Abnormal Psychology PSYC 250
Lansing Community College
Popular in Course
Popular in Psychlogy
This 86 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dena Konopelski on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 250 at Lansing Community College taught by Kathleen Bonnelle in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see /class/222385/psyc-250-lansing-community-college in Psychlogy at Lansing Community College.
Reviews for Abnormal Psychology
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/13/15
Chapter 7 Dissociative and Somatoform Disorders and Chapter 8 Mood Disorders and Suicide Chapter 7 Dissociative and Somatoform Disorders 1 Describe the chief features of the dissociative disorders Which is most common Describe dissociative identity disorder What is the another term for dissociative identity disorder Which is most common Describe dissociative amnesia identifying and brie y explaining its ve speci c types and discuss how it differs from other types of amnesia Describe dissociative fugue Describe and discuss depersonalization Describe derealization Explain what malingering is and discuss problems in differentiating people with dissociative and somatoform disorders from malingerers 3 Recount various theoretical perspectives on the etiology and treatment of dissociative disorders 4 Define and describe the chief features of somatoform disorders Describe the features of conversion disorder hypochondriasis and somatization disorder Describe munchausen syndrome and contrast it with malingering Describe what is meant when we say someone has factitious disorder Discuss the features of culturebound dissociative syndromes such as quotamokquot and quotzarquot Recount various theoretical perspectives on the etiology and treatment of somatoform disorders disorders including some of the quothistoryquot relating to these disorders Chapter 8 Mood Disorders and Suicide 5 Define mood disorder and distinguish between normal and abnormal depressed moods What is meant by a unipolar mood disorder What is meant by a bipolar mood disorder 6 Describe the features of major depression Discuss the prevalence of and risk factors for major depression Differentiate between reactive and endogenous depression Discuss the features of and treatments for seasonal affective disorder Discuss postpartum depression and explain how it is different than quotmaternity bluesquot Compare and contrast major depression and dysthymic disorder Describe the features and types of bipolar disorder Describe the features of a manic episode Compare and contrast bipolar disorder and cyclothymic disorder Karla Winter A3 5 Discuss the steps involved in the scientific method The first step in the scientific method is to formulate the question you want answered This question usually comes from previous observations The experimenter usually wants a cause and effect question answered or a generalized question answered The second step in the scientific method is to formulate this question into a hypothesis A hypothesis is a revised version of the first question which allows for the experimenter to test the question to prove or disprove his own theory about the answer The third step in the scientific method is to formulate an experiment that can test the questions These experiments usually have controls and variables that can be altered under certain conditions to produce data that is recorded by the experimenter The experimented collects and records the data In the nal step of the scientific method the experimenter reviews the data and comes to a conclusion as to whether is experiment was a good and valid one and then whether or not his hypothesis is proven or disproven Discuss the various methods used to study abnormal behavior including the naturalistic observation the correlation method the experimental method and the case study method The observation method is used when the psychologist wants to view a behavior in its own natural environment They are not intruders and they do not interfere The correlation method uses statistics to determine whether two independent variables has a positive or negative correlation with the other In the experimental method there are subjects which are treated with an independent variable and they are observed to see if the independent variable has any effect on their behavior Usually there is a control group which receives nothing This is to see if the control group will also behave the same way as the experimental group this can be used to prove whether the experiment has validity or not Case studies are very specific They tend to look at behaviors in one person s life to see if their problems can be rooted out in childhood or by some tragic event in the person s life This is the research where the reasons why are asked about the particular subject There is usually an interviewer and a subject the interviewer is trying to use this subject to formulate reasons why a person may have developed a disorder and then see if they can use this case to solve future cases Discuss the value and limitations of the naturalistic observation method This method holds value when trying to observe a behavior or condition in its natural environment There a limitations when question the reasons for certain behavior This method does not give answers to questions about cause and effect Discuss the value and limitations of correlation research This method uses statistics about two or more separate variables to see if there is a positive or negative correlation between the two If the increase of Variable A leads to the increase of Variable B then the correlation is said to be positive There is no manipulation of the variables and the observer of the statistics does nothing to influence them It is merely collecting data and determing the relationship 7his method holds value 7 that it allows the observer to see factors that may contribute to certain behaviors Its limitations is that this method does not expam Wh y certain behaviors or conditions occurs It only shows that certain factors may increase or decrease the probability of the behavior or condition Discuss the value and limitations of longitudinal research This is when researchers study people and behaviors over long periods of time The value in this study is that the researcher is able to look for specific factors It is used to help determine the factors that lead to the development of lifelong disorders such as schizophrenia The limits with this type of research are that it is costly and time consuming Discuss the value and limitations of the casestudy method The case study gives the researcher lots of information about a particular subject and can sometimes explain why a person has the behavioral disorder that they possess You can even set up experiments in a case study where you use the subject as both the experimental group and the control First you take information about the subjects behavior Then you provide treatment and record whether it improved the subject or not Then you take the treatment away and see if the subject reverts back to its old ways Then you apply treatment again to see if it still has an effect on the subject The problem with case studies is that much of the information given to the researcher comes from the subject and can there for be biased or outright lies The subject can exaggerate certain stories about past events in their lives The information stream from subject to researcher can be polluted at times Describe the purpose and features of the experimental method The purpose of the experimental method is to determine whether or not the subjects and the independent variable are related and if the independent variables have any effect on the dependent variables The dependent variables are subject to change with the independent variables presence or lack thereof Experimental Group is given the experimental treatment of the independent variable and the Control Group is not The experimenters use a method called Random Assignment to determine which person goes into the control or the experimental group An experiment can be no good if there is a Selection Factor that makes the control and experimental group obviously different from one another This can bias the whole experiment and ruin it because the groups are so different that one could argue it was a factor in the results of the experiment Explain ways in which experimenters control for subjects39 and researchers39 expectations Discuss six criteria that are used to define abnormal behavior UNUSUALNESS whether the behavior is unusual or infrequent in regards to the rest of the population SOCIAL DEVIANCE is the behavior socially unacceptable or in violation of social norms FAULTY PERCEPTION OF REALITY are there misperceptions or misinterpretations of reality SIGNIFICANT PERSONAL DISTRESS is the behavior associated with states of severe personal distress depression etc or even a lack of emotion SELF DEFEATING BEHAVIOR is the behavior maladaptive or selfdefeating leading to unhappiness DAN GEROUSNESS or is the behavior dangerous Discuss the relationships between cultural beliefs and norms and the labeling of behavior normal or abnormal Cultures have different customs standards and views for determining when behavior is deemed quotnorma quot or quotabnormalquot Some cultures believe outward grieving for the dead is soothing while in our society if we saw someone screaming the names of the dead for over a month we may think they are crazy List three behaviors or situations that would be considered normal occurrences in a nonUSA culture that would be viewed as abnormal or deviant behavior in the United States of America Selfmutilation for religious purposes quotSpeakingquot to the recent dead during grieving Dressing in tribal uniformsface paint and dancing for rain Recount the history of the demonological approach to abnormal behavior referring to ancient and medieval times The demonological approached believed that nonphysical illness derived from the infiltration of the body by a demon whether willingly or otherwise In ancient times even crude procedures such as drilling holes into the skull of the quotpossessedquot were used in attempts to release these demons Throughout medieval times and onward the demonological approach was used priests and exorcists would try to purge demons through prayer holy idols such as crosses or even torture During witch hunts these pagans were believed to have not only renounced God but to have invited the devil inside willingly to corrupt the world through their mortal body These quotwitchesquot were placed through harsh trials which in the end you either died a witch or died not a witch Summarize the history of beliefs about disturbed behavior and treatment people deemed quotmadquot or mentally ill Once the demonological approach subsided a little more realistic efforts were made to understand these illnesses Even through this the mentally ill were still considered substandard citizens or even freaks of nature These quottreatmentsquot usually meant they were shackled up in a dark dungeon for the rest of their lives with no hopes for a cure Describe the contributions of Hippocrates Galen Pinel Pussin Griesinger and Kraepelin to the development of medical science and thinking Chapter 7 Dissociative and Somatoform Disorders and Chapter 8 Mood Disorders and Suicide Chapter 7 Dissociative and Somatoform Disorders 1 Describe the chief features of the dissociative disorders Which is most common Describe dissociative identity disorder What is the another term for dissociative identity disorder Which is most common Describe dissociative amnesia identifying and brie y explaining its ve speci c types and discuss how it differs from other types of amnesia Describe dissociative fugue Describe and discuss depersonalization Describe derealization Explain what malingering is and discuss problems in differentiating people with dissociative and somatoform disorders from malingerers 3 Recount various theoretical perspectives on the etiology and treatment of dissociative disorders 4 Define and describe the chief features of somatoform disorders Describe the features of conversion disorder hypochondriasis and somatization disorder Describe munchausen syndrome and contrast it with malingering Describe what is meant when we say someone has factitious disorder Discuss the features of culturebound dissociative syndromes such as quotamokquot and quotzarquot Recount various theoretical perspectives on the etiology and treatment of somatoform disorders disorders including some of the quothistoryquot relating to these disorders Chapter 8 Mood Disorders and Suicide 5 Define mood disorder and distinguish between normal and abnormal depressed moods What is meant by a unipolar mood disorder What is meant by a bipolar mood disorder 6 Describe the features of major depression Discuss the prevalence of and risk factors for major depression Differentiate between reactive and endogenous depression Discuss the features of and treatments for seasonal affective disorder Discuss postpartum depression and explain how it is different than quotmaternity bluesquot Compare and contrast major depression and dysthymic disorder Describe the features and types of bipolar disorder Describe the features of a manic episode Compare and contrast bipolar disorder and cyclothymic disorder Chapter 1 Introduction and Methods of Research Chapter 2 Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior Chapter 3 Classification and Assessment of Abnormal Behavior Chapter 4 Methods of Treatment Discussion items 1 Discuss six criteria that are used to define abnormal behavior Discuss the relationships between cultural beliefs and norms and the labeling of behavior normal or abnormal List three behaviors or situations that would be considered normal occurrences in a non USA culture that would be viewed as abnormal or deviant behavior in the United States of America Recount the history of the demonological approach to abnormal behavior referring to ancient and medieval times Summarize the history of beliefs about disturbed behavior and treatment people deemed quotmadquot or mentally ill Describe the contributions of Hippocrates Galen Pinel Pussin Griesinger and Kraepelin to the development of medical science and thinking Describe the development of treatment centers for abnormal behavior from asylums through the mental hospital Discuss the reform movement and the use of moral therapy focusing on the roles of Pussin Pinel Rush and Dix 2 Discuss the factors associated with the current exodus from mental hospitals in the United States Describe the movement toward deinstitutionalization of mental patients Advantages Disadvantages Discuss the following contemporary perspectives on abnormal behavior biological psychodynamic learning based humanistic cognitive and sociocultural 3 Describe the structures of the brain and their functions Describe the structure and functions of the neuron and explain how neurons communicate with each other Discuss the importance of neurotransmitters relating to mental disorders Briefly describe the various parts of the nervous system explaining what each does Describe the basic tenets of Freud39s psychodynamic theory Describe Freud39s views on the structure of personality and the functions of each of the structures he proposed Explain what defense mechanisms are and for what they are used Also identify and give an example of at least five of the defense mechanisms proposed by Freud Identify and briefly explain each of Freud39s stages of psychosexual development Describe more recent psychodynamic theories comparing and contrasting them to Freud39s views 4 Describe behaviorism and the principles of classical conditioning Explain the principles of operant conditioning clarifying the differences among positive reinforcers negative reinforcers and punishments and primary and secondary reinforcers Describe social cognitive theory and the role of expectancies on behavior Discussdescribe the humanistic and existential philosophies regarding personality and behavior Describe the views of Rogers regarding abnormal behavior 5 Discuss the steps involved in the scientific method Discuss the various methods used to study abnormal behavior including the naturalistic observation the correlational method the experimental method and the case study method Discuss the value and limitations of the naturalistic observation method Discuss the value and limitations of correlational research Discuss the value and limitations of longitudinal research Discuss the value and limitations of the case study method Describe the purpose and features of the experimental method Explain ways in which experimenters control for subjects and researchers39 expectations Discuss the importance of drawing representative samples from target populations 6 Describe the features of the DSM system and evaluate its strengths and weaknesses Describe the advantages and disadvantages of the DSM Discuss various methods used to assess a mental disorder Describe what is meant by a clinical interview identifying the topics typically covered during an intake interview and contrasting structured with unstructured interviews Distinguish between self report and projective personality assessment techniques Discuss the history features reliability and validity of personality tests focusing on the MMPI and the Rorschach Discuss the advantages and limitations of behavioral assessment Describe the following techniques the behavioral interview self monitoring use of contrived measures direct observation behavioral rating scales 7 Discuss sociocultural and ethnic factors in the classification of abnormal behavior Discuss the features of three or more cultu re bou nd syndromes Discuss sociocultural and ethnic factors in the assessment of abnormal behavior 8 Define psychotherapy and describe the basic features of psychotherapy Describe the goals and methods of traditional psychoanalysis and compare and contrast traditional psychoanalysis with modern psychodynamic approaches Identify the three major groups of mental health professionals discussed in your text and briefly discuss the training and professional requirements of each group Describe the steps involved in finding a psychologist and identify at least 5 questions to ask of a psychologist from whom you are considering seeking treatment 9 Describe the philosophies goals and methods of humanistic existential therapies Describe the goals and methods of behavioral and cognitive therapies Describe systematic desensitization gradual exposure modeling aversive conditioning operant conditioning social skills training and methods for fostering self control Discuss the development of eclectic approaches in psychotherapy Describe the features and roles of group therapy and marital and family therapy Describe the advantages and disadvantages of group therapy H N w 4 H N Define psychotherapy and describe the basic features of psychotherapy Psychotherapy is a structured form of treatment derived from a psychological framework that consists of one or more verbal interactions or treatment sessions between a client and a therapist Psychotherapy consists of four basic features Systematic interactions Systematic means that therapists structure their interactions with clients in ways that reflect their theoretical points of view Psychologicalprinciples Psychotherapists draw on psychological principles research and theory in their practice Behavior thoughts and feelings Psychotherapy may be directed at behavioral cognitive and emotional domains to help clients overcome psychological problems and lead more satisfying lives Abnormal behavior problem solving and personal growth At least three groups of people are assisted by psychotherapy First are people with abnormal behavior problems such as mood disorders anxiety disorders or schizophrenia Second are people who seek help for personal problems that are not regarded as abnormal such as social shyness or confusion about career choices Third are people who seek personal growth For them psychotherapy is a means of self discovery that may help them reach their potential as for example parents creative artists performers or athletes Describe the goals and methods of traditional psychoanalysis and compare and contrast traditional psychoanalysis with modern psychodynamic approaches Psychoanalysis is a method of psychotherapy developed by Sigmund Freud to help people who suffer from psychological disorders Psychoanalysis is a type of therapy that helps clients gain insight into and resolve the dynamic struggles or conflicts between forces within the unconscious mind believed to lie at the root of abnormal behavior The major methods that Freud used to accomplish these goal with free association dream analysis and analysis of the transference relationship Free Association is the process of uttering uncensored thoughts as they come to mind which is believed to gradually break down the defenses that block awareness of unconscious processes Dream Analysis To Freud dreams represent the royal road to the unconscious During sleep the ego s defenses are lowered and unacceptable impulses find expression in dreams w H N w H N Transference In psychoanalysis the client s transfer or generalization to the analyst of feelings and attitudes the client holds toward important figures in his or her life This is believed to provide a vehicle for the reenactment of child hood conflicts with parents Identify the three major groups of mentalhealth professionals discussed in your text and briefly discuss the training and professional requirements of each group Clinical psychologist Have earned a doctoral degree in psychology From an accredited college or university Training in clinical psychology typically involves 4 years of graduate coursework followed by a year long internship and completion of a doctoral dissertation Clinical psychologist specializes in administering psychological tests diagnosing psychological disorders and practicing psychotherapy Until recently they were not permitted to prescribe psychiatric drugs However as of this writing two states New Mexico and Louisiana have enacted laws granting prescription privileges to psychologists who complete specialized training programs Counseling psychologist Also hold doctoral degrees in psychology and have completed graduate training preparing them for careers in college counseling centers and mental health facilities They typically provide counseling to people with psychological problems falling in a milder range of severity than those treated by clinical psychologists such as difficulties adjusting to college or uncertainties regarding career choices Psychiatrists Have earned a medical degree MD and completed a residency program in psychiatry Psychiatrists are physicians who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders As licensed physicians they can prescribe psychiatric drugs and may employ other medical interventions such as electroconvulsive therapy ECT Many also practice psychotherapy based on training they receive during their residency programs or in specialized training institutes Describe the steps involved in finding a psychologist and identify at least 5 questions to ask of a psychologist from whom you are considering seeking treatment How Do I Find Help Seek recommendations from respected sources such as your family physician course instructor clergyperson or college health service Seek a consultation with your college counseling center or health services center Most colleges and universities offer psychological assistance to students generally without charge Seek a referral from a local medical center or local community mental health center When making inquiries ask about the services that are available or about opportunities for referral to qualified treatment providers in the area Contact professional organizations for recommendations Many local or national organizations maintain a referral list of qualified treatment providers in your area If you would like to consult a psychologist contract the American Psychological Association in Washington DC by telephone at 202 336 5650 or on the Internet at weeapaorg At the Web site click the link Find a Psychologist for a listing of psychologists in your area Alternatively you can call your local or state psychology association in the United States or your provincial or territorial psychological association in Canada Let you fingers do the walking but be careful Look under Psychologists Physicians Social workers or Social and human services in your local Yellow Pages However be wary of professionals who take out large ads and claim to be experts in treating many different kinds of problems Make sure the treatment provider is a licensed member of a recognized mental health profession such as psychology medicine counseling or social work Many states anyone can set up a practice as a therapist even as a psychotherapist These titles may not be limited by law to licensed practitioners Licensed professionals clearly display their licenses and other credentials in their offices usually in plain view If you have any questions about the licensure status of a treatment provider contract the licensing board in your state province or territory Inquire about the type of therapy being provided Ask the treatment provider to explain how his or her particular type of therapy is appropriate to treating the problems you are having Inquire about the treatment provider s professional background Ask about the person s educational background supervised experience and credentials An ethical practitioner will not hesitate to provide this information Inquire whether the treatment provider has had experience treating other people with similar problems Ask about their results and how they were measured Once the treatment provider has had the opportunity to conduct a formal evaluation of your problem discuss the diagnosis and treatment plan before making any commitments to undertake treatment Ask about costs and insurance coverage Ask what types of insurance the provider accepts and whether copayments are required on your part Ask whether the provider will adjust his or her fees on a sliding scale that takes your income and family situation into account If you are eligible for Medicaid or Medicare inquire whether the treatment provider accepts these types of coverage College students may also be covered by their parents health insurance plans or by student plans offered by their colleges Find out if the treatment provider participates in any health maintenance organization to which you may belong Find out about the treatment provider s policies regarding charges for missed or canceled SESSIONS What does the eld of psychoneuroimmunolgy research p144 Psychoneuroimmunology studies the relationships between psychological factors especially stress and how they interact quotL 39 f39 L A 39 immune and p146This eld of science mainly uses correlational studies between immunological function in relation to different indices ofstress Explain the signi cance ofbiological factors in health and illness paying special attention to the role of the immune system p145The immune system consistently seeks and destroys pathogens and creates antibodies against future attacks A weakened immune system whether through the stressors oflife or a biological deficiency creates a greater chance of illness along with higher risk or L r J De ne what is meant by the term quotstressquot physically and psychologically p142 Stress is pressure or force either literally or figuratively placed on something like a human body Physically an example would be rocks falling during a landslide and the force causing actual imprints in teh ground Psychologically an example would be pressure or demand that is placed on an organism to adjust like coping with a traumatic incident How does stress affect immunological functioning p142lnvestigations found that when under severe stress you are more likely to become sick when exposed to pathogens and perhaps even have a longer recovery period eg psychological stress increases the rick of developing a cold De ne quotadjustment disorderquot and describe the features of adjustment disorders 1 A quot J39 J39 a stressor that may take the form or impaired functions like k r diff39culty concentrating eg you separate from a long term relationship and end up failing an easy exam the next day because you couldn39t focus Symptoms range from depression to anger to anxiety and are categorized into six subtypes Adjustment Disorder with depressed mood Adjustment Disorder with anxiety Adjustment Disorder with depressed mood mixed with anxiety Adjustment Disorder with disturbance of conduct Adjustment Disorder with mixed disturbance Adjustment Disorder unspeci e What are some of the factors which can affect immune functioning pp144145 Psychological stressors which has a somino effect on the endocrine system Hormone imbalance which couldimpairthe amounts Ul 39 39 39 yuul body u e lull lu39 anemia and stress Dampened immune system respone syndrome like AIDS and Ulllcl Explain the signi cance of psychological factors in health and illness p148 Stressrelated changes in the body could weaken the immune system and create exhaustion which can increase the chances of illness Keeping an optimistic attitude and coping well with stressors can be a great benefit to your physical health Discuss the effects of psychological hardiness and health p15 5 Psychologically hardy people cope