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Healthy Lifestyles

by: Mr. Russ Doyle

Healthy Lifestyles PFHW 163

Mr. Russ Doyle
Lansing Community College
GPA 3.95

Louise Whitney

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Louise Whitney
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This 55 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Russ Doyle on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PFHW 163 at Lansing Community College taught by Louise Whitney in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see /class/222388/pfhw-163-lansing-community-college in Phys Fitn Health Fitn Wlns at Lansing Community College.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
Chapter 3 Nutrition Nutrition is a key component of wellnessthat is something we all know but do we always make healthy choices when we eat My goal for all of you is to learn how you can make healthy eating a part of every day Nutrition is a relatively new field with new information coming out daily It is also an area where there are many myths an misconceptions Let7s take a look at the basic facts Nutrition is the science that helps us understand the relationship of foods to good health The essential nutrients are those substances that are found in food and are necessary to maintaining life They provide the body with energy regulate metabolism and manage the growth and repair of the body Dietarz Reference Intakes These are dietary nutrient intake recommendations established to be sure people are well nourished They include 4 types of standards Estimated Average Requirementthe amount of nutrient that meets the dietary needs of half the people Recommended Dietary Allowancesdaily amount of a nutrient considered adequate to meet needs of almost 98 of all healthy people in the US Adequate Intakerecommended intake levels for nutrients when data is not sufficient to establish EAR or RDA Upper Intake Levelhighest level of nutrient intake that appears safe for most people What are the Essential Nutrients These are the nutrients that we must have in our diets as we can not make them in quantities sufficient to meet needs They include carboydrate protein fat vitamins minerals and water The energy yielding nutrients include Carbohydrate 1 gram4 kcal Protein 1 gram4 kcal Fat 1 gram9 kcal These three provide the body with energy You can easily see that the high energy nutrient is fat and foods high in fat are loaded with calories The nonenergy yielding essential nutrients include Vitamins Minerals Water These nutrients are involved in helping us get energy out of foods but do not have any calorie value Since we have been talking about calories a calorie is a unit of energy It is the amount of heat needed to raise 1 gram of water 1 degree centigrade We use calories to state the energy value of food Carbazdrates Carbohydrates function to provide the body with energy They are not fattening rather it is the fat on the carbohydrates that increase calorie values For example fettucine alfredo It s the alfredo sauce that has all the calories not the fettucine Carbohydrates are classified as simple or complex Simple carbohydrates include Monosaccharides one unit Glucose blood sugar Galactose Fructose fruit sugar Complex carbohydrates include Disaccharides two units Glucose glucose maltose malt sugar Glucose fructose sucrose table sugar Glucose galactose lactose milk sugar Polysaccharides Starches foods such as breads pasta rice potatoes Starch is the way plants store energy Fiber is the nondigestible plant material that aids in elimination Glycogenthe way in which the body stores small amounts of carbohydrate If you look at the food pyramid you will see that carbohydrates occupy the largest space that is the bulk of our eating should be carbohydrates and they should be complex carbohydrates such as breads pasta cereals etc Carbohydrates should supply about 5055 of our calories What about simple sugars Is there a problem with eating too many simple sugars Foods that are high in simple sugars are often low in nutrients and so we call these foods empty calorie foods Good examples include soft drinks candy etc Foods that are high in simple sugars can make it hard to keep our teeth healthy as sugar contributes to dental cariesor cavities Eating foods high in sugar can also make it difficult to maintain a healthy body weight Some research suggests a diet high in sugar may also increase risk of Type II diabetes In contrast when we eat fruits or drink fruitjuices we may be getting simple sugars but these foods provide us with many nutrients as well What about dietary fiber Fiber either soluble or insoluble is found in complex carbohydrates and unrefined grains For example whole wheat breads be sure and check the label for the words whole wheat fruits and vegetables are all good sources of fiber Fiber is important because it helps Maintain bowel regularity Reduce risk of colon cancer Lends of feeling of fullness and can aid in weight maintenance The recommended amount of fiber intake is about 2530 gramsday See the table in chapter three for a listing of foods that are good sources of fiber Diabetes is a chronic disease involving glucose metabolism Glucose requires the hormone insulin in order to be taken up by the cell Without it a series of events happens that increase risk for heart disease and other debilitating diseases There are basically three types Type I diabetes is usually diagnosed by the third decade of life and involves a lack of adequate insulin People with this type of diabetes must have regular insulin shots in order to maintain regular blood glucose levels They must also learn how to manage their diets so that they remain healthy Type II diabetes is highly associated with overweight The theory is that it is a result more of insulin insensitivitythere is some insulin available but it can not do thejob effectively People with this type of diabetes need to lose weight manage their diet and get more exercise They do not usually have to have regular insulin shots Finally gestational diabetes occurs in some pregnant women It too is managed best with a healthy balanced diet and usually does not require insulin shots It is usually resolved after delivery E Now let39s turn our attention to fat We39ve heard a lot about fats lately and many people watch their diets very carefully so as not to eat too much Dietary fats are called triglycerides Fat functions in the body to Provide energy Insulate to preserve body heat and protect internal organs Carry the fat soluble vitamins A D E K Function as part of the structure of the cell The primary sources of fat in our diets are Animal foods such as meats dairy products Plant foods such as oils nuts and seeds Our diets are typically high in fatit is not unusual to see people whose fat intake exceeds 50 of their total Ideally fat should be less than 30 of our calorie intake Fats are divided into simple compound fats and derived fats Simple fats are Monounsaturated fats found in olive and canola oils olives and peanuts usually liquid at room temperatures and are heart healthy fats Polyunsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature are found in vegetable oils such as corn and safflower and tend to lower blood cholesterol Saturated fats are found in animal foods and in the tropical fats cocoa butter and palm oils Saturated fats are highly implicated in elevating cholesterol and the harmful lipoprotein LDL Compound fats include Phospholipids Lipoproteins carriers of fat in the body High density lipoproteins are heart healthy HDL We want these to be high Low density lipoproteins are very damaging to the heart and blood vessels LDL We want these to be low A third type of fat is called a derived fat and cholesterol is a good example Cholesterol is made by the body in the liver and is involved in the digestion of fat as a precursor to several sex hormones and is active in the metabolism of vitamin D Only animal foods have cholesterol Transfatty acids have received a lot of press lately and it39s been well deserved These are a type of fat that results from converting liquid fats vegetables oils into solid fats margarine This process is calle hydrogenation Trans fatty acids are extremely good at elevating LDL and so are very damaging to the heart and vessels You typically find these fats in margarines unless the margarine specifies that it is transfatty acid free crackers cookies treats pastries french fries etc In contrast to transfatty acids another type of fat omega3 fatty acids are very heart healthy They are found in fish and flaxseed oils People with elevated cholesterol levels can reduce their risk of a heart attack by eating fish 23 times a week Please go to the following web site wwwamericanheartorg for additional readings about fats This is a terrific web site to be familiar withit39s the American Heart Association and they have excellent information about fat how to reduce your intake of fats recipes etc What about the Mediterranean Diet This diet is typical for people who live around the Mediterranean region The focus is on olive oil red wine whole grains legumes vegetables and fruits and limited amounts of meat fish milk and cheese Research has shown that this diet is a heart healthy diet even though intakes of fat are about 30 but the type of fat is olive oil which is monounsaturated We39ll talk more about fats and their relationship to heart disease a little later on in the course Proteins Proteins are very special substances that have many important roles in the body These include Building and repairing tissue such as muscle blood skin hair etc All proteins are enzymes enzymes are regulators of metabolism Enzymes are critical to all metabolic reactions Vitamins that are enzyme helpers are called coenzymes and minerals that assist enzymes are called cofactors Involvement in hormonesregulators of body processes Acid base balance Maintaining appropriate levels of fluids in the body Proteins can be used as a source of energy but only if there is not enough carbohydrate This is called the protein sparing effect of carbohydrate Proteins should make up about 1520 of our total calories We get protein in foods from animal sources meats and dairy and also from plants such as legumes dried beans and peas grains nuts and seeds The building blocks of proteins are amino acids There are 9 essential amino acids that we must have in order to be healthy The presence or absence of these amino acids determine the quality of protein Not all protein is of equal value to the body All animal proteins have all the essential amino acids and are considered complete All plant proteins lack one or more of the essential amino acids and so are considered incomplete People who choose to avoid animal foods vegetarians learn to combine proteins from different plant sources in order to insure adequate protein quality as well as quantity There are several types of vegetarians Lactoovowil include milk and eggs Vegansexclude all foods of animal origin Pesco include fish PoIIoinclude poultry There can be challenges to a vegetarian diet and these include not getting enough iron best sources are red meats but vegetarians who plan well can get sufficient iron from legumes fortified grains and cook in a cast iron skillet Vegetarians who avoid all animal products or vegans have the biggest challenge but can still be healthy with good choices and planning These vegetarians need to be mindful of getting sufficient calcium Chapter 10 Stress Management continued Stress management techniques are crucial for helping a person decrease their stress Each one is individual A certain technique might help one person and not help another However I would encourage you to try each one and see what works best for you Stress Management Techniques 1 The first most important step is to identify the stressor 2 Identify stress related symptoms 3 Choose and employ a stress management or relaxation technique Listed below are various stress management techniques that can be used on a daily basis to help decrease the stress in your life 1 Time Management Issues with time frequently cause much of our stress Being over committed having too little time to do a job well and not managing time well can lead to stress Frequently when we don t manage ourtime well we experience fatigue despair discouragement and illness What are some time managementtips 1 Keep a log of your activities for a week Record what you are doing at halfhour intervals At the end of the day evaluate and see where you may have wasted time 2 Set longrange and shortterm goals Make sure that you follow the SMART goals guidelines as discussed in Chapter 2 3 Prioritize what needs to be done today tomorrow next week next month etc 4 Use a daily planner Only have one plannercalendar When you have 2 or more it can make things much more difficult 5 Learn to delegate make sure that you find someone that you trust to do the work Otherwise you will be looking overtheir shoulder Check with them periodically to see where they are at Reward them if they complete the project successfully 6 Learn to say no and mean it 7 Protect against boredom Here are some common time killers Watching television Ieeping Eatin Procrastination Confusion about goals Indecision Interruptions Perfectionism Of course some ofthe above time killers are actually great stress relievers We often don t get enough sleep and without adequate rest we are less able to manage our stress Maybe sleep is just what we need Sometimes daydreaming is a great short mental getaway Only you can know if you are wasting time in any of the above activities 8 Plan time for yourself all of us need me time Schedule a spa day set a girl sboys night out 9 Reward yourself If you are managing yourtime well reward yourself 10 Get it done Don t procrastinate Procrastination is one of the major stressors You can find ways to help you I would recommend reading books ortaking classes to learn how to manage your procrastination better 2 Get Involved Get yourself involved in organizations volunteering etc It will help you to feel good about helping others and gets you out to socialize 3 Support Systems All of us need good friends and family to lean on during those difficulttimes 4 Break away Take breaks during the day and do something for yourself Avoid playing catchup during your lunch break at work or during your child s naptime Have a girl or boys night outwith friends 5 Laughl Research has shown that laughter can be very healthy for you Did you knowthat 20 seconds of laughter doubles the heart rate for 35 minutes which is equivalent to 3 minutes or strenuous rowing Below are just a few of the health benefits of laughter o helps control pain 0 strengthens the immune system 0 reduces anxiety 0 helps