gametophyte Answer E Topic Concept 292 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 6 30 Beginning with the germination of a moss spore what is the sequence of structures that develop after germination embryo gametes sporophyte protonema swamp gametophore A 4 gt1 gt 3 gt 5 gt 2 B 4 gt 3 gt 5 e 2 e 1 C 4 e 5 e 2 e 1 e 3 D 3 e 4 gt 5 e 2 e 1 E 3 e 1 e 4 e 5 e 2 Answer C Topic Concept 292 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 31 Bryophytes may feature all of the following at some time during their existence except A microphylls B rhizoids C archegonia D sporangia E placental transfer cells Answer A Topic Concept 292 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 32 A fungal infection damages all peristomes preventing them from performing their function Which process will be directly hindered as a result A growth of the sporophyte B ability of sperm to locate eggs C growth of the protonema D lengthening of rhizoids E broadcast of spores Answer E Topic Concept 292 Skill ApplicationAnalysis Page 7 39 L I ha 39ti driirrrzsjmm r 2910 in the textbook esearchers tested nitrogen loss from soil where the moss Palyt richumwas growing to soil from which Polym39chum had been remove The data are presented below kgha w n in Annual nitrogen less With mos Without mos Figure 291 33 A potential source of nitrogen in a sandy soil environment might be the bacterium Rhizobium which inhabits the root nodules of leguminous plants Which of these statements is true and should prevent Rhizobium or other rootr39 quot 39 39 quot from quot 39 39 39 in 39 39 A Mosses have no roots B Moss gametophytes lack stoma a t C Mosses evolved before there were substantial amounts of nitrogen in Earth39s atmosphere D Among land plants only legumes are known to establish symbiotic relationships with members of other kingdoms Answer A Topic Concept 292 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 34 Loss of soil nitrogen via quotgaseous emissionquot was found to be negligible Rather most loss of soil nitrogenwas r erosion of the soil Which of these hypotheses is least likely to account for the observed results A If rhizoids had helped stabilize the soil then less erosion and less loss of nitrogen would occur B If protonemata had absorbed and stored nitrogen from the soil then they would have reduced loss of nitrogen by erosion C If the overlying mat of gametophores had slowed the entry ofwater into the soil then it would have reduced water39s ability to erode the soil and carry away its ni ro D If sporophyte stomata had absorbed nitrogen from the soil th itrogen by erosion Answer D Topic Concept 292 Skill ApplicationAnalysis t gen en they would have reduced loss of Page 8 lqzrtothe39 39 Fl tolmswe 39 A 939 Researchers decided to test the hypothesis that if the 27m tall Polytrichum gametophytersporophyte plants had acted as a physical buffer then they would have reduced water39s ability to erode the soil and carry away its nitrogen They beganwith our equalisized areaswhere Polytrichum mosses grew to a height of 2 m above the soil surface one of the four areas was not modified In the second area the mosseswere trimmed to a height of 1 m above the soil surface In the third area the mosses were trimmed to a height of 05 m above the soil surface In the fourth area the mosses were trimmed all the way to the ground leaving only the rhizoids Water simulating rainfall was then added in a controlled fashion to all plots over the course of one year Figure 292 below presents four graphs which depict potential results of this experiment A C Annual Nitrogen Lass Time Time Time 2 m tall I m all 05 77 all gmundrEVEI Figure 29 2 35 Which graph of soil nitrogen loss over time in Figure 292 most strongly supports the hypothesis that if the 27m tall Polym39chum gametophyteesporophyte plants had acted as a physical buffer then they would have reduced water39s ability to erode the soil and carry away its nitrogen Answer D Topic Concept 292 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 36 Which graph of soil nitrogen loss over time in Figure 292 most strongly supports the hypothesis that if rhizoids had helped stabilize the soil then less erosion and less loss of nitrogen would occur Answer A Topic Concept 292 Skill ApplicationAnalysis Page 9 37 If the actual results most closely resembled those in Figure 292A then a further question arising from these data is HDo the Polytrichum rhizoids have to be alive in order to reduce soil nitrogen loss or do dead rhizoids have the same effect Arrange the following steps in the correct sequence to test this hypothesis Add metabolic poison to the soil of the experimental plot of mosses Apply water equally to the experimental and control plots Measure initial soil nitrogen contents of control and experimental plots Determine nitrogen loss from soil of control and experimental plots Establish two identical plots of Polytrichum mosses one as a control the other as the experimental treatment A 5 gt 1 gt 3 e 2 e 4 B 5 e 2 e 3 e 1 e 4 C 5 e 3 gt 1 e 2 e 4 D 4 e 5 e 1 e 3 e 2 E 5 a 3 gt 2 a 1 a 4 Answer C Topic Concept 292 Skill SynthesisEvaluation mewwe 38 Which of these potential results of applying a metabolic poison to the rhizoids of Polytrichum should interfere the least with the ability to draw valid conclusions from this experiment A If upon dying the rhizoids leak nitrogenous compounds into the soil before final nitrogen content is measured B If upon dying decomposition of the rhizoids introduces nitrogenous compounds to the soil before final nitrogen content is measured C If the metabolic poison is hydrogen cyanide HCN or sodium azide NaN3 and much of the poison remains in the soil D If the metabolic poison acts against the mitochondria of the rhizoid cells E If the metabolic poison absorbs nitrogen and strongly adheres to soil particles acting as a sort of glue Answer D Topic Concept 292 Skill SynthesisEvaluation 39 Why should one expect the soils nitrogen not to be contained solely within the rhizoids of the Polytrichum mosses A Rhizoids are associated with fungi that inhibit mineral transfer from soil to rhizoids B Rhizoids are not absorptive structures C Rhizoids consist of single tubular cells or of filaments of cells D Rhizoids lack direct attachment to the moss sporophytes Answer B Topic Concept 292 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 40 The 2 m height attainable by Polytrichum moss is at the upper end of the size range reached by mosses What accounts for the relative tallness of Polytrichum A the cuticle that is found along the ridges of quotleavesquot B quotleavesquot that are more than one cell layer thick C high humidity of surrounding air provides support against gravity D reduced size mass and r 39 of the p i phy t allows U 1 to grow taller E the presence of conducting tissues in quotstemquot Answer E Topic Concept 292 Skill ApplicationAnalysis Page 10 41 Among bryophytes only the sporophytes of mosses and hornworts have stomata whereas stomata are missing from liverwort sporophytes If the common ancestor of all bryophytes had sporophytes that bore stomata then which of these might account for their absence from liverwort sporophytes If in contrast to early mosses and homworts early liverwort sporophytes had A more effective transport of glucose from gametophyte to sporophyte B increased robustness ie thicker more massive tissues C increased nutritional independence from the gametophyte D decreased need to broadcast spores long distances Answer A Topic Concept 292 Skill SynthesisEvaluation 42 Two small poorly drained lakes lie close to each other in a northern forest The basins of both lakes are composed of the same geologic substratum One lake is surrounded by a dense Sphagnum mat the other is not Compared to the pond with Sphagnum the pond lacking the moss mat should have A lower numbers of bacteria B reduced rates of decomposition C reduced oxygen content D less acidic water Answer D Topic Concept 292 Skill Applicati nAnalysis 43 If you are looking for structures that transfer water and nutrients from a bryophyte gametophyte to a bryophyte sporophyte then on which part of the sp orophyte should you focus your attention A spores B seta C foot D sporangium E peristome Answer C Topic Concept 292 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 44 Bryophytes never formed forests mats yes but not forests because A they possess flagellated sperms B not all are heterosporous C they lack lignified vascular tissue D they have no adaptations to prevent desiccation E the sporophyte is too weak Answer C Topic Concept 292 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 45 In which of the following taxa does the mature sporophyte depend completely on the gametophyte for nutrition A fern B bryophyte C horsetail Equisetum D A and C E A B and C Answer B Topic Concepts 292 293 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 11 46 You are hiking in a forest and happen upon a plant featuring a central stemlike structure from which sprout many tiny leaflike structures Which of these would be the most certain means of distinguishing whether it was a true moss or a club moss A its color B its height C if seeds are present D if conducting tissues are present E the appearance of its sp ore producing structures Answer E Topic Concepts 292 293 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 47 The following characteristics all helped seedless plants become better adapted to land except A a dominant gametophyte B vascular tissue C a waxy cuticle D stomata on leaves E a branched sporophyte Answer A Topic Concept 293 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 48 A botanist discovers anew species ofplant in a tropical rain forest After observing its anatomy and life