with stress by adopting and keeping an active problensolving approach to stressors Hardy people must be wary owever especially ifthey have a type A personality because their exessive drive could serve them more than they can handle and could create more illness E 1 H Diathesisstress model was originally developed as a framework for understanding schizophrenia The model holds that certain psychological disorders such as schizophrenia arise from a combination of interaction of diathesis a vulnerability or predisposition to develop the disorder usually genetic in nature with stressful life experiences Pg 61 Diathesisstress model has recently been linked to other psychological disorders including depression and attentiondeficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD It39s unknown ifa disorder actually develops depending on the nature ofthe diathesis and the type and severity o stressors the person experiences in life The life stressors that may in uence to L r quot quot trauma or serious illness in childhood childhood sexual or physical abuse prolonged unemployment loss ofloved ones or signi cant medical problems The stronger the diathesis the less stress is generally needed to trigger the disorder Pg 62 63 order include birth Discuss the importance ofpersonal control in managing stress quot fstress can L 39 quot hera l e we 39 39 39 39 in our life It is therefore useful to know which areas of our personal and working life we control and which areas need more control Finding how to manage stress will lower the risk of any physical illnesses pg 141 1 1 l n Denial emotionalfocused coping People take measures that immediately reduce the impact ofthe stressor denying it exists or withdrawing from the situation pg 15 Selfefficacy expectancies a person39s expectations regarding their ability to cope with the challenges they face to perform certain behaviors skillfully and to produce positive changes in their lives pg 1 52 r J Psychological Hardiness cluster oftraits that may help people by 39 ch alien 0e and control pg 15 2 Optimism See the proverbial glass as half full rather than half empty is linked to better physical and psychological health outcomes It falls under a broader part of psychology cal e 39 a growing rrru errrerrr virlrirr psychology that focuses on the positive attitudes ofhuman behavior pg 153 Social Support people with a broad network ofsocial relationships spouse friends family part of organizations show a greater resistance to fending off the common cold but tend to live longer lives than those without social support pg 153 Ethnic Identity Pride is one39s ways that may help individual withstand the stress imposed by racism and intolerance pg 153 I IE 11 I 1 Researchers have investigated the stressillness connection by quantifying life stress in terms of life changes life events Life changes are sources of stress because they force us to ad39ust quot L that people 39 r 39 more likely to suffer from psychological and physical health problems Stress could lead to physical illness which may cause disruption in sleep or nancial then again a reverse could occur one with health problems may lead to better life changes Both positive and negative life changes can be stressful it is reasonable to assume the r quot39 quotf L are Generaquot 439 rquot than quot L A change for the better may be a change but it is less ofa hassle pg 147 rurrruer uflife changes are Explain what the general adaptation syndrome GAS is and how it relates to health Stress Researcher Hans S A 39L A a common hinlngiral to prolonged or 39 Our bodies respond similarly to many kinds ofunpleasant stressors whether the source of stress is an invasion of microscopic disease organisms a divorce or the aftermath ofa flood The GAS model suggests that our bodies under stress are like clocks with alarm systems that do not shut off until their energy is perilously depleted WAS GAS consists of three stages Alarm Reaction Resistance Stage and the Exhaustion stage Alarm Reaction perception ofimmediate stressor car swerves in front of you triggers it The alarm reaction mobilizes the body to prepare for the challenge or stress It can be thought of as the rst line ofdefense against a threatening stressor The body responses with activation of the sympathetic nervous system which increases the bodily arousal triggering release of stress hormones by the endocrine system This is linked to the ghtor ight reaction pg 146 Resistance stage Occurs when the stressor is persistent we progress or the adaptation stage of GAS Endocrine and sympathetic nervous system response release of stress hormones remain at high levels but not quite as high during alarm stage Here the bod tries to renew spent energy and repair damage If stressors continue or new ones enter the picture progress occurs to the final stage of GAS pg 146 Exhaustion stage Final stage all though there are individual differences in capacity to resist stress eventually the body will exhaust its 5 TL L quot age39 39 J b J 39 fthe 39 branch ofthe ANS autonomic nervous system The heart and respiration rates decelerate hoping to give the body a respite period Ifthe source ofthe stress persists then the bod develops disease of adaptation Which can cause allergic reactions to heart disease and at times death this is considered Chronic stress damaging a person39s health and vulnerable to a range of disease pg 146 Discuss the multifactorial view of health and illness Health and illness encompasses the entirety ofthe individual This is a wholistic view of the health Everything is related from physiological to psychological health One aspect can have an effect on the other People who are in good spirits and do not suffer from depression are more likely to take better care ofthemselves and people who do not look after their physical health are more likely to suffer mental health problems as a result Compare and contrast emotionfocused coping with problemfocused coping What type of coping would be quotavoidance copingquot Emotionfocused coping is very similar to denial It is when a person is presented with a stressor and chooses to ignore the problem as a way of dealing with the problem In Actuality they are not dealing with the problem they are avoiding it In problemfocused coping the person does the exact opposite and faces the stressor headon and tries to examine the problem in order to further understand and correct it The emotionfocused form of coping I feel could be described as avoidance coping De ne selfef cacy This is a person39s ability to cope and manage their stress When a person is faced with certain challenges in lifethey are selfsuf cient if they are able to nd ways to create positive changes in their life to help them with their stress De ne and discuss psychological hardiness This is a cluster of personal traits that will help individuals manage their own stress Commitment These people do not feel alienated from their tasks They become fully involved in their projects and believe in what they Challenge Believe that change is normal and healthy Change and Challenges can be good for us Control over their lives Act as if they are not powerless in the rewards and punishments of their lives These people have an internal control and stability These people cope with stress better than others They have better problem solving approaches They have fewer physical illness and are less likely to suffer from depression Explain the role ofsclf cf cacy of stress 39 hardiness optimism and humor in combating the negative effects These are all good personal traits for dealing with the negative effects of stress The Optimal person will excel in all ofthese traits and possess them Selfefficacy This is a person39s ability to cope and manage their own stress and nd positive ways and outlets for their stress N Equot Psychologicalhardiness This makes me think that a person with this trait would be ablt to roll with the punchesquot They understand that change is inevitable but that they are in control of their ultimate destiny and their life Optimism and Humor A person with an optimistic way of lookingat life sees the quotglass as half fullquot They understand that things may be difficult and stressful at any given time but that it won39t last that way forever This person also has a good sense of humor and is able to laugh some stress off by looking at the big ironic picture Discuss what is meant by having an internal locus of control vs and external locus of control and how each may affect health Internal locus of control would refer to the individual39s ability to cope and manage their own stress Ifa person cannot deal with their stress effectively it may have a serious effect on their mental and physical health It can cause heart disease and depression if it is left alone External Locus means that it is important to have a good support group When you have people that love and support you and want to help you with your stress a person is more likely to improve in their health Describe the characteristics of people with Type A behavior patterns People with Type A personalities have a lot of drive and want to control everything around them They also deal with stress problems because of their gogogo lifestyle Some studies have shown that this also makes them more likely to have heart disease problems ucnuc Psychosomatic illness is a disorderthat involves both mind and body is called a psychosomatic illness In other wordsthe illness may be emo ional or mental in origin but have physical symptoms Psychosomatic illnesses are not imaginary They are physical disorders in which both emotions and thought patterns are believed to play a central role and usually develop when a person39s disease ghting ability is weakened due to stress Ex After a particularly stressful event like the loss ofa loved one for example an individual might develop high blood pressure shortly afterward or even have a heart attack In another person the same situation might lead to a peptic ulcer or a series of asthma attacks A third individual equally as griefstricken might not get sick at all Explain the signi cance ofsocioeconomic Sociocultural and ethnic factors in health and illness Socioeconomic Relating to or concerned with the interaction of social and economic factors Sociocultural Combining both social and cultural factors Ethnic Factors The identifying factors that are associated with ethnic groups The signi cance of socioeconomic sociocultural and ethnic factors in health and illness are cultural and social factors contribute to the causesation of mental illness the contribution may va based upon the disorder Mental illness is a product of biological psychological social and cultural factors Ethnic and racial minorities face both social and economic environments ofinequality that exposes them to racism discrimination violence and poverty Poverty has the most effect on the rates of mental illness People who have low socioeconomic status of income and education face it the most Racism and discrimination are both stressful which may affect ones health and or mental health Explain what acculturation is and discuss its role in the mental health ofimmigrants Acculturation Is the pressure to adjust to a host or mainstream culture Its role in the mental health ofimmigrants is immigrants often great amount of difficulty when adjusting to their new homelands in a new country For many reasons such as copingwith traumatic events that they had faced in their native countries Overcoming cultural language barriers and having encounters involving discrimination The above factors can lead to severe longlasting psychological and social well being issues This is especially profound for certain populations including children women and individuals with disabilities and those with limited financial resources They cannot sustain their former economic and social status which can lead to psychological mental distress 2 E m 52quot n m 3 Discuss the origins misconceptions and treatment of ulcers Ulcers are another ailment traditionally considered to be psychosomatic Ulcers usually affect about 10 1 in 10 people of the US population Recently however their status as a psychosomatic disorder has been reconsidered because of recent landmark research showing that a bacterium H pylori not stress or diet is the major cause of a type of ulcer called peptic ulcers which are sores in the lining of the stomach or upper small intestine p 154 Discuss the Discuss the Treatment with a regimen of antibiotics may cure ulcers by attacking the bacterium directly It is yet unknown why some people who harbor the bacterium develop ulcers and others don39t The virulence of the particular strain ofH pylori may determine whether infected people develop peptic ulcers Stress may also be a contributing factor but de nitive evidence that says so is currently missing p 155 origins and treatment ofheadaches Give examples of types of headaches Headaches are symptoms of many medical disorders When they occur without any other symptomsthey are generally classified as stressrelated The most frequent kind ofheadache is thetension headache which is caused by stress that leads to persistent contractions ofthe muscles of the scalp face neck and shoulders Migraines are more than simple headaches they39re complex neurological disorders that last for hours or days Migraines can affect anyone but most cases about 23 occur in women between 15 and 55 years old p155 The causes of headaches are unclear and continue to be studied A possible contributing factor of tension headaches may be sensitivity of the neural pathways that send pain signals from the face and head to the brain Migraine headaches may be caused by an underlying central nervous system CNS disorder that involves the nerves and blood vessels ofthe brain Serotonin and neurotransmitter is also considered to be a piece to the puzzle Falling levels ofserotonin may cause the blood vessels to contract and dilate 39 39 39 39 39 39 439 w ich causes the throbbin piercing sensations associated with migraines There is also evidence that points to genetics to be a contributing factor of migraine headaches There are some options to treating a headache Commonly available pain relievers like aspirin ibuprofen and acetaminophen can take away the pain that comes with having a tension headache Medications that constrict narrow blood vessels in the brain or regulate serotonin activity are used to treat migraine pain p15 5 Psychological treatment can also be used to relieve tension or migraine headache pain Treatments include training in biofeedback relaxation coping skills training and some forms of cognitive therapy Biofeedback training helps people gain control over various bodi functions such as muscle tension and brain waves by giving them information feedback about these functions in the form of auditory signals or visual displays People who undergo this form of treatment learn to change the signal in the desired direction Combining biofeedback training and relaxation is also an effective method origins risk factors and treatment of cardiovascular disorders Cardiovascular disease CDV is the leading cause ofdeath in the United States claiming about 830000 lives a year and counting for about a third of all deaths Coronary heart disease C HD is the major form of CVD accounts for nearl 500000 of the total 830000 deaths and is the leading cause of death in both men and women claiming more women39s lives than breast cancer In the case of CHDthe heart doesn39t get enough blood flow to do its job Arteriosclerosis or hardening ofthe arteries is the underlying disease process ofCHD Arteriosclerosis is a condition in which the artery walls become thicker harder and less elastic which makes it harder for blood to flow freely The major underlying cause of arteriosclerosis is atherosclerosis a process involvingthe buildup of fatty deposits along artery walls which causes arteryclogging plaque If a blood clot were to form in a plaquenarrowed artery the flow of blood to the heart could be partially or fully blocked resulting in a heart attack Heart attack are quot 39 39 and cause blood to lack ofan oxygenrich blood supply When a blood clot blocks the ow of blood to the brain the result is a stroke Strokes can lead to the death of brain tissue which leads to loss of function controlled by that part ofthe brain coma or death p 158 There are several factors of cardiovascular disease Some risk factors are unavoidable and unchangeable like age gender and family history Controlling factors such as high blood cholesterol hypertension high blood pressure smoking overeating heavy drinking consuming a highfat diet and leading a sedentary somewhat inactive lifestyle can lower a person39s risk for CVD p 158 It39s also been studied that people who are often angry or hostile have a higher risk of CVD Frequent emotional distress in the form of anger anxiety and depression may have damaging effects on the cardiovascular system Hostile people tend to have short fuses and are prone to getting angry easily Hostility is a component ofthe Type A behavior pattern TABP a style of behavior that characterizes people who are hard driving ambitious impatient and highly competitive TABP is discussed more in another post It39s apparent that anxiety and anger induce the release of stress hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine by the adrenal glands These hormones increase heart rate breathing rate and blood pressure which causes the heart to pump more oxygenrich blood to the muscles to allow them to be ready for defensive action in the face of a threatening stressor For p p L f r 39 39 quot the adrenal glands will repeatedly send out epinephrine and norephinephrine which can damage the heart and blood vessels There is evidence that shows that episodes of acute anger can trigger heart attacks and cause cardiac death in some people with established heart disease It39s also been discovered that hostile people tend to have more cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity and smoking than less hostile people do Anger and anxiety may also weaken the cardiovascular system by upping the levels of blood cholesterol and increasingthe risk of heart attacks Social environmental stress is another factor that can heighten the risk of CHD p 161 Factors such as overtime work assemblyline labor and exposure to conflicting demands are linked to increased risk of CHD Swedish researchers have found that among women stress in the marriage triples the risk of recurrent cardiac events including heart attack and cardiac death Ethnicity is also a deciding factor of coronary heart disease European Americans and African Americans have the highest rates of death due to coronary heart disease Factors such as obesity smoking diabetes and hypertension play important roles in determining relative risks of CHD and the rate ofCHDrelated deaths A dual standard of care limits access to quality health care for minority group members Black quot L ff strokes or art failure generally don t receive the same level of care as Whites or have as much access to the last cardiac technologies which likely contributes to the higher over death rates due to CVD 4 mm heart on ea c vuu u 1 Discuss the origins and treatment of asthma Asthma is a respiratory disorder in which the main tubes ofthe windpipe the bronchi constrict and become inflamed and large amounts ofmucus are secreted During asthma attacks people wheeze cough and struggle to breathe in enough air Asthma affects about 16 million adults and seven million children in the US Asthma rates are rising having more than doubled over the last three decades A series of attacks can harm the bronchial system causing mucus to collect and muscles to lose their elasticity Sometimes the bronchial system is weakened to the point where the next attack could be fatal There are many factors that cause asthma including allergic reactions exposure to environmental pollutants like cigarette smoke and smog and genetic and immunological factors Asthmatic reactions in susceptible people can be triggered by exposure to allergens like pollen mold spores and animal dander by cold dry air and by emotional responses such as anger or even laughing too hard Psychological factors such as stress anxiety and depression can increase susceptibility to asthmatic attacks Asthma even has psychological effects Some sufferers may avoid strenuous activity to keep from needing an increased supply of oxygen and causing an attac Asthma cannot be cured it can be controlled by reducing exposure to allergens by desensitization therapy by using inhalers by using drugs that open the bronchial passages during asthma attacks called bronchodilators and others called antiinflammatories Discuss the origins risk factors and treatment of cancer Cancer causes one out of every four deaths in the US and claims about half a million lives each year which equates roughly to about one life every 90 seconds or so The odds of men developing cancer are one in two for women it39s one in three Cancer involves the development ofmutant cells that form tumors that spread to the healthy tissue surrounding it Cancerous cells can take root anywhere in the body When cancer isn39t found and contained in the early stages it can metastasize or spread throughout the body which can cause death p 162 TL including Genetic chemicals and even exposure to some r viruses Unhealthy behavior patterns can also contribute to the development of cancer such as dietary practices heavy alcohol consumption smoking and excessive sun exposure On the ip side eating fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of some forms of cancer Aweakened immune system may also increase L r quot quot39 u developin cancer Aweakened39 can be caused by exposure to stress so it would make sense that stress could increase a person39s risk of developing cancer However the links between stress and cancer are still under scrutiny There is a lot of evidence that show 39 r 39 39 39 39 quot and r n r hel cancer patients cope with the emotional effects of the disease including depression anxiety and feelings of hopelessness and have better psychological adjustment Cancer patients may also bene t from coping skills training programs aimed at relievin the stress and pain of coping with cancer Cues associated with chem therapy may be conditioned stimuli that elicit nausea and vomiting even L f L A are adm39 39 39 39rm 39 39 and attentional distraction wi these cues can help reduce nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy um tnr nrl Palring ml ah Explain what meditation is what its effects are and brie y identify ve 5 guidelines for meditating effectively Meditation is comprised of several ways of narrowing consciousness to moderate the stressors of the outer world Meditation has signi cant benefits in treating many psychological and physical disorders especially those in which stress plays a contributing role Regular practice of meditation can have clinically meaningful effects on lowering blood pressure which is a major risk factor for CV There are several types ofmeditation but they all focus on narrowing attention by focusing on repetitive stimuli Activities that may cause stress such as problem solving worrying planning and routine concerns are temporarily suspended and levels ofsympathetic nervous system arousal are reduced as a result Transcendental meditation TM is practiced by thousands ofAmericans TM is a simplified kind of Indian meditation brought to the US in 1959 by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi People who practice TM repeat mantras or relaxing sounds Mindful meditation is a form ofmeditation practiced by Tibetan Buddhists where the person focuses on conscious experience thoughts feelings and sensations on a momenttomoment basis without judging or evaluating the experience Mindful meditation shows to be a helpful treatment on its own or when combined with other psychological or medical treatments for problems like chronic pain insomnia anxiety and depression 00 00 There are differences among meditation techniques but there some general guidelines that apply to them all 1 Try meditation once or twice a day for 10 to 20 minutes at a time 2 When you meditate what you don39t do is more important than what you do So embrace a passive attitude Tell yourself What happens happensquot 3 Place yourselfin a hushed calming environment 4 Avoid eating an hour before you meditate Avoid caffeine for at least two hours before meditation 5 Get into a relaxed position Modify if needed Discuss the ways that the HIV virus is transmitted H can be transmitted b Sexual contact vaginal and anal intercourse oral genital contact Direct infusion of contaminated blood as from transfusion of contaminated blood accidental pricks from needles used previously on an infected person or needle sharing among injecting drug users From a infected mother to a child during pregnancy or childbirth Brest feeding Who is at risk for contracting the HIV virus Anyone who is having unsa e sex Anyone who is doing injection behaviors What is the leading cause of death in the United States CVD cardiovascular disease CVD or heart and artery disease 830000 live annually and accounting for about one in three deaths most often as a result of heart attacks or stokes De ne and describe the chief features of anxiety 1 39 jumpiness Herine trem Nina or baking tiahtne in the pit of the stomach or chest heavy perspiration swea palms light headedness or faintneSS dryness in the mouth or throat shortness of breath heart pounding or racing cold ngers or limbs and upset stomach or nausea among other physical symptoms Behaviarulfeutures may include avoidance behavior clinging or dependent behavior and agitated behavior I Cagnitivefeutures may include wnr a 39 dread u awareness of bodily I with or keen sensations fear of losing controlthinking the same disturbing thoughts over and over jumbled or confused thoughts difficulty concentrating or focusing one39s thoughts and thinking that things are getting out of han Discuss historical changes in the classi cation of anxiety disorders William Cullen coined the term quotneurosisquot in the 18th century As the derivation implies it was assumed that neurosis had a biological o igins It was seen as an af iction o e At 39 39 ofthe 7m t quot 39s a uulptiuu r J b Freud39s psychodynamic views Freud39s views were so widely accepted in the early 190039s that they formed the basis for the classification systems found in the first two editions ofthe Diagnostic and statistical Manual of Mental Disorder DSM Since 1989 the DSM has not contained a category termed neurosis De ne and describe I and explain 439 between r 39 39 and other forms ofanxiety 1 39 139 type ofau icLy di UIC ICI J by repeated episodes ofintense anxiety or panic For the diagnosis of panic disorder to be made there must be the presence of recurrent panic attacks that begin unexpectedly attacks that are not triggered by specific objects or situations They seem to come out ofthe blue Although the first attacks occur spontaneously or unexpectedly over time they may become associated with certain situations or cues Panic attacks are intense anxiety reactions accompanied by physical symptoms such as a pounding heart rapid respiration shortness of breath or difficulty breathing heavy perspiration and weakness or dizziness There is a stronger bodily component to panic attacks than to other forms of anxiety The attacks are accompanied by feelings of sheer terror and a sense of imminent danger or impendingdoom and by an urge to escape the situation They are usually accompanied b thoughts of losing control going crazy or dying De ne and describe generalized anxiety disorder Anxiety disarder a class of psychological disorders characterized by excessive or maladaptive anxiety reactions This can cause signi cant emotional distress or impair the person39s ability to function Anxiety the common thread that connects the various types of anxiety disorders can be experienced in different ways from the intense fear associated with a panic attack to the generalized sense of foreboding or worry we find in generalized anxiety order Speci c Phobias 39 39 r and 39 39 f t r 2 339 situations that posealittle harm or danger Fears are long lasting and very persistent people with specific fears avoid contact with their fears due to anxiety and panic attacks When facing their fears people with specific phobias experience high levels of anticipation distress and arousal They may try to escape or avoid making any contact with fear Speci c fears can interfere with normal daily living routines and activities many adults are aware their fear is unreasonable but can not overcomethe fear Examples ofSpecific Phobias Speci c phobias are triggered by a single object or situation Examples of a speci c phobia are Objects Situations Needles feet dogs frogs Bridges elevators ying Ladders clown bugs Medical injections public transportation Social Phobias Social Phobias are intense fears to social situations People with social fears have an excessive fear ofbeingjudged or embarrassed in public situations Low self esteem and secondary physical conditions scars weight physical handicap etc help contribute to fear others e making negative judgments about them To keep from being exposed to their fear people will avoid social situations and in some cases avoid people altogether When placed in unfamiliar social settings people who suffer from social phobias will experience