Philosophy Modern & Contempry
Philosophy Modern & Contempry PHIL 212
Lansing Community College
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PRINT THIS BRITISH EMPIRICISM LOCKE BERKELEY AND HUME LESSON THREE STUDY GUIDE The two dominant philosophical trends in early modern philosophy were rationalism and empiricism In Lesson Three our focus is empiricism So some of the questions we are asking in this lesson are the following What is empiricism How does empiricism differ from rationalism What do empiricists believe What are the differences between empiricist and rationalist beliefs ln Lesson Two we saw that Descartes rationalism was a response to medieval Scholasticism and to the early stages of the scienti c revolution In Lesson Three we consider some of the ways in which Locke s theory of knowledge was a response to those same conditions One of the central issues we considered in the last lesson was the epistemological turn that began with Descartes In Lesson Three we see that the epistemological turn not only continued but progressively accelerated from Locke to Berkeley to Hume A pivotal ideal of the early modern era was progress in knowledge We saw that philosophy and science while not yet fully distinct disciplines both adopted this ideal One of the issues we will address is whether the British empiricists made progress in knowledge Further in what sense if any did their work provide a foundation for progress in the sciences GOALS OF THE LESSON One goal of the lesson is for students to demonstrate the ability to recall and describe the defining characteristics of key concepts and arguments in the text readings A second goal is for students to demonstrate the ability to analyze and evaluate philosophical concepts or arguments presented in the texts The third goal is for students to demonstrate the ability to analyze and evaluate the manner in philosophical concepts or arguments can be compared contrasted or resurface in new forms among philosophers and between historical eras The final goal is the central goal of each lesson It is for students to achieve the learning outcomes relevant to the lesson REMINDERS 1 Work we do early in the semester provides a foundation for work during the remainder of the semester 2 Please be sure to save your notes on the texts the study guides the Exercises you submit and the posted answers Use these materials to study for the MidTerm Exam and the PHIL 212 Assessment Some of the concepts and names with which you should be familiar Skeptic empiricism copy theory of ideas correspondence theory of truth copy theory of truth innate ideas a priori ideas tabula rasa substance substratum matter Primary qualitles Secondary Qualities epistemological dualism egocentric predicament idealist immaterialist Esse est percipi skeptical empiricism ideas impressions empirical criterion of meaning bundle theory of the self coherence inductive arguments inductive reasoning causal judgments necessary connection skeptical agnostic facts versus values moral sentiments egoism Learning Outcome One The successful student will be able to Explain the ancient and medieval Western Traditions that give rise to the Modern period and to the Scientific Revolution AND Learning Outcome Two The successful student will be able to Discuss how differing foundations of knowledge from various cultures lead to different understandings of science natural order religion the Self and use of technological power DESCARTES AND LOCKE REACTIONS TO THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD AND TO THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION In the last lesson we saw that Descartes philosophy was in part a reaction to medieval thought and the scientific revolution Descartes is the father of modern philosophy He is also the father of modern rationalism As a rationalist Descartes believed that reason is the primary source of all knowledge superior to sense evidence And that only reason can distinguish reality from illusion and give meaning to experience Archetypes of Wisdom page 249 We saw that for continental rationalists of the seventeenth and eighteen century reason works in conjunction with innate or a priori ideas In the transition to the early modern period one ideal was progress in knowledge During the early scientific revolution success was built in part on the use of mathematically oriented models Descartes adapted this mathematical orientation He wanted to achieve the same level of certainty that mathematics can produce Since mathematics is deductive Descartes along with Spinoza and Leibniz also used a deductive approach The uses of reason and the deductive approach are intimately related in the coherence theory of truth which he along with the other continental rationalists Spinoza and Leibniz adopted As Soccio points out according to the coherence theory of truth new or unclear ideas are evaluated in terms of rational or logical consistency and in relation to already established truths Once fundamental truths are established the rationalist uses a deductive mathematicallogical test to establish other more compleX ideas Archetypes of Wisdom page 249 250 In order to obtain certain knowledge Descartes also rejected the role of authority in issues of knowledge He turned to the process of thinking and specifically to self awareness as the foundation of knowledge Descartes initiated what we now call the epistemological turn He turned to the analysis the process of thinking itself and to self awareness while at the same time he began the turn away from a focus upon metaphysics In reaction to the Scholasticism of the medieval period and to the early scientific revolution John Locke not only continued but accelerated the epistemological turn John Locke is the father of British Empiricism1 As Soccio reports empiricists believe that all ideas can be traced back to sense data Abstractions and compleX beliefs are said to be combinations and mental alterations of original impressions and perceptionsReason is unable to provide knowledge of reality such knowledge can only be derived from experience Archetypes of Wisdom page 278 So for the empiricists all ideas have their origin in sense data Stated differently what we perceive through the senses provides the source or origin of all ideas Only that which we experience through the senses can provide knowledge about reality But again more is involved in the concept of empiricism that characterized the philosophy of the British empiricists Locke Berkeley and Hume Their tests for truth stand in stark contrast to that held by the continental rationalists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries Mathematics was an important emphasis during the scientific revolution But there was another feature of Renaissance science During this period progress in science or more specifically in scientific knowledge was generally thought to rely upon empirical evidence and the use of controlled experimentation2 The resurgence of the empirical approach in science and its