people accept new ideas 0 brings people together If humor is so beneficial to us why aren t we society using it on a daily basis It seems that as we get older we feel that with our various responsibilities we need to be serious We don t seem to have time for being silly Did you know thatthe average child laughs 400 times a day The average adult only laughs 15 times a day Below are some ways to include humor into your life Learn to laugh at yourself choose to see an embarrassing situation as a humorous incident and risk sharing it with others Turn a negative situation into a positive one create rewards for getting through things that you dread ex doc a Surround yourself with humorous reminders ex vacation pictures pictures of loved ones Be playful and imaginative dress up for Halloween play an April fool s joke Smile did you know that it takes 8 muscles to frown and only 4 muscles to smile Tell jokes and share with others Maximize those things that make you laugh make it a point to watch those tv showsmovies that make you laugh read the comic strips each Sunday After rea dina the materials for Chapter 3 both the chapter and the online lecture ou should be able to define and understand the fallowin vocabularz It might be best to make a hard cogz of this gage and then write in each de nition bz hand Nutrition Essential Nutrients Calorie Carbohydrates Monosaccharide Disaccharide Polysaccharide Empty calories Glycogen Dietary Fiber Lipoprotein Cholesterol Omega3 Fatty acids Triglyceride Monounsaturated fats Polyunsaturated fats Saturated fats Trans fatty acids Protein Vegetarian Lactoovo vegetarian Pollo vegetarian ChaQter 6 Cardiorespiratory Endurance What is Cardiaresgiratorz Endurance Cardiorespiratory endurance is the ability of the heart lungs and blood vessels to deliver oxygen necessary to fuel exercise The limiting factor in prolonged physical activity is this ability of the body to deliver oxygen because oxygen is what is needed to convert glucose into energy Many of our diseases today result from inadequate exercise and the consequent lack of card iorespiratory endurance These diseases are referred to as hypokinetic diseases literally diseases that result from lack of exercise Examples include obesity diabetes hypertension heart disease Another way to describe cardiorespiratory endurance exercise is with the term aerobic Aerobic exercise is exercise that requires oxygen to produce the energy necessary to fuel it Students sometimes make the mistake of defining aerobic exercise as that type of exercise that requires oxygen This is an incomplete definition as all exercise requires us to breathe in oxygen Rather it is how energy is prod uced aerobic exercise requires oxygen to produce energy Anaerobic exercise is that type of exercise that does not require oxygen to produce energy The basic physiology of cardiorespiratory activity begins at the cellular level As we breathe oxygen is taken up by the alveoli in the lungs As blood circulates through the lungs oxygen carried by hemoglobin is transferred from the lungs to the blood and then is sent to the heart As blood circulates the cells take up the oxygen which is then used to convert the energy yielding nutrients into energy which is ATP adenosine triphosphate In the absence of adequate oxygen anaerobic exercise energy is produced but lactic acid is the by product Examges of aerobic exercise are Walking Running Swimming Dancing Bicycling Note that all of these activities have three basic things in common 1 they can be carried on for an extended length of time 2 they are all rhythmic and repetitive 3 they use major muscle groups These 3 things are required for an activity to be called quotaerobicquot Examges of anaerobic exercise are Sprints Weight lifting Note that these activities can not be carried on for a long length of time They are short in duration What are the 2h zsioogica bene ts of aerobic exercise There are many physiological bene ts of regular aerobic exercise These benefits can be measured and result from the physiological changes that are brought about as a result of exercise They do not include feeling better about yourself looking better etc Remember that physiological bene ts can be measured Increase in number and size of mitochondria mitochondria are the cellular organelle where energy production takes place Decrease in resting heart rate Increase in cardiac muscle strength that results in increased cardiac output Cardiac output is the volume of blood the heart pumps in 1 minute Increase in stroke volume Stroke volume is just like it sounds the volume of blood pumped in one beat stroke Increased in oxygen uptake during exercise Increased oxygen carrying capacity of the red blood cells Lower exercise heart rate Faster recovery time alter exercise or any exertion Increase in the number of functional capillaries Decrease in blood lipids Increase in size and number of mitochondria where cellular energy is produced Decrease in blood pressure Increase in fat burning enzymes Measuring Cardioresgiratorz Endurance Exercise endurance can be measured in several ways First we use maximal oxygen uptake to evaluate endurance Another name for this is V02 max V02 max is the maximum amount of oxygen that the body is able to utilize during exercise We express V02 max in terms of volume of oxygen in milliliters ml per kilogram kg of body weight per minute With training V02 max can improve What are the assessments used to measure endurance 15M7e Run V02 max is estimated based on the time it takes to complete the run This test should not be used in an unfit population or for men over age 40 women over age 50 1 Mile Walk V02 max is estimated based on a prediction of the time it takes to walk 1 mile exercise heart rate at the end of the walk gender and body weight in pounds This test works for people who are unable to run due to poor fitness levels or injuries Steg Test V02 max is estimated based on a sub maximal work load with heart rates being checked alter the test is completed Overweight individuals or people with joint problems should not take this test Astrand Rhgming Test heart rates are taken every minute for six minutes on a bicycle ergometer and at the end of the test heart rates should be in a given range for each workload This is a simple test to administer and the same precautions apply to this test as for the step test 12 Minute Swim This test works well when a pool is available and for people who are interested in a swimming program The goal is to swim as far as possible during 12 minutes V02 max is actually not calculated but instead tness categories are estimated for distance completed during the test This test would not be a good one for someone who is not a good swimmer They could be in very good shape but because they are a poor swimmer the result would show a poor fitness level As tness levels increase V02 max levels also increase indicating that the t body is better able to bring in and utilize oxygen for energy production Heart Rate Blood Pressure and Fitness Resting heart rate levels are a way to estimate fitness levels as the lower the resting heart rate typically the more t the individual is An average heart rate is from 70 79 beats per minute Bradycardia is a heart rate that is slower than normal Blood pressure levels are a good measure of risk of heart disease with normal values at 12080 Blood pressure is actually measuring the pressure exerted on the walls of the vessels as the blood ows through them When blood pressures increase the heart has to work harder to pump the blood against increased pressure High blood pressure or hypertension is not only a type of heart disease but also a symptom of heart disease A reading of 14090 is usually considered hypertension Regular aerobic exercise can help reduce hypertension Karvonen Formula for Figuring Working Target Zones The Karvonen Formula can be used to gure out how hard you should be working aerobically during your workout Do the following Take 220 and subtract your age 220 is approximately the maximal heart rate for a new born We subtract your age from it because you loose 1 beat per yearjust by growing older The answer you get will be M approximate maximal heart rate It is not a number you will want to work it It is very high and very anaerobic Next nd your resting heart rate and subtract that number from the answer you got when figuring 220 minus your age The resting heart rate is found when you take your heart rate before you get out of bed in the morning Make sure you are rested and not waking up to an alarm or out of a wild dream If so lay there for a few minutes until you feel like you are ready to fall back asleep From the answer you get you will gure the of how hard you want to work For the couch potato use about 60 6 while the trained athlete can use 90 9 Most people will use 70 or 75 Multiply the number you got after you subtracted your resting heart rate by the you want to work at From the answer you get here readd the resting heart rate back in This final answer is the heart rate for one minute you will want to work at 3 5 days per week for 20 45 minutes each time This is the area where you will burn fat most ef ciently and gain the best benefits from your cardio workout Heart rates can be taken by counting the pulse at either the radial wrist or the carotid neck artery The wrist is usually easier to find There is a small disadvantage to taking it in the carotid artery There is a nerve that runs under it and when you push on it to take the pulse you are sending a message to the brain to slow the heart rate down Counting for 6 seconds is the easiest way to count because 1 it is a shorter time and 2 you can add a 0 to the end of the number you get and it will be a count for 1 minute If you take it for 10 seconds you will have to multiply by 6 in order to know your heart rate for 1 minute Rate of Perceived Exertion This is another scale to monitor the intensity of aerobic exercise Look for the RPE chart in this chapter for more information You will notice that it is very close to the number you would get if you took a heart rate for 6 seconds For example if you feel you are not working very hard you could say you are a 10 If you took your heart rate for 6 seconds you would count around 10 beats If you feel like you are working very hard you would say you are at a 16 or 17 Your 6 second heart rate would be about 16 or 17 beats Rate of perceived exertion can be used if you don39t have a watch with your during your workout your have trouble finding your pulse or you are on a medication that regulates your heart rate such as a beta blocker Exercise Prescrigt39ions Being physically t should be a goal for every American Cardiorespiratory fitness helps reduce risk of many diseases and enhances overall quality of life Why don t people exercise What can you do to improve your own personal commitment to exercise One of the most important things you can do prior to starting an exercise program is to ask yourself the question Am I really ready to start an exercise program and stick with it Think through all the good reasons to exercise as these will help you stick with your program when you lose your motivation Thinking through the reasons why you nd it hard to exercise will help you come up with strategies to adhere to your program When you have decided its time to start an exercise program it will help you to understand how to put an exercise prescription together Following these guidelines will help you make sure that you increase your fitness level It may come as a surprise to many that fewer than 1 in 5 people meet minimum standards set by the American College of Sports Medicine for card iorespiratory fitness In order to improve your fitness you must progressively do more and more This is the exercise principle of overload In order to achieve this you need to exercise at an intensity of 65 over your capacity This is considered vigorous exercise However you should always insist on a physical exam for women over age 50 and men over age 40 before starting an exercise program If you are ready to start an exercise program to improve your card iorespiratory tness then let s look at the guidelines to help you develop your program There are four guidelines for developing an exercise program They include Made this is the type of exercise For best aerobic conditioning choose exercises with rhythmic and continuous movement Also you want to make sure you use your large muscle groups such as those in your legs and trunk For example walking swimming bicycling all qualify as providing rhythmic and continuous movement Tennis or handball might also qualify if you are good at the sport and can keep the intensity up When considering mode of activity it is also important to consider availability of a facility or home equipment as well as convenience If you choose an activity that is not readily available to you or you do not enjoy it you are not likely to stick with your exercise program Intensigy this refers to how hard you will be working You may use the Karvonen Formula as stated above or the Rate of Perceived Exertion Health bene ts from exercise can be achieved at an intensity as low as 60 For fat loss exercise should be at an intensity between 65 75 To improve performance example improve running speed you would want to work at an intensity closer to the range of 75 to 85 Remember you do not need to exercise at an intensity above 85 Doing so will not give you many extra benefits and in fact may be unsafe for some individuals Duration refers to how long you should maintain the intensity of your training zone Ideally at a minimum you should exercise for about 20 30 minutes within your target heart rate zone This can be continuous or it can be accumulated throughout the day The duration of activity will vary depending on your outcome goals If your goal is fat loss you will want to strive for an aerobic exercise duration of 45 50 minutes If your goal is health improvement or maintenance of your current fitness level 20 30 minutes is suf cient Keep in mind that aerobic activity lasting longer than 60 minutes has not been found to improve exercise benefits more than an aerobic workout within the 60 minute time frame Continual aerobic exercise sessions lasting longer than 60 minutes may increase your risk for overuse Injuries Frequency refers to how many days per week you will exercise Ideally to obtain better fitness you should exercise 5 days a week However 3 days per week will maintain your fitness level Note that this FI7Tformua is the difference between quotExercisequot and quotPh ysica Activity quot Exercise is glanned structured and regetitive Physical A ctivity is movement you do in your everyday life like taking the stairs instead of the elevator garking