cycle the following characteristics are noted flagellated sperm Xylem with tracheids separate gametophyte and sporophyte generations with the sporophyte dominant and no seeds This plant is probably most closely related to A mosses l3 charophytes C ferns D gymnosperms E flowering plants Answer C Topic Concept 293 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 49 You are hiking in a forest and come upon a mysterious plant which you determine is either a lycophyte sporophyte or a pterophyte sporophyte Which of the following would be most helpful in helping you correctly classify the plant A whether it has true leaves or not B whether it has microphylls or megaphylls C whether or not it has seeds D its height E whether it has chlorophyll a or not Answer B Topic Concept 293 Skill ApplicationAnalysis Page 12 50 A major change that occurred during the evolution of plants from their algal ancestors was the origin of a branched sporophyte What advantage would branched sporophytes provide in this stage of the life cycle A increased gamete production B increased spore production C increased potential for independence of the diploid stage from the haploid stage D increased fertilization rate E increased size of the diploid stage Answer B Topic Concept 293 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 51 Sporophylls can be found in which of the following A mosses B liverworts C hornworts D pterophytes E charophytes Answer D Topic Concept 293 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 52 Which of the following types of plants would not yet have been evolved in the forests that became coal deposits A horsetails B lycophytes C pine trees D tree ferns E whisk ferns Answer C Topic Concept 293 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 53 If a fern gametophyte is a hermaphrodite that is has both male and female gametangia on the same plant then it A belongs to a species that is homosporous B must be diploid C has lost the need for a sp orophyte generation D has antheridia and archegonia combined into a single sex organ E is actually not a fern because fern gametophytes are always either male or female Answer A Topic Concept 293 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 13 Thefollowing questions are based on this description A biology student hiking in a forest happens up on an erect 15 cm tall plant that bears microphylls and a strobilus at its tallest point When disturbed the cone emits a dense cloud of brownish dust A pocket magnifying glass reveals the dust to be composed of tiny spheres with a high oil content 54 This student has probably found an immature pine tree 11gt B bryophyte sp orophyte C fern sp orophyte D horsetail gametophyte E lycophyte sporophyte Answer E Topic Concept 293 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 55 Besides oil what other chemical should be detected in substantial amounts upon chemical analysis of these small spheres A sporopollenins B phenolics C waxes D lignins E terpenes Answer A Topic Concept 293 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 56 Closer observation reveals that these small spheres are produced on tiny extensions of the stem each of which helps compose the strobilus These small spore p roducing extensions of the stem are called A scales B sporangia C sporophylls D gametangia Answer C Topic Concept 293 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 57 This organism probably belongs to the same phylum as the A ferns horsetails and whisk ferns B club mosses quillworts and spike mosses 0 mosses hornworts and liverworts D conifers E charophytes Answer B Topic Concept 293 Skill ApplicationAnalysis Page 14 58 A dissection of the interior of this organism39s stem should reveal A lignified vascular tissues B cuticle C gametangia D that it is composed of only a single long cell E a relatively high proportion of dead water filled cells Answer A Topic Concept 293 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 59 Assuming that they all belong to the same plant arrange the following structures from largest to smallest or from most inclusive to least inclusive 1 spores sp orophylls sp orophytes r59quotQ sp 0 ran gia A 2 4 31 Answer E Topic Concept 293 Skill SynthesisEvaluation 60 If humans had been present to build log structures during the Carboniferous period they weren39t which plant types would have been suitable sources of logs A whisk ferns and epiphytes B horsetails and bryophytes C lycophytes and bryophytes D ferns horsetails and lycophytes E charophytes bryophytes and gymnosperms Answer D Topic Concept 293 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 61 Which of the following is true of seedless vascular plants A Extant seedless vascular plants are larger than the extinct varieties B Whole forests were dominated by large seedless vascular plants during the Carboniferous period C They produce many spores which are really the same as seeds D The gametophyte is the dominant generation E Sphagnum is an economically and ecologically important example Answer B Topic Concept 293 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 15 62 Which of these should have had gene sequences most similar to the charophyte that was the common ancestor of the land plants A early angiosperms B early bryophytes C early gymnosperms D early lycophytes E early pterophytes Answer B Topic Concepts 2917293 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 63 Of the following list flagellated swimming sperm are generally present in which groups Lycophyta 2 Bryophyta 3 Angiosperms 4 Chlorophyta 5 Pterophyta 1 2 3 1 2 4 5 1 3 4 5 2 3 5 E 2 3 4 5 Answer B Topic Concepts 291493 Skill KnowledgeComprehension A B C D 64 If intelligent extraterrestrials visited Earth 475 million years ago and then again 300 million years ago at the close of the Carboniferous period what trends would they have noticed in Earth39s terrestrial vegetation over this period 1 a trend from dominant gametophytes to dominant sprophytes 2 a trend from sporangia borne on modified leaves sporophylls to sporangia borne on stalks seta a trend from no true leaves to microphylls to megaphylls a trend from soil surface huggingplants to quotovertoppingquot plants 9 a trend toward increased lignification of conducting systems A 1 and 3 B 3 4 and 5 C 1 2 4 and 5 D 1 3 4 and 5 E 2 3 4 and 5 Answer D Topic Concepts 2917293 Skill ApplicationAnalysis Page 16 65 Working from deep geologic strata toward shallow geologic strata what is the sequence in which fossils of these groups should make their first appearance 1 charophytes 2 single celled green algae 3 homworts 4 plants with a dominant sporophyte A 1 e 3 e 2 e 4 l3 3 gt 1 gt 2 gt 4 C 2 gt 1 gt 3 e 4 D 3 e 2 e 4 e 1 E 2 e 4 gt 1 e 3 Answer C Topic Concepts 2917293 Skill SynthesisEvaluation 66 During glacial periods in the early evolution of land plants which of these is abeneficial adaptation regarding the number of stomata per unit surface area and what accounts for it A increased numbers of stomata to maximize absorption of increasing levels of atmospheric C02 B increased numbers of stomata to maximize ability to absorb ever decreasing levels of atmospheric C02 C decreased numbers of stomata to retain C02 produced by the chloroplasts D decreased numbers of stomata to maximize absorption of ever decreasing levels of atmospheric C02 Answer D Topic Concept 293 Skill ApplicationAnalysis Self Quiz Questions 1 Which of the following is not evidence that charophytes are the closest algal relatives of plants A similar sperm structure B similarities in chloroplast shape C similarities in cell wall formation during cell division D genetic similarities in chloroplasts E similarities in proteins that synthesize cellulose 2 Which of the following characteristics of plants is absent in their closest relatives the charophyte algae A chlorophyll b B cellulose in cell walls C formation of a cell plate during cytokinesis D sexual reproduction E alternation of multicellular generations Answer E Topic Skill Page 17 3 Which of the following is not common to all phyla of vascular plants A the development of seeds B alternation of generations C dominance of the diploid generation D Xylem and phloem E the addition of lignin to cell walls Answer A Topic Skill 4 In plants which of the following are produced by meiosis A haploid sporophyte B haploid gametes C diploid gametes D haploid spores E diploid spores 5 Microphylls are characteristic of which types of plants A mosses B liverworts C lycophytes D ferns E hornworts Answer C Topic Skill 6 Which of the following is a land plant that produces flagellated sperm and has a sp orophyte dominated life cycle A moss B fern C liverwort D charophyte E hornwort Answer B Topic Skill 7 Suppose a moss evolved an efficient conducting system that could transport water and other materials as far as a tree is tall Four of the following five statements about quottreesquot of such a species are correct Select the exception A Fertilization would probably be more difficult B Spore dispersal distances might increase but probably would not decrease C Females could only produce one archegonium D Unless its body parts were strengthened such a quottreequot might flop over E lndividuals could compete more effectively for access to light Answer C Topic Skill Page 18 We have the responsibility for protecting earth because every species is kin but we are the only ones that know it Richard Brewer Cha ter 20 p and fmally Phylum Chordata the chordates 39 nilAna 1 gt an I 3 539 39 iIV 5 r a r e x 39Lquot fir1quot we 1quotquot r L 5 V I is v a r V i ma 139 rant Animal Classification for BIOL 128 Kinqdom Animalia with approx of extant species Phylum Porifera the sponges 5500 spp Phylum Cnidaria the cnidarians 10000 spp Phylum Platyhelminthes