extreme anxiety and panic attacks People are aware fears are overblown but can not stop feeling anxious Examples ofSocial Phobias Social fears are generated when people are placed in unfamiliar situations where they fear scrutiny ofthe public examples include Eating and speaking in public large groups mingling at parties being called on in class Agoraphobia Agoraphobia is the fear ofquotthe marketplacequot or fear of busy and crowded places Most people with agoraphobia suffer from panic and anxiety attacks and fear having attacks in public The attacks are so severe people are afraid they will not be able to remove themselves from the area without embarrassing themselves duringthe attack They deliberately avoid environments and situations that tri anxiety This is called panic disorder with agoraphobia or PDA Agoraphobia makes people fear leaving the house and entering unfamiliar unsecure areas They may avoid leaving their house or only go to areas they are familiar with and easily negotiate an exit This fear is the most debilitating of all phobias because people with this fear depend on the help and support of others to do all or most of their outside living functions Examples ongoraphobia Agoraphobia leaves people stranded in their homes in fear of panic disorders being exposed in public and being trapped in crowded places without being able to leave Traveling on buses shopping in malls crowded streets Standing in line special events Riding in cars Obsessive Compulsive Disorder 0CD men r r 39 thou ht images or impulses that occur repeatedly in their own minds The thoughts are unable to be removed from thought and people begin to over thinkthe thoughts causing a rise in anxiety The thoughts are not rational and cause a disruption to daily living Compulsions are behavior andor rituals driven by obsessive thoughts The intention ofthe behaviors is to ease the obsessive thoughts but generally cause more anxiety as the obsessions worsens with the behavior Compulsions become so apparent and necessary for the person to commit that they are consumed by the acts Eventually compulsions interfere with your daily living because they are so demanding and time consuming Obsessive compulsive disorder is a combination of obsessive thoughts and compulsive behavior and rituals These feelings are uncontrollable and unwanted by the person but they are unable to resist the behavior The brain appears stuck on the urge to commit the ritual People who suffer from 0CD avoid exposure to the situations that causethe most anxiety even when they know the behavior is irrational and has no real harm Examples of 39 r 39 39 r 39 39 mmquot r Obsessions Compulsions Thinking doorswindows are unlocked Rechecking locks on doorswindows Germs or contamination Excessive hand washing or cleaning Thoughts ofhurting others Repeating words to keep loved one safe Sexual images Consumed by watching porn Impulse that children are hurt Constantly checking in on children Obsessive Compulsive Disorder frnid of germs and 39 39 n they repeatedly wash their hands before they can touch anything Must enter germ free zone or else the will have anxiety 39 39 r J checkdoors lm k I mquot an Ihin they may feel cause harm to themselves or others Might have to drive around the block numerous times after hearing a thump in fear they may have hit a pedestrian Doubters are constantly scared that a loved one is in danger They will complete numerous rituals to keep them safe Very time 39 l consuming because they never stop having doubt that loved will get hurt if the don not repeat r1 ua Counters must have things in order Will spend large amounts of time making sure things are organized and in order Have to have symmetry between items to reduce anxiety Hoarders can not throw anything out in fear the may need it or something bad will happen Often hoarders keep trash and other objects in their homes because the fear overwhelms them Acute Stress Disorder ASD Acute stress disorder is a reaction to a t quot death u ar 39 439 ranel that leaves a person detached from reality This disorder usually appears shortly after the event People with ASD with feel detached from their body and feel as ifthey are in a dreamlike state They will experience a decrease in emotions and pleasure in everyday life Unable to recall specific events within the trauma the may be plagued by dreams and thought that cause anxiety Avoidance of any stimuli people activities places conversation etc that may remind them of the event helps to relieve anxiety However that avoidance often is the cause oflack ofsupport which may be needed for treatment This disorder may interfere with peoples social and work related interest Post Traumatic Stress Disorder PTSD Post traumatic stress disorder is a prolonged reaction to a traumatic event It may not become prevalent for years after the event but none the less it leaves people unable to deal with reality It disrupts daily living by making people feel fear and helplessness to the persistent thoughts of reoccurrence of the event Often people have dreams memories images or hear voices stuck in their mind repeating the experience These thoughts leave a person helpless and unable to function properly in life People who suffer from PTSD often have past that lead to low self esteem such as sexualphysical abuse minimal coping skills or social support or exhibit aggressive behavior The factors help contribute to unstable feelings that arise after the trauma Describe various theoretical perspectives on the causes of anxiety disorders Generalized anxiety disorder GAD is characterized by persistent feelings of anxiety that are not triggered by any speci c object situation or activity but rather seems to be what Freud labeled quotfree oatingquot The central feature of GAD is worry Page 196 Theoretical Perspectives Describe the philosophies goals and methods of humanisticexistential therapies Humanistic therapists focus on clients subjective conscious experiences They also focus more on what clients are experiencing in the present Describe the goals and methods of behavioral and cognitive therapies The goal of Behavior therapy is directly changing the problem behavior through the use of learningbased techniques The major techniques are systemic desensitization gradual exposure modeling and reinforcement techniques Cognitive therapy is identifying and correcting distorted thoughts beliefs and attitudes which are believed to be the cause of their emotional problems and maladaptive behavior Describe systematic desensitization gradual exposure modeling aversive conditioning operant conditioning social skills training and methods for fostering selfcontrol Systematic desensitization A behavior therapy technique used for overcoming phobias This often means exposing the person to the fearful stimuli while they remain deeply relaxed Gradual exposure A behavior therapy technique used for overcoming fears through direct exposure of the fearful stimuli Modeling A behavior therapy technique for helping an individual acquire a target behavior by observing as a therapist or another individual demonstrates the behavior and then imitates it Aversive conditioning This is used in the treatment of substance abuse problems such as smoking and alcoholism Operant conditioning A form of learning in which behavior is acquired and strengthened when it is reinforced Social skills training Used in the treatment of social anxiety and skills deficits associated with schizophrenia Methods for fostering selfcontrol Unconditional positive regard empathy genuineness and congruence Not sure if this is correct Discuss the development of eclectic approaches in psychotherapy Eclectic therapy is an approach to psychotherapy that incorporates principles or techniques from various systems or theories A greater percentage of psychologists identify with an eclectic or integrative orientation than any other orientation Some therapists believe that combining elements of different therapeutic approaches will lead to a hodgepodge of techniques that lack a cohesive conceptual framework This type of therapy is still growing and it is expected that new approaches with emerge Describe the features and roles of group therapy and marital and family therapy Group Therapy This is a form of therapy where a group of clientspeople meet with a therapist Family Therapy this is a form of therapy where the family not just an individual receives treatment CoupleZMarital Therapy A form of therapy that focuses on resolving conflicts in distressed couples Describe the advantages and disadvantages of group therapy ADVANTAGES Group therapy is often much cheaper Many people believe that group therapy is more effective because you are surrounded by people with similar problems Clients will learn how people with similar problems cope with them Group members may also practice social skills DISADVANTAG ES Some clients do not want to disclose their problems to a group Some like the individual attention of a therapist Some clients do not feel comfortable in a group type setting Describe family therapy approaches to treating the family unit Family therapy aims to help troubled families resolve their conflicts so the family functions better as a unit and so individual family members have less stress In family therapy they learn to communicate more effectively and to work through conflicts more efficiently Discuss issues relating to the use of traditional Western psychotherapy approaches with diverse cultural and racial groups Therapists need to be culturally competent to provide appropriate services to clients of a different background Therapists need to avoid ethnic stereotypes and demonstrate sensitivity to the values languages and cultural beliefs of members from a different racial or ethnic group Discuss the factors associated with the current exodus from mental hospitals in the United States In 1963 the US Congress created a nationwide system of community mental health centers CMCHs The goal of these centes was to provide an alternative to quotlong term custodial care in bleak institutionsquot p 14 CMCHs were tasked with giving continual support and care to institutional residents who were released from state mental hospitals under a deinstitutionalization policy The development of a new class of drugs the phenothiazines also had a hand in the exodus from mental hospitals These antipsychotic drugs were introduced in the 19505 They lowered the necessity of indeterminate hospital stays and allowed many schizophrenics to be released to halfway houses group homes and independent living Phenothiazines causes the population of mental health patients being institutionalized to drop dramatically The community mental health movement and deinstitutionalization were brought in for the hopeful belief that mental health patients could return to their communities and take on more independent and fulfulling lives The reality of the situation left tens of thousands of marginally functioning people in communities that lacked adequate housing or other forms of support Describe the movement toward deinstitutionalization of mental patients Advantages Disadvantages In the second half of the 19th century the belief that abnormal behavior could be successfully treated with morla support was no longer the most popular belief Mental institutions in the US grew in size because patterns of abnormal behavior were considered incurable but they did little more than provide custodial care Mental institutions became what we see today in horror movies dreadful places where patients are cuffed and put in straitjackets sitting in their own filth These conditions remained until the mid 20th century By the mid 19505 half a million people were patients in mental hospitals Some mental hospitals provided decent and humane care but the majority were quothuman snakepitsquot p14 Mental patients were packed into wards warehoused and even abused by poorly trained and poorly supervised staff The main advantage of the exodus is that mental health patients began to receive more humane care and were treated a lot better The disadvantage is that many of the mental health patients were left with inadequate support when they were released from during the deinstitutionalization Many of the homeless that are seen are likely to have a mental health problem of one sort or another Discuss the following contemporary perspectives on abnormal behavior biological psychodynamic learningbased humanistic cognitive and sociocultural Biological German physician Wilhelm Greisinger 1817 1868 believed that abnormal behavior was the result of diseases in the brain His thoughts influenced another German physician Emil Kraepelin 1856 1926 who wrote a textbook on psychiatry that likened mental disorders to physical diseases The modern medical model attempts to explain abnormal behavior on the bases of underlying biological defects or abnormalities not evil spirits The model says that people behaving abnormally suffer from mental illnesses or disorders that can be classified according to their distinctive causes and symptoms Kraepelin identi ed two main groups of mental disorders or diseases dementia praecox which is what we now call schizophrenia which he believed was caused by a biochemical imbalance and manic depressive psychosis which we now call bipolar disorder which was thought to be caused by an abnormality in body metabolism Kraepelin39s major contribution was the development of a classi cation system that forms the foundation of today39s diagnostic systems The medical model was backed in the late 19th century when it was discovered that an advanced stage of syphilis led to general paresis which is a degenerative brain disease that occurs when the bacterium that causes syphilis directly invades brain tissue General paresis is connected to physical symptoms and psychological impairment including personality and mood changes and with progressive deterioration of memory functioning and judgment Because of the invention of syphilis antibiotics general paresis is very uncommon The medical model is a major advance over demonology It brought about the idea that abnormal behavior should be treated by professionals not punished However the medical model has also created controversy over which behavior patterns should be considered forms of mental illness Psychodynamic While the medical model was gaining speed so to speak on the 19th century there were scientists who thought that there were more than just organic reasons for abnormal behavior Parisian neurologist Jean Martin Charcot 1825 1893 conducted experiments of treating hysteria with hypnosis The thought at the time was that people with hysteria had an af iction of the nervous system which was the cause of their symptoms Charcot39s experiments showed that these causes could be taken away from hysterical patients or given to normal patients by means of hypnotic suggestion Sigmund Freud 1856 1939 was one of the spectators of Charcot39s demonstrations he believed that if hysterical symptoms could be taken away or given through hypnosis then they had to be psychological not biological originally He concluded that whatever psychological factors gave rise to hysteria lied outside the range of conscious awareness Freud was also in uenced by a Viennese physician named Joseph Breuer 1842 1925 Breuer had also used hypnosis on a 21 year old woman who we know now as Anna 0 with hysterical complaints that had no medical basis such as paralysis of her limbs numbness and disturbances of vision and hearing Through hypnosis Breuer encouraged Anna to talk about her symptoms and events that evoked feelings of fear anxiety or guilt This provided at least temprorary relief for Anna The symptoms of hysteria were thought to represent the transformation of these blocked up emotions into physical complaints Breuer helped Anna release her emotions he called this catharsis Learningbased The behavioral perspective is connected to both Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov 1849 1936 who discovered the conditioned reflex and American psychologist John B Watson 1878 1958 the father of behaviorism The behavioral perspective39s attention is on the role of learning in explaining both normal and abnormal behavior From a learning perspective abnormal behavior stands for the acquisition or learning of inappropriate maladaptive behaviors As opposed to the medical and psychodynamic perspectives which say that abnormal behavior is symptomatic the learning perspective maintains that the abnormal behavior itself is the problem In the learning perspective abnormal behavior is learned in the same way that normal behavior is learned Watson along with other behaviorists including B F Skinner a Harvard psychologist thought that human behavior is the product of our genetic inheritance and environmental or situational influences Behaviorists pay attention to the roles of two types of learning in shaping both normal and abnormal behavior classical conditioning and operant conditioning Classical conditioning was discovered by Pavlov when he did experiments with dogs harnessed to an apparatus to study their salivary response to food He found that the dogs would start to salivate and produce gastric juices before they even started eating just by hearing the food cart come into the room Pavlov did an experiment to determine whether or not the dogs could learn to salivate in response to other stimuli if they were associated with feeding Pavlov39s dogs salivated at the sound of a bell because dogs don39t normally do this he reasoned that they had picked up this response He called this kind of response acondtioned response because he had coupled it with an unconditioned stimulus which naturally causes salivation Pavlov called the unlearned response to food the unconditioned response and the bell which had been a neutral stimulus before the experiment the conditioned stimulus The kind of conditioning that accounts for complex behaviors like working studying cooking a meal and socializing is what B F Skinner called operant conditioning Operant quotresponses are acquired and strengthened by their consequencesquot p 52 We come by responses or skills that lead to reinforcementReinforcements are differences in the environment that increase the frequency of the preceding behavior Behaviors that lead to rewarding consequences are continued Such behaviors include eating your vegetables at dinner to receive dessert or doing well on a test If these behaviors are rewarded the likelihood of repeating them is increased Over a period of time rewarded behaviors become habitsPostive reinforcers also known as rewards increase the frequency of a behavior when presentedVegative reinforcers escalate the frequency of the behavior when they39re removed There is a difference between reinforcement and punishment Punishment is an adverse stimulus thatdecreases the frequency with which the behavior occurs Negative reinforcement and punishment are often confused the difference is the situation in which they39re used Humanistic This model came out in the mid 20th century American psychologists Carl Rogers 1902 1987 and Abraham Maslow 1908 1970 thought that people have an inherent tendency toward self actualization Self actualization means striving to become everything that one is capable of being Every person has a single group of traits and talents that gives us our own set of feelings needs and perspectives on life quotBy recognizing and accepting our genuine needs and feelings by being true to ourselves we live authentically with meaning and purposequot p 54 Rogers maintained that abnormal behavior stems from distorted views of self He says that parents can help change this in their children by showing them unconditional positive regard prizing them and showing them that they39re worthy of love no matter their behavior Parents can disapprove of certain behaviors but they need to continue to show their child that they39re loved no matter what When parents show their children conditional positive regard accepting the child only when he or she behaves in the way that the parents want them to behave the child can learn to throw out all thoughts actions and feelings that their parents have rejected Children will learn to develop conditions ofwolth meaning that they think that they39re worthwile only when they behave in ways that are approved of The effect can be a skewed self concept the children becoming strangers to their true selves Humanists believe that we can39t ful ll all of the wishes of others and still be true to ourselves This doesn39t have to lead to conflict however Rogers thought that people hurt one another or become antisocial in their behavior only when they39re frustrated in their aspirations to reach their own goals When parents and others treat the children with love and acceptance toward their differences the children will grow up to be loving and accepting even if their values and preferences are different than their parents39 Cognitive Cognitive theorists study the cognitions thoughts beliefs expectations and attitudes that go along and may the cause of abnormal behavior They pay close attention to how reality is tinted by our expectations attitudes etc and how incorrect or skewed processing of information about the world can be moved to abnormal behavior Cognitive theorists believe that it39s the way in which we interpret the events in our lives not the events themselves that determine our emotional states Psychologist Albert Ellis thought that troubling events themselves don39t cause anxiety depression or disturbed behavior He thought it was the irrational beliefs that we have about unfortunate experiences that bring about negative emotions and maladaptive behavior Ellis adopted an quotABC approachquot to explain the causes of misery Take being fired from a job as an example Being red is the activating eventA The consequence C is emotional distress The activating event A and the consequence C are Six criteria that are used to de ne abnormal behavior 1 Unusualness Abnormal behavior is taken into account when an individual displays behaviors that are uncommon or out of the ordinary However there is a fine line when determining if an individual is behaving abnormally Outside factors such as religious beliefs societal and cultural principles can cloud one s perception of abnormality For instance it s typical for people in Thailand to consume bugs and commonly vendors at outdoor markets sell crispy insects from their carts Thailand s culture varies from cultures of other countries and may provide the impression of unusual and unfamiliar behavior Although this behavior may be deemed as abnormal assuming judgments of diverse cultures doesn t provide an adequate baseline for categorizing abnormal behavior 2 Social deviance The departure from usual or accepted standards defines deviation from social norms The unwritten rules of society re ect expected moral standards which often result in prejudgm ent of abnormal behavior or mental illness Prior to determining if an individual has deviated from society s normsiculture religious customs age and historical context should be taken into account In particular if a young child took off its clothes in a public area the occurrence would most likely be overlooked However if a man in his thirties took off his clothes in public he would be categorized as abnormal for violating societies standard of wearing clothing Also societal standards of what behavior is considered normal and unacceptable changes throughout time sometimes suddenly Lack of knowledge or misunderstanding of different cultures can lead us to perceive the other as abnormal 3 Faulty perceptions or interpretations of reality Impaired functioning can be taken as a sign of mental disorder Hallucinations serve as one significant sign which are seeing movement in peripheral vision hearing voices or noises in the absence of a stimulus Extreme paranoia is another sign of mental distress that can be impacted by fear and anxiety Holding false perceptions or accusations and distrust also develop with paranoia 4 Significant Personal Distress Personal challenges distress and unhappiness are normal hurdles we face throughout our lifetime which can frequently result in anxiety or depression Persistent anxiety and depression or lack of emotional responses are both indications of abnormal behavior 5 Maladaptive or selfdefeating behavior Maladaptive behavior is often used to identify abnormal behavior For example avoiding a situation because you experience illogical fears can reduce anxiety although doesn t diminish the issue on a longterm basis Maladaptive behavior can lead to unhappiness and restriction to function in a particular environment 6 Dangerousness Disruptive behavior that is a threat to oneself or the lives of others demonstrates abnormal behavior However hostile or violent behavior is not always a sign of abnormality Sports such as boxing football wresting and hockey are physically aggressive sports that don t serve as an appropriate indication of abnormal behavior Behavior that is unpredictable or uncontrollable such as suicide or deliberate selfharm is considered abnormal and a sign of mental distress Relationship between cultural beliefsnorms and labeling of behavior as normal or abnormal Definitions of abnormal behavior differ greatly from culture to culture what may be considered typical standard behavior in one culture may be viewed as abnormal behavior in another culture Each culture deals with internal emotions in specific ways encompasses different religious or spiritual beliefs and holds varying concepts of health and illness Behavior that s evaluated to define and classify abnormality should be contrasted with normal behavior occurring within that specific culture to provide a baseline for abnormal behavior Without knowledge of different cultures it s easy to misunderstand and inaccurately identify abnormal behavior 3 behaviors or situations considered normal occurrences in a nonUSA culture which are viewed as abnormal behavior in US Normal beliefs within the Aboriginal culture are communicating with spirits of their ancestors and relatives and hearing deceased spirits crying out to them as they enter afterlife As these are normal culture beliefs it can easily be 39 39 J as 39 such as a 39 39 when viewed from the perspective of the US culture The Native American culture embraces different beliefs and treatment of illness Alcohol and drug addition as known as White man s sickness are considered external influences and treated outside of the Native American community by White man s medicine Illness within the Native American community or Indian sickness results from imbalance of internal harmony with nature and tribal life Traditional Native American medicine men and healers treat illness within the community In China depression and anxiety are expressed through physical complaints rather than psychological distress In particular a person may complain of a headache stomachache muscle weakness or sore throat in contrast to emotions of depression or anxiety History of the demonological approach to abnormal behavior ancient and medieval times Throughout the ancient times abnormal behavior was prevalent Human skulls discovered and investigated from the Stone Age displayed large circular craters which were presumed to be the outcome of a medical procedure called trephination This procedure was conducted upon the suspicion of possession of devilish supernatural forces Performed by our ancient ancestors trephination is a surgical method of puncturing a hole in the skull that was believed to supply a channel of departure for evil spirits Abnormal behavior in ancient Greece was believed to be a punishment from the gods brought on by egotistical and illmannered individuals Temples in which the Greeks devoted to specific gods were used as a means of treating the punished individual It was believed that through rest and relaxation balanced diet and maintaining physical wellness the punished individual would be cured and restored with a newfound state of wellness During the Middle Ages abnormal behavior was believed to be evidence of demonic possession as taught by the Roman Catholic Church To treat individuals possessed by the devil or evil supernatural forces an exorcist usually a member of the Church performed exorcismsipractices to rid one s body of evil spirits This included remedies of religious chants prayer starving the possessed individual and using religious material such as gestures or a cross History of beliefs about disturbed behavior and treatment of people deemed quotmadquot or mentally ill The demonological model approaches earlier historical concepts of abnormal behavior Ancient civilizations in the Stone Age and medieval times believed abnormal behavior resulted from evil supernatural forces or demonic possessions In the medieval times exorcists in the Roman Catholic Church performed exorcisms which were believed to banish demons from the possessed individual The origin of abnormal behavior was also represented through theories of naturalism Hippocrates contemporary medical concept of abnormal behavior was based on the stability of bodily humorsgcritical body fluids Wilhelm Griesinger believed that pathological brain conditions caused abnormality and Emil Kraepelin associated abnormal body conditions with mental illness The treatment of people who were labeled as mentally disturbed was immoral These individuals were commonly seen as inhuman