far away and walking to class running after your kids housework etc The Freguency of exercise is a min of 3 days ger week but for gh ysical activity it is everyday 777e Intensity of exercise is about 75 of your maximum heart rate while gh ysica activity is light work The Time of exercise is a minimum of 20 to 45 minutes at each session while gh ysica activity is 30 minutes of combined activity everyday The Tyge of exercise is something aerobic something for strength and something for exibility while gh ysica activity can be what ever you are doing that moves you around during the day Warmug and Cooldown It is important that your workout be preceded with a warm up and followed by a cool down There is a saying that will help you to understand how to structure your warm up quot We do not stretch to warm up Chapter 9 Skill Fitness and Fitness Proqraminq Skill Related Comgonents of Fitness There are 6 skill related components of tness They are important for successful motor performance in sports but you can still live a healthy life if you have poor skill related tness Physically active people can bene t from learning some of these skills associated with physical fitness Some of the benefits include Improved reaction time balance coordination and agility Improved ability to generate maximum force in a short time Improved speed even as age increases The following are skill related components of fitness Agility the ability to change body position and direction quickly and ef ciently Do you remember the shuttle run test in grade school where you had to run down to the end of the gym and pick up a block and run back to the starting line put it down on the line only to have to run back and repeat the block pick up two more times This was testing your agility A person who is agile can change directions quickly Balance the ability to maintain the body in equilibrium Hopefully you will never have to demonstrate this in front of a police officer Coordination the ability to produce correct graceful and harmonious body movements Some of us are born coordinated and others have to work on it But don t worry if you are one of the uncoordinated people out there You can still live a very happy healthy life Power the ability to produce maximum force in a short time There are two components of power speed and force It is necessary in many sports especially ones that require a quick powerful start Reaction Time the time required to initiate a response to a stimulus This is very important when driving a car Speed the ability to rapidly propel the body or part of the body to a given point You may need this to catch a departing bus or run alter a child in the street Sgecific exercise considerations For physically inactive people start at 50 intensity and build gradually Monitor heart rate during exercise frequently Be sure to warm up prior to exercise Warm up for about 5 8 minutes by gradually increasing your activity until you achieve your target heart rate Cool down should follow every exercise session and should be done until heart rate is less than 100 bpm For weight loss drop the rate of intensity so that you can exercise for longer periods of time Try to extend the duration up to 45 minutes Regular exercise while not a guarantee against heart disease does help reduce risk of heart disease However it does not make you immune to heart and blood vessel disease Genetics plays a large role in this But if you do have heart disease if you are in shape you stand a greater chance of surviving then someone who is out of shape To achieve the lowest risk of cardiovascular disease one must expend at least 2000 calories per week or 300 calories per day The physical high of exercise is due to endorphins which are released by the pituitary gland It is a form of morphine and is a great pain killer This is what you become addicted to but it is a great addiction Those with asthma should have a regular exercise program approved by their doctor It is better to exercise regularly then randomly Those with arthritis also should partake in a regular exercise program A regular flexibility program that takes them to the point of their pain but not beyond it is recommended Water aerobics or chair fitness classes are a great choice Those with diabetes should also exercise with the approval of their physician Exercise has been proven to help those who have both Type 1 and Type 2 Aerobic exercise does not make one immune from the damaging effects of smoking So don t think that since you have done your exercise program for the day that you can now go smoke a cigarette Studies have shown that some people smoke to keep their weight down but the extra pounds are better for your health then smoking that cigarette Exercise is safe during pregnancy with these suggestions Exercise at a mild moderate pace and decrease intensity by about 25 from your pre pregnancy program When tired stop exercising Watch out for decreasing balance as pregnancy progresses and don t choose activities that might lead to a loss of balance Eat right and stay well hydrated Avoid exercising in heat especially during the first 3 months Exercise regularly instead of intermittently Exercise can help relieve painful menstruation dysmenorrhea since it improves blood ow to the uterus Menstruation should not inhibit exercise Wear clothing appropriate for the seasons It should be comfortable and allow freedom of movement Avoid nylon and rubberized materials since they do not breathe Choose proper shoes for the sport Proper shoes are one of the most important factors in decreasing risk of injury to the lower limbs As a rule shoes should be replaced every 300 to 500 miles or every 6 months Good athletic shoes are designed with support for the activity you are participating in They will help to decrease the impact on your lower limbs and your back Example aerobic shoes have the major cushion in the forefoot toe since that is where the major impact is in an aerobic or step aerobic class but a running shoe has the major cushion in the heel since that is where a runner places most impact A running shoe is designed for fonNard motion while an aerobic shoe or tennis shoe is designed for sideways as well as fonNard motion A cross trainer is designed for all types of activities Wait at least 2 hours after eating a large meal before engaging in strenuous activities However a walk after a meal would be just fine There is no perfect time of day to work out Choose the time that will work best for you and stick with it People who work out in the morning tend to stick with it better and people who work out after work gain great stress relief Show caution when exercising in high humidity and heat Stay well hydrated and know the signs of heat distress Heat Cramps muscle twitching and tightening Heat Exhaustion dizziness profuse sweating weakness Heat Stroke a 911 call No sweating vomiting high body temp dry skin Drink about 8 ounces of cool water every 10 15 minutes during exercise High sugar drinks slow down absorption of water from the stomach If you have a cold or the flu you may be able to exercise If you have a fever vomiting or diarrhea then you should avoid exercise Common Exercise Related Injuries Five of the most common injuries are High impact activities Rapid conditioning programs Improper shoes Anatomical predisposition to injury Improper body alignment when doing an exercise Most iniuries can be grevented with gradual conditioning The best treatment is grevention If you experience pain or injury during exercise Decrease intensity Switch activities Substitute equipment Change clothing or footwear Chronic injuries happen over time Examples are tennis elbow or shin splints Acute sudden onset injuries happen suddenly Examples might be a turned ankle or a sprained finger All these injuries require treatment The first first aid is R Rest I Ice indirect usually 20 minutes on 20 minutes off C Compression wrap in an ace bandage E Elevation elevate it above the heart Muscle soreness due to actual tiny tears in the muscle Usually called DOMS Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness Mild stretching and a warm bath may help Gradual conditioning is important prevention Exercise Intolerance symptoms include rapid or irregular heart rate difficulty breathing nausea light headedness pale skin sore muscles or cramps tightness in the chest Slow down your pace and stick with your target heart rate to prevent these symptoms The cause of a side stitch is unknown but it could be related to lack of sufficient blood flow to the muscles As conditioning improves the sharp pain in the lower quad rants will recede Slow down your pace to relieve the pain Also drink plenty of fluids since dehydration may also be the cause Shin splints are pain and irritation in the shins It is due to improper conditioning chronic overuse fallen arches muscle fatigue improper shoes or sometimes being overweight The most common cause is muscle imbalance a very strong calf muscle and a weak shin muscle This is due not only to working one side and not the other but staying up on the toes when running jumping etc instead of allowing the heels to hit the ground A bad floor surface such as cement can also cause shin splints To prevent remove the cause stretch before exercise use an ice massage before and after exercise and use supportive taping RICE Muscle cramping can be caused by a depletion of electrolytes or lack of coordination between opposing muscle groups Stretch muscles rub down muscles and then mild exercises can help relieve pain Turninq Leisure Time into Exercise Time Research has shown that on average people in developed countries have about 35 hours of leisure time each day but that most of this time is spent in sedentary activities Think about ways you could increase your physical activity by increasing the amount of movement time and decreasing the time you spend in sedentary activities Suggestions for starting and sticking with a regular exercise grogram The first step is to develop your personal exercise prescription Realize that the first weeks may be the hardest as you build your endurance and build your habits Here are some suggestions to help you succeed Keep it fun Get an exercise paltner Set short term and long term goals Use the right clothing and shoes to prevent injuries Join a group or class Vary your routine and location of exercise Use earphones with music or books on tapes as you exercise keep the volume low to avoid ear damage Chapter 10 Stress quot 39 39 Stress management techniques are crucial for helping a person decrease their stress Each one is individual A certain technique might help one person and not help another However I would encourage you to try each one and see what works best for you Stress Management Technigues 1 The first most important step is to identify the stressor 2 Identify stress related symptoms 3 Choose and employ a stress management or relaxation technique Listed below are various stress management techniques that can be used on a daily basis to help decrease the stress in your life 1 Time Management Issues with time frequently cause much of our stress Being over committed having too little time to do a job well and not managing time well can lead to stress Frequently when we don t manage our time well we experience fatigue despair discouragement and illness What are some time management tips 1 Keep a log of your activities for a week Record what you are doing at halfhour intervals At the end of the day evaluate and see where you may have wasted time 2 Set longrange and shortterm goals Make sure that you follow the SMART goals guidelines as discussed in Chapter 2 3 Prioritize what needs to be done today tomorrow next week next month etc 4 Use a daily planner Only have one plannercalendar When you have 2 or more it can make things much more difficult 5 Learn to delegate make sure that you find someone that you trust to do the work Otherwise you will be looking over their shoulder Check with them periodically to see where they are at Reward them if they complete the project successfully 6 Learn to say no and mean it 7 Protect against boredom Here are some common time killers Watching television Sleeping Eating Daydreaming Shopping Worrying Procrastination Confusion about goals Indecision Interruptions Perfectionism Of course some of the above time killers are actually great stress relievers We often don t get enough sleep and without adequate rest we are less able to manage our stress Maybe sleep isjust what we need Sometimes daydreaming is a great short mental getaway Only you can know if you are wasting time in any of the above activities 8 Plan time for yourself all of us need me time Schedule a spa day set a girl sboys night out 9 Reward yourself If you are managing your time well reward yourself 10 Get it done Don t procrastinate Procrastination is one of the major stressors You can find ways to help you I would recommend reading books or taking classes to learn how to manage your procrastination better 2 Get Involved Get yourself involved in organizations volunteering etc It will help you to feel good about helping others and gets you out to socialize 3 Support Systems All of us need good friends and family to lean on during those difficult times 4 Break away Take breaks during the day and do something for yourself Avoid playing catchup during your lunch break at work or during your child s naptime Have a girl or boys night out with friends 5 Laugh Research has shown that laughter can be very healthy for you Did you know that 20 seconds of laughter doubles the heart rate for 35 minutes which is equivalent to 3 minutes or strenuous rowing Below are just a few of the health benefits of laughter helps control pain strengthens the immune system reduces anxiety helps people accept new ideas brings people together If humor is so beneficial to us why aren t we society using it on a daily basis It seems that as we get older we feel that with our various responsibilities we need to be serious We don t seem to have time for being silly Did you know that the average child laughs 400 times a day The average adult only laughs 15 times a day Below are some ways to include humor into your life Learn to laugh at yourself choose to see an embarrassing situation as a humorous incident and risk sharing it with others Chapter 11 Preventing Cardiovascular Disease Cardiovascular disease CV is the leading cause of death in the US and is the most common degenerative condition 40 of all deaths in 1998 were a result of 0 disease Tues of Cardin vascular Disease Coronary heart disease CHD a narrowing of the arteries that service the heart the coronary arteries due to deposits of cholesterol and fats Peripheral vascular disease narrowing of the peripheral blood