central role in the advances in scienti c knowledge probably in uenced the advent of British empiricism with Locke One reason this might be the case was that Locke s circle of friends included the famous chemist and physicists Sir Robert Boyle3 Soccio points out that Locke was a physician and the empirical approach is central to medicine So it is very likely that his occupation in uenced his empirical approach to philosophy It is evident that Locke s empirical approach to philosophy is also but not solely a reaction to the authoritarianism of the medieval period and particularly to Scholasticism We see the reaction in his critique of Innate ideas Archetypes of Wisdom page 280 281 Locke of course argues instead that the mind at birth is a completely black tablet or a clean slate a tabula rasa Archetypes of Wisdom page 281 Students should be very familiar with Locke s critique of innate ideas because it provides one of the most central criticisms of rationalism According to Locke all ideas have two related sources The fundamental source is our sensations The subsequent source is re ection upon the process of thinking about these sensations As Soccio remarks Locke argued that all ideas are copies of things that caused the basic sensations on which they rest Archetypes of Wisdom page 280 Soccio explains Ideas are less intense copies or images of sensations Your idea of a baseball for example is a copy of the set of sensations and impression you have received from seeing and handling actual baseballs If your idea of a baseball includes the shape of a cube it is a poor copy It does not correspond to reality Archetypes of Wisdom page 280 Locke therefore held a correspondence theory of truth In fact as Soccio points out the correspondence theory of truth is favored by empiricists and it stands in contrast to the coherence theory of truth Archetypes of Wisdom page 280 In the correspondence theory of truth the test to determine Whether an idea is true is based upon whether that idea actually refers to or corresponds with that which actually eXists The correspondence theory of truth also re ects a rejection of authoritarianism that was a feature of Scholasticism during the middle ages Yet it is very important to remember that his correspondence theory of truth was not merely based upon a response to authoritarianism In the neXt section of the study guide I will begin with some other features of Locke s theory One of the central issues is the manner in which Locke then his successors Berkeley and then Hume not only continued but accelerated the epistemological turn Learning Outcome Two The successful student will be able to Discuss how differing foundations of knowledge from various cultures lead to different understandings of science natural order religion the Self and use of technological power Soccio s remarks on the theory of Locke Berkeley and Hume are generally clear and straightforward So for the most part wi simply point out some of the features of these theories with which students should be familiar JOHN LOCKE In the discussion of Locke s theories in Archetypes of Wisdom we see two forms of dualism The first is a metaphysical dualism in which he affirms the existence of two different kinds of substances Matter and mind Archetypes of Wisdom page 281 282 The first step in his argument is to support the claim that as Soccio indicates there is something substantial that underlies and holds together the sensible qualities of experience color taste size shape location sound motion and such This substantial something is substance Archetypes of Wisdom page 282 emphasis in the original The difficulty as Locke and Soccio point out is that the idea of substance is obscure in the sense that we have no clear and distinct idea of substance The idea is simply a supposition but in principle it is not one which we can confirm The second step in Locke s argument is his focus upon matter According to Locke the substance that holds extended things together those known through their sensible qualities is matter Archetypes of Wisdom page 282 Locke then argues that there is a second substance which he calls spirit or in current language mind In this case he argues that there is a substance underlying or a substance in which thinking knowing doubting and the power of motion inhere In a somewhat puzzling move Locke claims we have a clear notion of the thinking substance Locke also argues that these two substances are different in kind Archetypes of Wisdom page 281 282 Locke more importantly held a position of epistemological dualism His epistemological dualism arises out of both his metaphysical dualism and his argument that there are two kinds of qualities Primary Qualities and Secondary Qualities Students should be very familiar with the distinction between these two kinds of qualities Below are some of Soccio comments about this feature of Locke s theory Archetypes of Wisdom page 283 Primary Qualities 1 Sensible qualities that exist independently of any perceiver e 9 Shape size location and motion 2 Objective properties of things that exist in the object 3 They are located in independently existing objects Secondary Qualities 1 Qualities whose existence depends upon a perceiver eg Color sound taste and texture 2 Subjective properties They depend upon or exist in a knowing or perceiving subject 3 They are located in subjective mental acts and perceptions One of reasons that the distinction between primary and second qualities presents such difficulties is Locke s epistemological dualism As Soccio tells us Locke holds that knowing consists of two elements The knower and the known This leads to Locke s egocentric predicament Students should be very familiar with these arguments We see that Locke also continues the epistemological turn Locke has a metaphysical theory We have no clear and distinct idea of substance Matter is the material substance that seems to be unknowable The thinking thing or mind as the other substance is one about which Locke claims we have a clear notion Locke s thrust is epistemological His epistemological dualism and the resulting egocentric predicament indicate the he turns even further toward epistemology and while he moves farther from an emphasis on metaphysics GEORGE BERKELEYA Students should be very familiar with the brief discussion that Soccio provides of Berkeley s philosophy Locke s metaphysical dualism his epistemological dualism and his egocentric predicament provide a basis for Berkeley s attacks Locke of course argues for a metaphysical dualism in which matter and mind are the two distinct substances Matter according to Locke is the material substrate or substratum of eXtended things things that eXist in space and that are the focus of sensations However material substance is imperceptible Of course for an empiricist this means that it is unknowable And Berkeley is also an empiricist According to Berkeley since material substance or matter is unknowable we have no clear idea of it To be is to be perceived Stated