and a threat to society and were often physically restrained Mental hospitals did not provide the appropriate medical care and patients were frequently left unattended and neglected Society rejected the mentally ill and a majority of asylums served strictly as sources of entertainment where society ridiculed the sick However the reform movement did provide mentally distressed people with a glimpse of hope JeanBaptiste Pussin and Philippe Pinel fought for the humane treatment of people who had mental disorders which later became known as moral therapy Contributions of Hippocrates Galen Pinel Pussin Griesinger and Kraepelin t0 the development of medical science and thinking Greek physicians Hippocrates and Galen provided reallife explanations of abnormal behavior Hippocrates believed that overall wellness and the stability of humors or crucial body uids justified abnormal behavior patterns The approach of abnormal behavior from a biologic view lead Hippocrates to categorize patterns of behavior for various medical aliments The first category melancholia pertained to extreme depression followed by mania that described unusual thrill and phrenitis which referred to uncommon and out of the ordinary behavior Galen embraced the ideas of Hippocrates and contributed to contemporary medicine by his breakthrough that arteries transport blood JeanBaptiste Pussin and Philippe Pinel contributed to medical science and thought by promoting the humane treatment of people with a mental illness that later become known as moral therapy Individuals who displayed mental distress were viewed as threatening and dangerous and were disadvantaged in the fact that they lacked the appropriate medical care Pussin enforced empathetic and kind treatment of people with mental distress which proved his hypothesis that in humane treatment residents would remain manageable and collected Pinel carried on Pussin s treatment plan while increasing social awareness among residents and provided sunny positive environments for advancing increased functioning Wilhelm Griesinger s biological view that abnormal behavior was a pathological condition of the brain later influenced Emil Kraepelin Together both physicians established the foundation for the presentday medical model which classifies mental illnesses Two groups of mental disease dementia praecox and manicidepressive psychosis were identified by Kraepelin and today referred to as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder Development of treatment centers for abnormal behavior from asylums through the mental hospital Treatment centers for people suffering from mental illness became prevalent across Europe and were popularly known as asylums or madhouses Asylums commonly housed the homeless in conjunction with mental distress residents which soon became a source of entertainment for normal society The living environment was unsanitary where residents were uncared for and found often residing in their own human waste The state of other living conditions in an asylum was dreadful39 residents were treated immorally and neglected and left to reside in an environment without any supportive aid JeanBaptiste Pussin and Philppe Pinel believed in promoting the humane treatment of mental distress residents which became known as moral therapy The goal of moral therapy was to improve and regain functioning of residents by providing humane treatment in a calm and maintained environment Due to societies flawed perspective of people with mental disorders humane treatment in psychiatric hospitals proved to be a challenge and was overlooked in the 193911 century After the fall of moral therapy mental hospital conditions grew considerably worse in the 203911 century A lack of resources and knowledge led to overcrowding sanitation issues and depleting patient recovery rates As an attempt to advance poor conditions in mental hospitals Congress created community mental health centers to provide continuous health care once patients were discharged from mental health facilities The goal of mental health centers was to help patients regain independence in daily activities return home and live functionally among society The reform movement and the use of moral therapy Pussin Pinel Rush and Dix The reform movement served as a steppingstone on the road to humane treatment of mentally distressed individuals JeanBaptiste Pussin and Philippe Pinel were the first people to promote humane treatment in mental hospitals which soon was known as moral therapy Through moral therapy Pussin and Pinel aimed to restore functioning by communication development improved living environment and outdoor privileges for residents At the same point in time Benjamin Rush and Dorothea Dix also supported similar moral therapy practices Benjamin Rush was an accomplished leader who wrote the first psychiatry textbook and ran the first psychological disorder hospital Rush s perceptions regarding causes of mental distress were that it was a result of swollen blood vessels in the brain However Rush did support humane treatment of patients and urged hospital faculty to treat patients in kind regard Music travel and Occupational Therapy were some therapeutic treatments that Rush used to improve patient function Dorothea Dix strongly encouraged moral therapy throughout the United States She aim ed to improve unfit and offensive living conditions in hospitals and prisons that housed mental illness patients In response to Dix s endeavors numerous mental hospitals were created throughout the US specializing in psychological disorders Discuss the actors associated with the current exodus rom mental hospitals in the United States In the 196039s there was a policy known as deinstitutionalization was starting to be implicated This policy was made to help the mentally ill become more independent by offering them more treatment options than to be literally locked away Before this time there were very few options for the seriously mentally ill patients we didn39t have the ability to treat them so we thought the best solution was to lock the away in asylums Around this time the US government started introducing the idea of community mental health centers They were supposed to help treat the mental ill and make it more possible for the patients to live among society again It was thought that these centers could help the patients with treatment and continued support after they were released from the state hospitals or asylums pgl4 and 15 Another huge step in treatment of these disorders and diseases was the introduction of antipsyocitc drugs during the 195039s and 196039s Theses drugs offered treatment for some of the disease that were thought to be untreatable which lead to the need to lock the mentally ill up These drugs showed a potential for these patient to be active members of society again These new drugs showed a great potential for treating and help the mentally ill Even though the introduction of new better drugs and the closing of many state asylums showed great potential there were also problems The closing andor the mass releasing of mentally ill patients caused some obvious problems first releasing mass amounts of potential unstable people without out proper treatment is not only unsafe for the public but more unsure foe the patients Even though the Centers were supposed to help them adjust they couldn39t help all the people the need defiantly outweighed the resources available at theses centers Next at this point not enough was known about these diseases or the side effect and the effectiveness of these new drugs So yes they were huge strides in progress but possible not enough and the resources were and still are stretched at these mental health centers Describe the movement toward 39 ofmental natientv A 391 7 quot39 There were defiantly more advantages than disadvantages in the deinstitutionalization of mental patients in my eyes Prior the mid 1900 s we didn t know much about and could understand most mental illness so our solution was to lock these people away in asylums These asylums were inhumane and ineffective in treating these patients Most of these were hospitals didn t really treat anything they mainly locked the insane away from society which they believed was the best and safest was the prevent them harming others or themselves This was accomplished by mistreating the patients and in some causes treating them like animals by literally locking them up and not giving them basic needs When these hospitals closed andor released masses of mental ill people they were given proper treatment and most were given the ability to live in society and function better However the release of some patients did lead some problems Not all the patients received good care and followup after being released which lead to people on the streets that could not take care of themselves This lead to a problem that we still see today that loads of mentally ill end up homeless and can t get proper service because the need is higher than the resources at the centers Still the asylums were not a good solution to this problem 1 J Discuss the following y 39 on abnormal behavior biological learning based 39 cognitive and Biological This contemporary perspective claims the base of abnormal behavior is caused by underlying biological defects or abnormalities This view states when people acting abnormally they are suffering from mental illnesses or disorders that can be classified according to their distinctive causes and symptoms They try to explain why these people are acting like this by using biological means such as a biochemical imbalance or an abnormality in body metabolism The main contributionl can think of in the view is the thought abnormal behavior should be treated by doctors of skilled therapist not just locking them away Psychodynamic This is a more modern view in talking about mental illness Recent scientist has brought about the idea that there may organic reasons for abnormal behavior One very important person with this ideal is Freud he presented many ideas that are used in the field today Freud believed that the mind had many states in each different levels of awareness and conscious were possible and this may relate to some mental illnesses Learningbased This contemporary perspective is similar to what is named In this perspective the abnormal behavior is explained by a learned trait This behavioral perspective claims it can explain both normal and abnormal behavior similarly because both are learned or conditioned from birth From a learning perspective abnormal behavior stands for the acquisition or learning of inappropriate maladaptive behaviors What make this type different from the first two forms is that it states the abnormal behavior itself is the problem not the brain or the conscious Scientist thinks that abnormal behavior is learned in the same way that normal behavior is learned They also feel treatment to mental illness can be similar to behavioral modifications such as reinforcements and punishments This can be achieved by conditioning the mental ill to more productive and acceptable behaviors they believe anyway Humanistic This perspective is relatively new in the field It stresses selfactualization which means striving to become everything that one is capable of being Thinking this way scientist feel you can strive to be the best self possible If one realizes they have a problem then can take the steps to fix it with help You have to realize it to fix it and no one can make you see the problem Cognitive39This perspective states that thoughts beliefs attitudes and possibly expectations can cause of abnormal behavior Scientists in this field stress that way we view information about our environment can lead to abnormal behavior if it is not done correctly If we have an incorrect view of the world it can lead to a problem Sociocultural In this perceptive it is believed that abnormal behavior is caused elements of a failed society That the person effected is not to blame but the society in which it has been brought up in It is thought that many factors can be the cause of these issues but the main force behind them remains society as a whole and the problems that arise form a diverse population This can be economical racially or ethnically motivated When a person doesn t deal with these issues it can cause problems Describe the structures of the brain and their functions The hindbrain is the lower part of the brain that is connected to the spinal cord It consists of the medulla pons and cerebellum p38 The medulla is an area involved in the regulation of heartbeat respiration and blood pressure m is a structure involved in body movements attention sleep and respiration Lastly the cerebellum is a structure that is involved in coordination and balance p39 The midbrain is the middle section of the brain that connects the hindbrain to the forebrain through nerve pathways A web like network of neurons called the Reticular Activating System or the RAS play important roles in regulating sleep attention and states of arousal p39 The front of the brain is known as the forebrain It includes the thalamus the hypothalamus the limbic system basal ganglia and the cerebrum The thalamus relays sensory information and in coordination with the RAS is involved in regulating sleep and attention p39 The hypothalamus is located beneath the thalamus It is very important because although it is the size of a pea it plays key roles including regulation of body temperature concentration of uids in the blood reproductive processes and emotional and motivational states For instance it is involved in a range of drives and behaviors such as hunger thirst sex parenting behaviors and aggression p40 The limbic system is important for emotional processing and memory It also serves functions regulating more basic drives like hunger thirst and aggression p40 The basal ganglia is at the base of the forebrain an are involved in regulating postural movements and coordination The cerebrum is the brain s crown and glory p40 because it is responsible for higher mental functioning such as thinking and problem solving It is also why the human head has a round shape Lastly is the cerebral cortex It is the wrinkled surface of the cerebrum responsible for processing sensory stimuli and controlling higher mental functions such as thinking and the use of language p40 2 Describe the structure and functions of the neuron and explain how neurons communicate with each other The three basic parts are the cell body the dendrites and the axon Dendrites are rootlike structures at the end of neurons that receive nerve impulses from other neurons The M is a long thin part of a neuron which nerve impulses travel p36 It is covered in a myelin sheath that insulates it from the bodily uids surrounding the neuron and facilitates transmission of neural impulses p36 The cell body contains the nucleus and metabolizes oxygen to carry out the work of the cell p36 Neurons communicate with each other by transmitting messages through neurotransmitters p36 3 Discuss the importance of neurotransmitters relating to mental disorders They are important because each kind has a distinctive chemical structure If the neurotransmitter has irregularities then chemical imbalances take place causing things such as depression sleep disorders and even Alzheimer s disease p38 4 Brie y describe the various parts of the nervous system explaining what each does There is the central nervous system which is the body s master control unit involving the spinal cord and the brain p39 Then there is the peripheral nervous system which is the body s link to the outside world p39 The peripheral nervous system is broken down into the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system The somatic nervous system carries sensory organs to the CNS and relays motor commands to muscles controls voluntary movement The autonomic nervous system regulates involuntary bodily processes including heart rate respiration digestion and pupil contraction The autonomic nervous system is also broken down into two parts the smpathetic nervous system mobilizes bodily resources in response to a threat and the parasympathetic nervous system replenishes bodily resources by promoting digestion and bodily processes p39 5 Describe the basic tenets of Freud s psychodynamic theory Freud believed that unconscious motives and con icts revolve around primitive sexual and aggressive instincts and the need to keep these primitive impulses out of consciousness p43 Also he believed that behavior re ects unconscious motivation inner con ict and the operation of defense mechanisms p 46 6 Describe Freud s views on the structure of personality and the functions of each of the structures he proposed Freud proposed the structures of personality as the id ego and superego He proposed the i as the unconscious psychic structure present at birth that contains our primitive instincts and is regulated by the pleasure principle The egg is the psychic structure that corresponds to the concept of the self governed by the reality principle and characterized by the ability to tolerate frustration Lastly he proposed the superego as the psychic structure that incorporates the values of the parents and important others and functions as a moral conscience p44 7 Explain what defense mechanisms are and for what they are used Also identify and give an example of at least 5 of the defense mechanisms proposed by Freud Defense mechanisms are realitydistorting strategies used by the ego to shield the self from awareness of anxietyprovoking impulses p44 One example is repression which is expulsion form awareness of unacceptable ideas or motives So when a person remains unaware that they are harboring hateful or destructive impulses towards others 2 Reglession happens when the return of behavior that is typical of earlier stages of development If someone is under a lot of pressure may bite their nails or become totally dependent on others 3 Denial is the refusal to recognize a threatening impulse or desire For example if someone almost chokes someone else out then acts likes it no big deal afterwards 4 Projection is imposing one s own impulses or wishes onto another person ex a sexually inhibited person misinterprets other people s friendly approaches as sexual advances 5 Sublimation which is the channeling of unacceptable impulses into socially constructive pursuits ex a person channels aggressive impulses into competitive sports 8 Identify and brie y explain each of Freud s stages of psychosexual development Stage 1 Oral lst year achieves sexual pleasure by sucking on the mother s breast and putting things in its mouth Stage 2 Anal 2quot year sexual gratification from the contracting and relaxation of the sphincter muscle Stage 3 Phallic 3 d year Oedipus complex boy is attracted to mother and is jealous of father according to Freud child must identify with the parent of the same sex Stage 4 Latency 612 years Sexual impulses remain latent and attention is more focused on school and play Stage 5 Genital puberty sex drives aroused Freud believed that success in the genital stage is achieved by attaining sexual gratification through sexual intercourse with someone of the opposite sex ideally after marriage p45 amp 46 9 Describe more recent psychodynamic theories comparing them to Freud s views Carl Jung introduces analytical psychology He believed that an understanding of human behavior must incorporate selfawareness and selfdirection as well as impulses of the id and defense mechanisms He believed we have what is called the collective unconscious that contains archetypes which are primitive images or concepts that reside in the collective unconscious Alfred Adler introduced individual psychology He believed people are driven by an inferiority complex not sexual instinct He spoke of the creative self which is a selfaware aspect of personality that strives to overcome obstacles and develop the individual s potential So he shifted emphasis of psychodynamic theory from the id to the ego Karen Horney proposed the concept of basic anxiety She also stressed the importance of childparent relationships but she shifted the emphasis from focusing on sexual and aggressive drives toward a closer examination of social influences on development Heinz Hermann is one of the originators of ego psychology modern psychodynamic approach that focuses more on the conscious strivings of the ego than on the hypothesized unconscious functions of the id p47 Erik Erikson focused on psychosocial development in contrast to Freud s emphasis on psychosexual development He attributed more importance to social relationships and formation of personal identity than to the unconscious process He also proposes that our personalities continue to develop throughout adulthood Margaret Mahler introduced obj ectrelations theory which focuses on how children come to develop symbolic representations of important others in their lives p48 Behaviorism focuses on how learning can explain a person39s behavior It explores how people39s different learning experiences can cause them to have normal or abnormal behavior The do not subscribe to the Freudian belief that there are underlying motivations to their behavior but rather that their behavior re ects somethin learned Classical Conditioning is making a response to one stimulus occur with another stimulus by associating the two There are major components to classical quot 39 39 39 quotquot 39 response quotquot 39 res onse unconditioned stimulus and conditioned stimulus A conditioned response is a learned response to a previously unimportant stimulus An unconditioned response is an unlearned response Anunconditioned stimulus is a stimulus that provokes an unlearned response A conditioned stimulus is a neutral stimulus that makes a conditioned response occur after repeated pairings with an unconditioned stimulus that had evoked the same response Operant Conditioning operate on the environment to produce effects or consequences It is used to explain why we learn how to develop more complex behaviors such as studying or working through reinforcements There are 2 types of reinforcers positive reinforcers and negative reinforcers Positive increase frequency of behavior when given to a person Negative increases the frequency of behavior when they are removed An example of a positive O O reinforcement would be giving a child a sticker every time they put their toys away They are encouraged to keep doing it because they are getting some kind of reward A negative reinforcement would be using a towel to dry your hands after washing them By using the towel to remove the water negative stimulus the behavior is reinforced when their hands get dried Punishments are unpleasant or even painful stimuli that reduce the frequency of a behavior it follows Unlike reinforcers it reduces the frequency of a behavior An example would be a parent spanking their child for hitting their sibling The parent is presenting an unpleasant stimulus to follow a behavior so the child will not want to do it again Primary reinforcers are things that people gain from a behavior that they quotneedquot such as food water and shelter Secondary reinforcers are things people are conditioned to quotneedquot such as money good grades and prizes SocialCognitive Theory focuses on observational learning and uses roles for cognitive variables in determining behavior An example would be a child learning to get angry while watching sports because that39s what their parents did when they were growing up Socialcognitive theorists believe that internal factors of individuals such as expectancies need to be considered when explaining that individual39s behavior A person39s expectancies are beliefs about expected outcomes The book gives the example if a person has a positive expectation about how a drug will effect them then they will use it much more frequently and in larger doeses than people who have more negative expectations Humanistic philosophies regarding behavior believe that people have a tendency to be the best person they can be Humanist s beleive they need to understand the life and challenges that people encounter trying to achieve self actualization being all they can be Rogers believed that abnormal behavior comes from distorted concept of the self Children can either develop a positive selfconcept or negative selfconcept based on how their parents raise them By showing them unconditional positve regard the parents show that a child can be loved regardless of the behaviors they show They can demonstrate to kids what behaviors are poor but will emphasize that the behavior is undesireable not the kid By showing a child conditional positive regard a parent only accepts the child when tehy behave in the way their parents want them to behave Children will develop conditions of worth meaning taht they will only feel fulfilled if they behave in approved ways and will learn to deny their genuine feelings and gain a distorted self concept Discuss the various methods used to study abnormal behavior including the naturalistic observation the correlational method the experimental method and the case study method Naturalistic Observationa form of research in which behavior is observed and measured in its natural environment Cause and effect are the best approached by means of controlling experiments Correlational Method uses the statistical method to examine relationships between two or more factors that can vary called a variable Experimental Method this allows scientist to by 391 the casual factor and measuring its effects under controlled conditions that minimize the risk of other factors explaining the results Discuss the value and limitations of the naturalistic observation method Limits this method provides on how people behave but does not reveal why they do so Value observes behavior in the field where it happens 1 1 1 Discuss the value and limitations of correlational research Limits does not manipulate of the variable of interest Value serve the scientific objective of prediction when two variables are correlated we can use one to predict the ot er Discuss the value and limitations of longitudinal research limits time consuming and costly requires a commitment that may outlive the original investigator Value seeks to identify factors or events in people lives that predict the later development of abnormal behavior Discuss the value and limitations of the casestudy method Limits much more rigorous as research designs than experimental Value include detailed histories of the subjects background and Reponses to treatments OO Describe the purpose and features of the experimental method Purpose this allows scientist to practice causal relationships by manipulating that casual factor and measuring its effect under controlled conditions that minimize the risk of other factors explaining the results Features The experimental group is an group that receives the experimental as the control group is not The experimental method also uses random assignment by assigning research subjects at random to experimental to balance the characteristic of people who comprise them Also selection factor which differences between experimental and control groups results from differences in the type Explain ways in which experimenters control for subj ects39 and researchers39 expectations Blind a blind is a state of being unaware of whether one has received an experimental treatment or a placebo Placebo Use placebos to control the possibility that positive treatment outcome results from hopeful expectations people hold Discuss the importance of drawing representative samples from target populations Random sampling is a sample that is drawn in such a way that every member of a population has an equal chance of being included Describe the features of the DSM system and evaluate its strengths and weaknesses The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSNT provides a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders It is used in the United States of America and invarying degrees around the world by clinicians researchers psychiatric drug regulation agencies health insurance companies pharmaceutical companies and policy makers There have been five revisions since it was first published in 1952 gradually including more mental disorders although some have been removed and are no longer considered to be mental disorders most notably homosexuality It is descriptive not explanatory It describes the diagnostic features in medical terms symptoms of abnormal behavior It does not attempt to explain their origins or adapt any particular theoretical framework such as psychodynamic or learning history It is used by matching a client s behavior with the criteria that define particular patterns or abnormal behavior mental disorders DSM represents a categorical model of classification which classifies individuals in terms of whether they meet criteria for particular categories of mental disorders These groups are based on abnormal behavior patterns according to features or symptoms DSM recommends that clinicians assess an individual s mental state according to five factors or axes These combined provided a wide range of information about individual s functioning and not just diagnosis The DSM has its strengths in the way it classifies disorders not people DSM is currently the most frequently used way of standardizing and defining psychological disorders However the classification systems such