vessels Stroke narrowing of the arteries that supply the brain that can become occluded and block the flow of blood to the brain Hypertension elevated blood pressure gt12080 Atherosclerosis accumulations of cholesterol and fats in the lumen of the artery that can block blood flow and cause a heart attack Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease Genetic inheritance Abnormal cholesterol pro le High LDL gt130 mgdL Low HDL lt 45 mgdL for men lt 55 mgdL for women Cholesterol gt180mgdL Triglycerides gt150mgdL Physical inactivity Smoking the single most preventable cause of ALL disease Hypertension gt12080 Diabetes Excessive body fat Tension and stress Age Abnormal electrocardiogram Personal history of CHD Elevated homocysteine Now let39s look at will each of the above factors increases risk afCHD and what changes can be made to reduce risk Family History The risk is highest if a primary relative has had a heart attack prior to age 50 Some people have a physiological predisposition to heart disease such as increased cholesterol levels But in addition to the physiological inherited risk there may be similarities in lifestyle habits within families For example if families are used to eating high fat diets that habit may be handed down the generations If you have a family history you must be especially vigilant to have early and frequent testing of blood pressure lipid pro les etc and take care to integrate a heart healthy lifestyle in early adulthood AgeIncreasing age brings about more heart problems Poor nutrition obesity less physical activity can become more evident and problematic as people age However the foundation for heart disease in the later years is usually laid in the early twenties Research has found that younger and younger people have signi cant evidence of atherosclerosis even as young as 5 years of age Again a heart healthy lifestyle instituted early in life will help reduce risk in later years Physical Inactivity Reguar aerobic exercise will Decrease blood pressure Reduce body fat Lower blood lipids cholesterol and triglycerides Increase HDL levels Help control diabetes Increase and maintain heart function Motivate people to stop smoking Alleviate tension and stress All of these bene ts of exercise will help reduce risk for CHD Researchers now say that just 30 minutes a day will help lower your risk Abnormal ECG An ECG gives a picture of the electrical impulses in the heart and can help identify abnormalities It is an important diagnostic tool in diagnosing CHD During this test five areas of heart function are evaluated Heart rate Heart rhythm Axis of the heart Enlargement of the heart Presence of damage due to heart attack myocardial infarction Elevated Homocysteine Levels High blood levels of homocysteine have been associated with increased risk of CHD It is thought that homocysteine enhances plaque formation Increased intake of fruits and vegetables and folic acid are thought to reduce homocysteine levels Diabetes People with either type of diabetes Type I diabetes is insulin dependent Type 1 is associated with insulin resistance and is highly linked to obesity and ovenNeight Either type of diabetic has a greatly increased risk of CHD Reduction in risk associated with diabetes includes adhering to a special diet that controls blood glucose levels and is low in fat saturated fat and cholesterol regular aerobic exercise and weight management Syndrome X is a condition where elevated lipids are present including high triglycerides A heart healthy diet with a focus on strict control of simple sugars regular exercise and weight loss seems to help correct the lipids and reduce risk for CHD Hypertension Blood pressure is the measure of the force that is exerted against the walls of the vessels as blood flows through Hypertension exists when blood pressure readings exceed 12080 Hypertension has been called the quotsilent killerquot because there are often no symptoms Frequent blood pressure checks can help diagnose and monitor Uncontrolled blood pressure greatly increases risk of heart disease as well as congestive heart failure and kidney failure High blood pressure contributes to atherosclerosis In addition with increased pressure the walls of the arteries are weakened The heart may become enlarged as it tries to compensate leading to more damage Most hypertension is called quotessentialquot hypertension and has no definite cause but is treatable Here are the ways you can treat hypertension Regular moderate exercise helps manage weight and increase strength of the CV system Weight loss blood pressure increases with increasing body fat each pound of fat requires an extra mile of blood vessels thereby making the heart work harder to pump the blood Controlled sodium 3 5 grams or less daily Stress management intake Smoking cessation Antihypertensive medications Excessive Body Fat Excessive body fat and overweight contributes to CHD risk for several reasons including an associated increase risk of hypertension elevated lipid values tendency toward a sedentary lifestyle and likelihood of developing diabetes Smoking It is the single most preventable cause of all diseases and contributes to CV disease cancer bronchitis emphysema and peptic ulcers It speeds up the atherosclerotic process constricts blood vessels a problem with hypertension and already occluded plaque lled arteries damages lining of the artery reduces available oxygen increases carbon dioxide raises blood pressure decreases HDL and increases the quotstickyquot qualities of the blood raising the chances that clotting will cause a heart attack Tension and Stress Inappropriate responses to stress increase risk of CHD The physiological response to stress releases compounds that can elevate blood glucose levels and lipids Under stress arteries constrict and blood pressure increases Regular exercise and stress management are the best ways to manage this risk Diagnosis Heart disease is often diagnosed with the following Exercise stress test may signal problems with the heart upon exertion Who should receive a stress test Men over age 40 and women over age 50 have a stress ECG exercise stress test Cholesterol levels over 200 or HDL under 35 Hypertension or diabetes Smokers Family histonl of CHD Abnormal ECG Chest pain dysrhythmias Angiogram may identify clogged arteries and is olten followed by an angioplasty which helps enlarge the arteries Abnormal lipid profile A lipid profile is done in a fasting state and when values are elevated can indicate a risk of atherosclerosis Cholesterol is a waxy substance found only in animal products and while it is essential for speci c metabolic functions in the body and is made in the liver elevated levels can lead to atherosclerosis The build up of cholesterol in the arteries leads to plaque which can block blood flow in the arteries that supply the heart with blood and oxygen The obstruction can trigger a heart attack Lipids fats are transported in the blood by lipoproteins Low density lipoproteins LDD are associated with increase risk as it tends to destroy the delicate lining of the artery and speeds up the process of atherosclerosis High density lipoproteins HDL act as scavengers and help remove cholesterol from the blood HDL is therefore protective against heart disease Women tend to have higher HDL levels than men and levels can decrease with age Regular exercise low fat diets low saturated fats and diets high in antioxidant rich fruits and vegetables help keep HDL levels high When triglycerides are high plaque formation is accelerated Foods high in fat and simple sugars favor increased triglyceride levels Elevated blood pressure values Patients reports of pain What are the warning signs of a heart attack Discomfort pressure fullness squeezing pain in the chest area that persists for several minutes it might go away and return Pain that radiates to shoulders neck or arms Chest discomfort with lightheadedness shortness of breath nausea sweating or fainting Warning signs of stroke Sudden numbness or weakness of face arm leg particularly on one side of body Sudden confusion difficulty in speaking understanding Difficulty seeing Difficulty in walking dizziness loss of balance or coordination Severe sudden headache What is a Heart Health K Lifestzle A heart healthy lifestyle is one in which risks are prevented with the daily choices that contribute to wellness Included are Smoking cessation Heart healthy diet Hello and welcome to Healthy Lifestyles PFHW 163 online My name is Mrs Louise Whitney and I ll be your instructor for the course This course officially begins on Monday August 29 2011 That is when all the materials for the course will be available Don39t be concerned if you don39t see all the materials on the course site yet It will all be visible to you on Monday New materials will be posted then on a weekly basis on Monday mornings You will also be able to see the course calendar on Monday August 29 which will help you plan out your semester First Things First The first thing Iwould like you to do is to send me an email to let me know you are in the course You can do this by clicking on the Communication button and then go to Send EmaigtInstructor Please do this by Friday September 2 If you are on my roster and I don39t hear from you by that date you risk being dropped from the course for lack of participation What About the Textbook You are required to use the textbook Principles and Labs for Fitness and Wellness Werner K Hoeger Sharon A Hoeger 11th edition WadsworthThomson Learning Belmont CA 2010 You really need to purchase a new textbook as it has materials in it that may not be available should you buy used All the course information will be based on the 11th edition In addition the book comes with a CD shrink wrapped with the text This CD is required for completing homework projects While I know new textbooks can be costly I urge to buy it new for a couple of reasons First you won39t have the current 10th edition Second you will probably not receive the required CD if you buy a used book One of the bookstores that LCC uses is Gibsons and they can be reached online at LCCgibsonbookscom or by phone at 517487 3769 They are happy to assist you in purchasing your book over the phone and mailing it to you If you can not afford to buy the book and you live near campus there is a copy on reserve in the library that you may use to do the course readings Please don39t write to ask me if it is OK to buy a different edition of the textbook What About Homework Homework assignments for each week are listed in weekly folders in Course Documents They are assigned on Mondays and due the following Sunday evening at midnight Once the due date and time has past the dropbox will no longer be available and you won39t be able to submit your work If you are not sure how to use the Drop Box please see the folder in Course Information Please don39t submit homework as an email attachment If you stay caught up in the course you will be able to keep up with homework assignments so you won39t be late What About Exams This course has 3 online exams that students can take on their home computer They do not require a password to take The final exam has to be taken at the LCC Assessment Center and is worth 36 points Please Note there are NO late testing options for exams Exams will generally post on Mondays at 1000 am and you will have until Monday the following week at 1000 pm You have ONE week to take these tests so please be organized and make your arrangements early If there is anything about this that you don39t understand please please ask me now Vacations work car trouble etc are just not valid excuses for missing an exam Course PointsGrading You will have one week to post thoughtful comments into the discussion forum Discussion Forums will be available just like the course materials starting each Monday You can post your entries from that day until midnight the following Sunday So for example your week one entry has to be dated by Sunday September 4 at midnight The discussion forum for that week will then close and no credit will be given for late entriesno exceptions DeptProgramSpeci ed 300 point total grading system is used Attendanceparticipation in discussion forums 30 pts 2 points per class Exams 100 pts Health Risk Appraisal amp Initial Assessment 15 pts Projects 80 pts Healthy Lifestyle Plan 75 pts Total 300 91 100 40 86 90 35 81 85 30 76 80 25 71 75 20 66 70 15 60 10 0 59 00 Please remember that your course grade is what you earn It is based on your performance in exams projects and your participation in the course The grade that are displayed in the Angel gradebook are not always the best way to determine where you stand gradewise Please add up your total points at any given point in the semester and divide by the total possible at that same point and this will give you an idea of where you stand with The Healthy Lifestyle Plan The Healthy Lifestyle Plan is a large part of your grade It consists of projects in nutrition weight management exercise stress and chronic disease risk reduction Instructions will be included throughout the semesterthese are actually the projects listed in the calendar Where Should I Begin An online course relies on written communication Be sure you read the course materials carefully Each time you log into the course take a few minutes to read all new announcements as this is where I will address frequently asked questions or concerns that you might be having This is also where I announce exams and other important information for the course Under the tab labeled Course Materials please see Course Materials Here you will find the weekly folders with course materials course syllabus week to week schedule class rules information about taking exams project instructions how to use the Drop Box and some additional information about online learning Instructor Information I have posted a brief biography so that we can become better aquainted This is where you can find my contact information The very best way to communicate with me is by Angel email Syllabus Here is the course departmental syllabus Exams and Quizzes Here you will find links to exams and quizzes External Links Here is a listing of links to web resources to supplement the course materials Two other tabs are Communicate Here is where you will communicate with your classmates and me by email and by posting answers to various questions and activities throughout the course in the discussion forum area and send emails to me and to each other My Grades Here is where you may check your grades Calendar This is where you will find the quotbig picturequot on what is due and when Please refer to it weekly as due dates may change depending on how everyone is doing in the course In other words