the flatworms 20000 spp Phylum Rotifera rotifers 1800 spp Phylum Nematoda the roundworms 25000 spp Phylum Mollusca the molluscs 93000 spp Phylum Annelida the segmented worms 16500 spp Phylum Arthropoda the arthropods 1 000000 spp Ph Ium Echinodermata the echinoderms 7 000 spp Phylum Chordata the chordates 52000 spp Coelomate ANCESTRAL COLONIAL FLAGELLATE EOZBJBW BORISUJ I1 3 eyeleua egwolsmamaa aozosApoa eozouoouoqdm Porifera Ctenophora Cnidaria 77 k gt Echinodermata Chordata Platyhelmimh w Rotifera 3 W Acoela Ectoprocta 39 Brachiopoda Mollusca W Annelida Nematoda Arthropoda Phylum Chordata with Chord A tremendous amount of variation exists within this phylum but All chordates possess at some point during their life cycle even if it is only during embryonic development four main features the chordate H Dorsal Muscle hollow segments nerve cord Notochord Anus Pharyngeal slits or clefts Muscular postanal tail Taxonomy of Chordates Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata gt Subphylum Cephalochordata the gt Subphylum Urochordata the Craniates chordates that have a gt Hagfishes gt Subphylum Vertebrata the vertebrates ANCESTRAL DEUTEROSTOME Notochord Common ancestor of chordates Head I Vertebral column l Jaws mlnerallzed skeleton I Lungs or lung derivatives l Lobed fins I Limbs with digits Amniotic egg I M39l Mammalia m k Echinodermata Cephalochordata Urochordata Myxini h Petromyzontida x Chondrichthyes Actinopterygii 1 a Actinistia em Dipnoi 7 Amphibia t 3 Reptilia 398 D In salogumv SUM95101 sueiq1qaga1so sawmsomeus saieiqauaA samgumg salepiouo Subphylum Cephalochordata Cephaos head chord Commonly known as Marine Small size 2 6 cm Adults possess all of Found in all warm seas of the world concentrated in localized populations as many as 5000meter2 Notice Pharyngeal slits Atrium Digestive tract Atriopore Dorsal hollow nerve cord Segmental muscles Subphylum Urochordata Uro tail chord or sea squirts Commonly known as Marine metamorphosis the Dorsal hollow nerve cord l Ex39cuirent v siphon A Mu sclegf segments Intestine L Stomach y Atrium quot Pharynx with slits a Tunicate larva exhibit Big 4 only retain one of the big 4 as they change used in filter feeding r r Incurrent Water flow Slphon l V to mouth Excurrent siphon Excurrent sipht n Atrium N Pharynx g with T r numerous Anus slits Intestine 7 139umc kryl EsophaQUS Stomach c Adult tunicate b Adult tunicate Craniates Pronounced Neural crest present during embryonic development Dorsal edges Neural Neural of neural plate crest tube 39 Migrating neural crest cells Skull bones and cartilage derived from neural crest cells C Hagfishes Major characteristics No No retain notochord as strong flexible rod of cartilage No No produced by epidermal glands Can produce several liters of slime in lt 1 minutell More Craniates Subphylum Vertebrata Crainates with a l Subphylum Vertebrata Class Petromyzontida Class Chondrichthyes Class Osteichthyes osteichthyes is no longer used to just include fishes though Class Amphibia Class Reptilia reptiles Class Mammalia mammals ANCESTRAL DEUTEROSTOME Notochord Common ancestor of chordates Head I Vertebral column l Jaws mlnerallzed skeleton I Lungs or lung derivatives l Lobed fins I Limbs with digits Amniotic egg I M39l Mammalia m k Echinodermata Cephalochordata Urochordata Myxini h Petromyzontida x Chondrichthyes Actinopterygii 1 a Actinistia em Dipnoi 7 Amphibia t 3 Reptilia 398 D In salogumv SUM95101 sueiq1qaga1so sawmsomeus saieiqauaA samgumg salepiouo U o Pe mn 35 spp No skeleton projections partially enclose nerve cord most are Invasive sea lamprey into the Great Lakes has decimated certain fisheries Evolution of Vertebrate Jaws and Paired Fins and were major evolutionary breakthroughs in vertebrate history allow for the use of untapped resources prior to jaws vertebrates had to be detritivores or filter feeders increased maneuverability in the water Vertebrates could now be Gill slits Cranium r r Mouth Skeletal rods Class Chondrichthyes 1000 extant spp Chondro ichthyes Skates and Rays prprox 750 extant spp Endoskeleton of Well developed with lots of modified scales not set in jaws Sharks World s largest sharks man eaters seen in Hollywood they are filter feeders that feed on plankton Most sharks are finely adapted killing machines Fusiform body Large eyes Lateral line 39 Ampullae of Lorenzini detect electrical fields generated by the of nearby animals Reproduction in Sharks Male Claspers modified pelvic fin used in All species are dioecious lnternal Fertilization Oviparous gt Viviparity gt gt gt Retain fertilized eggs inside oviduct of female young nourished by yolk amp emerge as live young gt gt Embryo nutrition not limited to yolknutrition provided by mother too through rudimentary placenta Some sharks show inutero siblicide 23 sharks develop in the uterus then Many species of sharks are in trouble today due to Sharks kill peopleyear car accidents kill peopleyear Class Osteichthyes Osteo ichthyes fish The bony fish 30000 spp nned shes A Yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares gt R d Ossified endoskeleton of lignfish Pterois calcium phosphate Skin covered with volitans Operculum gt Swim Bladder i 39 A Finespotted moray eel Bony Fish and Tetrapods the move onto land Two extant groups of bony fish have evolutionary ties to the move onto land by vertebrates finned fish some fins have rodshaped bones surrounded by a thick muscle layer gt thought to be extinct until 1938 gt r quot 439 39 Due to the ease of fossilization in the shallow aquatic environments of the Devonian scientists have a fairly good fossil record for tracing the lineage of tetrapods gt 3 3 415 400 385 370 355 340 325 310 295 280 265 0 Time millions of years ago Lungfishes Eusthenopteron j 39 a e x 39x Panderichthys i j 7 i Tiktaalik N 7 35 vi Acanthostega 3 Limbs Tulerpeton quot with digits Amphibians limb bones V ll Ulna l Radius Amn t 7 390 es I Humerus Silurian PALEOZOIC Devonian Carboniferous Permian Members within the lobefinned fishes gave rise to the first tetrapods Class Amphibia amphidua bioife 4800 spp Toads Salamanders amp Need Smooth moist skin with poison or mucous glands poison glands used in defense are often advertised the Unken Re ex with a bony endoskeleton Amphibian Characteristics cont Metamorphic lifecycle Some Internal fertilization but almost all external Unshelled egg that must be laid aquatically another reason water is needed Amniotes gt have amniotic eggs with cavity with amniotic i r r fIUId quot f nutrientS Amnioticm r Allowed reproduction to take place for all amniotes watertight egg Class Reptilia literally to creep 6500 extant spp Extant NonAvian Reptiles gt Crocodiles Alligators amp Caimans J quot 2131 1 w I 1 e American alligator Alligator mississippiensis Extant NonAvian Reptiles gt Turtles 6me wEmEEmI a k I 39J to It Emme Class Reptilia Characteristics Keratinized Epidermal Scales Vomeronasal Organ VNO or Jacobson s Organ gt organ in the palate Pineal Eye gt third eye innervated by the Pit Organs gt sense infrared radiation detect changes lt C Ectotherms can survive on lt of the food energy required by endotherms Cranial Kinesis gt loosely articulated Vertebrae gt allows easy separation of tail from body with regeneration Direct development no larvae Hemipenis except Class Aves avisbird 8600 spp extant avian reptiles Adapted for volant lifestyle Keratinized feathers Lightweight bones Keeled sternum gt increases surface area for attachment number of bones Reduction in organs No Large brain especially in motor areas Keen vision Origin of Birds Theropod dinosaurs our earliest fossil record of a true bird comes from Archaeopteryxthe skeleton of which is almost identical to a number of small Toothed beak Wing claw Airfoil wing with contour feathers Long tail with many vertebrae Class Mammalia mammary glands 4500 extant spp Epidermal keratin produce milk Endotherms evolutionarily imp Special senses excellent vision amp hearing amp most with excellent olfaction Complex CNS with highly developed brain Three subclasses of mammals 1 Subclass Prototheria the spiny anteater or Lav Found in amp New Guinea shortbeaked echidna Tachygossus acueatus Three subclasses of mammals 2 Very short little placental formation red kangaroo 33 days Young born as embryo which migrate to a pouch to complete development Found almost entirely in but a few species in South America amp North America a A young brushtail possum In 5r us b Longnosed bandlcoot Th acme astseen OF Three subclasses of mammals ANCESTFlAL MAMMAL seiaad vac mama 3i slegdnsiew E g a 1 3 Subclass Eutheria most mammals Young complete development in joined to mother with a well developed Cosmopolitan distribution SQPGdSOLO S sueuemng camiyora ce artiod 7 C 39Ghiro p t e Monotremata r Marsupialia Proboscidea Sirenia Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Xenarthra Rodent Lagd m ofpha Primates Dermopfera Scan dentia o I13 Eulipetyph la Pholidota Why are monotremes and most Presenti marsupials found only in Australia Cenozoic 6557 J J Am ica 1w quot W java Madaga gu m n A ca 1357 Millions of years ago Chapter 27 Bacteria and Archaea Multiple Choice Questions 1 Mycoplasmas are bacteria that lack cell walls On the basis of this structural feature which statement concerning mycoplasmas should be true A They are gram negative B They are subject to lysis in hypotonic conditions C They lack a cell membrane as well D They undergo ready fossilization in sedimentary rock E They possess typical prokaryotic flagella Answer B Topic Concept 271 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 2 Though plants fungi and prokaryotes all have cell walls we place them in different taxa Which of these observations comes closest to explaining the basis for placing these organisms in