as DSM have advantages and disadvantages The major weakness of DSM is that it judges symptoms superficially and ignores other possible important factors The major strength of DSM is that it enables categorization of psychological disorders Describe the advantages and disadvantages of the DSM Advantage is it is crucial to understanding symptoms disorders and delivering the kind of counseling that many people need to reach mental health DSM IV has cumulative a large amount of research to use while working with different disorders Without the separate categories that the DSMIV has distinguished it would have been impossible to conduct this research and gather these data It s a big enough task to categorize an individual with pathology the likelihood of misdiagnosing is an even scarier thought The DSM IV is very thorough in the way that it covers differential diagnoses Every disorder has a lengthy section where it details other possibilities and how to distinguish these disorders from each other There are also charts called quot decision trees in the back of the book that can help clinicians narrow down diagnoses through a series of key questions Disadvantage Many critics of the DSMIV have pointed to the fact that several of the diagnostic criteria for various disorders have a cultural bias The manual has a definite orientation toward AngloAmerican culture and does not sufficiently consider what the norm is within other cultures within America For example many traits associated with Dependent Personality Disorder may not be considered pathological at all among cultures that are collectivistic and place a greater emphasis on family cohesion over the individual39s desires Labeling individuals with pathologies that can be looked up in a book as though the person were a dictionary entry has been considered dehumanizing and demoralizing by many critics of the DSM IV These critics insist that focusing on the diagnostic criteria and symptoms to the extent that many clinicians do can result in losing sight of the client as a unique individual with a unique personality and set of problems Discuss various methods used to assess a mental disorder Methods of assessment to determine diagnosis are interviews psychological testing selfreport questionnaires behavioral measures and physiological measures Describe what is meant by a clinical interview identifying the topics typically covered during an intake interview and contrasting structured with unstructured interviews Clinical interview most widely used of assessment Interview is done face to face with a clinician Topics that are format of most topics Identifying data Description of the presenting problems psychosocial history Medicalpsychiatric history and Medical problemsmedications In unstructured interview the clinician adopts his or her own style of questioning rather than following a standard format In semi structured interview the clinician follows a general outline of questions designed to gather essential information but is free to ask the questions in any particular order to branch off into other directions to follow up on important information In structured interview the interview follows a preset series of questions in particular order Distinguish between selfreport and projective personality assessment techniques Selfreport are objective test that use items to measure personality traits such as emotional instability masculinityfemininity and introversion People are asked to respond to specific questions or statements about their feelings thoughts concerns attitudes interests beliefs and the like Proiective personality assessment techniques which a person is shown ambiguous stimuli such as shapes or pictures and asked to interpret them in some way Discuss the history features reliability and validity of personality tests focusing on the MMI I and the Rorschach MMPT lLinnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory contains more than 500 true or false statements that assess interests habits family relationships physical complaints attitudes beliefs and behaviors characteristic of psychological disorders These questions are intended to be answered differently by members of carefully selected diagnostic groups rather than reference groups ex Patients with depression or schizophrenia would answer This test was developed in 1930s and 1940s cannot provide current judgment consistent with the DSM MMPI is used to gain general information about respondent s personality traits and attributes that may underlie their psychological problem rather than diagnosis MMPT is supported by large body of research findings It discriminates between psychiatric patients and controls and between groups of people with psychological disorders such as anxiety vs depressive disorders Rorschach developed by Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach He was intrigued by the game of dripping ink on paper and folding the paper to make a symmetrical figures He believed people saw different things in the same blot he believed their percepts re ected their personalities as well as the stimulus cues proved by the blot Today 10 blots are used because he could not publish the 15 he created at the time Inkblots are used and the subjects are asked to tell what the blots remind them of Clinicians who use this test make interpretations based on the content and the form of the responses Discuss the advantages and limitations of behavioral assessment Behavioral assessment treats test results as samples of behavior that occur in specific situations rather than as signs of underlying personality traits Behavior is primarily determined by environmental or situational factors such as cues and reinforcement It aims to sample an individual s behavior in settings as similar as possible to real life situations maximizing the relationship between the testing situation and the criterion Limitations occur due to direct observation the lack of consensus in defining problems in behavioral terms Such as hyperactivity in a child the coding that determines what is hyperactive Also when a lack of reliability or inconsistent or measurement across time or between observers observers code specific behaviors inconsistently Describe the following techniques the behavioral interview selfmonitoring use of contrived measures direct observation and behavioral rating scales Behavioral interview Posing questions to learn more about the history and situational aspects of the problem ehavior Selfmonitoring Clients are to record or monitor the problem behavior in their daily lives which is the method of relating problem behavior to the settings in which it occurs Use of contrived measures Method of testing projected to stimulate the setting the behavior naturally occurs but is performed in a laboratory or controlled setting Direct observation Clinicians observe and quantify problem behavior by direct observation like videotaping Behavioral rating scales A checklist that provides information about the frequency intensity and range of problem behaviors Discuss sociocultural and ethnic factors in the classi cation of abnormal behavior Tt can be hard to classify abnormal behavior because what is considered normal in one culture may be considered abnormal in another For example to some Native Americans it is quite normal for people to hear voices They think it is the spirits of the deceased communicating to them from the afterlife Here in the US we would classify that person as being Schezophrenic So when classifying someone as having abnormal behavior we must take into consideration their cultural norms Discuss the features of three or more culturebound syndromes Frst of all culturebound syndromes are patterns of abnormal behavior found within only one or few cultures One culturebound syndrome is TKS taijin kyofu sho This is common among young men in Japan and characterized by excessive fear of embarrassing or offending others They may dread blushing in front of other people or may also fear mumbling thoughts out loud Another culturebound syndrome is Zar This term is used in some countries in North Africa and the Middle East and describes the experience of being possessed Being possessed is explained by sudden changes in concsiousness or identity People affected by Zar may appear apathetic or withdrawn and refuse to carry out their normal responsibilities A third syndrome is falling out or blacking out It occurs among people in Southern Us and the Caribbean This disorder involves an episode of sudden collapsing or fainting The attack often occurs without warning or is preceded by dizziness Even though the person can hear and understand what others around them are saying they cannot see and feel they do not have the ability to move Discuss sociocultural and ethnic factors in the assessment of abnormal behavior Similar to classifying abnormal behavior researchers must keep in mind sociocultural and ethnic factors when assessing personality traits and psychological disorders Methods of assessment must be reliable and valid when used with members of other cultures You must also take language preferences into account Meanings can get lost or distorted when translating from one language to another and examiners need to look at the person39s cultural beliefs values and also look at their background before assessing their abnormal behavior 1Define psychotherapy and describe the basic features of psychotherapy Psychotherapy is a interaction between the therapist and a client Psychotherapy basically helps bring out the clients behavior thoughts and feelings The basic features of Psychotherapy are 1 Systematic interaction meaning that the therapists interact with the clients in ways that reflect theoretical point ofviews 2 Psychological principles meaning that the therapists rely on psychological principles research and theory in theirpractice 3 Behavior thoughts and feelings Psychotherapy may be directed at behavioral cognitive and emotional domains to help their clients overcome psychological problems 4 Abnormal behavior problem solving and personal growth There are three groups of people that get help with psychotherapy The rst group are people with abnormal behavior problems such as mood disorders anxiety or schizophrenia The second group of people are people with personal problems such as social shyness or confusion about career choices these people are not considered abnormal The third group of people are people who want personal growth for example parents artists performers or athletes 2 Describe the goals and methods of traditional psychoanalysis and compare and contrast traditional psychoanalysis with modern psychodynamic approaches SigmundFreud was the rst person to develop a part of psychotherapy which was called psychoanalysis psychoanalysis basically was to help people with psychological disorders The methods that Freud used were Free Association which is the process of uttering uncensored thoughts as they came to mind Dream Analysis during sleep defenses are lowered but are not completely gone so the impulses take a disguised or symbolic form Transference basically the clients would feel the same feeling of love hate pain anger towards the therapist The di erence between traditional psychoanalysis and modern psychodynamic approaches are that they bother explore their clients transference relationships and defenses but with modern they mostly focus on their present relationships and less on sexual issues Modern treatmentmostly consists of open dialogue and direct exploration of the clients defenses 1 Identify the three major groups of mentalhealth professionals discussed in your text and brie y discuss the training and professional requirements of each group Clinical psychologists They have earned a degree in psychology from an accredited college or university They train in a clinical psychology which typically involves 4 years of graduate course work one year long internship and a completion of a doctoral dissertation They specialize in giving psychological test diagnosing psychological disorders and practicing psychotherapy Counseling psychologists They also have a doctorate degree in psychology and also have completed graduate training They typically help people with a milder range of severity compared to those of clinical psychologists Psychiatrists Have earned a medical degree and completed their residency program in psychiatry They are physicians who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders 1 Describe the steps involved in finding a psychologist and identify at least 5 questions to ask of a psychologist from whom you are considering seeking treatment The steps involved in nding a psychologist are 1 seek recommendations from respected sources for example a physician or even family members 2 seek a referralfrom a local medical center or local community health center 3 seek a consultation with your college counseling center or health services center 4 contact J 39 1 39 39 Jul 1 39 5 letyour ngers do the walking meaning you can look them up on the internet or in the yellow pages 6 make sure the treatment provideris a licensed member of a recognized mental health profession 7 inquire about the type oftherapy being provided 8 inquire about the treatment providers professional background 9 inquire whether the treatment provider has had experience treating other people with similar problems 10 ask about cost and insurance coverage 1 1 nd out about treatment providers policies regarding changes for missed or cancelled sessions 12 ifmedication is prescribed nd out the delay expected before it starts working 13 if the treatment doesn t sound right to you discuss your concerns openly 14 ifyou still have doubts request a second opinion Describe the philosophies goals and methods of humanisticexistential therapies Humanistic therapists focus on clients subjective conscious experiences They also focus more on What clients are experiencing in the present Describe the goals and methods of behavioral and cognitive therapies The goal of Behavior therapy is directly changing the problem behavior through the use of learningbased techniques The major techniques are systemic desensitization gradual exposure modeling and reinforcement techniques Cognitive therapy is identifying and correcting distorted thoughts beliefs and attitudes which are believed to be the cause of their emotional problems and maladaptive behavior Describe systematic desensitization gradual exposure modeling aversive conditioning operant conditioning social skills training and methods for fostering selfcontrol Systematic desensitization A behavior therapy technique used for overcoming phobias This often means exposing the person to the fearful stimuli While they remain deeply relaxed Gradual exposure A behavior therapy technique used for overcoming fears through direct exposure of the fearful stim i Modeling A behavior therapy technique for helping an individual acquire a target behavior by observing as a therapist or another individual demonstrates the behavior and then imitates it Aversive conditioning This is used in the treatment of substance abuse problems such as smoking and alcoholism Operant conditioning A form of learning in which behavior is acquired and strengthened when it is reinforced Social skills training Used in the treatment of social anxiety and skills deficits associated with schizophrenia Methods for fostering selfcontrol Unconditional positive regard empathy genuineness and congruence Not sure if this is correct Discuss the development of eclectic approaches in psychotherapy Eclectic therapy is an approach to psychotherapy that incorporates principles or techniques from various systems or theories A greater percentage of psychologists identify with an eclectic or integrative orientation than any other orientation Some therapists believe that combining elements of different therapeutic approaches will lead to a hodgepodge of techniques that lack a cohesive conceptual framework This type of therapy is still growing and it is expected that new approaches with emerge Describe the features and roles of group therapy and marital and family therapy Group Therapy This is a form of therapy where a group of clientspeople meet with a therapist Family Therapy this is a form of therapy where the family not just an individual receives treatment CoupleMarital Therapy A form of therapy that focuses on resolving con icts in distressed couples Describe the advantages and disadvantages of group therapy ADVANTAGES Group therapy is often much cheaper Many people believe that group therapy is more effective because you are surrounded by people with similar problems Clients will learn how people with similar problems cope with them Group members may also practice social skills DISADVANTAGES Some clients do not want to disclose their problems to a group Some like the individual attention of a therapist Some clients do not feel comfortable in a group type setting Describe family therapy approaches to treating the family unit Family therapy aims to help troubled families resolve their conflicts so the family functions better as a unit and so individual family members have less stress In family therapy they learn to communicate more effectively and to work through con icts more efficiently Discuss issues relating to the use of traditional Western psychotherapy approaches with diverse cultural and racial groups Therapists need to be culturally competent to provide appropriate services to clients of a different background Therapists need to avoid ethnic stereotypes and demonstrate sensitivity to the values languages and cultural beliefs of members from a different racial or ethnic group Discuss medical approaches to treatment including drug therapy electroconvulsive therapy and psychosurgery Drug therapy uses psychotropic drugs to treat psychological disorders These drugs used to treat the disorders act on neurotransmitters in the brain Some of the disorders these drugs are usually used to treat are depression and anxiety Electroconvulsive therapy is used in psychiatric treatment It is used in cases of severe depression when the antidepressants have not worked ECT has been a controversial topic because of the method in which it works by passing electric shock through a person s head Describe the features of anorexia and bulimia when they usually begin who is most at risk to develop each and the medical complications associated with each Anorexia is an eating dism dc 39 39 J b 39 of an 39 quot low bodyweight a distorted body image and intense fears ofgaining weight Bulimia is an eating disorder characterized by recurrent binge eating followed by selfinducing purging accompanied by overconcern with body weight and shape The majority of both cases start in adolescence or early adulthood European American women are most at risk to develop either ofthese disorders What are the differences between binge eatingpurging anorexia and restrictive anorexia39 Binge eating purging is characterized by frequent episodes of binge eating and purging People with this type may have impulse control issues Restrictive anorexia does not include binge eating or purging but rigidly control thier diet and appearance Discuss the casual factors involved with anorexia and bulimia rom a sociocultural standpoint anorexia and bulimia results from obsessive comparisons ofone39s own body unfavorably to others This gives a person disfavorable body image and need for perfection Describe the features of bingeeating disorder and how it differs from bulimia 39 g t39 g disorderis quot g 39uinges purging It does not have an official diagnostic category but further research is being done to help classify it It is thought to be more common than bulimia or anorexia It is different from bulimia in that they do not vomit after eating Discuss the prevalence and causes ofobesity I 1 in 4 people Worldwide are overweight 23 ofAmericans are overweight and 13 are clinically obese 15 children and adolescents are overweight Genetics metobloic facotrs lifestyle factors psychologuycal facotors andsocioeconomic factors can all cause obesity pg 33 Discuss racial and ethnic differences in obesity I Women tend to have a higher prevlance ofobesity than men Mexican American women have a 40 prevlalence of obesity Black women 50 and White around 30 Obesity is more prevalent among people of lower incomelevels because ofthe lack of nutrition information available pg 339 Identify and explain the various methods fortreating obesity I Diet and exercise can help in treating obesity pg 338339 Discuss what is happening regarding calories to a dieter39s body as they lose large amounts ofweight and attempt to keep it off I When people start to lose signigicant amounts ofweight the body reacts as if it were starving by slowing the metabolic rate to preserce energy resources which makes it difficult to lose weight or maintain weight that was lost pg 338 How does the body respond to losing weight beyond a genetically determined set point39 I The body adjusts to the weightloss by slowing the metabolic rate to preserve energy resources therefore maintinaing that set point pg 338 What does quotadipose tissuesquot refer to39 I Adipose tissue reffers to the fatty tissue in the body pg339 How would the psychodynamic and learning perspective explain an individual having an eating disorder I From a learning perspective an eating disorderis seen as as atype ofweight phobia Relief from anxiety acts as a negective reinforcement Bulimia is a binge and purge cycle that typically begins after a period of strict dieting and the bulimicwomen tend to be slightly overweight The strict diet fails and the binging and purging begins The binge eating produces fear ofweight gain and then prompts induced vomiting or excessive exercise Purging in negectively reinforced because it produces relieffrom anxiety ofweight gain Anorexia is negectively reinforced by the relief of anxiety about weight gain from rejecting food page 334 The psychodynamic perspective is viewed from the perspective that the girls with anorexia have difficulty separating from their families and having separate individuated identiites The anorexia may r 39 irls 39 in r r 39 L39 In the efforts to remain having a child like body the girls may avoid dealing with adult issues such as independence and separation from the families sexaul maturation and adult responsibilities page 3 5 Discuss the diagnostic features ofsleep disorders and methods for assessing them Specialized facilities called sleep disorder centers provide more ofa comprehensive assessment of sleep problems than a typical office setting Polysomnographic PSG recording is a form of assessment where the patient sleeps at the center While asleep they are monitored through wires they are hooked up too The wires monitor brain waves and heart and respiration rates Physicians come to a diagnosis after combining the results ofthe monitoring the medical and psychological evaluations subjective reports to sleep disturbance sleep diaries and looking to the DSM for diagnosis p 342 Describe the features ofthe majortypes of J primary insomnia breathingrelated sleep disorder and circadian rhythm sleep disorder Dyssomnias sleep disorder involving disturbances in the amount quality ortiming ofsleep Primary insomnia characterized by chronic or persistent insomnia not caused by another psychological or physical disorder or by the effects of drugs or medications Hypersomnia pattern of excessive sleepiness during the day Narcolepsy characterized by sudden irresistible episodes ofsleep Breathingrelated sleep disorder sleep disorder in which sleep is repeatedly disrupted by difficulty with breathing normally Circadian rhythm sleep disorder characterized by a mismatch between the body39s normal sleepwake cycle and the demands ofthe environment p 342344 I Describe the features ofthe major parasomnias nightmare disorder sleep terror disorder and sleepwalking disorder Parasomnias sleep disorders involving abnormal behaviors or physiological events that occur during 39 Lt quot quot sleep dism dc 39 39 J by recurrent A J by narcolepsy sleep orwhile falling asleep 5 awakenings due to frightening Sleep ten m quot of sleep terrors resulting in abrllpr 39 quot39 quot repeated episodes ofsleepwalking p 345 Discuss pharmacological and psychological treatments ofsleep disorders Antianxiety drugs are among the drugs often used to treat insomnia including the class ofantianxiety drugs called benzodiazepines such as Valium and Ativan Anotherwidely used drug zolpidem also known as Ambienhas also been effective in both reducing the length oftime ittakes insomniacs to fall asleep and increasing sleep duration When used forthe shortterm treatment ofinsomnia sleep medications generally reduce the time it takes to get to sleep increase total length of sleep and reduce nightly awakenings They work by reducing arousal and inducing feelings ofcalmness thereby making the person more receptive to sleep Sleep medications primarily work by increasing the activity of GABA a neurtransmitter that dampens the activity ofthe central nervous system Found on page 346 4 39 quot39 quot 39 Idisorderinvolving Psychological approaches have by and large been limited to treatment ofprimary insomnia Cognitive behavioral techniques are short term in emphasis and focus on lowering bodily arousal establishing regular sleep habits and replacing anxietyproducing thoughts with more adaptive thoughts Cognitive behavioral therapists typically use a combination oftechniques including stimulus control adopting a regular sleepwake cycle relaxation training and rational restructuring Stimulus control involves changing the environment associated with sleeping Found on page 347 I L Describe factors in 39 of 39 behaviors are normal and abnormal Give examples I many patterns ofsexual behavior like masturbation oral sex premarital intercourse etc are considered normal in American society but may not in more strict reguons ofthe world Things such as frequency how selfdefeating the act is how much it harms others or causes distress may he determine norms in certain sociocultural instances Most cultures have different scales than others I Kissing for example is perfectly normal in most western cultures but to tribes in Africa such as the Thongas see kissing as a swapping of saliva and dirt and is a very disgusting thing I Gender Identity disorder is where there is a conflict between ones anatomic sex and ones gender identity that is associated with serious emotional distress or impaired functioning GlD is also referred to as transsexualism it also begins in childhood When diagnosed in childhood the diagnosis is applied to children who persistently repudiate their anatomic traits or who are preoccupied with clothing or activities that are stereotypical ofthe other sex Theoretical Perspectives of GlD are Psychoanalytic Theory This theory uses the relationship between parents and children to identify GID Boys with strong relationships with their mothers absentee fathers orweak fathers are key factors to explaining GID Girls who identify with the masculine traits oftheir fathers over the meeker roles oftheir mothers are the key factors to GlD according to psychoanalytictheorist I Learning Theory absentee fathers or lack of strong male role models are precursors to GID Parents who teach children prominently how to identify with the opposite sex or encourage behaviors ofthe opposite sex may have children with GID Through learning experiences children begin to identify with the opposite sex Biological Theory These theorists believe that hormones and genes are key influences to GID ln utero during development a release of hormones is released and the over abundance of hormone affects the baby brain development causing the confusion between anatomic sex and psychological sex I I Gender Reassignment Surgery Fewerthan 200000 people are known to have undergone sex reassignment surgery It is the process of attempting to construct external genital organs that closely resemble those ofthe opposite sex Male to female surgery is generally more successful that female to male surgery They take hormone treatments to promote the development of secondary sex characteristics ofthe reassigned sex such as growth of fatty tissue in the breasts in male to female cases and the growth ofthe beard and body hair in female to male surgery People that undergo the surgery can participate in sexual activity and even reach orgasm but they cannot conceive or bear children I Discuss whether or not homosexuality is a mental disorder Many people who might be diagnosed with GlD do perceive themselves to be suffering from a mental disorder They may use the term transgender identity to describe themselves They believe that theirgender identity is a variation or different form of gender identity rather than a sign of psychological disorder or pathology The diagnosis of GlD is required for persons who seek gender reassignment surgery to correct what they perceive to be a mistake of nature I Was it ever considered a mental disorder39 Given the malleability ofgender roles and identities we observe across cultures we may question the validity of conceptualizing a transgender identity as a type of psychological disorder I Why might this perspective have changed Perhaps the emotional distress they experience is a resault of the hostile treatment they receive in society that insists that people fit into one oftwo arbi arily designated categories and than treats harshly those who do not