differently if something is not perceived it cannot be said to eXist Berkeley argues that since eXperience does not provide a basis for concluding that material substance eXists we have no basis for concluding that material objects or eXternal objects eXist Berkeley also addresses Locke s distinction between primary and secondary qualities According to Berkeley both kinds of qualities are actually secondary qualities Stated differently all are qualities that depend upon the eXistence of the perceiver They depend upon or eXist in a knowing or a perceiving subject And they are located in mental acts or perceptions There are no sensible qualities that eXist independently of a perceiver There are no objective properties of things that can be said to eXist in the object To be is to be perceived Again if something is not perceived then it does not and cannot be said to eXist Berkeley argues that the so called qualities are simply ideas and as ideas they eXist in the mind As an idealist Berkeley s arguments eliminate material substance while they retain the centrality of ideas We do see that Berkeley ultimately introduced the concept of the all perceiving mind of God as a guarantor of a continuing self Archetypes of Wisdom page 287 Berkeley therefore maintained a metaphysics in which an overarching spiritual or thinking substance had a role But again it is a kind of thinking substance Berkeley moved even more firmly into the epistemological camp and farther way from a focus upon metaphysics DAVID HUME There are several important theories with which students should be familiar Hume s empirical criterion of meaning is particularly important One reason is that it is instrumental in many of his theories Hume s bundle theory of the self and comments on the limits of theology are also particularly important Hume s critique of an enduring self or an enduring identity coupled with his theory of the limits of theology indicate that his epistemological turn was even more complete than those pursued by Descartes Locke and Hume Other important features of Hume s philosophy with which students should be familiar are the following Hume s arguments about the limits of reason the role of moral sentiments in moral judgments the factvalue distinction and his reiection of egoism Egoism as Soccio indicates is the belief that self interest is or ought to be the basis of all deliberate action Archetypes of Wisdom page 563 We will revisit egoism again when we study the philosophies of Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill CAUSE AND EFFECT One of the most important issues in Hume s philosophy is his argument about cause and effect My remarks here will focus upon some issues in connection with that argument Soccio s discussion of this feature of Hume s argument is addressed in the section of the teXt entitled The Limits of Science Archetypes of Wisdom pages 297 298 His remarks on Hume s argument are generally clear Students should be very familiar with Hume s position on cause and effect In order to understand the thrust of Hume s argument and the manner in which it stands in opposition to scientific practice in his era my focus here is some of the central assumptions of scientific practice in his era There are two pivotal and related issues that are necessary to eXplore Those issues are inductive reasoning and the reliance upon necessary connections We will begin with inductive reasoning Soccio points out that scientific reasoning rests on a pattern of inductive reasoning which results in generalized rules or principles Simplistically induction reasons from the particular to the general or from some to all Scientific principles are never based on experience with all things of a certain kind Archetypes of Wisdom page 297 emphasis in the original So here we see that scientific reasoning relies upon inductive reasoning Next let s turn to Soccio s comments about necessary connections Soccio remarks Scientists assume that such inferences are reliable because they identify causal patterns In Hume s time cause and effect were defined in terms of a necessary connection That is A was said to cause B if the occurrence of A always and without exception was followed by the occurrence of B Archetypes of Wisdom page 297 emphasis in the original In the above quoted remarks we see that inferences or inductive reasoning were thought to be reliable because they identify causal patterns Stated differently there was a causal connection between a given event process or behavior A when it was always and without exception followed by another event process or behavior B OK let s first reconsider inductive reasoning In the last lesson I noted that traditionally there are two broad classifications of arguments Deductive and Inductive A good deductive argument is one in which if the premises are all true then the conclusion must be true as well Let s not pass over that too quickly Again if all of the premises are true then the conclusion must be true as well The reason is that in a deductive argument the truth of the conclusion is included in the premises A good deductive argument is one in which the conclusion is certainly true So with deductive arguments we have certain truth in the conclusion A good inductive argument is one in which if the premises are true the conclusion is still only probably true The reason is that the conclusion of an inductive argument is not fully contained in its premises Instead the conclusion makes a leap beyond the truth of the premises As Soccio tells us induction reasons from the particular to the general But we do not have examples of all or each and every particular case to support the general conclusion Below is a relatively simple example of a good inductive argument that will illuminate some of the features of the concept This barrel contains 100 apples Eighty apples were selected at random All eighty apples were found to be ripe Therefore all 100 apples are probably ripe In the above argument we see that the evidence provides relatively good support for the conclusion that all 100 apples are probably ripe However we also see that the truth of the conclusion is not fully contained in the premises The conclusion makes a generalization or a leap beyond the evidence provided in the premises This kind of argument begins to illustrate the reasons that relying upon empirical evidence and the use of inductive reasoning do not lead to the kind of absolute certainty that a deductive argument can provide OK let s consider an inductive argument inductive reasoning in one of the sciences5 George who exercised regularly took vitamins and got plenty of rest contracted a rare disease Doctors administered an antibiotic and the disease cleared up Convinced that the cure was caused by either the exercise the vitamins the rest or the antibiotic the doctors searched for analogous cases Of the two that were found one got no exercise took no vitamins and got little rest He was given the same antibiotic and was cured The other person who did the same