I might extend the time you have to complete a projectI would never make anything due sooner than is currently posted The Course DVD In addition to the DVD that comes with the text you will also receive by mail a course DVD Various instructors in our department made this DVD so that we can demonstrate correct exercise form nutrition information and stress management techniques You will see instructions throughout the course to review the DVD What About Vacations Many times students believe they can take an online course and coordinate vacations with it since there is no requirement to show up in person for the class Other than Spring Break there is no officially sanctioned time off for this course In other words if you plan to be gone or on vacation you still are expected and required to meet the timelines for this course Daily logins are a must regardless of where in the world you are What Should I Do If I Have Questions or I Am Confused Most confusion in online courses comes from not reading the materials carefully If you aren39t sure what to do please read through the Announcements Course Information and Course Documents first Even if you have already read them sometimes reviewing them will answer your question Second post a question on the Discussion Board One of your classmates may be able to answer your question Then if you are still unsure email me I will return all and emails within 2 days usually sooner Finally it is crucial to online learning success for you to login regularly PLEASE don39t feel that you have the whole semester to do this course or that it will be easier than a face to face presentation ChaQter 8 Muscular Flexibility The definition of flexibility is the ability of a joint to move freely through its full range of motion Flexibility along with cardiorespiratory conditioning and strength form the foundation of total body fitness All three are important in establishing a healthy fit body Many times injuries to the body are due to inflexibility Nearly 80 of all lower back pain is a result of lack of flexibility and muscular strength If you can participate regularly in a flexibility program you can Help maintain good joint mobility Increase resistance to muscle injury and soreness Prevent low back injury and pain Improve and maintain good posture In fact flexibility exercises are regularly prescribed to treat the following Chronic low back pain Dysmenorrhea Neuromuscular stress and discomfort Stretching prior to working out is also helpful and should be part of every exercise session Always warm up take the heart rate up gradually and then stretch remember We don t stretch to warmup we warmup to stretch and cool down bring the heart rate down gradually and then do a post exercise stretch remember not to stop abruptly but instead cool down first and then stretch In addition to the benefits listed above exibility is important throughout life and especially in later years Maintaining flexibility in the elderly will Allow people to manage simple daily tasks on their own Will allow better movement of total body especially the neck Increase enjoyment of physical activity What factors affect fexibiitz Range of motion around a joint is highlyjoint specific and so can vary from one joint to another It is also individual some people are naturally more flexible than others In addition it can also relate to genetic factors Here are some other factors that affect flexibility Physical activity If you don t practice stretching your flexibility will be limited Injury Injury can cause the joint to become stiff or perhaps it can cause the joint to be unstable Adipose tissue Large amounts of adipose tissue can impede stretching Body temperature Changes in muscle temperature will affect the potential for lengthening Warmed up muscles can increase flexibility by 20 Gender Females in general have more flexibility than males throughout life Aging As we age the potential of muscle lengthening decreases This is because sedentary muscles lose their elasticity tendons and ligaments tighten and shorten and deposits of adipose tissue increase Plastic elongation is the permanent lengthening of the muscle through slow sustained stretching Elastic elongation is the temporary lengthening through stretching Assessment afFexibiitz Most tests to measure flexibility are sport specific and may not be useful for the general population However there are a few tests that can be done to measure flexibility To check overall flexibility Sit and reach test To check ability to reach bend and turn Total body rotation test and shoulder rotation test Remember that flexibility isjoint specific Therefore flexibility in one joint does not mean that the whole body is flexible See the textbook for more information on these tests Bodz Pasture One of the most important benefits to flexibility is improved posture Flexibility tests help identify deviations from normal body alignment Then corrective exercises can be prescribed Faulty posture is the cause of about 80 of all chronic lower back pain It is also important to learn how to do everyday activities properly such as standing sleeping sitting etc Fexibiitz Prescrig tion In the same way that we have previously discussed formulating a prescription for cardiovascular endurance and muscle strength and endurance we can also develop a program to improve flexibility Keep these tips in mind with any stretching program The program should include all body parts Overload and specificity pertain to flexibility programs too Made There are three types of stretching Ballistic dynamic or bouncy movement that can provide the necessary force to lengthen muscles however you must be careful not to tear or overstretch and increase risk of injury It can also lead to loose joints and is not a recommended method for stretching Slow sustained stretching also known as Static stretching this is the recommended type of stretching because you can achieve good results with little pain Muscles are gradually lengthened through a slow and sustained movement and the stretch is then held for a few seconds with no movement at all PNF proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation this method usually requires another person to assist The partner aids in increasing the force in the beginning of the stretch The person doing the stretching then applies force against the partner and holds the stretch for 45 seconds Then the muscle is relaxed This stretch can also be done by yourself on some muscle groups such as the hamstring Try laying on your back with one leg extended into the air Wrap your hands around the extended leg and press the leg into your hands while resisting with the hands Be sure to exhale during the contraction since this is an isometric contraction which can elevate the bloodpressure Hold for a few seconds then relax the muscle and try pulling the leg back to its new range of motion Intensity The intensity of the stretch should only be to the point of mild discomfort The old idea of no pain no gain couldn t be further from the truth Pain signals an overstretch and the potential for tearing the muscle Regetitians Ideally each stretch is done about 45 times holding for about 1520 seconds As flexibility increases the stretch can be held for progressively longer periods of time up to a minute Freguencz Once you get hooked on stretching you may find that you want to do it daily But try at least to stretch 56 times a week especially in the beginning Once you have achieved good flexibility you can maintain your flexibility by stretching 3 times a week with 3 repetitions of about 10 seconds each In general a good stretching routine lasts about 1530 minutes When is the best time to stretch Anytime during the day is a good time to stretch Just remember stretching and warming up are two different things You should always warm up and then stretch Warmup by doing an activity such as walking at a slow pace Try to get the blood circulating with gentle movement Taking care of our back Low back pain is usually caused by Physical inactivity Poor posture Excessive body weight Tight hip flexor muscles and weak hamstring muscles Weak abdominal muscles Lifting heavy objects incorrectly Be sure to review Figure 87 which gives many techniques for taking care of your back Review proper lifting techniques which include bending at the knees and holding the object close to your body Review proper standing sitting and sleeping techniques Contraindicated exercises There are many exercises that could do more harm then good These are considered contrainidcated Most are exercises will have to be repeated over and over inorder to cause harm When doing any exercise it is always best to think about thejoints that are involved that could be injured such as the back knees hips elbows wrists etc Chapter 5 Weight Management Weight Management At any given time in the US nearly 50of all women and about 25 of all men say they are dieting And yet 65 million Americans are overweight and of these 30 million are obese Nearly 40 billion is spent annually on weight loss and the cost of obesity on health care is 100 billion dollars annually Clearly weight control issues are on people s minds and it has hit them hard in terms of health and dollars Overweight is defined as being 1020 over a recommended body weight Another way to define overweight is having a BMI that is over 25 Obesity is defined as being 100 pounds or more overweight or having a BMI over 30 or being 30 over your healthy body weight Why is quot 39 39 quot to your Health Achieving a healthy body weight is important for health reasons as being overweight does carry increase risk for diseases such as Type II diabetes is strongly associated with overweight Heart disease stroke elevated cholesterol and triglyceride levels Injuries to joints Certain types of cancer breast prostate colon endometrial Gallbladder disease Sleep apnea A healthy weight is defined as that weight that allows you to maximize your potential for wellness No one has a perfect body or figure and it is unrealistic to think we can all look like fashion models However everyone can and should make establishing a healthy weight a primary wellness goal The Weight Loss Dilemma Constantly gaining and losing weight yoyo dieting can permanently affect your health It increases your chances of heart disease and it causes a loss of lean tissue muscle and can lower your metabolic rate Most people tend to underestimate their food intake and overestimate how much exercise they get In addition too often the only thing lost with a fad diet is money What about the GZcemic Index One of the most popular diets today is the lowcarbohydrate dietexamples include The Atkins Diet The Zone Sugar Busters etc All are based on the idea that carbohydrates are fattening remember last week39s lecture that stated that 1 gram of carb 4 kcal and compare it to 9 kcalgram fat While carbohydrates are not the culprit it is important to realize that you are best to consume complex carbohydrates that are unrefined In other words focus on whole grains fruits and vegetables as your primary carbohydrate sourcenot foods high in simple sugars The Glycemic Index tries to explain why certain carbohydrates cause a greater response in insulin for example white flour breads potatoes white rice and that the increase in insulin migh trigger more fat production and storage At this point there is no scientific proof to back this up However it is always a good idea to eat complex carbs that are whole grain Wllz are Fad Diets Dangerous No magic foods will help you burn fat or lose weight Fad diets are rarely balanced and adequate in regards to all the essential nutrients People may lose weight but research shows that only 5 in 100 people are able to keep the weight off Because fad diets also promote drastic calorie restrictions good nutrition is compromised Weight Loss M tbs You can not spot reduce When fat is lost it is lost over the entire body Cellulite isjust an accumulation of enlarged fat cells Rubberized suits will only hasten loss of body fluids and can lead to dangerous dehydration Steam baths or saunas also only yield temporary loss of water Mechanical vibrators fat whackers require no caloric expenditure and so no weight is loss Fad Diets It is easy to spot a fad diet if you learn the signs used to promote them Testimonialspeople are interviewed and chat about how successful they have been Developed with quotConfidential Researchquotwhy is it secret Promise of rapid easy quoteat what you wantquot weight loss No physical activity needed to lose Restrictions of food selection No healthy behavior changes needed Requires Lise of special foods or products The PI Ksiaagz of Weight Loss The energy balancing equations states that if intake calories eaten equals output exercise then the person will not change weight If intake is greater weight is gained If output is greater weight is lost This sounds simple but it may not always reflect the truth If you decrease daily intake by 500 calories then in one week you should lose a pound However this doesn t always happen The explanation for individual differences in weight can be understood in terms of variation in human metabolism In addition there are some other theories that help to explain the physiology of weight loss The Set Point Theory The hypothalamus regulates appetite and fat storage It has a set point that is almost like a thermostat that controls weight Everyone s setting is different Even with changes in intake and output that are initiated to promote weight loss the set point senses the change and tells the body to conserve energy in order to maintain weight or expend energy in order to maintain weight The only thing that seems to alter the set point is exercise Aerobic exercise as well as a diet high in complex carbohydrates lower the set point In contrast diets high in simple sugars and fat near fasting diets tend to elevate the set point making it harder to lose weight Very low calorie diets are not recommended as they counteract your effort to lose by slowing down the metabolism In addition very low calorie diets lt1000 caloriesday are not adequate in essential nutrients Women should not go lower than 1200 calories and men should not go below 1500 calories when attempting weight loss Fat Substitutes olestra is a new fat substitute and has no calories But remember that no amount of artificial sweeteners or fats will mean weight loss unless you eat sensibly and exercise In addition there may not be calories in the olestra but the food the olestra is in still has caloric value Exercise is the 1 key to successful weight loss Paired with a healthy diet you can learn to win at the losing game In weight loss if diet alone is used then lean body mass loss occurs Losing muscle