Critics ofthe present diagnostic system contend that much pressures associated with difficulties getting along with other kids and being accepted by them Hausman 2003 Define and describe the features ofvarious paraphilias Exhibitionism flashing involves recurrent powerful urges to expose one genitals to an unsuspecting strangerto surprise shock or sexually arouse the victim Most cases involve men victims are usually women The person may masturbate while fantasizing about or actually exposing himself 2 w 5 90995quot 39aa a a Fetishism magic charmquot the magic lies in the object ability to amuse sexually The chief feature is recurrent powerful sexual urges and amusing fantasies involving inanimate abjects such as an article of clothing Transvestic Fetishism powerful urges and related fantasis involving cross dressing for purpose of sexual arousal Voyeurism acting or being strongly distressed by recurrent powerful sexual urges and fantasis ofwatching unsuspecting people generally stranges who are undressed disrobig or engaging in sexual activity FRotteurism powerful urges involving rubbing against ortouching a nonconsenting person pedophia powerful urges involving sexual activity with prepubescent children most 13 years oryounger Sexual masochism involing begin humiliated bound flogged distress Sexual Sadism sexually aroused by inflicting physical suffering or humiliation of another person Discuss theoretical perspectives regarding the cause of paraphilia disorders Psychologial perspective The learning perspective Atypical stimuli become conditioned stimuli for sexual arousal as the result of prior pairing with sexual acticty Atypical stimuli may become eroticized by incorpaorating them within erotic and masturbatory fantasies Psychodynamic Perspective Unresolved castration anxiety from childhood leads to sexual arousal being displaced onto safer objects or activites Multifactorial perspective Sexual or physical abuse in childhood may corrupt normal sexual arousal patterns Discuss treatment of persons with paraphilias These results remain questionable o Biomedical treatment Drugs to help individuals control deviant urges or reduce sexual drives 0 Cognitive behavioral therapy Includes aversive conditioning and nonaverive methods that help individuals acquir more adaptive behaviors Explain what sexual dysfunctions are and describe the phases ofthe sexual response cycle Sexual dzsiunctions are persistent problems with sexual interest arousal or response Lifetime dzsiunctions are cases ofsexual dysfunction that have existed forthe individual39s lifetime Acquired dzsiunctions begin following a period ofnormal functioning Situational dysfunction the problems occur in situationseg with one39s spouse but not in others eg with a lover orwhen masturbating or at some times but not others Generalized dzsiunctions occur in all situations and every time the individual engages in sexual activity Define and describe the features ofthe various sexual dysfunctions Sexual Desire Disorders disorders involving lack ofsexual interest or aversion to genital contact Hypoactive sexual desire disorder lack of sexual interest or desire SexuaI aversion disorder aversion to and avoidance of genital sexual contact SexuaI Arousal Disorders disorders involving lack of sexual excitement or arousal Female sexual arousal disorder difficulty becoming aroused or maintaining sexual arousal or excitement during sexua a 39 39 Male erectile disorder difficulty achieving or maintaining erection during sexual activity Orgasm Disorders disorders involving impaired orgasmic response Six crimriz Lth are used Ln Mine zbnnrmzlbehzvinr 1ITnultualnP categonzlng abnormal behavl0r r L For Man people m 2 Sucizl deviance luleuuu uul Pr culture rellglous eusloms age and hlsLoncal commit should be T T Pr taken lnto account Tn nammlar Hm u h HHlm 3 1 Ann 39 39 perlpheml Vision hearlng velees or accusatlons and dlerusL also develop mm pamnola 4 dldr depresslon r 5 r du an lea ln eVPr mhal all 6 Dangemusness abnormallty unpredlctable l football r m u Howeveru ul l lllu uull Behavlor Lhat ls culture Behavlor Lhat s in US an nu Asthese are Thu u lul us A Juuldn slcknesi 39r A m wealmess or sore throat ln contrast to emollous of depreslen or aruuely u yl ul lu Tn nammlar v ma ha h mu l l W cured and reswred wth a newfound state ofwellness balanced dl l n m mm supemaluml forces an exorelsl usually a member othe Church n Lu 39 39 39 quotmadquot Dr mentally ill evll nm Pr mm m lndlvldual kAlL 1kA u ds 4 lllness and lel restralned 1 Pr mi whlch me l CunLribuLiuns anippncmms Galen1gtlnel1gtussln m aquot at when L L l l The rst at rv andnhremn Galen 4 a a l therapy A A l L Pussln enforced Plnel earned on Pussln s L L later ln uenced Erml Kraepehn Together both physlclans estabhshed the foundatlon for a a a l a l r a 4 referred to as schlzophrenla and blpolar dlsorder r r madhouses normal socrety and nnunmn t ln mt l Lu l mil t r vi m n envrronrnent wrthout any supportwe ald Y t human 1 century After L L century A 4 mm m u and depletrng quot erlm h m mi Pu in PinPl RH 11 and Dix lmm llvlng enVlronment and at l R mamm Ru h ml rum th R nlamln T T r MLEIC travel and patlents In the y r yu u l l r rornthe state hosprtals or asylums pg 14 and 15 L L r l 0 andl 0 r These new drugs showed a geat potentlal for treatlng and help the mentally 1U patlents r L L l L 4 Next at th5 resources were and sun are stretched at these mental health centers Prlothe mld 4 A 4 ln an hr nu l r r r r a a a r T T er care othemselves sun the asylums were not a good solutron to ths problem hinlnm39 Inn mam Mir man a hum um ami v nIwilvulmml Blologlcal doctors ofskllled theraprst not Just u locklngquot them away a u lulal ua l l p Psychodmamlc posslble and ths may relate to some mental lllnesses w uatl haul u l pram u e lt From a leamlng perspeotrye abnormal behayror stands for the aoqursrtron or leammg nalhnall ntth bmlnothec e Leamlngrbased Flnannmnrlm onsclous Sclmtlsf l l mu u l h a Humanlstlo m the eld b ll F enyrronment can lead to a problem l mllmml up m d l t Thlscan be n ml M l Descrlbe the structures othe bmm and Lhelr functlons A n n andoerebellump38gt F11 a h a mmlmhm aNPnh n l Pn andr mlmh n Tadl 39gt mlddle Aweb m M p attentl n 39 It NW 11 n Vhahmu Hw llmhl VPm ha M an M andlh caebmm l ln l dln r r 39gt f A F rmvan Vhlrd quot Vhlr quot ooordrnatlon The oerebrumr Y Y It IS also why the functlons such as Lhmkmg and the use oflanguage p 40 Z a The three baslc parts are the cell body the dendrltes and the axon The axon IS a long 36 36 Y 36 nausnuuul messages through neurotransmrtters p 36 3 Dlscuss the lmp ortance ofneurotransmltters relatlng to mental dlsorders depresslon sleep dlsorders and eyen Alzhelmer s dlsease p 38 4 4 ul o u nu to nu 39 the body l p 39 mmlmh n dl mm 39 5 Descrlbe the baslc tenets ofFreud s psychodynamlc theory p43 l mneroon lot d h 46 6 Freud proposed the structures ofpersonalrty as the ld ego and sup erego p 44gt 000 oo oo oo al u d Also 4 A l l Z Regresslon 3 u h For amnl 4Proectlonls 5 Subllmatlon whlch Stage 2 Anal 2d year sexual gauflcauoh from the Contractlng Stagel Oral 1 and relaxauoh othe sphlhelerrhusele Stage3 Phalllch X Stage4 V 39 a r l r V lt v amp46gt M uheohselous Alfred um Karm emphaslsonp L 4 l ourpersohallue Mal al Mahler L represmtatlons oflmp ortant oLhers lh Lhelr llves p 48 p a u lual ma ll The donot u lullulu ul lulall ulel lul al mall p l A rm nudi39innnd 39 39 39 39 uheohdluohed sleulusLhaL had evoked the same response ll l h Uhllkerelhroreers IL L H A uh 39 ularul u d suehasfoodwalerahdsheller Secundzryreinfurcersarethngspeopleare eohdluohed lo lheedl such as money good gades and prlzes Igup bell A ll FF mh m p p L pal hr lal mm W a n Hh lzld 4 yak m am Lherhlo behave L 4 dlsLorted selfconcept ealled a varlable m lanmal M w d Other faolors explalhhg the results Dlscuss the value and hmllauohs othe naturallstlc observatlon melhod p pl ha L Value observes behavlor h the eld where It happens Dlscuss the Value and llmltatlons ofcol39relatlonal research Llrnlts does not manlpulate othe varlab 1e of lntaest Value L Dlscuss the value and llmltatlons oflongltudlnal research e Dlscuss the value and llrhllauorls othe easesludy method lelts much more ngorous as research deslgls Lhan experlrhehlal lledl o oo 7 Descrlbe the purpose and features othe expenmealal method aiplalnlng the results Features Lhetype r J L k a pa Placebo pl L by llm mn r m hm andn ll maks39r a a dlsordas most notably homosexuallty Itlsdesalptlvemotaiplanatory lnm dl aHPrm r ll al l Lheorelleal framework such as psychodynamlc or leamlng hlsLory palleu la u mal ll m maldlsorda f 4 palu ma 4 4 a u l l lupl us or axes n ln nl DSM 4 lll may l Howeva the The major Describe Lhe advantages and disadvmmges at the DSM A A A A l L l A DSM IV has cumulatlve a large amount of A A A TV has dlsmgulshed It would have been lmposslble to conduct th5 research and gamer these data m aim The DSM IV A A u l l u LA 1v uuul lam Amenea For example many ualls assoclated yth Depmdmt Personallly Dlsorder may DSM IV personallty and sel ofproblems Discuss varinus melhuds used Lu assess a manual disnrder Lnlerylew mi other dlrectlons to follow up on lmponanl lnfol39matlon Lu nd I And and WM Pr n or statements about theu feehhgs thoughts coneems attttudes hterests behefs and the hke team r wwwan ta mm L ammd bellest a t t L r r t n and mm A utmutagt t TVTMPT It L L Hebeheved peoplesaw h t h 1th W pa cept t h e hut hr Today pubhsh e e form othe responses Discuss the advantages and umitatiuns ufbahzvinmlzssessment M mutton bemwem the Lestmg sxtuahon and the mtenon mtttteuet u ut L quot Also whena e u ee nlenn hnvin w a ut M Jan h haeu curs or controlled setthg L hke vtdeotapmg For example t w t for people to hear Volces Here m the U s 4 So when etasstfyt uteu at h Discuss the features at three m mare cultureeb uund syndmmes LFrsL of an t uteu meme nu aw at ayaut u t blackmg out It occurs among people h SouLhem U s and the Canbbean ut the t 75mm values M m sz method mat Freud used were Free Amman 1 mum ulcuuccumjul work those afctmm pxychalagtstx The stepx mvalved mftndmg a psychalagtst are camaapmfemam argumzmmmfar recammendzman ummsww mqmre about we type afthempy bemg prawded 8 mqutre about we treatmentpmwders pmfesnamt badng 9 10 ask about cost and mmmnce coverage 1 1 12 WU 13 me treatment doexn t Sound ugh tayou deems your concerns openly 14 tfyou ml have douth request a second aptman in may r eradrrai arposure m d Mn h h r and maladaptive behavior marina nvnnnnn mndnlin vr Arr m m r 1 Mdhn Methods for fostering selfrcontrol Uncondrtronai positryeregatd empathy genuneness and congumce Not sure ifthis is correct aDiscuss the deveiupment uf eclectic app reaches in psychetherapy r hr rr Agata r 39 39 untidy Group Therapy r r r r es treatment 7 Describe the advantages and disadvantages nf gnmp therapy ADVANTAGES r r t yr ten cherrtswru g g DISADVANTAGES 7 Describe family therapy appmaches m treating the family unit Describe the structures of the brain and their functions The hindbrain is the lower part of the brain that is connected to the spinal cord It consists of the medulla pons and cerebellum p38 The medulla is an area involved in the regulation of heartbeat respiration and blood pressure Pons is a structure involved in body movements attention sleep and respiration Lastly the cerebellum is a structure that is involved in coordination and balance p39 The midbrain is the middle section of the brain that connects the hindbrain to the forebrain through nerve pathways A web like network of neurons called theReticular Activating System or the RAS play important roles in regulating sleep attention and states of arousal p39 The front of the brain is known as the forebrain It includes the thalamus the hypothalamus the limbic system basal ganglia and the cerebrum The thalamus relays sensory information and in coordination with the RAS is involved in regulating sleep and attention p39 The hvpothalamus is located beneath the thalamus It is very important because although it is the size of a pea it plays key roles including regulation of body temperature concentration of uids in the blood reproductive processes and emotional and motivational states For instance it is involved in a range of drives and behaviors such as hunger thirst sex parenting behaviors and aggression p40 The limbic system is important for emotional processing and memory It also serves functions regulating more basic drives like hunger thirst and aggression p40 The basal ganglia is at the base of the forebrain an are involved in regulating postural u v t and J39 quot The cerebrum is the brains crown and glory p40 because it is responsible for higher mental functioning such as thinking and problem solving It is also why the human head has a round shape Lastly is the cerebral cortex It is the wrinkled surface of the cerebrum responsible for processing sensory stimuli and controlling higher mental functions such as thinking and the use of language p40 2 Describe the structure and functions of the neuron and explain how neurons communicate with each other The three basic parts are the cell body the dendrites and the axon Dendrites are rootlike structures at the end of neurons that receive nerve impulses from other neurons The M is a long thin part ol a neuron which nerve impulses travel p36 It is covered in a myelin sheath that insulates it from the bodily uids surrounding the neuron and facilitates transmission of neural impulses p36 The cell body contains the nucleus and metabolizes oxygen to carry out the work of the cell p36 Neurons communicate with each other by transmitting messages through neurotransmitters p36 3 Discuss the importance of neurotransmitters relating to mental disorders They are important because each kind has a distinctive chemical structure If the neurotransmitter has irregularities then chemical imbalances take place causing things such as depression sleep disorders and even Alzheimer s disease p38 4 Brie y describe the various parts of the nervous system explaining what each does There is the central nervous system which is the body39s master control unit involving the spinal cord and the brain p39 Then there is the peripheral nervous system which is the body s link to the outside world p39 The peripheral nervous system is broken down into the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system The somatic nervous system carries sensory organs to the CNS and relays motor commands to muscles controls voluntary m v t T39 39 nervous system regulates involuntary bodily processes including heart rate respiration digestion and pupil contraction The autonomic nervous system is also broken down into two parts the s ic nervous system 39 quot39 bodily resources in response to a threat and theparas 39 t39 ic nervous svstem A 39 39 bodily resources by promoting digestion and bodily processes p39 5 Describe the basic tenets of Freud s psychodynarnic theory Frele believed that unconscious motives and con icts revolve around primitive sexual and aggressive instincts and the need to keep these primitive impulses out of consciousness p43 Also he believed that behavior re ects unconscious motivation inner con ict and the operation of defense mechanisms p 46 6 Describe Freud s views on the structure of personality and the functions of each of the structures he proposed Freud proposed the structures of personality as the id ego and superego He proposed the id as the unconscious psychic structure present at birth that contains our primitive instincts and is regulated by the pleasure principle The egg is the psychic structure that corresponds to the concept of the self governed by the reality principle and characterized by the ability to tolerate frustration Lastly he proposed the supereoo as the psychic structure that incorporates the values of the parents and important others and functions as a moral conscience p44 7 Explain what defense mechanisms are and for what they are used Also identify and give an example of at least 5 of the defense mechanisms proposed by Freud Defense mechanisms are realitydistorting strategies used by the ego to shield the selffrorn awareness of anxietyprovoking impulses p44 One example is repression which is expulsion form awareness of unacceptable ideas or motives So when a person remains unaware that they are harboring hateful or destructive impulses towards others 2 Regression happens when the return of behavior that is typical of earlier stages of development lfsomeone is under a lot of pressure may bite their nails or become totally dependent on others 3 Denial is the refusal to recognize a threatening impulse or desire For example if someone almost chokes someone else out then acts likes it no big deal afterwards 4 Projection is imposing one s own impulses or wishes onto another person ex a sexually inhibited person misinterprets other people s friendly approaches as sexual advances 5 Sublimation which is the channeling of unacceptable impulses into socially constructive pursuits ex a person channels aggressive impulses into competitive sports p45 LANSING COMMUNITY COLLEGE SOCIAL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT SECTION SYLLABUS FOR Psyc 250 Abnormal Psychology Call Number 20756 Spring 2012 Classes begin Jan 7 2012 I COURSE INFORMATION All email from you to me if sending to kbonnellelccedu address should begin with under email subject VC 250 7 Spring 2012 quotyour name and the topic If you do not place this in the subject of your email I may not realize it is from you and delete the mail as junk mail II PREREQUISITES Psychology 200 20 minimum Reading Level 5 Writing Level 6 III COURSE DESCRIPTION This course will explore the concepts of psychopathology analysis of forms nature etiology and treatment of disorders of behaviour and personality A survey of the nature development diagnosis and treatment of psychopathology viewed from a generalsystems perspective psychological sociological and biological Major theories of causes scienti c research and diagnostic and therapeutic techniques are studied with respect to various psychological disorders IV INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS Required Text Abnormal Psychology in a Changing World 8th ed by Nevid Rathus amp Greene ISBN 9780205809615 Professor Dr Bonnelle Email kbonnellelccedu Office AampS 356 Office Phone 4831489 SSH Department 7 AampS 301 phone 4831018 Tech Support 517 4835221 or httpwwwlccedu LCC1 Of ce Hours by appointment Class Meets Online Credits 3 V STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES Upon completion of this course the successful student will be able to 1 Explain the various facets of abnormal behavior such as atypical behavior personally andor socially distressing thoughtsbehavior and culturally deviant thoughtsbehavior 2 Discuss the causality and treatment proposed by each of the major models of psychopathology psychodynamic learning and biological theoriestreatment for the major mental disorders including mood disorders anxiety disorders personality disorders addictive disorders dissociative disorders somatoform disorders eating and sleep disorders paraphilias and psychotic disorders 3 Identify the major mental disorders categorized by the Diagnostical and Statistical Manual DSM VI METHODS OF INSTUCTION Online course consisting of minilectures group discussions and proctored exams VII METHODS OF EVALUATION STUDENT ACHIEVEMENTPROGRESS Five exams 100 points each The points from the following assignments will be summed and count as one assignment grade 0 Ten assignments writing group and0r Angel interactive total 100 points Six quotstudy guidequot group tasks 12 points each total 72 points Two Interactive projects Angel use 1 point each total 2 points One Critical thinking research paper 25 points One Re ective essay 1 point Grading scale 91100 40 A 8690 35 B 8185 30 B 7680 25 C 7175 20 C 6670 15 D 6065 10 D 59 and below 00 Grading system Final score will be acquired from averaging a student39s top ve exam scores and the online assignment score created from the summation of all assignments The on ine assignments will be totaled to represent one exam grade I strongly advise that you do not wait till the nal date for completing either exams or assignments Late work will not be accepted Repeat grading Each exam will be scored on a 100 scale as will be the quottotal assignmen quot score Final grade will be acquired from averaging the top ve exam scores and the assignment score I do not give extra credit If you nd you are having problems contact me early in the semester and we can discuss study strategies tutoring options etc Do not wait till the end and ask for quotextra credi work What I do for one student I do for all therefore extra credit will not be given as a method to quotboostquot one s grade A Exams Exams will be taken Via computer Exams are to be taken at LCC39s assessment center You will need a password to take your exam You do not personally have access to this password When you report to the assessment center or proctor to take your exam the assessment center personnel or proctor will input a password for you Proctored exams are for students who live too great of a distance from LCC to commute to the campus for exam purposes Proctor arrangements can be made by calling 517 2675500 or l800 6444522 You may have your exams proctored close to home Again contact the assessment center 517 2675500 for more information regarding proctoring You must choose a proctor who has access to the intemet and thus Angel You will need to bring a picture ID when taking an exam a Exam misc There will be six multiplechoicetruefalse short answeressay exams consisting of 2560 questions Five of the exams will count towards your nal class score All exams are counted equally Your lowest exam score will be dropped Credit will be given for the top ve exams Repeat I will drop your lowest score You may quotskipquot one exam with the exception of exam 1 or have your lowest score out of the six dropped I strongly suggest that you do not drop one of the earlier exams Most students who do choose this option tend to score very very poorly in the class Use the drop as it is intended as a safety net in case you are ill or score lower on an exam than you expectedwanted Most students especially those that score well in the class wait till exam six before quotdroppingquot an exam If you skip a second exam you may be dropped from the class for non participation There is no nal exam for this class All students are required to take exam one If exam one is your lowest score it will be dropped from the nal tally of your exams however you must at least attempt the exam Ireserve the option to drop students from the course who do not attempt exam one Exams may be taken early but must be completed by the exam dates I strongly suggest you do not wait till the nal date as makeups will not be given under any circumstances computer failure rain snow birth of a child at tire u hospital stay etc You may take more than one exam on a given day You may have your exams proctored close to home Contact the assessment center for more information regarding proctoring Again I strongly advise that you do not wait till the nal date for completing either exams or assignments In the past individual students not many have attempted to insist on special treatment and demanded that their exams assignments be turned in after the due date This is unfair to your fellow students Please make sure you take your exams complete your assignments by the exam assignment due date and do not put yourself in the position of my telling you quotnoquot The answer will be quotNO late assignments or exams acceptedquot Exam dates are the dates I have placed on the syllabus No other dates will be honored regardless what is written on the exam cover sheetregardless what you are told by assessment center personnel If you do manage to take an exam after the date posted on the syllabus I will not accept the exam score and it will not be used in the final tally of your class grade Repeat You do not have to wait till the final due date to take an exam You may take the exams any day of the week the assessment center or your proctoring center is open You choose the day of the week just make sure you take the exam before the final due date b Exam due dates All exams will be available for you to take beginning J anl2th 2012 You may take exams before the final due date for each exam See below for due dates I strongly advise that you do not wait until the final date for completing either exams or assignments Plan to take each exam a couple of days early and you will not find yourself in the position of crisis exam due and you are ill sad death in the family etc An interesting tidbit to share with you I had eight students out of forty call me one semester for one particular exam and report that their grandmother had passed away And I am sure it was true for one of students but for the rest Grandma had passed away ten years ago Please do not put me in the position of challenging you Life does happen Complete your examsassignments early if you are concerned about possible upcoming events B Makeups for exams No makeups will be given If you find that you must miss an exam then the rst missed exam will count as your lowest score NO EXCEPTIONS Considering the exibility of when you take exams there should be no reason to request a makeup Students who do not take their exams are not participating in the class and may be dropped for non participation C Assignments When you see Al A2 A3 etc the A is referring to assignmen and the number is referring to the number of the assignment thus Al is assignment 1 A2 is assignment 2 etc Assignments must be completed in their entirety by the final assignment date or credit will not be given for the section Assignments must be submitted by midnight EST of the due date 7 not two minutes after midnight Students who do not submit the rst three assignments in this class by the 39 due date will be dropped for non mu quot 39 quot a Individual Assignments Critical Thinking Paper 25 Interactive projects 2 1 each and Re ection Essay 1 Critical Thinking Paper 7 Worth 25 25 points of assignment score Students are required to complete a short research critical thinking paper concerning a current topic in Abnormal Psychology The topic will be posted in Angel Format will be discussed in Angel under the paper assignment site Critical Thinking Paper A8 due date Apr 12 paper may be turned in anytime before or on Apr 12 2012 midnight ESP Interactive projects 7 two 7 worth 1 1 point each of the assignment score Interactive project 1 A1 due Jan 10 This paper will demonstrate your ability to use the Angel drop box Interactive project 2 A2 due Jan 11 This paper will demonstrate your ability to use the discussion forum Re ective Essay A10 Worth 1 1 point of assignment score Students are required to submit a short re ective paper Again format will be discussed in Angel under the paper assignment site Re ective Essay due date May 1 paper may be turned in anytime before or on May 1 2012 midnight ESP b Group Projects Study Guide Assignments worth 72 72 points of assignment score Group Projects Study Guides The class as a whole shall create a study guide for each section exam This class consists of six section exams thus six study guides will be created Credit is being given for your participation in group work Therefore while I will be checking for completeness in answering your chosen study guide question I will not be checking for correctness of the answer although your fellow classmates will be aware if you answer incorrectly or provide shoddy answers The quotdiscussionsquot generated from the study guide projects should be used when studying for your exams It is to the benefit of all students to complete the questions discussions as soon as possible The discussion items in the study guides are taken from the topics on your exams Format All students are required to publicly discuss online ONE 1 question group from each study guide section Each question group completed in its entirety will count as 12 points of your assignment score 12 12X672 Points will accumulate until the end of the semester when the total quotstudy guide assignment scorequot 72 will be added to the other assignment scores and the total will count as one exam grade on a 100 scale You are welcome to answer as many question groups per section as you wish however you will receive credit for only one of the question groups No points will be given for incomplete questions All students are required to complete the requirements of Study Guide Assignment Section 1 Students who do not submit a posting for section one may be dropped from the class d Group work Study Guide Assignment dates See below VIII COURSE PRACTRICES Course Practices Collegewide polices withdrawals incompletes etc are stated in the LCC Catalog and include those on attendance withdrawals and incomplete grades The catalog is available on the intemet at httpwwwlcceducatalog Incompletes Incompletes are given only if 80 of the class work is completed if a student is passing the course and if a valid accepted reason if given accepted by the professor and by the college Instructor initiated drops I reserve the right to drop students who do not participate in the class ie not completing required work such as Exam 1 or Group project 1 or students who are not attending class in an online course if a student does not log into their Angel class periodically and does not submit assignmentstake exams