things George did was given no antibiotic and was not cured The doctors concluded that George was cured by the antibiotic The conclusion of course is that George was cured by the antibiotic Stated differently the cause of the cure was the antibiotic Another way of saying this is that there is a necessary connection between taking the antibiotics and being cured Although the evidence is limited the idea is that A the use of the antibiotics is always followed by B the cure of the disease The conclusion in inductive reasoning constitutes a leap beyond the evidence in the premises More and more accurate evidence provides a stronger basis for the probable truth of the conclusion In his Commentary Soccio remarks that Hume s analysis of cause and effect as he Hume acknowledges does not destroy science but rather modifies a bit of what some see as its arrogance Archetypes of Wisdom page 306 Consider the implications for the possibility of science and for progress in science if Hume s 12 position on cause and effect was adopted If as Hume argues the mind simply creates the ideas of cause and effect and there are no necessary connections or causal relationships how might science and progress in science be possible Archetypes of Wisdom page 298 BRITISH EMPIRICISM THE FUNDAMENTALS Throughout this study guide and throughout the chapter entitled The Skeptic David Hume we see the fundamental features of British Empiricism In A History of Philosophy Frederick Copleston provides the following helpful comments about British empiricism z The scientific insistence on going to the observable facts as a necessary basis for explanatory theory found is correlative and its theoretical justification in the empiricist thesis that our factual knowledge is ultimately based on perception We cannot obtain factual knowledge by a priori reasoning by quasi mathematical deduction from alleged innate ideas or principles but only by eXperience and within the limits of eXperience Mathematical propositions do not give us factual information about the world they state as Hume put it relations between ideas For factual information about the world indeed about reality in general we have to turn to eXperience to sense perception and to introspection And though such inductively based knowledge enjoys varying degrees of probability it is not and cannot be absolutely certain A philosophical system which possesses absolute certainty and which at the same time would give us information about reality and be capable of indefinite eXtension through the deductive discovery of hitherto unknown factual truths is a will o the wisp As Copleston points out in the above quote and as Soccio consistently demonstrates the British empiricists hold that sensory experiences constitute the source of knowledge7 The British empiricists reiect innate ideas as the source of knowledge about the world Instead they use an inductive method to develop information about the world Further as Soccio suggests they favor a correspondence theory of truth Archetypes of Wisdom page 280 PRINT THIS DIVINE AND NATURAL RIGHTS THE CHINESE AND WESTERN TRADITIONS KRISTOFF AND LOCKE LESSON TEN STUDY GUIDE In Lesson Ten are general focus is twofold First we are considering the broad conception of Divine Rights political theories and the manner in which a version of this kind of theory has been the basis for government in China Second in this lesson students are introduced to some of John Locke s political theory in which what is often identified as natural rights have a pivotal role The central issue in this lesson is the moral legitimacy of government Stated differently we are thinking about the moral basis for the sovereignty or authority of government in both of the above mentioned theories As such we are examining that which constitutes a good government in those theories At the same time the theories addressed in this lesson include criteria that indicate when a government fails therefore the circumstances under which the citizens of a country are justified in resisting or rebelling against a government GOALS OF THE LESSON One goal of the lesson is for students to demonstrate the ability to recall and describe the de ning characteristics of key concepts and arguments in the text readings A second goal is for students to demonstrate the ability to analyze and evaluate philosophical concepts or arguments presented in the texts The third goal is for students to demonstrate the ability to analyze and evaluate the manner in philosophical concepts or arguments can be compared contrasted or resurface in new forms among philosophers and between historical eras The nal goal is the central goal of each lesson It is for students to achieve the learning outcomes relevant to the lesson The following is a list of some of the names and concepts with which you should be familiar Political philosophy social philosophy ethics justice substantive justice The state anarchism totalitarianism sovereignty social contract natural rights divine rights conservative liberal retribution reparations positive laws body politic Mandate of Heaven moral legitimacy The Golden Road INTRODUCTORY ISSUES In Mitchell s introduction to the chapter she provides some general remarks about political and social philosophy as well as that of ethics Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 231 She subsequently describes some of the defining issues in political philosophy Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 233 Students should be very familiar with Mitchell s remarks in these two sections of the teXt One clarification will be helpful to students Mitchell remarks in the above mentioned sections of the teXt that in the political philosophy the primary concern is the relationship between the individual and the state In social philosophy the focus is the relationship between the individual and the community As Mitchell indicates the primary concern of social philosophy then is justice Reading from the Roots of Wisdom page 231 Justice is also an issue in political philosophy The broadest conception or de nition of justice is that it is giving each person his or her due or that which they deserve While there are numerous theories of justice The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy provides a helpful concise categorization of some of the forms of justice with which we are most concerned in this course1 Substantive justice is one such category that is particularly important at this juncture In The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy Hooker writes Substantive justice is closely associated with rights ie with what individuals can legitimately demand of one another or what they can legitimately demand of their government e g with respect to the protection of liberty or the promotion of equality2 Substantive justice can be an issue in social or political philosophy In the case of political philosophy substantive justice addresses that which an individual can legitimately demand of their government The