different taxa well before relevant data from molecular systematics became available A Some closely resemble animals which lack cell walls B Their cell walls are composed of very different biochemicals C Some have cell walls only for support D Some have cell walls only for protection from herbivores E Some have cell walls only to control osmotic balance Answer B Topic Concept 271 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 3 Which is the bacterial structure that acts as a selective barrier allowing nutrients to enter the cell and wastes to leave the cell A plasma membrane B capsule C cellwall D nucleoid region E pili Answer A Topic Concept 271 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 4 Which statement about bacterial cell walls is false A Bacterial cell walls differ in molecular composition from plant cell walls B Cell walls prevent cells from bursting in hyp otonic environments C Cell walls prevent cells from dying in hypertonic conditions D Bacterial cell walls are similar in function to the cell walls of many protists fungi and plants E Cell walls provide the cell with a degree ofphysical protection from the environment Answer C Top39c Concept 271 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 1 5 Which of these is the most common compound in the cell walls of gram positive bacteria A cellulose B lip opolysaccharide C lignin D peptidoglycan E protein Answer D Topic Concept 271 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 6 Penicillin is an antibiotic that inhibits enzymes from catalyzing the synthesis of peptidoglycan so which prokaryotes should be most vulnerable to inhibition by penicillin A mycoplasmas B gram positive bacteria C archaea D gram negative bacteria E endospore bearing bacteria Answer B Topic Concept 271 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 7 The predatory bacterium Bdellovibrio bucteriophoms drills into a prey bacterium and once inside digests it In an attack upon a gram negative bacterium that has a slimy cell covering which can inhibit phagocytosis what is the correct sequence of structures penetrated by B bucteriophoms on its way to the prey39s cytoplasm membrane composed mostly of lipop olysaccharide membrane composed mostly ofphospholip ids pep tidoglycan capsule A 2 gt 4 gt 3 1 B 1 gt 3 gt 4 gt 2 C 1 4 gt 3 2 D 4 1 3 2 E 4 3 gt 1 a 2 Answer D Topic Concept 271 Skill ApplicationAnalysis EFFquotQ 8 Jams jellies preserves honey and other foodstuffs with a high sugar content hardly ever become contaminated by bacteria even when the food containers are left open at room temperature This is because bacteria that encounter such an environment A undergo death by plasmolysis B are unable to metabolize the glucose or fructose and thus starve to death C undergo death by lysis D are obligate anaerobes E are unable to swim through these thick and viscous materials Answer A Topic Concept 271 Skill ApplicationAnalysis Page 2 9 In a hypothetical situation the genes for sex pilus construction and for tetracycline resistance are located together on the same plasmid within a particular bacterium If this bacterium readily performs conjugation involving a copy of this plasmid then the result should be A a transformed bacterium B the rapid spread of tetracycline resistance to other bacteria in that habitat C the subsequent loss of tetracycline resistance from this bacterium D the production of endospores among the bacterium39s progeny E the temporary possession by this bacterium of a completely diploid genome Answer B Topic Concept 271 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 10 In a bacterium that possesses antibiotic resistance and the potential to persist through very adverse conditions such as freezing drying or high temperatures DNA should be located within or be part of which structures nucleoid region flagellum endosp ore fimbriae mewwe plasmids A 1 only B 1 and 4 C 1 and 5 D 1 3 and 5 E 2 4 and 5 Answer D Topic Concept 271 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 11 Which two structures play direct roles in permitting bacteria to adhere to each other or to other surfaces cap sules endosp ores fimbriae plasmids flagella A 1 and 2 l3 1 and 3 C 2 and 3 D 3 and 4 E 3 and 5 Answer B Topic Concept 271 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 9 12 The typical prokaryotic flagellum features A an internal 9 2 pattern of microtubules B an external covering provided by the plasma membrane C a complex quotmotorquot embedded in the cell wall and plasma membrane D abasal body that is similar in structure to the cell39s centrioles Answer C Topic Concept 271 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 3 13 Prokaryotic ribosomes differ from those present in eukaryotic cytosol Because of this which of the following is correct A Some selective antibiotics can block protein synthesis of bacteria without effects on protein synthesis in the eukaryotic host Eukaryotes did not evolve from prokaryotes Translation can occur at the same time as transcription in eukaryotes but not in prokaryotes Some antibiotics can block the synthesis of peptidoglycan in the walls of bacteria E Prokaryotes are able to use a much greater variety of molecules as food sources than can eukaryotes 000 Answer A Topic Concept 271 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 14 Which statement about the genomes of prokaryotes is correct A Prokaryotic genomes are diploid throughout most of the cell cycle B Prokaryotic chromosomes are sometimes called plasmids C Prokaryotic cells have multiple chromosomes quotp acked with a relatively large amount of protein D The prokaryotic chromosome is not contained within a nucleus but rather is found at the nucleoid region E Prokaryotic genomes are composed of linear DNA that is DNA existing in the form of a line with two ends Answer D Topic Concept 271 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 15 If a bacterium regenerates from an endospore that did not possess any of the plasmids that were contained in its original parent cell the regenerated bacterium will probably A lack antibiotic resistant genes l3 lack a cell wall C lack a chromosome D lose base pairs from its chromosome E be unable to survive in its normal environment Answer A Topic Concept 271 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Thefollowing questions refer to structuresfound in a gram positive prokuryotic cell 16 Which of the following is composed almost entirely of peptidoglycan A endosp ore B sex pilus C flagellum D cell wall E capsule Answer D Topic Concept 271 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 4 17 Which of the following requires ATP to function and permits some species to respond to taxes plural of taxis A endosp ore B sex pilus C flagellum D cell wall E capsule Answer C Topic Concept 271 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 18 Not present in all bacteria this cell covering enables cells that possess it to resist the defenses of host organisms A endosp ore B sex pilus C flagellum D cell wall E capsule Answer E Topic Concept 271 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 19 Not present in all bacteria this structure enables those that possess it to germinate after exposure to harsh conditions such as boiling A endospore B sex pilus C flagellum D cell wall E capsule Answer A Topic Concept 271 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 20 Which of the following is a structure that permits conjugation to occur A endospore B sex pilus C flagellum D cell wall E capsule Answer B Topic Concept 271 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 21 Which of the following is an important source of endotoxin in gram negative species A endospore B sex pilus C flagellum D cell wall E capsule Answer D Topic Concept 271 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 5 22 If this structure connects the cytoplasm of two bacteria one of these cells may gain new genetic material A endospore B sex pilus C flagellum D cell wall E capsule Answer B Topic Concept 271 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 23 Which of the following contains a copy of the chromosome along with a small amount of dehydrated cytoplasm within a tough wall A endosp ore B sex pilus C flagellum D cell wall E capsule Answer A Topic Concept 271 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 24 Regarding prokaryotic reproduction which statement is correct A Prokaryotes form gametes by meiosis B Prokaryotes feature the union of haploid gametes as do eukaryotes C Prokaryotes exchange some of their genes by conjugation the union of haploid gametes and transduction D Mutation is a primary source of variation in prokaryote populations E Prokaryotes skip sexual life cycles because their life cycle is too short Answer D Topic Concept 272 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 25 Which of these statements about prokaryotes is correct A Bacterial cells conjugate to mutually exchange genetic material B Their genetic material is confined within a nuclear envelope C They divide by binary fission without mitosis or meiosis U The persistence of bacteria throughout evolutionary time is due to their genetic homogeneity ie sameness E Genetic variation in bacteria is not known to occur nor should it occur because of their asexual mode of rep roduction Answer C Topic Concept 272 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 6 A 39 LU Figure 271 139 1n 1 139 39 Figure 2710 in the textbook this seyear experiment 12 populations of E coli each begun from a single cell were grown 39 l weglucose conditions for 20000 generations Eac culture was introduced to fresh growth medium every 24 hou removed from t e populations and their fitness in l 39 39 rs occasionally samples were from the