or lean body mass weakens muscles can damage organs slows metabolism and can cause disturbances in heart function In addition following an eating binge with low calorie diets can also change the metabolic rate and electrolyte balance and not for the good Each additional pound of muscle tissue can raise metabolic rates by 350 calories per day In addition if you burn 300 calories in exercise 3 x daily for a year you can lose 135 pounds of fat If you gain 5 pounds of muscle you can burn the equivalent of 156 pounds of fat per year Aging is not the main reason for lower metabolic rates lack of regular exercise is Health Weight Gain Gaining weight in a healthy way means that you don tjust overeat but to slightly increase your caloric intake and then increase exercise Strength training is an excellent way to gain better muscle definition and pounds This usually translates into a person feeling better about the way they look Losing Weight the Sensible War Check with your doctor to make sure its OK for you to exercise Then think about these changes Regular moderate exercise Healthy low fat high complex carbohydrate diet If you are significantly overweight you may need to choose lowimpact exercises to avoid joint injuries Watch portion sizes and keep a food diary Integrate behavior modification Ask for support from family and friends Think positively Set reasonable goals Reward yourself Learn to differentiate between hunger and appetite Stay busy and don t eat out of boredom Stay away from fast food Also see the list on pages 169175 Chapter 4 Body Composition Badz Camgasitian Nearly everyone in today39s society knows that one of the major health threats to our collective wellness is obesity Both obesity and being overweight carry an increased risk of developing chronic disease such as diabetes cardiovascular disease cancer and hypertenSIon Underweight is defined as being below a healthy weightsome researchers use 20 below a recommended weight One of the most important issues in dealing with being overweight is establishing a healthy achievable body weight Height and weight charts can only go so far in helping people understand what they should weigh to be healthy Height and weight charts can not take into consideration the amount of muscle a person may have Because muscle weighs more than fat a person could mistakenly believe heshe is overweight when they are not overfat Therefore quot body I 39 39 and its 39 39 39 to body weight is critical Your body is composed of fat and nonfat components The fat component is called fat mass or percent body fat The nonfat component is termed lean body mass or lean tissue muscle From the knowledge of what a person39s lean tissue is recommended body weight can be established Recommended body weight is that weight at which there is no harm to human health Essential vs Storage Fat Of the fat in the body there are two types Essential fat is needed for normal physiological functions It is about 3 of the total fat in men and 12 in women Storage fat is the fat that is stored in the body Most of it is beneath the skin and around the internal organs Stored fat has several functions Insulation for body heat retention Storage form of energy Protection from external trauma to the body Storage fat does not differ between men and women however where they store it is different Men tend to store it around the waist and women tend to store it around the hips and thighs Assessing Badz Camgasitian There are several methods to measure body fat however there is one method that is considered the gold standard because it is the most accurate method it is called hydrostatic weighing or underwater weighing This method requires a pool or tank of water skilled technicians and plenty of time It requires the person to be weighed while submerged in water Other methods include Chapter 1 Physical Fitness and Wellness What is wellness It is important to correctly define wellness It is notjust something you are born with nor is it something that you can just expect as a birthright Wellness is also notjust the absence of disease Rather wellness is the constant and deliberate effort to stay healthy and achieve your highest potential for well being Wellness means implementing changes to improve your health and quality of life to achieve total wellbeing Wellness takes your constant and deliberate effort Each day you are faced with choices that will either contribute to your overall wellness or take away from it For example today you can decide to take a walk or go for a swim Today you can decide to have a turkey sandwich on whole wheat bread carrots skim milk and an apple for lunch instead of a high calorie high fat and sodium fast food meal Today you can practice stress management so that the long term effects of stress do not become a constant companion Physical fitness plays a major role in wellness but unfortunately it is no longer a part of our daily lives Sedentary Death Syndrome is the term used to describe the impact of our sedentary lifestyle It is the second greatest threat to public health in the US The first is tobacco use Healthy Life Expectancy is the number of years a person can live in good health and is obtained from subtracting ill health years from overall life expectancy Morbidity is a condition related to or caused by a disease or illness A chronic disease is one that develops over time and lasts a long timeexamples include diabetes heart disease arthritis W These are the broad categories helps us see that wellness is more than just the absence of disease These dimensions are Physical wellnessphysical activity good nutrition enough sleep avoid harmful drugs Emotional wellnessthe ability to understand your own feelings accept your limitations and achieve emotional stability Mental wellnessor intellectual well being with a focus on life long learning and lively interaction with the world you live in Social wellnessa positive selfimage fulfilling social interactions Environmental wellnessrefers to the impact of the environment on you Occupational wellnessderiving satisfaction from your work or knowing that you have your quotidealquot job Spiritual wellnessfocus on a sense of meaning in one39s life and a relationship to a higher being How do zau de ne health Health is a state of complete wellbeing including physiological psychological spiritual social intellectual and environmental factors What is a risk factor A risk factor is a predictor of disease An example High blood pressure is a risk factor for heart disease Obesity is a risk factor for Type II diabetes What are the leading health grabems in the US The leading causes of death in the United States are primarily related to lifestyle choices The top three are Cardiovascular disease More than 40 or all deaths Cancer Nearly 23 COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Dr David Satcher US Surgeon General estimates that over 50 of the deaths in this country are a result of people s lifestyle habits What are the bene ts of wellness The greatest benefit of wellness is improved quality of life In addition there are economic benefits which can be measured in dollars and cents reduced sick leave increased productivity Here are some of the major physiological benefits of exercise Improved functioning of heart and lungs Improved muscle tone strength endurance and flexibility Maintenance of healthy body weight Increases metabolic weight Improved functioning of immune system Decreased mortality rate from disease Maintains healthy blood cholesterol levels Improved sense of wellbeing Better sleeping habits Helps maintain independent living for older adults Relieves tension and stress Helps prevent and control diabetes What are the wellness goals for the US Regular exercise Stop smoking Eat right reduce fat sodium and cholesterol increase fruits and vegetables and fiber Maintain healthy body weight Reduce stress Watch alcohol intake Get adequate rest Establish healthy relationships with friends and community Be responsible for personal safety Lansing Community College Physical Fitness and Wellness Department Official Course Syllabus Effective from Fall 2000 Semester Course Code PFHW 163 Title Healthy Lifestyles I Course Code Credit Lecture Lab Other PFHW 163 2 32 0 0 II Prerequisite None Restriction None Corequisite Course None Recommended None III COURSE DESCRIPTION This course introduces the student to lifestyle skills that lead to better health The student will learn healthy nutritional habits basic fitness concepts positive stress reduction and development of a personalized healthy lifestyle plan Assessment skills and wellness concepts will be put into practice IV INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS A Textbooks This information is provided by the Section Instructor or in XII Other Course Information B Other MaterialsResources May be Used Film overheads C Tools Equipment or Apparel required of the student Not Used V STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES Department Specified Upon completion of this course the successful student will be able to 1 complete a Health Risk Appraisal 2 complete an individualized physical fitness assessment 3 explain basic fitness concepts including basic applied exercise physiology 4 demonstrate proper biomechanics and techniques to improve cardiovascular conditioning muscular strength and endurance and exibility 5 list the risk factors for disease particularly coronary artery disease and other cardiovascular diseases 6 summarize the components of healthy nutrition 7 complete a nutritional analysis 8 de ne positive and negative stressors 9 identify the physiological responses to stress 10 practice stress management techniques 11 identify the components of a healthy lifestyle 12 develop and implement a personalized healthy lifestyle plan VI METHODS OF INSTRUCTION This information is provided by the Section Instructor VII METHODS OF EVALUATING STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT PROGRESS A The following methods are used in this class Method Department Range Percentage of Final Grade Class Attendance Required 23 AssignmentsProjects Required 50 Exams Required 26 This information is provided by the Section Instructor B Grading Scale The specific grading scale used in this course is specified by the department as follows DeptProg Specified 301 point total grading system is used 3 Exams 35 points each 105 Final Exam 36 4 Quizzes 10 points each 40 Project 1 Health Risk Appraisal 15 Projects 26 constitute Healthy Lifestyle Plan Project 2 Nutrition Evaluation 16 Project 3 Weight Management Body Composition 12 Project 4 Exercise 14 Project 5 Stress 13 Project 6 Risk Factors 15 Project Presentation 5 Discussion Forum 30 2 points for 15 weeks Total 301 pts 91 100 40 86 90 35 81 85 30 76 80 25 71 75 20 66 70 15 60 10 0 59 00 VIII COURSE PRACTICES Collegewide policies are stated in the Lansing Community College Catalog and include those on attendance withdrawals and incomplete grades The catalog is available on the internet at htt wwwlansin ccmiuscatalo Additional Course Practices in this class are IX DETAILED OUTLINE OF COURSE CONTENT AND SEQUENCING The Detailed Course Outline is provided by the section instructor or if present is subject to change by the section instructor I OVERVIEW LIFESTYLE AND HEALTH RISKS A Causes of Death and Risk Factors for Disease 1 Coronary artery disease 2 Cancer 3 Osteoporosis 4 Other causes of death B What is a Healthy Lifestyle 1 Fitness for healthfitness for performance 2 Personal Health Risk Appraisal including blood pressure measurement 3 The wellness concept 4 The positive lifestyle 5 Beginning a personalized healthy lifestyle plan II EXERCISE A Identify and define the components of physical fitness B Discover how fit you are now C Review cardiovascular endurance D Review muscle strength and endurance E Review exibility training F Analyze contraindicated exercises G Review body composition and its effect on health and fitness H Discuss lifetime fitness and wellness III NUTRITION AND WEIGHT CONTROL A Learn the names and know the functions of all essential nutrients carbohydrate including ber fat protein vitamins minerals and water B Assess current nutritional status using dietary assessment learn how caloric intake should be distributed in a healthy balanced diet C Learn the relationships between diet and certain diseases D Learn the health consequences of obesity E Learn the best approach to permanent weight management by examining the physiology of weight loss IV STRESS REDUCTION A Define short term and long term stress and their effects on the body B Identify major sources of stress C Develop an awareness of personal symptoms of stress D Understand the role of perception with stress F Learn specific stress reduction techniques V EFFECTS OF AGING A Effects of aging B Finalize a Personal Healthy Lifestyle Plan X TRANSFER POTENTIAL For transferability information please consult the Transfer Equivalency List located on the Chapter 12 Cancer Prevention What is Cancer Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell growth Cell growth is controlled by the genetic codes found in the nucleus of each cell When cells lose their ability to regulate cell growth cell division may become abnormal and mutant cells can arise When cells grow abnormally and form a mass of tissue a tumor develops Benign tumors do not invade other tissues Malignant tumors invade other tissues and can cause death Cancer genes and suppressor genes are found in the genetic material of the cell Cancer genes oncogenes initiate cell division and suppressor genes deactivate the process In normal cell division the genetic material is duplicated exactly but sometimes this does not happen Usually the cells with defective genetic material die but occasionally they replicate and form a tumor When defects in these cells occur the malignant tumors develop and cancer occurs What causes the defects thatinitiate cancerous growth External factors such as radiation chemicals and viruses Internal factors such as immune conditions hormones and mutations Each time a cell divides the chromosome loses some telomere a molecule found at both ends of a chromosome After many cell divisions the cell runs out of telomere and then the cell dies Human tumors make a compound known as telomerase that keeps the cell from running out of telemere and then the cell can duplicate inde nitely Cancers starts with the abnormal growth of ONE cell and then multiplies At about a million cells it is known as carcinoma in situ and is usually destroyed by the immune system Metastasis is when the cancer begins to spread to other parts of the body If metastasis occurs then the cancer spreads and it becomes more difficult to treat Treatment There are treatments however