demand can be for the protection of liberty for the promotion of equality or for other valued political goods Learning Outcome Three The successful student will be able to Evaluate the relationship of philosophical ideas to the art literature political and economic structure social hierarchy and the values of their respective societies JOHN LOCKE In John Locke s Two Treatises of Government the second treatise is sometimes referred to as the Treatise of Civil Government Readings from the Roots of Wisdom includes an excerpt from the second treatise In Previewing the Readings and in Preparing to Read Mitchell provides an overview of Locke s central argument with which we will be concerned in this course Readings from the Roots of Wisdom pages 234 and 235 Students should be very familiar with Mitchell s remarks Locke s argument in our text presents significant challenges One reason is that we have only an excerpt Locke s language may be unfamiliar to some students Also Locke s arguments are very compact As a result I will define some of the terms and indicate or sketch some of the central issues in his general argument that are most significant for our purposes3 JOHN LOCKE S TREA TISE OF CIVIL GOVERNMENT The state of nature is one of the central concepts in Locke s argument Locke s theory includes a genealogical account of the manner in which the earliest human societies eventually developed into civil societies or those with a governing person or body In this case the state of nature refers to pre political societies or those prior to civil societies In general the state of nature according to Locke can occur in any era and is a form of human relationship in which there is no central governing person or group of persons4 The state of nature has a law of nature that governs it This law of nature is known to human beings through reason According to Locke human beings are the workmanship of one omnipotent all powerful and in nitely wise God The nature and will of God along with the various features of our relationship to God result in equality among human beings Since human beings are equal with each other or they have natural equality human beings also have natural independence from each other or they have natural freedom Locke argues that God wills how long a human being will last or how long a human being will live This claim seems to provide one of the most pivotal bases for Locke s argument that a human being has an obligation to preserve him or herself Since a human being has an obligation to preserve him or herself it follows that a human being has a right to self preservation The right to self preservation includes the right to that which the human being needs for subsistence So a human being has that which some construe as natural rights or rights to life and to the liberty and property that help human beings subsist or live In the state of nature there is no subordination or inequality among or between human beings that would authorize one human being to take away the life of another or to impair that which tends to preserve life Therefore we are also obligated to preserve the rest of humankind That is unless ones own survival is at stake or one is doing justice to someone who has committed an injustice against ones person and therefore against humankind The law of nature is then the obligation to preserve oneself and to preserve all of humankind The end or goal of the law of nature is both preservation and peace5 In Locke s theory the law of nature is known to human beings in the sense that human beings do know they have an obligation to preserve themselves and others However human beings must discover and contrive the conditions that will enable them to fulfill their natural desire for self preservation 6 In the state of nature human beings have two natural powers The first power is to do what we see fit to preserve ourselves and others within the natural law The second power is the power to punish crimes against the laws of nature Locke argues that when a person takes another s life or threatens another s life including that person s liberty health limbs or property the person who has committed the crime acts as an animal As such that person is also a threat to other human beings The criminal puts him or herself in a State of war with other human beings Although the state of nature is characterized by natural equality and natural freedom some human beings do put themselves in a state of war with others In Locke s genealogical argument the state of war becomes an increasing problem as a result of the introduction of private property money and growing inequalities in power This argument is not germane for our purposes so I will not address it here The first problem with the state of nature is that as stated above human beings do put themselves in a state of war with others Locke argues that human beings are driven into civil or political society for the protection of life and the liberty and property that sustain life Stated differently they are driven to form a civil society or a political society in order to protect that which some have identified as natural rights or those rights to life liberty and property But you may ask how does political society provide this protection Political society according to Locke is characterized by two general features that are missing in the state 0f nature First political society is designed to remedy three defects in the state of nature Goldwin writes The character of political society derives from the fundamental intention to assure the preservation of property by providing a power to make law and judge controversies and a power to execute the judgments and punish offenders3 In the state of nature the only law is the natural law The difficulty is that human beings must still try to discover how that can ful ll their desire to preserve their lives their liberty their health and material resources In a word they must still discover how to preserve their property Stated differently they need additional human made laws called positive laws that are known to all and that are established and settled but that re ect the natural law However positive laws are absent in the state of nature Also missing in the state of nature is a judge with authority to judge controversies and violations and to punish offenders The second general feature of political society is the following Members of the community reach a unanimous decision to form a political society in which each transfers his or her natural powers into the hands of the community which is then headed by a person or group9 The people wholly transfer to the community the power to punish crimes However they only partially transfer the power to do as they see t required for self preservation and the preservation of others within the law of nature Therefore while the authority or the sovereignty of government is most immediately based upon the consent of the people the toundation of the consent of the people is seltpreservation and the preservation