ancestral common ancestor E coli popula r r r 1 again uiui Ul I ion Fimessrelnlwe to ancestor 5000 10000 5000 20000 Generation Figure 271 26 Which term best describes what has occurred among the experimental populations of cells over this 8 year per39od7 i A microevolution B speciation C adaptive radiation D sexual selection E stabilizing selection Answer A Topic Concept 272 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 27 If it occurs in the absence of any other type of adaptation listed here which of these is of promoting bacterial survival over evolutionary time in a 1 least reasonable in terms 7 A increased efficiency a 39 oweglucose environment the cell from L 39 B increased ability to survive on simple sugars other than glucose C increased ability to synthesize glucose from amino acid precursors D increased reliance on glycolytic enzymes E increased sensitivity to and ability to move toward whatever glucose is present in its habitat Answer Topic Concept 272 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 28 Which of these can be inferred from Figure 271 A ost of the genetic change thatpermitted adaptation to the new lowaglucose environment occurred toward the conclusion ofthe experimen B Rates of mitosis increased over the course of the experiment CT quot 39L quotdurin kr j foi39 r39 D After 5000 generations the bacteria were 100 more fit than the original ancestral bacteria Answer C Topic Concept 272 Skill ApplicationAnalysis Page 7 29 If the vertical axis of Figure 271 refers to quotDarwinian fitness then which of these is the most valid and accurate measure of fitness A number of daughter cells produced per mother cell per generation B amount of ATP generated per cell per unit time C average swimming speed of cells through the growth medium D amount of glucose synthesized per unit time E number of generations per unit time Answer E Topic Concept 272 Skill SynthesisEvaluation 30 If new genetic variation in the experimental populations arose solely by spontaneous mutations then the most effective process for subsequently increasing the prevalence of the beneficial mutations in the population over the course of generations is A transduction B binary fission C conjugation D transformation E meiosis Answer B Topic Concept 272 Skill Applicati nAnalysis 31 E coli cells typically make most of their ATP by metabolizing glucose Under the conditions of this experiment what should be true of E coli39s generation time especially early in the course of the experiment but less so later on A Generation time should be the same as in the typical environment l3 Generation time should be faster than in the typical environment C Generation time should be slower than in the typical environment D It is theoretically impossible to make any predictions about generation time under these conditions Answer C Topic Concept 272 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 32 If the experimental population of E coli lacks an E factor or F plasmid and if bacteriophage are excluded from the bacterial cultures then which of these is a means by which beneficial mutations might be transmitted horizontally to other E coli cells A via sex pili B via transduction C via conjugation D via transformation E both A and C above Answer D Topic Concept 272 Skill Applicati nAnalysis Page 8 33 Among the six statements below which two best account for the results obtained by the researchers see Figure 271 1 Low glucose conditions caused mutations that made individual E coli cells better suited to these conditions 2 Daughter cells acquired the ability to tolerate low glucose conditions as they received the enzymes and membrane components that had been modified by their mother cell 3 The initial E coli population may have included some cells whose genes favored their survival in low glucose conditionsioRisuch genetic variants arose by chance early in the experiment 4 The first few generations ofE coli in low glucose conditions responded to the challenge by increasing the use of certain enzymes and ion pumps while decreasing the use of others This behavior was recorded in their gene sequences which were later transmitted to daughter cells 5 From generation to generation there was an increase in the proportion of the experimental populations adapted to low glucose conditions because such bacteria produced relatively more offspring than did ancestral bacteria under low glucose conditions 6 During each generation individual cells evolved to increase their survival in low glucose conditions A 3 and 5 B 1 and 5 C 2 and 4 D 1 and 6 E 1 and 3 Answer A Topic Concept 272 Skill SynthesisEvaluation 34 Which term is least closely associated with the others A Hf cells making use of a sex pilus B rolling circle replication C the quottoilet paper model of replication D conjugation involving an F factor E recombination involving a bacteriophage Answer E Topic Concept 272 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 9 Figure 272 depicts changes to the amount of DNA present in a recipient cell that is engagedin Conjugation with an Hfr cell Hfrecell DN h 39 39 l 39 39 quot at 39 ume 391 crossinge afragment of th 39 39 v the Hfr cell s DNA Use Figure 272 to answer the i i aquot r following questions Amount of DNA presenl in veciptent cell T T f f A B c In Time Figure 271 35 What is occurring at Time c that is decreasing the DNA Content A crossingeove e C meiosis D degradation of DNA that was not retained in the recipient s chromosome E reversal of the direction of conjugation Answer D Topic Concept272 Skin ApplicationAnalysis 35 How is the recipient cell different at Time D than it was at Time A A It has a greater number of genes B It has a greater mass of DNA C It has a different sequence of base pairs D It contains bacteriophage D E It has a greater number ofintrons Answer c Topic Concept 272 Skin ApplicationAnalysis 37 Which two processes are responsible for the shape of the Curve at Time B transduction entry of singleestranded Hfr DNA rolling circle replication of singleestranded Hfr DNA activation ofDN pumps in plasma membrane quottoilet paperquot replication of recipient cell s plasmids A 1 and 4 B 2 and 3 C 3 and 5 D 1 and 3 E 4 and 5 Answer B Topic Concept 272 Skin SynthesisEvaluation H 9 59 Page 10 38 During which two times can the recipient accurately be described as quotrecombinantquot due to the sequence of events portrayed in Figure 272 A during Times C and D B during Times A and C C during Times B and C D during Times A and B E during Times B and D Answer A Topic Concept 272 Skill SynthesisEvaluation 39 Which question arising from the results depicted in Figure 272 is most interesting from a genetic perspective and has the greatest potential to increase our knowledge base A If reciprocal crossing over could occur even if the piece of donated Hfr DNA is identical to the homologous portion of the recipient39s chromosome what prevents this from occurring B Why do geneticists refer to the same structure by at least three different names sex pilus mating bridge and conjugation tube Why all the jargon C What forces are generally responsible for disrupting the mating bridge D How is it that a recipient cell does not necessarily become an Hfr cell as the result of conjugation with an Hfr cell E What makes a cell an quotHfr cell Answer A Topic Concept 272 Skill SynthesisEvaluation Match the numbered terms to the descriptions that follow For each item choose all appropriate terms but only appropriate terms rhWNB autotroph heterotroph phototroph chemotroph 40 an organism that obtains its energy from chemicals A 1 only B 2 only C 3 only D 4 only E 1 and 4 Answer D Topic Concept 273 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 41 a prokaryote that obtains both energy and carbon as it decomposes dead organisms A 1 only B 4 only C 1 and 3 D 2 and 4 E 1 3 and 4 Answer D Topic Concept 273 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 11 42 an organism that obtains both carbon and energy by ingesting prey A 1 only B 4 only C 1 and 3 D 2 and 4 E 1 3 and 4 Answer D Topic Concept 273 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 43 an organism that relies on photons to excite electrons within its membranes A 1 only B 3 only C 1 and 3 D 2 and 4 E 1 3 and 4 Answer B Topic Concept 273 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 44 Which of the following are responsible for many human diseases A photoautotrophs B photoheterotrophs C chemoautotrophs D chemoheterotrophs thatperform decomposition E parasitic chemoheterotrophs Answer E Topic Concept 273 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 45 Cyanobacteria are A photoautotrophs B photoheterotrophs C chemoautotrophs D chemoheterotrophs thatperform decomposition E parasitic chemoheterotrophs Answer A Topic Concept 273 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 46 Which of the following use light energy to synthesize organic compounds from C02 A photoautotrophs B photoheterotrophs C chemoautotrophs D chemoheterotrophs that perform decomposition E parasitic chemoheterotrophs Answer A Topic Concept 273 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 12 47 Which of the following obtain energy by oxidizing inorganic substances energy that is used in part to fix 02 A photoautotrophs B photoheterotrophs C chemoautotrophs D chemoheterotrophs that perform decomposition E parasitic chemoheterotrophs Answer C Topic Concept 273 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 48 Which of the following use light energy to generate ATP but do not release oxygen A photoautotrophs B photoheterotrophs C chemoautotrophs D chemoheterotrophs that perform decomposition E parasitic chemoheterotrophs Answer B Topic Concept 273 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 