for most cancers But cancer is largely preventable because 80 of cancers are related to lifestyle or environmental factors Diet Tobacco use Excessive use of alcohol Sexual and reproductive history Exposure to occupational hazards Guidelines for Cancer Pre ventian Know the risk factors listed above Education to promote early detection Dietarz changes A healthy cancer prevention diet is Low in fat High in fiber High in fruits and vegetables rich in vitamins A and C Protein intake at recommended levels High in cruciferous vegetables cabbage family Avoid obesity as been linked to cancers of breast colon rectal prostate gallbladder ovary and uterus Avoid alcohol or use in moderation has been linked to cancers of mouth larynx esophagus and liver High fat diets have been linked to breast colon and prostate cancers Low intakes of fiber have been associated with colon cancer High vitamin A and C may reduce risk for cancers of larynx esophagus and lung Beta carotene carrots squash sweet potatoes helps protect against action of free radicals Phyhochemicals have become an important and promising weapon in the ght against cancer These are compounds found in fruits and vegetables that seem to block the formation of tumors by Removing carcinogens cancer causing compounds or agents before they cause damage Activating enzymes that detoxify cancer causing agents Disrupting the chemical combinations that promote cancers Some examples of phytochemicals Sulforaphane in broccoli Capsicum in hot chili peppers Genlstein in soybeans Flavenolds in fruits and vegetables WIIK keeg gratein intake to recommended levels Most Americans eat more protein than they need and too much animal protein appears to decrease blood enzymes that help prevent cancers When cooking meats by grilling include cooking at lower heats until well done and avoid blackening meats The three most common tzges of cancer For men prostate lung colorectal For women breast lung and colorectal Cancer deaths by site and sex Men lung prostate colorectal Women lung breast colorectal Smoking and Cancer Smoking has been linked to at least 87 o of lungs cancers and nearly 305 of all cancers There will be more on smoking cessation next week Smoking cessation programs are an important tool in helping reduce this type of cancer Avoiding excessive sun exposure Three types of skin cancer are basal cell carcinoma squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma Even small doses of sunlight add up to a greater risk of skin cancer The damage done to skin is often not evident until 20 years after exposure Use sunscreens and apply 30 minutes before exposure The higher the SPF number on the sunscreen the more protection afforded Physical Activity and Cancer Regular exercise can help reduce stress and improve immune function and therefore offer a protective effect against cancer Moderate exercise has also been shown to help reduce risk cancers of breast colon and reproductive system Early detection is a crucial key in treating any type of cancer Chapter 7 Muscular Strength and Endurance Strength is something that can benefit all people throughout the life cycle Maintaining strength like maintaining aerobic fitness and is something that requires effort on a consistent basis Along with aerobic fitness strength is a key factor in establishing overall fitness Strength is notjust for athletes Here are some of the bene ts of strength for everzane Muscular strength Is a basic component of fitness Is valuable in good posture personal appearance and selfimage Prepares you for life s emergencies Increases your basal metabolic rate Makes it easier to maintain a healthy body weight due to increased BMR Reduces your risk of injury Prevents chronic lower back pain Assists in preparing for childbirth Even with older adults strength is a necessary part of fitness Here are some of the advantages of maintaining strength for the elderly Extends independent living Promotes better ability to move freely Improves balance Makes lifting and reaching easier Decreases risk for falls Preserves bone density and decreases risk of osteoporosis What is the relationshig between strength and metabolism Metabolism is the sum total of all activities that sustain life Basal metabolic rate BMR or resting metabolism is the energy required to maintain life when you are completely at rest Muscle is metabolically very active and so increases metabolic rate Fat on the other hand is metabolically very sluggish and does nothing to increase BMR As stated above this is one of the reasons that it is good to have a weight training routine within your workout schedule The more muscle you have on your body the higher your metabolism will be at rest One of the primary benefits of a regular strength training program is muscle hypertrophy an increase in the size of mass of lean tissue or muscle This increase in muscle then leads to an increase in metabolic rate Likewise as people age and do not pursue activities that increase muscle mass their metabolic rate declines and they tend to find it harder to manage their weight Metabolism does not decline as a natural result of aging it is because we lose muscle through inactivity Loss of muscular strength and definition is called muscle atrophy Perhaps you have seen a leg or arm that has been in a cast for a length of time and has not been exercised for all that time When the cast was finally taken off did you notice the size and strength of the limb Wasn t it weaker and showed less definition then before it was put into the cast This is atrophy Many senior citizens experience atrophy from lack of use of their muscles Are there gender differences in strength training One of the most common misconceptions about strength training is that females who train will become muscle bound and lookjust like a male There are endocrinological differences that do not allow women to achieve the same level of muscular hypertrophy as males In addition males have more muscle fibers and so have more potential for development Women who train for competition may look larger because there is an increase in blood that has been pumped into their muscles Muscles can look larger than they really are for a few hours after a training session Some muscle bound females may have also taken anabolic steroids in order to build more muscle for competition What about anabolic steroids Anabolic steroids are synthetic versions of the male hormone testosterone This hormone promotes muscle development and hypertrophy However people who use steroids to promote muscle development can expect serious and sometimes permanent physiological side effects These include Liver tumors Hepatitis inflammation of the liver Hypertension Reduction of HDL and increase in LDL Mood swings Aggressive behavior Fluid retention See the complete list in your text Assessing Muscular Strength Strength is defined as the ability to exert maximum force against resistance To train for muscular strength you need to lift heavy weight fewer times Muscular endurance is the ability of a muscle to exert sub maximal force repeatedly over time Endurance depends on strength and aerobic fitness levels To train for muscular endurance you need to lift lighter weight more times Assessing strength and endurance can be done individually or together Strength is determined by the maximal resistance a person can lift in one effort or 1 RM repetition max Measuring strength is highly specific to individual muscles therefore to measure total body strength one would have to do a strength profile It is also very difficult to assess one rep maximum because if you lift a weight that is either too heavy or too light you are already tired from lifting the first attempt therefore the second attempt is not your true rested one rep max One of the tests that can be used to measure strength is the hand grip test Others might be a bench press or a dead lift Endurance can be measured with tests such as the benchjump abdominal crunch or bent leg curl up These tests are all illustrated in your text What are the Factors that Affect Strength 7 There are several physiological factors that can influence strength acquisition They are as follows Neural stimulation nerves connecting the central nervous system to a muscle The more nerves and the more they are stimulated the stronger the muscle Txpes of muscle fiber Slawtwitch have a greater capacity for aerobic work Fasttwitch have a greater capacity for anaerobic work The proportion of fast vs slowtwitch muscle fibers is determined genetically but each can be increased with training Slow twitch fibers are the first involved in a contraction and as the force and speed of the contraction increases fast twitch fibers increase Overload principle Strength is increased by the increased ability of each fiber to generate a stronger contraction and by utilizing a greater proportion of the total available fibers for each contraction To increase strength you must do one or a combination of the following gradually over time increase the resistance increase the number of reps increase the speed of the reps decrease the rest interval for endurance or increase it for strength increase the volume Specificig principle In order to increase the strength of a given muscle you must exercise that muscle Specific training yields specific results Strength Training Prescription In the same way that we formulated an aerobic exercise prescription we can do the same with strength training Mode There are three basic types of training methods Isometricmuscle contraction that yields no movement This type does not require much equipment and is used in training for sports such as gymnastics A disadvantage of an isometric contraction is that it increases blood pressure especially if the breath is held It is very important to always remember to exhale on the exertion portion of the exercise It is also important to remember that a muscle will only be strengthened at the specific joint angle used in the contraction Therefore if you wish strength throughout the entire range of motion it will be necessary to work the muscle at all angles Isotonicmuscle contraction with movement where the muscular tension remains constant as the muscle shortens or lengthens This is the most popular mode for strength training You can achieve this with freeweight or resistance machines Isotonic training utilizes iejoints full range of motion Isokinetic musce contraction in which the muscle shortens at a constant rate and cannot be done without the use of specialized equipment The equipment will match the users force through the full range of motion and keeps the speed of the contraction constant Resistance In strength training resistance is equivalent to intensity To stimulate strength a resistance of 80 of maximum capacity is recommended If you work near 100 you will increase risk of injury To promote endurance use less than 80 Ideally perform between 8 12 repetitions Once you can comfortably do 12 then increase resistance 510 pounds Then work up to 12 repetitions again Body builders work with moderate resistance and more repetitions in order to pump Lip the muscle A set is the number of a group of repetitions If you are doing 812 repetitions then rest that is one set You should then repeat the 812 repetitions for set number 2 Then rest and do it again In other words you will do 812 repetitions 3 times Increasing the number of sets may lead to excessive muscle fatigue and recovery time may be extended Beginners may want to begin with just one set and build Lip to 3 over time Frequency of training in weight lifting can vary Either you may do a total body workout three times a week or split the routine and do it more frequently For example you could do upper body one day and lower body the next Allow muscles to rest 23 days to promote complete recovery If you don t allow a complete recovery phase you will not achieve the maximum results Usually eight weeks is required to notice increased strength gains Once you have achieved a level of strength that you are happy with you can maintain it with one training session per week Pzom etrics This type of exercise is defined as strength training with speed The goal is to generate the most force in the shortest amount of time An example isjumping up onto a box that is about 1222 inches in height Note that it is not a good idea tojump off the box but instead to step down because of the potential for injury associated with the increased impact ofjumping down Strength Training Routines Your text illustrates two types of strength training programs one that uses only a minimum of equipment and another that requires machines such as a Universal Gym There are advantages and disadvantages of each such as safety cost convenience and type of movements possible Review these in your text To summarize Chagter 2 Behavior Modification In recent years health promotion experts have focused their attention on learning better how to aSSIst people make changes in their health related behaviors This refers to behavior modification Behavior modification is the process of changing negative behaviors to positive ones To do this it is important to understand the typical barriers to successful behavior change What are the barriers to change Barriers to Change Procrastination Putting off what we can do tomorrow ex I ll start walking tomorrow Gratification person wants immediate satisfaction ex What is the immediate reward for walking today Risk complacency person does not deal with the problem until it has progressed later on ex If my health goes downhill I39ll deal with it then Complexity person is too bogged down with otherthings to change the behavior now ex Things are too complicated as they are how can I really take on one more thing like exercising every day IndifferenceHopelessness person does not believe that their actions will change anything ex Exercise probably won t help me live any longer what will be will be Rationalization person reasons ex I probably get enough exercise I douth really need to get more Invincibility the superman syndrome it won t happen to them ex I m healthy I feel great and nothing is gomg to hurt me In addition to understanding the typical roadblocks or barriers to change it is important to understand the concept of motivation and locus of control Motivation or lack of motivation is a big part of what enables people to succeed or what causes failure in behavior change Motivation can be internal or external Motivation is defined as the desire and will to do something such as change health behavior Whether a person believes he or she can influence their environment has to do with the concept of locus of control People with an internal locus of control strongly believe that they are in control of their environment and