of others in the community Stated differently it is the protection of property in the broad sense or speci cally the protection of natural rights to life and to the liberty and material resources that preserve life The two features of the political society begin to point to some of the reasons for Locke s very strong objections to an absolute monarchy Please see paragraph 13 13 for Locke s comments on absolute monarchs The political powers of government are limited to the natural powers that the people transferred to the community when it makes the compact or the social contract In political society natural law requires that the governing body preserves the community At this point you may be asking What about the right to resist or rebel against the government Locke argues that the governing person or body has the prerogative to act outside of the positive law in cases in which doing so promotes the common good or more specifically when doing some preserves the community The difficulty is that not every governing person or body a sovereign acts to preserve the community or to promote the common good or always acts in this manner Instead the person or group that officially heads the political society may consistently act in his or in their own self interest Stated differently the head of government acts in a tyrannical manner and does so consistently Locke argues that when this is the case the sovereign person or group rebels against the community or is in a state of war with others in the community In effect then the head of government who rebels against the political community actually dissolves the political community In this case the people are justified in fully resuming the exercise of both of their natural powers There are two issues to recall at this point First while the people fully transfer to the community the natural power to punish those who commit crimes against the natural law they only partially transfer the natural power to do as they see fit required for self preservation and the preservation of others within the law of nature As a result the people have a natural right to resist tyranny Second the end or goal of the law of nature is not only preservation but peace Therefore in order to justify resistance to tyranny the state of war in which the tyrannical ruler or ruling group engages must be entrenched That is in order to justify resistance to the sovereign s rebellion or to tyrannical state of war in which the ruling person or group engage the pattern of abuses must be established and long term Further other efforts to change the pattern of abuses have been exhausted Locke writes For when the people are made miserable cry up their governors as much as you will for sons of Jupiter let them be sacred and divine descended or authorized from heaven give them out for whom or what you please the same will happen If a long train of abuses prevarications and arti ces all tending the same way make the design visible to the people and they cannot but feel what they lie under and see whither they are going it is not to be wondered that they should then rouse themselves and endeavor to put the rule into such hands which may secure to them the ends for which government was first erected 10 The governing person or group in a state of war with the community or in rebellion against the political community continually oversteps it bounds or more specifically does not rely upon the consent of the people This person or group does not promote the preservation of the community The people are made miserable by this situation As a result they are morally justified in resisting the rebellious pattern of the would be sovereign and instituting a new government that will secure the purposes for which the people formed the political community DIVINE RIGHTS In her Preparing to Read Mitchell provides a helpful discussion of divine rights political theoriesReadings from the Roots of Wisdom page 253 Students should be very familiar with her comments in this section and with her comments on Kristof s argument in Previewing the Readingsquot Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 234 KRISTOF THE END OF THE GOLDEN ROAD Students should be very familiar with Kristof s theory Since the argument is very clearly written I will simply draw your attention to a few issues First as Kristof points out the ancient Chinese political theory he is discussing is a version of a divine rights theory Second Kristof develops an account of the dynastic cycle Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 255 Be sure to focus upon the features of this cycle Kristof argues that the Chinese government that took power in 1949 is repeating this cycle One feature of this cycle is that rulers become isolated from their subjects According to Kristof s argument how has the Chinese government become isolated from the Chinese people How has the ban on free expression and the suppression of dissent contributed to this isolation Third Kristof reports that in the ancient Chinese political theory of divine rights that right can be maintained only as long as people are contented Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 253 He also reports that the central tenet of the theory is that rulers must be just and virtuous or they will be ousted Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 253 The idea here is that if the rulers are not just and virtuous then the people will not be contented and the rulers will be ousted In what sense does this feature of Chinese political theory share some similarities with features of the argument that Locke developed in The Two Treatises of Government Learning Outcome Five The successful student will be able to Analyze and assess contemporary problems of global concerns from a philosophical perspective What do you think free expression should include Should there be limits to free expression What forms should dissent take In what sense or under what circumstances if any is violence an acceptable form of dissent Are there circumstances in which dissent that does not include physical Violence should be limited or banned What countries are notorious for limiting or banning free expression and dissent Are there countries that formally permit kinds of free eXpression and forms of dissent yet use forms of pressure to dissuade citizens from engaging in either free eXpression or dissent PRINT THIS KANT LESSON FOUR STUDY GUIDE In Lesson Four we are beginning our study of the work of Immanuel Kant Kant is undoubtedly one of the most important western philosophers One ideal that arose from the Scientific Revolution and that was characteristic of Enlightenment thinking was progress in knowledge The increasing turn to epistemology re ected this ideal Yet as we have seen the philosophies developed by Descartes Locke Berkeley and Hume resulted in significant challenges to the possibility of progress In this lesson one of our central tasks is to consider the limitations of rationalist and empiricist philosophy through