49 Which of the following are responsible for high levels of 02 in Earth39s atmosphere A photoautotrophs B photoheterotrophs C chemoautotrophs D chemoheterotrophs thatperform decomposition E parasitic chemoheterotrophs Answer A Topic Concept 273 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 50 Modes of obtaining nutrients used by at least some bacteria include all of the following except A chemoautotrophy B photoautotrophy C heteroautotrophy D chemoheterotrophy E photoheterotrophy Answer C Topic Concept 273 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 51 Only certain prokaryotes can perform nitrogen fixation but nitrogen fixing prokaryotes are not known to live inside animals Thus how do animals gain access to fixed nitrogen A They may breathe it in from air that has experienced lightning discharges B They may ingest nitrogen fixers C They may ingest plants that harbor nitrogen fixers or plants that absorbed fixed nitrogen from the soil D They may ingest other animals that had done either B or C above E Answers B C and D above are allpossible Answer E Topic Concept 273 Skill ApplicationAnalysis Page 13 52 Given that the enzymes that catalyze nitrogen fixation are inhibited by oxygen what are two quotstrategiesquot that nitrogen fixing prokaryotes might use to protect these enzymes from oxygen couple them with photosystem II the photosystem that splits water molecules package them in membranes that are impermeable to all gases be obligate anaerobes be strict aerobes U EFWN package these enzymes in specialized cells or compartments that inhibit oxygen entry A 1 and 4 B 2 and 4 C 2 and 5 D 3 and 4 E 3 and 5 Answer E Topic Concept 273 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 53 Nitrogenuse the enzyme that catalyzes nitrogen fixation is inhibited whenever free 02 reaches a critical concentration Consequently nitrogen fixation cannot occur in cells wherein photosynthesis produces free 02 Consider the colonial aquatic cyanobacterium Anubuenu whose heterocytes are described as having a thickened cell wall that restricts entry of 02 produced by neighboring cells lntracellular connections allow heterocytes to transport fixed nitrogen to neighboring cells in exchange for carbohydrates Which two questions below arise from a careful reading of this quotation and are most important for understanding how N2 enters heterocytes and how 02 is kept out of heterocytes 1 If carbohydrates can enter the heterocytes from neighboring cells Via the quotintracellular connections how is it that 02 doesn39t also enter Via this route 2 If the cell walls of Anubuenu s photosynthetic cells are permeable to O2 and CO2 are they also permeable to N2 3 If the nuclei of the photosynthetic cells contain the genes that code for nitrogen fixation how can these cells fail to perform nitrogen fixation 4 If the nuclei of the heterocytes contain the genes that code for photosynthesis how can these cells fail to perform photosynthesis 5 If the cell walls of Anubuenu s heterocytes are permeable to N2 how is it that N2 doesn39t diffuse out of the heterocytes before it can be fixed 6 If the thick cell walls of the heterocytes exclude entry of oxygen gas how is it that they don39t also exclude the entry of nitrogen gas A 3 and 4 B 2 and 5 C 1 and 3 D 4 and 6 E l and 6 Answer E Topic Concept 273 Skill SynthesisEvaluation Page 14 54 The data were collected from the heterocytes of a nitrogen elixing cyanobacterium inhabiting equatorial ponds Study the graph below and choose the most likely explanation for the shape of the curve Niliogeniixing Aciiwly 0600 1200 1800 2400 0600 is a m l 2 a in i Mllltary Time in A Enough 02 enters heterocytes during hours of peak photosynthesis to have a somewhateinhibitory affect on nitrogen fixation B Lightrdependent reaction rates must be highest between 1800 hours and 0600 hours C Atmospheric N2 levels increase at night because plants are no longer metabolizing this gas so are not absorbing this gas through their stomata D Heterocyte walls become less permeable to N2 influx during darkness E The amount of fixed nitrogen that is dissolved in the pond water in which the cyanobacteria are growing peaks at the close of the photosynthetic day 1800 h Answer Topic Concept 273 Skill SynthesisEvaluation 55 Mitochondria are thought to be the descendants of certain alphaeproteobacteria They are however no longer a l to ea independent lives because most genes originally present on th ir chromosome have moved to the nuclear genome Which phenomenon accounts for the movement of these genes A horizontal gene transfer B inary fission C alternative gene splicing D meiosis E plasmolysis Answer A Topic Concept 274 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 56 Carl Woese and collaborators identified two major branches ofpl39okal39yotic evolution What was the basis for dividing prokaryotes into two doma39ns microscopic examination of staining characteristics of the cell wall metabolic characteristics such as the production of methane gas u i u u l and l D genetic characteristics such as ribosomal RNA sequences E ecological characteristics such as the ability to survive in extreme environments Answer D Topic Concept 274 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 15 57 Which statement about the domain Archaea is false A Genetic prospecting has recently revealed the existence of many previously unknown archean species B Some archaeans can reduce C02 to methane C The genomes of archaeans are unique containing no genes that originated within bacteria D Some archaeans can inhabit solutions that are nearly 30 salt E Some archaeans are adapted to waters with temperatures above the boiling point Answer C Topic Concept 274 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 58 If archaeans are more closely related to eukaryotes than to bacteria then which of the following is a reasonable prediction A Archaean DNA should have no introns B Archaean chromosomes should have no protein bonded to them C Archaean DNA should be single stranded D Archaean ribosomes should be larger than typical prokaryotic ribosomes E Archaeans should lack cell walls Answer D Topic Concept 274 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 59 Which of the following traits do archaeans and bacteria share 1 composition of the cellwall 2 presence of plasma membrane 3 lack of a nuclear envelope 4 identical rRNA sequences A 1 only B 3 only C 1 and 3 D 2 and 3 E 2 and 4 Answer D Topic Concept 274 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 60 Assuming that each of these possesses a cell wall which prokaryotes should be expected to be most strongly resistant to plasmolysis in hypertonic environments A extreme halophiles B extreme thermophiles C methanogens D cyanobacteria E nitrogen fixing bacteria that live in root nodules Answer A Topic Concept 274 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 16 61 Consider the 39 39 C 1 1 L 394 39 Whirh g 39 depicts the expected temperature and pH profiles of its enzymes NOTE the horizontal axes of these graphs are double with pH above and temperature below KEV we pH Temps A Enzyme activity Enzyme aclivily D Enzyme aclivily i O Temp C 100 Answer A Topic Concept 274 Skill ApplicationAnalysis Page 17 62 The thermoacidophile Sulfolobus acidoculdurius lacks peptidoglycan What is likely to be true of this species 1 It is abacterium 2 It is an archaean 3 The optimal pH of its enzymes will lie above pH 7 4 The optimal pH of its enzymes will lie below pH 7 5 It could inhabit certain hydrothermal springs 6 It could inhabit alkaline hot springs A 1 3 and 6 B 2 4 and 6 C 2 4 and 5 D 1 3 and 5 E 1 4 and 5 Answer C Topic Concept 274 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 63 A fish that had been salt cured subsequently develops a reddish color You suspect that the fish has been contaminated by the extreme halophile Hulobucterium Which of these features of cells removed from the surface of the fish if confirmed would support your suspicion the presence of the same photosynthetic pigments found in cyanobacteria cell walls that lack peptidoglycan cells that are isotonic to conditions on the surface of the fish its cells contain bacteriorhodop sin the presence of very large numbers of ion pumps in its plasma membrane A 2 and 5 B 3 and 4 C 1 4 and 5 D 3 4 and 5 E 2 3 4 and 5 Answer E Topic Concept 274 Skill ApplicationAnalysis U rPWNi 64 The termite gut protist Mixotrichu paradoxu has at least two kinds of bacteria attached to its outer surface One kind is a spirochete that propels its host through the termite gut A second type of bacteria synthesizes ATP some of which is used by the spirochetes The locomotion provided by the spirochetes introduces the ATP producing bacteria to new food sources Which terms is are applicable to the relationship between the two kinds of bacteria mutualism parasitism symbiosis metabolic cooperation 9 A 1 only B 1 and 2 C 2 and 3 D 1 3 and 4 E all four terms Answer D Topic Concept 275 Skill ApplicationAnalysis Page 18 65 What is the primary ecological role of prokaryotes A parasitizing eukaryotes thus causing diseases B breaking down organic matter C metabolizing materials in extreme environments D adding methane to the atmosphere E serving as primary producers in terrestrial environments Answer B Topic Concept 275 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 66 If all prokaryotes on Earth suddenly vanished which of the following would be the most likely and most direct result A The number of organisms on Earth would decrease by 10720 B Human populations would thrive in the absence of disease C Bacteriophage numbers would dramatically increase D The recycling of nutrients would be greatly reduced at least initially E There would be no more pathogens