Introduction to Psychology
Introduction to Psychology PSYC 200
Lansing Community College
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dena Konopelski on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 200 at Lansing Community College taught by Mark Kelland in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/222386/psyc-200-lansing-community-college in Psychlogy at Lansing Community College.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
N AAA NAO39 AA A 001 a A 00 NA OLO NM NM Ab NA NNN lmU39l PSYC 200 Introduction to Psychology Final Exam Study Guide The independent variable is what an investigator manipulates in an experiment Naturalistic observation involves watching people in everyday situations such as children playing on a playground A representative sample is one in which every member of a population has a chance of being chosen for the study Surveys involve asking the members of a hopefully representative sample questions about their opinions and behaviors A dependent variable is the outcome measured in an experiment such as IQ scores in an experiment on whether childhood diet affects IQ later in life A positive correlation between two variables means that as one variable increases the other variable also increases The nervous system can be divided into a central nervous system and a peripheral nervous system The synaptic cleft is the microscopic gap between neurons where information is transmitted from one neuron to another The brainstem controls such basic life functions as breathing and alertness Vision is processed primarily in the occipital lobe of the brain Dendrites are specialized to receive incoming signals from other neurons The sympathetic nervous system increases heart rate and respiration in response to emergency situations Shaping is a procedure in which an organism is rewarded for behaviors which stepby step approximate a desired outcome finally achieving the actual desired behavior Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which behavior is influenced by its consequences Observational learning results from watching and imitating the behavior of others Reinforcers increase the likelihood of a behavior whereas punishers decrease the likelihood of a behavior If a dog salivates to a tone which has been paired with food the tone has become a conditioned stimulus Classical conditioning is based on the association of a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus Shortterm memory has a storage capacity of seven two Information is gotten from memory through a process called retrieval Information can be more easily remembered if related items are chunked together Information that is factual such as the names of US presidents is known as semantic memory Multiple choice questions rely on recognition of the answers A bell curve refers to the symmetrical bellshaped figure which represents the normal distribution of many physical and psychological characteristics Intelligence is the result of both heredity genes and environment life experience Howard Gardner is wellknown for his theory of multiple intelligences Intelligence tests typically rely on convergent thinking but creativity is best measured by tests that focus on divergent thinking A test which yields consistent scores is reliable