the lens of Kant s philosophy What were the errors of each according to Kant and how does scientific method illuminate those errors What was Kant s solution and how are the transcendental ideas involved in that solution In what sense did Kant complete the epistemological turn Kant s moral philosophy remains one of the dominant views of ethics in the western world So it is very important to understand his views In the neXt lesson we will specifically address this theory One of the issues we are addressing in this lesson and that we will think about in the neXt lesson is the manner in which his phenomenalnoumenal distinction underlies his ethical theory Two questions we will ask are the following What is Kant s view of persons and the manner in which persons should be treated In what sense is Kant s ethical theory applicable in contemporary life GOALS OF THE LESSON One goal of the lesson is for students to demonstrate the ability to recall and describe the defining characteristics of key concepts and arguments in the teXt readings A second goal is for students to demonstrate the ability to analyze and evaluate philosophical concepts or arguments presented in the texts The third goal is for students to demonstrate the ability to analyze and evaluate the manner in philosophical concepts or arguments can be compared contrasted or resurface in new forms among philosophers and between historical eras The final goal is the central goal of each lesson It is for students to achieve the learning outcomes relevant to the lesson REMINDERS 1 Work we do early in the course provides a foundation for subsequent work in the course 2 When you prepare a lesson also prepare for the MidTerm Exam and the PHIL 212 Assessment 3 Please be sure to keep a copy of each study guide so that you can review them in preparation for the MidTerm Exam and the PHIL 212 Assessment The following is a list of some of the concepts and names with which you should be familiar Moral nonmoral amoral Immoral Kant s Copernican Revolution categories Kantian formalism transcendental idealism dogmatic metaphysics critical philosophy phenomenal reality noumenal reality noumena thingsinthemselves transcendental ideas regulative ideas Learning Outcome Two The successful student will be able to Discuss how differing foundations of knowledge from various cultures lead to different understandings of science natural order religion the Self and use of technological power Soccio writes that Kant shook the foundations of Western philosophy to such an extent that it has been said that whether or not philosophers agree with Kant they must face him Above his grave in the Konigsberg Cathedral his own words are inscribed The starry heavens above me the moral law within mequot Archetypes of Wisdom page 314 emphasis added Immanuel Kant is one of the most important western philosophers As Soccio points out philosophers since Kant must address his insights In many senses the words inscribed above his grave capture the essence of Kant s complex philosophical positions There are three broad sets of issues that we are thinking about in this lesson First what is the central problem that Kant addresses Asked differently how does Kant view the status of science and philosophy and the problems they pose More specifically we can ask about the advances and limitations of science as Kant saw them What advances were made in rationalist and empiricist philosophy and what were their critical errors Second how does Kant address the limitations of science and those of rationalist and empiricist philosophy What is his solution Third what is Kant s moral theory What are the underpinnings of this theory In other words what is Kant s metaphysics of moral THE PROBLEM Soccio provides some general comments on the problematic or the nature of the problem that Kant encountered when he writes Lawyers theologians psychologists and parents continually wrestle with issues of free responsible choice Yet scientific evidence of causal patterns suggests that more and more conduct once labeled immoral may be beyond our control Biopsychologists and geneticists continue to discover physical and biochemical causes of behavior But if all nature is governed by laws of chemistry and physics laws that admit of no exceptions then I can no more be held responsible for helping you across the street than you can be held responsible for striking me with an ax because you re bored Archetypes of Wisdom page 311 emphasis in the original This is the problem or rather part of the problem Science just prior to and during Kant s era had made significant advances Yet science was moving toward an increasingly more mechanized conception of the world and all of its inhabitants where both were strictly governed bylaws of cause and effect As a result of the scientific view human freedom and responsibility seemed impossible But the status of philosophy at that time lead to similar conclusions Soccio remarks that Troubled by scienti c and philosophic arguments against the possibility of human freedom and responsibility Immanuel Kant completed the epistemological turn began by Rene Descartes by challenging Hume s skepticism Archetypes of Wisdom page 311 While Kant challenged Hume s skepticism as Soccio points out Kant challenged both scientific arguments and the arguments developed by the Continental rationalists and the empiricists that seemed to deny the possibility of human freedom and responsibility Kant accomplished this by developing a critique in which he identified the advances each had made as well as the negative consequences of their respective theories With the aid of an emphasis on scientific methodology Kant identified the critical errors made in both Descartes rationalism and in British empiricism culminating with Hume According to Kant scienti c methodology includes two features Soccio writes According to Kant the scientific method is obviously more Reliable and complete than Hume s philosophy How do they differ Kant pointed out that scienti c thinking involves the activity of asking questions and framing hypotheses Scientific thinking is not merely the passive recording of whatever happens it requires the active setting up of controlled experimental conditions Archetypes of Wisdom pages 317 318 Emphasis in the original Soccio is arguing that according to Kant the scientific method includes two features One feature is hypothesis formation The second feature is empirical verification Consider the manner in which this methodology helped Kant identify the critical error in both rationalism and empiricism This discussion begins with the section entitled A Scandal in Philosophy and continues in a concentrated manner in the section entitled Kant s Copernican Revolution Students should be very familiar with these issues THE COPERNICAN REVOLUTION IN PHILOSOPHY How does Kant address the limitations of science and those of rationalist and empiricist philosophy As Soccio points out How Kant asked could science which was clearly making progress be