on Earth Answer D Topic Concept 275 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 67 In a hypothetical situation a bacterium lives on the surface of a leaf where it obtains nutrition from the leaf39s nonliving waxy covering while inhibiting the growth of other microbes that are plant pathogens If this bacterium gains access to the inside of a leaf it causes a fatal disease in the plant Once the plant dies the bacterium and its offspring decompose the plant What is the correct sequence of ecological roles played by the bacterium in the situation described here Use only those that apply nutrient recycler mutualist commensal parasite U rh9 N1 primary producer A 1 3 4 B 2 3 4 C 2 4 1 D 1 2 5 E 1 2 3 Answer C Topic Concept 275 Skill Applicati nAnalysis 68 How can prokaryotes be considered to be more successful onEarth than humans A Prokaryotes are much more numerous and have more biomass B Prokaryotes occupy more diverse habitats C Prokaryotes are more diverse in metabolism D Only B and C are correct E A B and C are correct Answer E Topic Concept 275 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 19 69 Foods can be preserved in many ways by slowing or preventing bacterial growth Which of these methods would not generally inhibit bacterial growth A Refrigeration Slows bacterial metabolism and growth B Closingpreviously opened containers Prevents more bacteria from entering and excludes 02 C Pickling Creates a pH at which most bacterial enzymes cannot function m0 Canning in heavy sugar syrup Creates osmotic conditions that remove water from most bacterial cells lrradiation Kills bacteria by mutating their DNA to such an extent that their DNA rep air enzymes are overwhelmed Answer B Topic Concept 276 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 70 Many physicians administer antibiotics to patients at the first sign of any disease symptoms Why can this practice cause more problems for these patients and for others not yet infected A The antibiotic administered may kill viruses that had been keeping the bacteria in check l3 Antibiotics may cause other side effects in patients C Overuse of antibiotics can select for antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria D Particular patients may be allergic to the antibiotic E Antibiotics may interfere with the ability to identify the bacteria present Answer C Topic Concept 276 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 71 Broad spectrum antibiotics inhibit the growth of most intestinal bacteria Consequently assuming that nothing is done to counter the reduction of intestinal bacteria a hospital patient who is receiving broad spectrum antibiotics is most likely to become A unable to fix carbon dioxide B antibiotic resistant C unable to fix nitrogen D unable to synthesize peptidoglycan E deficient in certain vitamins Answer E Topic Concept 276 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 72 Which statement about gram negative bacteria is correct A Penicillins are the best antibiotics to use against them B They often possess an outer membrane containing toxic lipopolysaccharides C Their chromosomes are composed of DNA tightly wrapped around large amounts of histone proteins D Their cell walls are primarily composed of peptidoglycan Answer B Topic Concepts 271 276 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 20 Self Quiz Questions 1 Genetic variation in bacterial populations cannot result from A transduction B transformation C conjugation D mutation E meiosis Answer E Topic Skill 2 Photoautotrophs use A light as an energy source and C02 as a carbon source light as an energy source and methane as a carbon source 001 N2 as an energy source and C02 as a carbon source D C02 as both an energy source and a carbon source E H25 as an energy source and C02 as a carbon source Answer A Topic Skill 3 Which of the following statements is not true A Archaea and bacteria have different membrane lipids Both archaea and bacteria generally lack membrane enclosed organelles The cell walls of archaea lack pep tidoglycan 0nly bacteria have histones associated with DNA Only some archaea use C02 to oxidize H2 releasing methane 4 Which of the following features of prokaryotic biology involves metabolic cooperation among cells A binary fission B endospore formation C endotoxin release D biofilms E photoautotrophy Answer D Topic Skill 5 Which prokaryotic group is mismatched with its members A Proteobacteriaidiverse gram negative bacteria B Gram positive bacteriaisymbionts in legume root nodules C Spirochetesihelical heterotrophs D Chlamydiasiintracellular parasites E Cyanobacteriaisolitary and colonial photoautotrophs Answer B Topic Skill Page 21 Chapter 6 Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance Much has happened since Mendel s work We can show genes are located at particular loci on chromosomes Using florescent dye to mark a gene Experimental Evidence The first solid evidence associating a specific gene with a specific chromosome came from Thomas Hunt Morgan an embryologist Morgan s experiments with fruit flies provided convincing evidence that are the location of Mendel s heritable factors Recall that Mendellian genetics does not explain all situations The number of genes in a cell is much greater than the number of chromosomes in a cell Humans Some do not appear to follow Mendel s laws Segregation amp Independent Assortment because they are linked genes gt located and tend to be inherited together Sexlinked genes also deviate from classical Mendelian laws Chromosomes determine sex phenotypical mammalian males and females differ due to the two varieties of sex chromosomes They are designated amp female male 0739 Parents 9 7 Sperm l Egg or 9 0739 Zygotes offspring a The XY svstem In humans the anatomical signs of sex begin to appear at about two months of development Prior the gonads are essentially the same In addition to determining sex the sex chromosomes have many genes for other characters Genes located on either sex chromosome are known as do not confuse with linked genes that occur on the same chromosome traditionally in humans we call sexlinked If a sexlinked trait xlinked is due to a recessive allele a female expresses the phenotype only if she is homozygous recessive gt Males have only one locus why gt A male who receives a recessive allele from his mother will express the recessive phenotype An example of a sexlinked recessive trait Sperm v v Sperm Sperm ww M a Males are more likely to exhibit phenotype another example of a sexlinked recessive disorder X Inactivation Although female mammals inherit two X chromosomes one X chromosome becomes almost inactive in each cell during embryonic development This inactive X chromosome is called a This helps explain why tortoiseshell and calico cats are X chromosomes Allele for orange fur Earl embr o y y Allele for black fur Cell division and X chromosome Two cell inactivation populations in adult cat 39 Active x Active x Inactive X Black fur Orange fur Changes in chromosome number or structure cause some genetic disorders Typically can tolerate more large scale changes in chromosome number amp structure than Largescale changes in chromosomes of animals often leads to spontaneous abortions of the fetus Smaller scale changes can simply affect the phenotype Abnormal Chromosome Number Aneuploidy gt If a cell has one extra chromosome 2n 1 it is If a cell has a chromosome missing 2n 1 it is The cause of this is usually a mishap called Occurs during where parts of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids do not separate as they should Meiosis I Q Nondisjunction Meiosis II Non disjunction Gametes n1 n1n 1 n 1 n1 n 1 n n Number of chromosomes a Nondisjunction of homo b Nondisjunction of sister logous chromosomes in chromatids in meiosis II meiosis I Human disorders due to aneuploidy Down Syndrome 1 out of 700 children in US Characteristic facial appearance Short stature Heart defects Mental retardation Poor sexual development Odds of this nondisjunction increase in mothers over 30 lt30004 40O92 Aneuploidy of sex chromosomes Klinefelter Syndrome Typically sterile male phenotype Occurs in approx 1 in 2000 births Chapter 31 Fungi Multiple Choice Questions 1 Which of the following do all fungi have in common A meiosis in basidia B coenocytic hyphae C sexual life cycle D absorption of nutrients E symbioses with algae Answer D Topic Concept 311 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 2 The hydrolytic digestion of which of the following should produce monomers that are aminated ie have an amine group attached molecules of beta glucose A insect exoskeleton l3 plant cell walls C fungal cell walls D A and C only E A B and C Answer D Topic Concept 311 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 3 If all fungi in an environment that perform decomposition were to suddenly die then which group of organisms should benefit most due to the fact that their fungal competitors have been removed A plants B protists C prokaryotes D animals E mutualistic fungi Answer C Topic Concept 311 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 4 When a mycelium infiltrates an unexploited source of dead organic matter what are most likely to appear within the food source soon thereafter A fungal haustoria B soredia C fungal enzymes D increased oxygen levels E larger bacterial p op ulations Answer C Topic Concept 311 Skill ApplicationAnalysis Page 1 5 Which of the following is a characteristic of hyphate fungi fungi featuring hyphae A They acquire their nutrients by phagocytosis B Their body plan is a unicellular sphere C Their cell walls consist mainly of cellulose microfibrils D They are adapted for rapid directional growth to new food sources E They reproduce asexually by a process