are usually healthier and better able to succeed in changing behavior Individuals with an external locus of control believe thatthey can t really influence their environment that they are really at the mercy of what goes on around them Usually people are not strictly either externally or internally motivated but fail on a continuum What stops people from taking action Often there are genuine reasons why people can not take action to change behaviors and these are Feeling incompetent sometimes people genuinely believe they don t have the skills to initiate change This is where health education can play a role in helping people learn new skills Lack of confidence sometimes people have the skills butjust don t have the confidence that they can make the change happen and make it permanent Perhaps the change required just seems impossible to overcome Perhaps change is seen as impossible because of lack of support Helping people change means that you have to be sensitive to lack of confidence and work to help people overcome it Lack of motivation health professionals who want to assist people in making changes must understand the locus of control and motivation level in the people they are helping Frequently the reason people lack motivation is not understanding the reasons for change and not having goals What are the Stages of Change Typically people experience change on a continuum The Stages of Change developed by James Prochaska is helpful in overcoming the challenges in changing behavior That process has helped to identify the stages that people typically go through as they make changes such as incorporating regular exercise in their daily habits losing weight or quitting smoking Below are the definitions for each stage plus an example of each in relation to beginning an exercise program Precontemplation People are not considering a change and are unwilling to change a behavior ex an individual doesn t even consider an exercise program Contemplation Individuals are thinking aboutthe need to change and are considering doing something about it in the next 6 months ex the person picks up a brochure aboutjoining the YMCA and starts to weigh the pros and cons Preparation Individuals are now preparing to make the change and will do so in a month eX39 an individual buys a treadmill Action People are actively changing a behavior ex a person starts walking 3 days a weekfor 20 minutes at a time Maintenance This stage can last up to five years as people learn to maintain the new habit ex a person has been engaged in an exercise program for 4 years and has been successful at it Termination The new habit has been maintained for overfive years Relapse can happen when people slip up and fall back into the old unhealthy behaviors this can happen at any stage Agglicable Processes of Change Specific actions can be taken during each stage ofthe behavior change process in orderto reassure success These actions are c ConsciousnessRaising Obtain information about the behavior you want to change ex get a book atthe library aboutthe benefits of quitting smoking a Social Liberation external alternatives to make you aware ofthe behavior ex sit in a nonsmoking area of a restaurant 0 Selfanalysis weigh the pros and cons o Emotional arousal experienceexpress feelings aboutthe problem a Positive outlook taking an optimistic approach towards changing C 39 accept quot e in 39 ex create a contract 0 Behavior analysis Monitor and analyze your behavior ex keep a log 0 Goals Make goals 0 Self Reevaluation reevaluate proscons and feelings about problem behavior 0 Countering substitute healthy behaviors for negative ones ex go for a walk instead of taking a smoke break at work 0 Monitoring continuous behavior monitoring ex keep a log 0 Environmental control restructure physical surroundings to avoid problem behavior ex get rid ofjunk food in the house ChaQter 10 Stress Management Stress is a part of everyday life It is one ofthe most common challenges we face in our modern world We have to accept that stress will always be there that is something we can t control The only part we can control is how we manage the stress in our lives Without stress there would be no challenges life would be boring Stress management is a part of wellness because many of the diseases we discuss are associated with chronic stress Some researchers estimate that stress related diseases cost in excess of 100 billion dollars annually in the US While we all need a little stress to get us up in the morning and keep us functioning too much stress and not managing is appropriately can lead to disease What are some of the disorders that are associated with chronic stress Coronary heart disease Hypertension Eating disorders Ulcers Diabetes Asthma Depression Migraine headaches Sleep disorders What is stress Stress is the response of the human organism to the demands placed upon it It is the body s emotional and physiological response to any situation that is new threatening frightening or eXCIting We all react differently to stressors those things that cause us stress in our lives There are some individuals who actually thrive under stress On the other hand some people react very poorly to stress Stressors can range from something small like a paper cut on the fingerto something large such as a loss of a job What is important to know is thatthese stressors no matter how big or small can accumulate Ident39 in Sources of Stress What are the primary sources of stress One of the most important steps in stress management is learning how to identify stress in our lives Everyone needs to be able to answerthe question what are the stressors things that cause stress in my life We all say that we are stressed out at times But what is it that is causing you stress Before anything else you need to figure out what your stressors currently are in your life 2 Types of Stressors Did you knowthatthere is good and bad stress Eustress is pleasant or beneficial stress Imagine winning the lottery Here health and performance improve Distress is unpleasant or harmful stress Here health and performance decline Whatl want to emphasize here is the mind knows the difference between good and bad stress but the body doesn t The body still can get run down Planning for a wedding or vacation can stress someone out enough thatthey end Lip getting sick It is an exciting thing in person s life but it can be stressful What are the physiological response to stress The process that we go through when a stressor occurs is called the General Adaptation Syndrome The stages Include 1 Alarm The stimulation forthe fight orflight response the physiological response to stress prepares a person to take action It originates in the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland Hormones are released to increase Heart rate Blood pressure Blood flow to active muscles and the brain Glucose levels Oxygen consumption Strength 2 Resistance The body tries to resistthe stressor during this stage lfthe person finds a way to resistthe stressor or manage it the body goes back to its normal balance However many times the body just adapts to the stressor and that s when the next stage occurs 3 Exhaustion with chronic stress the body does not relax and some of the changes become chronic such as elevated blood pressure That is when illness results Stress Symptoms Another area that you need to recognize is how you respond to stress Everyone responds differently For some people they get tension in their body while others get headaches There are 3 categories of symptoms Physical ie headaches stomachaches Emotional ie depression crying and behavioral ie insomnia smokingdrugs Many of us experience a couple of these from various categories Get to know how you respond to stress and maybe the next time you getthat headache you will know that something is going on Behavior Patterns The two main types of behavior patterns are Type A and Type B Type A characteristics are hard driving 39 39 39 39 overly 39 selfmotivated This behavior type is associated with too much stress Because many of the behaviors are learned people with this behaviortype can learn to lowertheir stress with stress management techniques By itself having Type A is not what increases risk of heart disease Type A people who are also struggling with anxiety depression feeling a loss of control seem to be more at risk One of the main concerns with a Type A personality is the hostile behavior if a person has that characteristic Research has shown thatthis can precipitate heart disease Type B characteristics are calm casual relaxed easygoing Type C is used to describe people with many of the characteristics of Type A but without the increased risk of disease They are highly committed to their work have confidence and enjoy their work and they are more in control the mental and physical demands of life So what type are you Please see yourtext for a list of ways to change a Type A personality Last week we started Chapter 3 on nutrition We covered the three energy nutrients carbohydrates fat and protein This week we take a look at the other categories of essential nutrients vitamins minerals and water In addition we39ll discuss a few topics relating to nutrition and exercise such as osteoporosis nutrient supplementation etc Chagter 3 continued Vitamins and Minerals Vitamins are nutrients that are regulatory in nature They are organic compounds essential for growth and development Water vs Fat Soluble Water solubleB complex and C Fat soluble A D E K Vitamins function primarily in Releasing energy from food Growth and development One of the best reasons to eat five servings every day of fruits and vegetables is to make sure you have adequate intakes of vitamins and minerals Minerals are inorganic compounds that are essential for normal body functions in helping make strong bones and teeth they assist in maintaining water balance are involved in blood clotting and normal heart rhythm See Table 33 and 34 for a summary of major functions of vitamins and minerals Another important function of vitamins and minerals is as antioxidants Antioxidants prevent a form of oxygen free radical from promoting damage to cells that may be key in the development of heart disease and cancer See Table 39 for a list of some of these antioxidants their food sources and the effect they cause While its best to eat fruits and vegetables that are rich in antioxidants sometime students ask me how much they should take if they want a supplement Here are the guidelines 250500 mg vitamin C 200800 IU vitamin E 1000025000 IU beta carotene Water Water is the most important nutrient 70 of the body is water and is involved in almost every body proce such as Digestion and absorption Circulation Removal of waster Building and repairing cells Transporting nutrients around the body Every one should drink at least 8 glasses of fluids per daywater decaf teas juices lowfat milk En ergz Production An imporant component of nutrition as it relates to exercise is how energy is produced Vitamins minerals carbohydrates and fats are all involved in energy production Energy production is a primary function of metabolism and the energy currency of the body is the simple sugar glucose The end result of the metabolism of glucose is ATP which when broken down further yields the energy we need to live When the oxygen supply is sufficient cells metabolize energy via ATP When oxygen supply is insufficient energy is produced but lactic acid results As lactic acid accumulates muscular fatigue results This is essentially the difference between aerobic and anaerobic exercise What is a balanced diet Now that we39ve talked about nutrition how can we be sure we eat a balanced diet Here are the recommended guidelines 5055 of calories should come from complex carbohydrates Less than 30 from fat About 1520 from protein Increase fruit and vegetables Increase fiber from whole grains Decrease saltsod ium One good way to bring balance to your diet is to follow the Food Guide Pyramidsee wwwmxnrxamidgov Note the pyramid in your text and be sure to pay attention to the recommended serving sizes What are Pb atlemicals Phytochemicals are substances in food that promise great results in preventing disease such as cancer and heart disease These substances are found in fruits and vegetables Some of the best sources include soy berries peppers Even though many people in the US take supplements most do not need to If you follow a balanced diet and eat right then you will get the nutrients you need The best way to be sure you get enough of these disease risk reducing compounds is to eat 79 servings a day of fruits and vegetables Some phytochemicals act as antioxidants as described above What about Vitamin 39 39 quot A megadose is 10x the RDA Mineral supplements should not exceed 3 x the RDA If you think you need a supplement then read the labels and choose a multivitamin that does not exceed these guidelines Sometimes a children39s formulation will suffice Iron deficiency anemia is often a concern for women This is diagnosed by a doctor or nurse and iron supplements can be used to correct the condition Folate a B vitamin is recommended for all premenopausal women It helps prevent birth defects and protects against colon and cervical cancers It may also help reduce risk of heart disease If you smoke abuse alcohol are a strict vegetarian follow very low calorie diets are elderly and don39t eat balanced meals or are a newborn then nutrient supplements are a good idea Check with a physician andor a registered dietitian Sgecia Considerations Athletes in general do not need extra nutrients Supplementing the diet with nutrients will not enhance performance Eat a balanced diet and follow the pyramid Protein levels in excess of 20 even for body builders is not necessary and could be harmful Amino acid supplements have not been proven to increase muscle mass Glycogen loading regimens can be helpful to some athletes It is estimated that between 1500 and 2000 extra calories can be stored though carbohydrate loading Sgecia Nutrient Needs for Women Women need more calcium to prevent osteoporosis 800 1200 mg or more per day Osteoporosis is a condition of porous bones in other words the bones lack the minerals needed to keep them strong When this occurs bones are more susceptible to fracture Prior to menopause women are more apt to retain minerals in their bones but after levels of estrogen start to fall post menopausal women are more at risk for osteoporosis and so need to be extra careful to consume foods with adequate calcium These include Low fat dairymilk cheese yogurt cottage cheese Calcium enriched tofu or soy milk Deep green leafy vegetables such as kale collards and spinach


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