then the student is not attendingpalticipating in the class IX DETAILED OUTLINE OF COURSE CONTENT AND SEQUENCING Exam and Assignment Due Dates A means assignment GP means Group Project Jan 10 7 Al 7 interactive Angel project Jan 11 7 A2 7 interactive Angel project Jan 177 A3 GP Section I Chapters 1 2 3 4 Jan 26 Exam I Chapters 1 2 3 4 Feb 2 7 A4 GP Section II Chapters 5 6 Feb 9 Exam II Chapters 5 6 Feb 16 7 A5 GP Section III Chapters 7 8 Feb 23 Exam III Chapters 7 8 Mar 1 7 A6 GP Section IV Chapters 9 13 Mar 15 Exam IV Chapters 9 13 yes this does say Chapter 13 Mar 22 7 A7 GP Section V Chapters 10 11 Mar 29 Exam V Chapters 10 11 Apr 12 7 A8 Research Critical Thinking Paper Apr 19 A9 GP Section VI Exam VI Chapters 12 14 15 Apr 26 Exam VI Chapters 12 14 15 May 1 7 A10 Re ection Essay X TRANSFER POTENTIAL For transferability information please consult the Transfer Equivalency List located on the internet at httpwwwlccedutransfer For additional transferability information contact the LCC Counseling Services Department 517 4831255 XI STUDENT ACADEMIC INTEGRITY The very nature of higher education requires that students adhere to accepted standards of academic integrity Therefore Lansing Community College has adopted a code of academic conduct and a statement of student academic integrity These may be found in the Lansing Community College Catalog The violations of academic integrity listed and defined are cheating and plagiarism It is the student s responsibility to be aware of the behaviors that constitute academic dishonesty Classroom behavior that interferes with the instructional process is not tolerated The consequences are addressed in the catalog under Administrative Withdrawal Policy on Academic Dishonesty Any act of Academic Dishonesty will result in your failing the assignment and further college action will be taken according to LCC policy XII OTHER COURSE INFORMATION Important Issues I do not give points at the end of the semester Do not ask for points If you are not doing well see me when you first become concerned not the day after the final exam Do not call for your exam or class score Scores will not be given out over the telephone or via email You may view your grades through Angel My Grades site Please keep track of your scores so you are aware of your standing in the class Discuss medical approaches to treatment including drug therapy electroconvulsive therapy and psychosurgery Drug therapy uses psychotropic drugs to treat psychological disorders These drugs used to treat the disorders act on neurotransmitters in the brain Some of the disorders these drugs are usually used to treat are depression and anxiety Electroconvulsive therapy is used in psychiatric treatment It is used in cases of severe depression when the antidepressants have not worked ECT has been a controversial topic because of the method in which it works by passing electric shock through a person s head Psychosurgery being more controversial than ECT is no longer performed today The procedure was surgically severing nerve pathways linking the thalamus to the prefrontal lobes in the brain It was believed that by performing this procedure the patients aggressive or violent behaviors would be controlled Discuss the pros and cons of drug treatment The pros of using drug treatment are helping patients to stay balanced and be able to function on a day to day basis in society The cons of using drug treatment are the possible abuse of the drug and the addiction that may come from using the drugs Describe electroconvulsive therapy and explain why it is controversial Electroconvulsive therapy is a method of treatment for severe depression by administrating electrical shock to the head It has been found to be controversial because of the electrical shock going through a person s head Describe the prefrontal lobotomy and explain why it is controversial Prefrontal lobotomy was used as a treatment for patients who had experienced over excitation of emotional impulses from lower brain centers This type of treatment is more controversial than ECT because it involved surgically severing nerve pathways linking the thalamus to the prefrontal lobes of the brain L u l l 1 De ne L abuse and L quot 39 quot Substance Abuse The continued use of a psychoactive drug despite the knowledge that it is causing social occupational psychological or physical problems Substance Dependence Impaired control over the use of a psychoactive substance often characterized by physiological dependence Substance Intoxication State of drunkeness or being quothighquot De ne substance withdrawal Give an example of a street drug that does not produce withdrawal syndrome Substance Withdrawal Cluster of symptoms that follow the sudden reduction or cessation of use of a psychoactive substance after dependence develops Marijuana or hallucinogens are examples of street drugs that do not produce withdrawal syndrome because they do not have any clinically significant withdrawal effects What is meant by Abstinece Syndrome Abstinence Syndrome is another term for withdrawal syndrome Who is most at risk to become drug dependent People who develop physiological dependence where their bodies depend on a steady supply of the subtance are more likely to become drug dependent Tquot quot a 39 39 betweenr 39 39 g39 39 and 39 39 39 g39 39 J J and briefly explain each ofthe stages of drug dependence Psychological dependence Compulsive use of a substance to meet a psychological need For example a person who uses marijuana to cope with stress Physiological dependence Condition where the drug user39s body comes to depend on a steady supply of a substance Pathway to substance dependence 1 Experimentation Casual use where the substance makes the user feel good User feels they are in control and can stop at any time 2 Routine use User begins to structure their life around the pursuit and use of a drug Denial plays a major role Values change and things that used to be important take a backseat to using the substance 3 Addiction or dependence User feels powerless to resist drugs They either wish to experience their effects or avoid consequences of withdrawal What is the most widely abused substance in the United States the world Alcohol is the most widely abused substance in the US and worldwide p 293 Identify and explain at least 5 risk factors for alcoholism Gender men are more than twice as likely as women to develop alcoholism Age the majority develop alcohol dependence in young adulthood between the ages 2040 Antisocial personality disorder antisocial behavior increases the risks for alcoholism later in life Family history if there was family history of alcohol abuse Sociodemographic factors more common among lower class and less educated as well as those who live alone p 294295 Discuss the physical and psychological effects of alcohol both positive and negative Alcohol acts as an antianxiety drug by heightening activity of the neurotransmitter GABA which produces feelings of relaxation It impairs judgment and chronic abuse and impairs cognitive abilities like memory problem solving and attention It induces shortterm feelings of euphoria and elation but can also dampen sexual arousal or excitement and impair sexual performance It hampers coordination and motor ability Chronic abuse also affects virtually every organ and body system Linked to increase risks of liver disease some forms of cancer coronary heart disease and neurological disorders Moderate drinking 1 drink a day for women and 2 a day for men lowers risks of heart attacks and strokes and death rates overall It may prevent the formation of blood clots and increases HDL cholesterol p 297 298 Discuss the effectsrisks of drinking while pregnant Fetuses are placed at risk for infant mortality birth defects central nervous system dysfunctions and later academic problems They may also develop fetal alcohol syndrome FAS which is a syndrome characterized by a attened nose widely spaced eyes underdeveloped upper jaw and mental retardation and social skills de cits p 298 Alcohol in large quantities usually kills by doing what to the body Alcohol usually harms the body by developing disorders such as alcoholic hepatitis cirrhosis of the liver and alcoholinduced persisting amnestic disorders also known as Korsakost syndrome p 298 Discuss the effects of depressants A depressant is a drug that slows down or curbs the activity of the central nervous system It reduces feelings of tension and anxiety slows movement and impairs cognitive process In high doses depressants can arrest vital functions and cause death Pg293 Give examples of several depressants Alcohol is the most widely abused substance in the United States and worldwide You might not think of alcohol as a drug because it is so common or because it is ingested by drinking rather than smoking or injection Wine Beer and Hard Liquor contain a depressant drug called Ethyl alcohol or ethanol This considered a depressant because it has biochemical effects similar to those of a class of antianxiety a ents or minor tranquilizers the benzodiazepines Alcohol can be thought of as an overthecounter tranquilizer Pg293 Barbiturates are sedative drugs that are depressants with high addictive potentials 1 of Americans develop a substance abuse or dependent disorder involving the use of barbiturates sleep medications or antianxiety agents at some point in their lives These drugs have several medical uses including easing anxiety and tension dulling pain and treating epilepsy and high blood pressure Barbiturates such as amobarbital A 39 39 39 39 39 an 39 39 quot 39 are depressants or sedatives Pg 298 Benzodiazepines are a prescribed medication for anxiety and for their tranquilizing effect Examples include Valium Atavan and Xanax What do depressants quotdoquot to the body A drug that lowers the level of avtivity of the central nerouvs system Pg 293 Discuss the effects of sedatives and minor tranquilizers Sedatives and tranquilizers are prescribed to treat anxiety disorders and sleep disturbances These drugs have a depressant effect on the central nervous system and work similar to alcohol Tranquilizers and sedatives depress functioning of the central nervous system but the speci c way depends on the drug Many of them such as the benzodiazapines work through quotrelease from inhibition on those areas of the brain that limit activity of the central nervous system In other words they indirectly facilitate the action of certain brain areas to promote calmness or sleepiness Barbiturates seem to have direct depressant effects on brain areas that regulate wakefulness and alertness and they also act directly on nerve cells in the spinal cord Minor tranquilizers seem to have direct depressant effects on brain areas that regulate wakefulness and alertness very similar in effect to alcohol and sedative barbiturates They enhance the action of receptors that inhibit central nervous system stimulation and conversely inhibit the action of receptors that stimulate the nervous system In other words if the nervous system were a car these drugs help press down the brakes but make it harder to press down on the gas Since the minor tranquilizers of the benzodiazepine family have an effect similar to alcohol on the nervous system they are useful in treating alcohol withdrawal Those with a longer duration of action such as Librium and Valium are used most often Discuss the effects of opioids list the opioids Opioids are classi ed as narcoticsaddictive drugs that have painrelieving and sleepinducing properties Opioids include both naturally occurring opiates morphine heroin codeine derived from the juice of the poppy plant and synthetic drugs Demerol Darvon ex that have opiate like effects The poppy plant opium meaning plant of joy Opioids produce a rush or intense feelings of pleasure which is the primary reason for their popularity as street drugs They also dull awareness of one s personal problems which is attractive to people seeking a mental escape from stress Their pleasurable effects derive from their ability to directly stimulate the brain s pleasure circuits the same brain networks responsible for feelings of sexual pleasure or pleasure from eating a satisfying meal A list of opioids is Heroin Vicodin OxyContin Codeine Methadone and Morphine Pg 2993 00 Discuss when and for what use did morphine come to the US Morphine receives its name from Morpheus the Greek god of dreamswas introduced at about the same time of the US Civil War Morphine a powerful opium derivative was used liberally to deaden pain from wounds Psychological dependence on morphine became known as the soldier s diseasequot There was little stigma attached to dependence until morphine became a restricted substance Pg300 What drug was used to cure morphine addiction Discuss this drug effects how used risks addiction etc Herointhe most widely used opiate is a powerful depressant that can create a euphoric rush Users claim that it is so pleasurable it can eradicate any though of food or sex Heroin was developed in 1875 during a search for a drug that would relieve pain as effectively as morphine but without causing addition Heinrich Dreser transformed morphine into a drug believed to have heroic effects in relieving pain without addiction which is why it was called heroin Unfortunately heroin leads to strong psychological dependence Heroin is usually injected either directly beneath the skin or into vein Effects are immediate A powerful rush that lasts from 5 to 15 minutes and a state of satisfaction euphoria and wellbeing that lasts from 3 to 5 hours All positive drives seem satis ed All negative feelings of guilt tension and anxiety disappear Prolonged usage addition can develop Physiological dependent people support their habits by dealing prostitution or selling stolen goods Heroin is a depressant Its chemical effects do not directly stimulate criminal or aggressive behavior Pg 300 Discuss endorphins their function etc Endorphins are a class of neurotransmitters that have painblocking properties similar to those of opioids like heroin Endorphins and opiates dock at the same receptor sites in the brain Normally the brain produces a certain level of endorphins that maintains a psychological steady state of comfort and potential to experience pleasure However when the body becomes habituated to a supply of opioids it may stop producing endorphins making the user dependent on opiates for comfort pain relief and pleasure When the habitual user stops using heroin or other opiates feelings of discomfort and little aches and pains may be magni ed until the body resumes adequate production of endorphins Briefly describe how stimulants work Stimulants are psychoactive substances that increase the activity of the central nervous system which enhances states of alertness and can produce feelings of pleasure or even euphoric highs The effects vary with the particular drug Give examples of several stimulants Examples of stimulants include amphetamines ecstasy cocaine and nicotine Brie y describe amphetamines and discuss the effects of amphetamines Amphetamines are a class of synthetic stimulants that are used in high doses for their euphoric rush They re often taken in pill form or smoked in a relatively pure form called ice or crystal meth The most potent form of amphetamine liquid methamphetamine is injected directly into the veins and produces an intense and immediate rush Some users inject methamphetamine for days on end to maintain an extended high but those highs come to an end People who have been on extended highs sometimes crash and fall into a deep sleep or depression Some people commit suicide on the way down High doses can cause restlessness irritability hallucinations paranoid delusions loss of appetite and 1nsomn1a Physiological dependence can develop from using amphetamines leading to an abstinence syndrome characterized by depression and fatigue as well as by unpleasant vivid dreams insomnia or hypersomnia excessive sleeping increased appetite and either a slowing down of motor behavior or agitation Psychological dependence is seen most often in people who use amphetamines as a way of coping with stress or depression Methamphetamine abuse can cause brain damage producing de cits in learn and memory in addition to other effects Chronic use is also associated with increased depression aggressive behavior and social isolation Impulsive acts of violence may also occur especially when the drug is smoked or injected intravenously The hallucinations and delusions of amphetamine psychosis mimic those of paranoid schizophrenia which has encouraged researchers to study the chemical changes induced by amphetamines as possible clues to the underlying causes of schizophrenia Briefly describe cocaine and discuss the effects of cocaine Cocaine is a natural stimulant extracted from the leaves of the coca plant The drug produces a tolerance effect and an identi able withdrawal syndrome which is characterized by depressed mood and disturbances in sleep and appetite Intense cravings for the drug and loss of ability to experience pleasure may also be present Withdrawal symptoms are usually brief in duration and may involve a crash following abrupt withdrawal Cocaine is usually snorted in powder form or smoked in the form of crack a hardened form of cocaine that may be more than 75 pure Crack rocks are available in small readytosmoke amounts and are considered to be the most habitforming street drug available Crack produces a prompt and potent rush that wears off in a few minutes The rush of snorting powdered cocaine is milder and takes a while to develop but it tends to linger longer than the rush of crack Cocaine directly stimulates the brain s reward or pleasure circuits It also produces a sudden rise in blood pressure and an accelerated heart rate that can cause potentially dangerous even fatal irregular heart rhythms Overdoses can produce restlessness insomnia headaches nausea convulsions tremors hallucinations delusions and even sudden death due to respiratory or cardiovascular collapse Regular snorting of cocaine can lead to serious nasal problems including ulcers in the nostrils Brie y discuss the interesting history of cocaine coca and its uses The original formula for the popular soft drink CocaCola included an extract of cocaine However in 1906 the company took the coca out of the formula The drink was originally described as a brain tonic and intellectual beverage in part because of its cocaine content CocaCola is still avored with an extract from the coca plant but one that is not known to be psychoactive Discuss the effects of tobacco smoke and nicotine Who is most likely to smoke Smoking is a physical addiction to the stimulant nicotine found in tobacco products including cigarettes cigars and smokeless tobacco Smoking also claims around 443000 lives a year in the United States particularly from lung cancer and other lung diseases as well as cardiovascular disease Smoking doubles the risk of dying in midlife prior to age 70 More women die of lung cancer than any other type of cancer including breast cancer With the exception of Native Americans women in each ethnic group are less likely to smoke than their male counterparts Smoking is also becoming increasingly concentrated among people at lower income and educational levels In both genders Native Americans are more likely to smoke than any other ethnic group As a stimulant nicotine increases alertness but can also give rise to cold clammy skin nausea and vomiting dizziness and faintness and diarrhea all of which account for the discomforts of novice smokers Nicotine also stimulates the release of epinephrine a hormone that generates a rush of autonomic nervous system activity including rapid heartbeat and release of stores of sugar into the blood Nicotine quells the appetite and provides a psychological kick and also leads to the release of endorphins Habitual use of nicotine leads to physiological dependence on the drug Nicotine dependence is associated with both tolerance and a characteristic withdrawal syndrome The withdrawal syndrome for nicotine includes features such as lack of energy depressed mood irritability frustration nervousness impaired concentration lightheadedness and dizziness drowsiness headaches fatigue and many others It is nicotine dependence not cigarette smoking per se that is classi able as a mental disorder in the DSAJ system The great majority of regular smokers meet diagnostic criteria for nicotine dependence What is another name for hallucinogens Another name for hallucinogens is psychedelics because they produce sensory distortions or hallucinations including major alterations in color perception and hearing Pg 308 Give examples of several hallucinogens Examples of hallucinogens are lysergic acid diethylamide LSD psilocybin and mescaline Marijuana and phencyclidine PCP are psychoactive substances but their effects are similar to psychedelic drugs Pg 308 Briefly describe LSD and discuss the effects of LSD Lysergic acid diethylamide more commonly known as LSD is a synthetic hallucinogen that produces a vivid parade of colors and visual distortions Users also claim it quotexpands consciousnessquot or opens new worlds The effects of LSD are unpredictable and depends on the amount taken as well as the user39s expectations Users who have learned to handle the effects of the drug though past experience may be better prepared than new users Some users also experience what is known as a quotbad tripquot Pg 308 Briefly describe marijuana and discuss the effects of marijuana Marijuana is derived from the Cannabis sativa plant It s classified as a hallucinogen because it can produce perceptual 439 t 39t39 or mild 39 quot 39 quot The I 39 quot substance in marijuana is delta9 tetrahydrocannabinol or THC THC is found in the branches and leaves of the plant but is highly concentrated in the resin of the female plant Some users report that at a low dose the drug makes them feel more comfortable in social gatherings and higher doses often leads users to withdraw into themselves There is increased awareness of bodily sensations such as heartbeat Accelerated heart rate and sharpened awareness of bodily sensations cause some smokers to fear their heart will quotrun awayquot with them Pg 309 Briefly describe PCP and discuss the effects of PCP Phencyclidine or PCPwhich is referred to quotangel dustquot on the streetswas developed as an anesthetic in the 1950s but was discontinued as such when its hallucinatory side effects were discovered A smokable form of PCP became popular as a street drug in the 1970s The effects of PCP cause hallucinations accelerated heart rate and blood pressure sweating ushness and numbness PCP is classi ed as a deliriant which is a drug capable of producing states of delirium PCP also has dissociating effects causing some users to feel as if there is some sort of invisible barrier between themselves and their environment Overdoses can give rise to drowsiness and a blank stare convulsions and now and then coma paranoia and aggressive behavior and tragic accidents resulting from perceptual distortion or impaired judgment during states of intoxication Pg 309 Discuss biological psychodynamic learning cognitive and sociocultural approaches to substance abuse and dependence Discuss biological and behavioral approaches to explain cravings for substances Discuss genetic factors in alcoholism Discuss chemotherapeutic approaches to treatment of substance abuse and dependence Discuss lay approaches to treatment such as AA Discuss psychological approaches to treatment of substance abuse Discuss the need for and methods of relapseprevention training Biological Approach Neurotransmitters and genetics are the components of substance abuse in this approach Dopamine the bodies pleasure or reward circuits are affected by drug use The more substances a person uses the less dopamine the brain produces Abusers will continue usage to get to the pleasure zone that is no longer reached without drugs Genetics indicate that speci c genes are inherited making a person susceptible to drug use especially alcoholism Learning Approach Addictions are learned behavior through experience and exposure Operant conditioning and observational learning are the key components to addiction in this approach Substance abuse occurs when people receive reinforcements from the drugs that at some level relieve anxiety and depression or gives pleasure to the abuser Cognitive Approach The usage of drugs is based off the expectancies we hope to achieve from using the substance Substances are abused to increase self ef cacy the way we perceive ourselves in people so they feel more secure within themselves The expectations of peers also will persuade a person s decision to abuse Sociocultural Approach This approach focuses on the environment a person lives and the social norms as to whether substances are abused People that are exposed to substances at early age are more likely to abuse than adults who were not exposed as children Exposure and in uence of family friends and environment are key components of abuse Psychodynamic Approach Oral grati cation is the bases of this approach The lack of development in the oral xation stage causes a later pattern of substance abuse in order to gain oral gratification This approach however honors the fact that other variables may cause substance abuse Cravings for substances comes from the bodies need to replace high blood levels which is the reason why we biologically we crave them Cravings may occur when a person is having feelings of anxiety or depression Environmental cues can also in uence the behaviors that increase the cravings to use the substance For instance seeing ashtrays may trigger the craving to smoke a cigarette Genetic factors in Alcoholism Speci c genes are inherited to increase risk of alcohol addiction Genes that encourage alcoholism are inherited making a greater tolerance and pleasure from alcohol People with these genes are more likely to abuse alcohol given the right environment The high tolerance and pleasure levels make people vulnerable to addiction because the can not judge limits of consumption Chemotherapeutic Approaches to Treatment Several drugs detoxification and replacement therapy are used to treat addiction and offer treatment Detoxification uses a hospital setting to purge the body of substances Because of the harsh withdrawal it is safer to have treatment in the hospital Antidepressants Disl ram methadone naltrexone are drugs administered to treat the addiction of harsh substances The drugs are given to curb the need to abuse substances by blunting the cravings Drugs are usually us ed for periods of time after rehabilitation and without the drugs may return to substance abuse Replacement therapy involves the replacement of substances nicotine through prescriptions To reduce craving and cessation smokes will use patches gum and nasal sprays However environmental and behavioral changes must be made for any of these therapies and treatment to be successful Lay or Non professional Treatment The lay approach to treatment involves the use of support groups and non professional to help administer support in the treatment of abuse Alcoholics will use groups such as AA AlAnon etc to offer support both spiritually and mentally A program is adopted to help abusers transcend from addiction to recovery These self help groups provide outlets to express feelings and receive support against temptations and cravings The success of these programs depends on the commitment the person is willing to put forth Relapse Prevention training Prevention is needed to provide support after treatment has occurred and ex abusers are learning to live again without the substance Due to fear of complete relapse or drug abuse a person will attribute any momentary lapse as complete failure The prevention training will offer coping mechanisms to deal with high risk situations that may result in a lapse of usage Programs will offer approaches to help abusers meet the needs of sober living Comorbidity the co occurrence of substance abuse and psychological disorders Many people in treatment face both problems of substance abuse and psychological disorders De ne quotpersonality disorderquot and discuss controversies in diagnosing personality disorders Personality defined psychologically is the enduring behavioral and mental traits that distinguish human beings Hence personality disorders are de ned by experiences and behaviors that differ from societal norms and expectations Those diagnosed with a personality disorder may experience difficulties in cognition emotiveness interpersonal functioning or control of impulses In general personality disorders are diagnosed in 4060 percent of psychiatric patients which is the most frequent of all psychiatric diagnoses Diagnosing personality Disorders can be time consuming and be left to the opinion of the psychiatrist which can create some debate between ones point of view of the client and another This is what creates the controversies of diagnosing Describe the features of paranoid personality schizoid personality and schizotypal personality disorder Paranoid personality disorder is a psychiatric condition in which a person has a longterm distrust and suspicion of others but does not have a fullblown psychotic disorder such as schizophrenia Schizoid personality disorder is a psychiatric condition in which a person has a lifelong pattern of indifference to others and social isolation