known as budding Answer D Topic Concept 311 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 6 The functional significance ofporous septa in certain fungal hyphae is most similar to that represented by which pair of structures in animal cells and plant cells respectively A desmosomes tonop lasts B gap junctions plasmodesmata C tight junctions plastids D centrioles plastids E flagella centralvacuoles Answer B Topic Concept 311 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 7 What is the primary role of a mushroom39s underground mycelium A absorbing nutrients B anchoring C sexual reproduction D asexual reproduction E protection Answer A Topic Concept 311 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 8 What do fungi and arthropods have in common A Both groups are commonly coenocytic B The haploid state is dominant in both groups C Both groups are predominantly heterotrophs that ingest their food D The protective coats of both groups are made of chitin E Both groups have cell walls Answer D Topic Concept 311 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 9 ln septate fungi what structures allow cytoplasmic streaming to distribute needed nutrients synthesized compounds and organelles throughout the hyphae A multiple chitinous layers in cross walls B pores in cross walls C complex microtubular cytoskeletons D two nuclei E tight junctions that form in cross walls between cells Answer B Topic Concept 311 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 2 10 What accounts most directly for the extremely fast growth of a fungal mycelium A rapid distribution of synthesized proteins by cytoplasmic streaming B a long tubular body shape C the readily available nutrients from their ingestive mode of nutrition D a dikaryotic condition that supplies greater amounts of proteins and nutrients Answer A Topic Concept 311 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 11 The vegetative nutritionally active bodies of most fungi are A composed of hyphae B referred to as a mycelium C usually underground D A and B only E A B and C Answer E Topic Concept 311 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 12 Both fungus farming ants and their fungi can synthesize the same structural polysaccharide from the beta glucose What is this polysaccharide A amylopectin B chitin C cellulose D lignin E glycogen Answer B Topic Concept 311 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 13 Consider two hyphae having equal dimensions one from a septate species and the other from a coenocytic species Compared with the septate species the coenocytic species should have A fewer nuclei B more pores C less chitin D less cytoplasm E reduced cytoplasmic streaming Answer C Topic Concept 311 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 14 Which of the following terms is correctly associated with fungi in general A sporophytes B make only sexually produced spores C ecologically important D polyphyletic E ingestive nutrition Answer C o ic Conce t T p p 311 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 3 15 Which of the following vary tremendously from each other in morphology and belong to several fungal phyla A lichens B ascomycetes C club fungi D arbuscular mycorrhizae E ergot fungi Answer A Topic Concept 312 Skill KnowledgeComprehension J O J does not 39 quot 39 iollow J U which 1 A means that sexual reproduction can occur in specialized structures B results in multiple diploid nuclei per cell C allows fungi to reproduce asexually most of the time D results in heterokaryotic or dikaryotic cells E is strong support for the claim that fungi are not truly eukaryotic 16 In most fungi Answer D Topic Concept 312 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 17 If all of their nuclei are equally active transcriptionally then in terms of the gene products they can make the cells of both dikaryotic and heterokaryotic fungi are essentially haploid diploid alloploid 0005129 completely homozygous E completely hemizygous Answer B Topic Concept 312 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 18 Which process occurs in fungi and has the opposite effect on a cell39s chromosome number than does meiosis l A mitosis B plasmogamy C crossing over D binary fission E karyogamy Answer E Topic Concept 312 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 4 Please refer to the following information to answer the following questions Diploid nuclei of the ascomycete Neurosporu crussu contain 14 chromosomes A single diploid cell in an ascus will undergo one round of meiosis followed in each of the daughter cells by one round of mitosis producing a total of eight ascospores 19 If a single diploid GZ nucleus in an ascus contains 400 nanograms ng of DNA then a single ascospore nucleus of this species should contain how much DNA ng carried on how many chromosomes A 100 7 B 100 14 C 200 7 D 200 14 E 400 14 Answer A Topic Conce t312 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 20 What is the ploidy of a single mature ascosp ore A monoploid B diploid C triploid D tetraploid E polyploid Answer A Topic Concept 312 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 21 Each of the eight ascospores present at the end of mitosis has the same chromosome number and DNA content ng as each of the four cells at the end of meiosis What must have occurred in each spore between the round of meiosis and the round of mitosis A double fertilization B crossing over C nondisjunction D autopolyploidy E S phase Answer E Topic Conce t31i2 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 22 Fungal cells can reproduce asexually by undergoing mitosis followed by cytokinesis Many fungi can also prepare to reproduce sexually by undergoing A cytokinesis followed by karyokinesis B binary fission followed by cytokinesis C plasmolysis followed by karyotyping D plasmogamy followed by karyogamy E sporogenesis followed by gametogenesis Answer D Topic Concept 312 Skill KnowledgeComprehension Page 5 23 Which of the following statements is true of deuteromycetes A They are the second of five fungalphyla to have evolved B They rep resent the phylum in which all the fungal components of lichens are classified C They are the group of fungi that have at present no known sexual stage D They are the group that includes molds yeasts and lichens E They include the imperfect fungi that lack hyphae Answer C Topic Concept 312 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 24 For mycelia described as heterokaryons or as being dikaryotic which process has already occurred and which process has not yet occurred A germination plasmogamy B karyogamy germination C meiosis mitosis D germination mitosis E plasmogamy genetic recombination Answer E Topic Concept 312 Skill ApplicationAnalysis 25 A chemical secreted by a female Bombyx moth helps the male of the species locate her at which time sexual reproduction may occur This chemical is most similar in function to which chemicals used by sexually reproducing fungi A chitin B enzymes C lysergic acids D aflatoxins E pheromones Answer E Topic Concept 312 Skill ApplicationAnalysis B Basidiomycota C Chytridiomycota D Deuteromycota E Zygomycota Answer D 26 Which of the following is characterized by the lack of an observed sexual phase in its members39 life cycle A Glomeromycota Topic Concept 312 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 27 A biologist is trying to classify a newly discovered fungus on the basis of the following characteristics filamentous appearance reproduction by asexual spores no apparent sexual phase and parasitism of woody plants If asked for advice to which group would you assign this new species A Deuteromycota B Zygomycota C Ascomycota D Basidiomycota E Glomeromycota Answer A Topic Concept 312 Skill ApplicationAnalysis Page 6 28 Which of these structures are most likely to be a component of both chytrid zoospores and motile animal cells A cilia B flagella C pseudopods D heterokaryons E haustoria Answer B Topic Concept 313 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 29 Fossil fungi date back to the origin and early evolution of plants What combination of environmental and morphological change is similar in the evolution of both fungi and plants A presence of quotcoal forests and change in mode of nutrition B periods of drought and presence of filamentous body shape C predominance in swamps and presence of cellulose in cell walls D colonization of land and loss of flagellated cells E continental drift and mode of spore dispersal Answer D Topic Concept 313 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 30 Which of the following characteristics is shared by both chytrids and other kinds of fungi A presence of flagella B zoosp ores C autotrophic mode of nutrition D cell walls of cellulose E nucleotide sequences of several genes Answer E Topic Concept 313 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 31 The multicellular condition of animals and fungi seems to have arisen A due to common ancestry B by convergent evolution C by inheritance of acquired traits D by natural means and is a homology E by serial endosymbioses Answer B Topic Concept 313 Skill KnowledgeComprehension 32 Asexual reproduction in yeasts occurs by budding Due to unequal cytokinesis the quotbudquot cell receives less cytoplasm than the parent cell Which of the following should be true of the smaller cell until it reaches the size of the larger cell A It should produce fewer fermentation products per unit time B It should produce ribosomal RNA at a slower rate C It should be transcriptionally less active D It should have reduced motility E It should have a smaller nucleus Answer A Topic Concept 313 Skill ApplicationAnalysis Page 7


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