Schizotypal personality disorder is a mental health condition in which a person has trouble with relationships and disturbances in thought patterns appearance and behavior Describe the features of avoidant dependent and obsessive compulsive personality disorders Avoidant personality disorder is a mental health condition in which a person has a lifelong pattern of feeling very shy inadequate and sensitive to rejection Dependent personality disorder is a longterm chronic condition in which people depend too much on others to meet their emotional and physical needs Obsessive com pulsive personality disorder OCPD is a condition in which a person is preoccupied with rules orderliness and control Describe the features of antisocial personality disorder What are other terms used for antisocial personality disorder Antisocial personality disorder is a personality disorder characterized by antisocial and irresponsible behavior and lack of remorse for misdeeds according to the text page 432 The features of antisocial personality disorder are chronic antisocial behavior callous treatment of others irresponsible behavior and lack of remorse for wrongdoing page 428 They are not antisocial in the sense of seeking to avoid people They tend to be impulsive fail to live up to commitments to others lack of remorse or guilt or empathy is the cardinal feature have little or no anxiety in threatening situations punishment has little or no effect on their behavior egocentricity manipulativeness page 432433 The personality dimension of antisocial behavior is characterized by the traits of superficial charm sel shness lack of empathy callous toward others and disregard of others feelings or welfare this personality type does not become lawbreakers The behavioral dimension is characterized by a general unstablerless frequent problems with the law poor employment history and unstable relationships These personality dimensions can appear together or apart in a antisocial personality The pro le of this personality consists of failure to conform to social norms lack of long term goals impulsive behavior outright lawlessness violence chronic unemployment marital problems lack of remorse substance abuse and disregard for the truth and needs of others page 434 The other terms for antisocial personality disorder are psychopath being that something is amis pathological in the individuals pathological functioning and sociopath is characterized by the person39s social deviance page 432 to Discuss conduct disorder and its relationship to antisocial personality disorder The diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder is limited to people 18 years of age and older If younger people or people under the age of 18 are exhibiting symptoms similar to antisocial personality disorder than the diagnosis of conduct disorder is considered Conduct disorder is a psychological disorder in childhood and adolescence characterized by disruptive antisocial behavior page 432 and 490 Describe the features of borderline histrionic narcissistic personality disorders Borderline personality disorder is characterized by abrupt mood shifts lack of coherent sense of self and unpredictable impulsive behavior page 435 The features of borderline personality disorder are tumultous moods and stormy relationships with others unstable selfimage and lack of impulse control page 428 They tend to be uncertain about their personal identities have difficulty regulating emotions and do not like to be alone page 435436 Histrionic personality disorder is characterized by excessive need for attention praise reassurance and approval page 438 They tend to be overly dramatic and emotional behavior demands to be the center of attention their emotions seem shallow exaggerated and volatile page 438 Narcissistic personality disorder is characterized by an in ated self image and extreme needs for attention and admiration They have an inflated or grandiose sense of self self absorbed lack of empathy for others are extremely sensitive to the slightest hint of rejection or criticism They have feelings of entitlement that lead to exploit others they seek relationships that will serve their self interests and self importance page 439 Compare and contrast the various quot quot 39 r r quot on the l quot disorders including but not limited to the causes of antisocial borderline dependant obsessivecompulsive narcissistic etc personality disorders Psychodynamic perspective Hans Kohut shaped modern psychology through his theory labeled self psychology He believed that people with narcissistic personalities mount a facade of selfimportance to cover up deep feelings of inadequacy He also believed that early childhood involves a normal stage of healthy narcissism but that the lack of parental empathy and support sets the stage for pathological narcissism Pg 448 Otto Kemberg views boarderline personality in terms of a failure in early childhood to develop a sense of constancy and unity in one s image of oneself and others Borderline individuals cannot synthesize contradictory elements of themselves Pg 449 Margaret Mahler explained borderline personality disorder in terms of childhood separation from the mother figure Infants develop a symbiotic attachment to their mothers Symbiosis is a biological term derived from Greek roots meaning to live together Normally children gradually differentiate their own identities or senses of self from that of their mothers Pg 450 Learning Perspective focus on maladaptive behaviors rather than disorders of personality They suggest that childhood experiences shape the pattern of maladaptive habits of relating to others that constitute personality disorders Excessive parental discipline may lead to obsessivecompulsive behaviors Pg 450 Socialcognitive theories emphasize the role of reinforcement in explaining the origins of antisocial behavior People with antisocial personalities failed to learn to treat others as reinforcing agents because others reinforce them with praise for good behavior and punishment for bad People with antisocial personalities may not have become socialized in this way because their early learning experiences lacked consistency and predictability Pg 451 Family Perspective Disturbances in family relationships underlie the development of personality disorders People with boarderline personality disorder remember their parents as having been more O O O controlling and less caring than reference subjects with other psychological disorders Researchers nd that childhood abuse parental neglect or lack of parental nurturing are important risk factors in the development of antisocial personality disorder in adulthood Pg 453 Biological Perspective Genetic factor play a role in the development of antisocial narcissistic paranoid and borderline types Also brain abnormalities play an important role Pg 45354 Sociocultural PerspectiveSocial conditions may contribute to the development of personality disorders Stressors from lower social classes may result in antisocial behavior patterns Pg 455 Discuss various techniques that therapists may use to treat personality disorders example what techniques might a behavioral therapist used in treating someone with a dependant personality disorder P 39 39 39 uses quot A l l to 1 quot disorders pg 456 Biological approaches include drug therapy like anianxiety and antidepressant drugs Increase level of serotonin my decrease rage or anger Pg 456 Discuss the problems in the classi cation of personality disorders including their reliability and validity and sexist biases One question is whether personality disorders can be reliably differentiated from Axis I clinical syndromes such as anxiety or mood disorders For examples often there is difficulty in distinguishing between obsessive compulsive disorder and obsessivecompulsive personality disorder Clinical syndromes are believed to be variable over time whereas personality disorders are held to be generally more enduring patterns of disturbance Yet the features of personality disorders may vary over time with changes in circumstances while some Axis I clinical syndromes follow a more or less chronic course Overlap Among Disorders A high degree of overlap exists among the personality disorders Some personality disorders have distinct features but many share common traits such as problems in romantic relationships For example someone may have traits suggestive of dependent personality disorder inability to make decisions or initiate activities independently as well as avoidant personality disorder extreme social anxiety and heightened sensitivity to criticism Co occurrence comorbidity of different personality disorders is also quite common This suggests that the speci c types of personality disorders in the DSM system may not be suf ciently distinct from one another Some personality disorders may not actually be distinct disorders but rather subtypes or variations of other personality disorders Dif culty in distinguishing between normal and abnormal behavior Another problem with diagnosis of personality disorders is that they involve personality traits which in lesser degrees describe the behavior of most normal individuals Because the de ning attributes of these disorders are common personality traits clinicians should only apply these diagnostic labels when the patterns are so pervasive that they interfere with the individual functioning or cause signi cant personal distress We still lack the evidence we need to determine the particular points at which personality traits become maladaptive and justify a diagnosis of a personality disorder Confusing labels with explanations Study Guide questions for the rest of the semester Chapter 7 Dissociative and Somatoform Disorders and Chapter 8 Mood Disorders and Suicide Chapter 7 Dissociative and Somatoform Disorders 1 Describe the chieffeatures ofthe dissociative disorders Which is most common Describe dissociative identity disorder What is the another term for dissociative identity disorder Which is most common Describe dissociative amnesia identifying and brie y explaining its five specific types and discuss how it differs from other types of amnesia Describe dissociative fugue 2 Describe and discuss depersonalization Describe derealization Explain what malingering is and discuss problems in differentiating people with dissociative and somatoform disorders from malingerers 3 Recount various theoretical perspectives on the etiology and treatment of dissociative disorders 4 Define and describe the chief features ofsomatoform disorders Describe the features of conversion disorder hypochondriasis and somatization disorder Describe munchausen syndrome and contrast it with malingerin Describe what is meant when we say someone has factitious disorder Discuss the features of culturebound dissociative syndromes such as quotamokquot and quotzarquot Recount various theoretical perspectives on the etiology and treatment ofsomatoform disorders disorders including some ofthe quothistoryquot relating to these disorders Chapter 8 Mood Disorders and Suicide 5 Define mood disorder and distinguish between normal and abnormal depressed moods What is meant by a unipolar mood disorder What is meant by a bipolar mood disorder 6 Describe the features of major depression Discuss the prevalence ofand risk factors for major depression Differentiate between reactive and endogenous depression Discuss the features ofand treatments for seasonal affective disorder Discuss postpartum depression and explain how it is different than quotmaternitybluesquot Compare and contrast major depression and dysthymic disorder Describe the features and types ofbipolar disorder Describe the features of a manic episode Compare and contrast bipolar disorder and cyclothymic disorder 7 Discuss classic and modern psychodynamic perspectives on the mood disorders Discuss cognitive perspectives on the mood disor ers Discuss behavioral perspectives on the mood disorders focusing on the relationships between reinforcement and depression 8 Discuss the relationship between stress and mood disorders Discuss genetic factors in the mood disorders Discuss biochemical factors in the mood disorders Discuss behavioral treatment of the mood disorders Discuss biological treatment of mood disorders Evaluate the r 39 ofr a1 Discuss the use oflithium in the treatment ofbipolar disorder 39 d for major depression Discuss the use of ECT in the treatment of depression 10 Discuss the incidence ofsuicide in terms ofwho is most at risk and why Discuss methods ofsuicide prevention Opt 9 Substance Abuse and Dependence and Cpt13 Personality Disorders Opt 9 Substance Abuse and Dependence 1 Define substance abuse substance dependence substance intoxication Define substance withdrawal give an example of a street drug that does not produce a withdrawal syndrome What is meant by abstinence syndrome Who is most at risk for becoming drug dependent Distinguish between psychological and physiological dependence and briefly explain each of the stages of drug dependence don t forget cigarettes are considered a drug 2 What is the most widely abused substance in the United States the world Identify and explain at least 5 risk factors for alcoholism Discuss the physical and psychological effects of alcohol both positive and negative Discuss the effectsrisks of drinking while pregnant Alcohol in large quantities usually kills by doing what to the body 3 Discuss the effects of depressants Give examples of several depressants What do depressants quotdoquot to the body Discuss the effects of sedatives and minor tranquilizers Discuss the effects of opioids list the opioids Discuss when and for Wnat use did morphine come to the US What drug was used to cure morphine addiction Discuss this drug effects how used risks addiction etc 4 Discuss endorphins their function etc Briefly describe how stimulants work Give examples of several stimulants Briefly describe amphetamines and discuss the effects of amphetamines Briefly describe cocaine and discuss the effects of cocaine Briefly discuss the interesting history of cocaine coca and its uses Discuss the effects of tobacco smoke and nicotine Who is most likely to smoke 5 What is another name for hallucinogens Give examples of several hallucinogens Briefly describe LSD and discuss the effects of LSD Briefly describe marijuana and discuss the effects of marijuana Briefly describe PCP and discuss the effects of PCP 6 Discuss biological psychodynamic learning cognitive and sociocultural approaches to substance abuse and dependence Discuss biological and behavioral approaches to explain cravings for substances Discuss genetic factors in alcoholism Discuss chemotherapeutic approaches to treatment of substance abuse and dependence Discuss lay approaches to treatment such as AA Discuss psychological approaches to treatment of substance abuse Discuss the need for and methods of relapseprevention training Cpt13 Personality Disorders 7 Define quotpersonality disorderquot and discuss controversies in diagnosing personality disorders Describe the features of paranoid personality schizoid personality and schizotypal personality disorder Describe the features of avoidant dependent and obsessivecompulsive personality disorders 8 Describe the features of antisocial personality disorder What are other terms used for antisocial personality disorder Discuss conduct disorder and it39s relationship to antisocial personality disorders Describe the features of borderline histrionic narcissistic personality disorders 9 Compare and contrast the various theoretical perspectives on the personality disorders including but not limited to the causes of antisocial borderline dependant obsessivecompulsive narcissistic etc personality disorders Discuss various techniques that therapists may use to treat personality disorders example what techniques might a behavioral therapist used in treating someone with a dependant personality disorder 10 Discuss the problems in the classification of personality disorders including their reliability and validity and sexist iases Discuss special problems in treating personality disorders Chapter 10 Eating and Sleep Disorders and Chapter 11 Disorders Involving Gender and Sexulaity Chapter 10 Eating and Sleep Disorders 1 Describe the features of anorexia and bulimia when they usually begin who is most at risk for developing anorexia and bulimia and the medical complications associated with each What are the differences between binge eatingpurging anorexia and restrictive anorexia Discuss the causal factors involved with anorexia and bulimia Describe the features of binge eating disorder and how it differs from bulimia 2 Discuss the prevalence and causes of obesity Discuss racial and ethnic differences in obesity Identify and explain the various methods for treating obesity Discuss what is happening regarding calories to a dieter39s body as they lose large amounts of weight and attempt to keep it off How does the body respond to losing weight beyond a genetically determined set point What does quotadipose tissuesll refer to 3 How would the psychodynamic and learning perspective explain an individual having an eating disorder 4 Discuss the diagnostic features of sleep disorders and methods for assessing them Describe the features of the major types of dyssomnias primary insomnia primary hypersomnia narcolepsy breathing related sleep disorder and circadian rhythm sleep disorder Describe the features of the major types of parasomnias nightmare disorder sleep terror disorder and sleepwalking disorder 5 Discuss pharmacological and psychological treatments of sleep disorders Chapter 11 Disorders Involving Gender and Sexulaity 6 Describe sociocultural factors in conceptions of what sexual behaviors are normal and abnormal Give examples 7 Describe gender idenTiTy disorder and discuss The various TheoreTical perspecTives on iT Describe The process of gender reassignmenT and discuss iTs success 8 Discuss wheTher or noT homosexualiTy is a menTal disorder Was iT ever considered a menTal disorder Why mighT This perspecTive have changed 9 Define and describe The feaTures of various paraphilias Discuss TheoreTical perspecTives regarding The cause of paraphilia disorders Discuss TreaTmenT of persons wiTh paraphilias 10 Explain whaT sexual dysfuncTions are and describe The phases of The sexual response cycle Define and describe The feaTures of The various sexual dysfuncTions Discuss TheoreTical perspecTives regarding The cause of sexual dysfuncTions Discuss TreaTmenT of The sexual dysfuncTions Section VI Discussion Items Chapter 12 7 Schizophrenia Chapter 14 Abnormal Behavior in Childhood and Adolescence and Chapter 15 Cognitive Disorders and Disorders Related to Aging Chapter 12 7 Schizophrenia l Discuss the prevalence of schizophrenia in the general population Describe the various patterns in the course of schizophrenia referring to the concepts of acute episode prodromal phase and residual phase Distinguish among schizophrenia brief psychotic disorder and schizophreniforrn disorder Discuss the concept of schizophreniaspectrum disorders and distinguish among schizophrenia schizotypal personality disorder and schizoaffective disorder 2 Discuss the disturbances in thought and speech that characterize schizophrenia Discuss perceptual disturbances in schizophrenia and emotional disturbances in schizo hrenia Discuss the disturbances in selfidentity volition interpersonal behavior and psychomotor behavior in schizophrenia 3 Distinguish between the disorganized catatonic paranoid undifferentiated and residual types of schizophrenia Discuss the features of delusional disorder and differentiate the disorder from paranoid schizophrenia and paranoid personality disorder 4 Discuss the processreactive dimension of schizophrenia the positive and negative quotsymptomsquot of schizophrenia and Type I and Type 11 schizophrenia 5 Discuss psychodynarriic learning biological family and sociocultural perspectives on schizophrenia Describe and evaluate research on genetic factors biochemical factors viral infections and their effects on brain damage 6 Discuss research concerning the effects and side effects of antipsychotic medication 7 Discuss biologicalF 39 1 39 b quotw 39 quot39 39 and familyintervention treatments of schizophrenia Chapter 14 Abnormal Behavior in Childhood and Adolescence Describe the philosophies goals and methods of humanisticexistential therapies Humanistic therapists focus on clients subjective conscious experiences They also focus more on what clients are experiencing in the present Describe the goals and methods of behavioral and cognitive therapies The goal of Behavior therapy is directly changing the problem behavior through the use of learningbased techniques The major techniques are systemic desensitization gradual exposure modeling and reinforcement techniques Cognitive therapy is identifying and correcting distorted thoughts beliefs and attitudes which are believed to be the cause of their emotional problems and maladaptive behavior Describe systematic desensitization gradual exposure modeling aversive conditioning operant conditioning social skills training and methods for fostering selfcontrol Systematic desensitization A behavior therapy technique used for overcoming phobias This often means exposing the person to the fearful stimuli while they remain deeply relaxed Gradual exposure A behavior therapy technique used for overcoming fears through direct exposure of the fearful stimuli Modeling A behavior therapy technique for helping an individual acquire a target behavior by observing as a therapist or another individual demonstrates the behavior and then imitates it Aversive conditioning This is used in the treatment of substance abuse problems such as smoking and alcoholism Operant conditioning A form of learning in which behavior is acquired and strengthened when it is reinforced Social skills training Used in the treatment of social anxiety and skills deficits associated with schizophrenia Methods for fostering selfcontrol Unconditional positive regard empathy genuineness and congruence Not sure if this is correct Discuss the development of eclectic approaches in psychotherapy Eclectic therapy is an approach to psychotherapy that incorporates principles or techniques from various systems or theories A greater percentage of psychologists identify with an eclectic or integrative orientation than any other orientation Some therapists believe that combining elements of different therapeutic approaches will lead to a hodgepodge of techniques that lack a cohesive conceptual framework This type of therapy is still growing and it is expected that new approaches with emerge Describe the features and roles of group therapy and marital and family therapy Group Therapy This is a form of therapy where a group of clientspeople meet with a therapist Family Therapy this is a form of therapy where the family not just an individual receives treatment CoupleZMarital Therapy A form of therapy that focuses on resolving conflicts in distressed couples Describe the advantages and disadvantages of group therapy ADVANTAGES Group therapy is often much cheaper Many people believe that group therapy is more effective because you are surrounded by people with similar problems Clients will learn how people with similar problems cope with them Group members may also practice social skills DISADVANTAG ES Some clients do not want to disclose their problems to a group Some like the individual attention of a therapist Some clients do not feel comfortable in a group type setting Describe family therapy approaches to treating the family unit Family therapy aims to help troubled families resolve their conflicts so the family functions better as a unit and so individual family members have less stress In family therapy they learn to communicate more effectively and to work through conflicts more efficiently Discuss issues relating to the use of traditional Western psychotherapy approaches with diverse cultural and racial groups Therapists need to be culturally competent to provide appropriate services to clients of a different background Therapists need to avoid ethnic stereotypes and demonstrate sensitivity to the values languages and cultural beliefs of members from a different racial or ethnic group 6 Describe the features of the DSM system and evaluate its strengths and weaknesses The DSM describes in medical terms the symptoms of abnormal behaviors It doesnot attempt to explain their origins or give any particular theoretical framework A clinician uses the DSM classi cation system by matching the client s behavior with criteria that de ne certain patterns of abnormal behavior to arrive at a diagnosis The DSM classifies individuals in terms of whether they meet criteria for particular categories of mental disorders Its diagnostic categories are based on grouping abnormal behavior patterns according to the features or symptoms they share For example abnormal behavior patterns chiefly characterized by anxiety such as panic disorder or generalized anxiety disorder are classified as anxiety disorders Overall the DSM is seen as reliable and valid in many of the DSM categories including many anxiety and mood disorders as well as alcohol and drug dependence disorders There is question in its validity and reliability in some of the diagnostic classes such as Axis II personality disorders and Axis V Global Assessment of Functioning It has also been thought that the DSM needs to become more sensitive to the importance of cultural and ethnic factors in diagnostic assessment because its criteria was determined by a consensus of mostly UStrained psychiatrists psychologists and social workers The latest edition does place greater emphasis than the earlier editions on considering cultural factors when assessing abnormal behavior Describe the advantages and disadvantages of the DSM The major advantage of the DSM is the designation of speci c diagnostic criteria It allows a clinician to readily match a client s complaints and associated features with specific standards to see which diagnosis best ts the case The multiaxial system makes a comprehensive picture of clients by combining information concerning abnormal behaviors medical conditions that affect abnormal behaviors psychosocial and environmental problems that may be stressful to the individual and level of functioning The possibility of multiple diagnoses encourages clinicians to consider presenting current problems along with the relatively longstanding personality problems that may contribute to them Some crititics argue against the utility of particular symptoms or features associated with particular syndromes or of speci ed diagnostic criteria For example the requirement that major depression be present for 2 weeks before diagnosis is reached Others challenge the reliance on the medical model Some clinicians feel that the medical model focuses too much on what may happen within the individual and not enough on the external influences on behavior such as social factors and physical environmental factors It is also felt that the medical model focuses on categorizing mental disorders rather than on describing people s behavioral strengths and weaknesses Discuss various methods used to assess a mental disorder Clinicians use different methods of assessment to find a diagnoses including interviews psychological testing selfreport questionaires behavior measures and physiological measures Describe what is meant by a clinical interview identifying the topics typically covered during an intake interview and contrasting structured with unstructured unterviews A clinical interview is usually the clients rst facetoface contact with the a clinician The clinician usually starts off by asking the client to describe the problems they have been having in their own words Most interviews cover identifying data description of the presenting problems psychosocial history medicalpsychiatric history and medical problemsmedication A structured interveWis an interview that follows a preset series of questions in a particular order and an U Sl39fUCl39UfEd l fVEWiS when the clinician adopts his or her own style of questioning rather than following the standard format Distinguish between selfreport and projective personality assessment techniques Sel report people respond to questions about their psychological symptoms and related concerns that are posed to them Projec ve personality assessment techniques require subjects to interpret ambiguous stimuli in the belief their answers may shed light on their unconscious processes Discuss the history features reliability and validity of personality tests focusing on the MMPI and Rorschach The MMPI successfully discriminates between psychiatric patients and controls and between groups of people with different psychological disorders such as anxiety versus depressive disorders It contains more tan 500 true false statements that assess interests habits family relationships physical compliants attitudes beliefs and behaviors characteristic of psychological disorders The Rorschach test was developed by a Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach The Rorschach inkblots test contains five black and white inkblots and five colored inkblots The subjects are asked to tell the examiner what the inkblot might be or what it reminds them of There is controversy questioning whether the test yields scienti cally valid conclusions
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'