headed for conclusions that reduced human life to blind mechanism How could two radically different philosophies each reach such odd unacceptable results Was it possible to synthesize science with the good parts of rationalism and empiricism in a way that would give a rational account of the world without stripping us of moral worth and dignity Surely there had to be better alternatives than the cold unfree world of science or the unverifiable impractical worlds of rationalistic and skeptical philosophy Archetypes of Wisdom page 316 So Kant wanted to synthesize science With the good parts of rationalism and empiricism How does he do this In a phrase Kant accomplishes this through his Copernican Revolution in Philosophy In order to begin to understand Kant s Copernican Revolution focus upon the manner in which scientific methodology helped Kant to identify the positive contributions of both rationalism and empiricism How did Kant synthesize these positive contributions in his Copernican Revolution How is the distinction phenomenal and noumenal reality involved in Kant s solution What are transcendental ideaS Kant actually addresses several kinds of transcendental ideas In the teXt Soccio discusses three transcendental ideas that have a regulative function The self the cosmos and God What is the role of these regulative transcendental ideas in his solution Finally why does Kant believe that the noumenal world must actually eXist REGULATIVE TRANSCENDENTAL IDEAS AND KANT S MORAL THEORY What is Kant s moral theory What are the underpinnings of this theory In other words what is the metaphysics underlying Kant s moral theory In Kantian language What is the metaphysics of morals Kant develops a Universalist moral philosophy or one that he argues holds for all people at all times Kant s moral philosophy continues to be very influential So it is very important to understand the features of his theory There are several very crucial features of the theory We will address some of those features in this lesson but focus upon Kant s moral theory in Lesson Five PHENOMENAL NOUMENAL DISTINCTION The phenomenalnoumenal distinction underlying Kant s moral theory is very important for understanding the broader moral theory he develops As Soccio tells us Kant starts with the hypothesis that ideas such as cause and effect selfidentity the external world and God can be justified because we keep relying on them Archetypes of Wisdom page 323 This is Kant s general approach in his Critical Philosophy and in his metaphysics of morals For Kant selfidentity the cosmos and God are transcendental ideas that are also regulative ideas These ideas refer to the noumenal world Note that in the metaphysics of morals the distinction between the phenomenal and the noumenal self is crucial to his project Without the noumenal self human freedom and moral responsibility is not possible Let s look closer at Kant s theory of the self Kant s Theory of the Self Archetypes of Wisdom pages 320323 First according to Kant the self is thinking nature or the soul It is a simple self sustaining intelligence that is unified through time Please note that in this context the word simple means that it is not composed of parts Instead it is a unity The significance of the claim that the soul is simple is that something that is simple or not composed of parts is not subject to division and therefore dissolution Second Kant argues that the self is an example of a noumenal idea It is real but it cannot be verified It exists prior to any empirical verification Third the self is a transcendental or regulative idea As such it bridges the gap between the phenomenal and the noumenal world The self unifies and makes experience possible Fourth if there is no transcendental unity of the self then there is no distinction between ones self and the world Without the transcendental unity of the self I could not have an experience nor could I claim to do so There would be no I THE TRANSCENDAL IDEA OF THE COSMOS In order to better understand the fourth point above and to also understand the significance of the regulative transcendental idea of the cosmos let s look at the argument in the section of the text entitled quotThe Objectivity of Experience Archetypes of Wisdom pages 322323 A rough outline of Soccio s account of Kant s position is presented in the indented comments printed below and printed in dark green Kant is arguing that in casual language if I do not know what is me and what is not me then I cannot know what are and what are not my experiences So if there is no difference between me and the world then I cannot have any experiences But I do have experiences Therefore I must have a noumenal self I must have a self that is a transcendental unity a continuous self that exists prior to any empirical PRINT THIS CULTURE GENDER CLASS AND SEXUAL ORIENTATION MOMADAY ANZALDUA AND LORDE LESSON FOURTEEN STUDY GUIDE In Lesson Fourteen we are thinking about clashes between cultures and within a broad culture Each of the three philosophical texts we address in this lesson examines the underlying reasons for those clashes and what we can do to address them Gloria Anzaldua Audre Lorde and N Scott Momaday each point to the importance of knowing and working to understand the history of a group as one of the necessary efforts to heal the divisions between us The issues raised and addressed by Anzaldua Lorde and Momaday are timely in view of ongoing cultural clashes within the United States and with those people in and from other countries GOALS OF THE LESSON One goal of the lesson is for students to demonstrate the ability to recall and describe the defining characteristics of key concepts and arguments in the teXt readings A second goal is for students to demonstrate the ability to analyze and evaluate philosophical concepts or arguments presented in the texts The third goal is for students to demonstrate the ability to analyze and evaluate the manner in philosophical concepts or arguments can be compared contrasted or resurface in new forms among philosophers and between historical eras The final goal is the central goal of each lesson It is for students to achieve the learning outcomes relevant to the lesson The following is a list of some of the names and concepts with which you should be familiar Sett39an Racism Sexism Ageism Heterosexism Elitism Classism convergent thinking divergent thinking Mestiza Mestiza consciousness shadow projection shadow repression Learning Outcome Three The successful student will be able to Evaluate the relationship of philosophical ideas to the art literature political and economic structure social hierarchy and the values of their respective societies AND Learning Outcome Four The successtul student will be able to Assess how crosscultural interactions lead to dittusion of ideas and influence intellectual and cultural traditions N SCOTT MOMADAY 0n IndianWhite Relations A Point of View In the excerpt from On Indian7White Relations A Point of View Momaday indicates that a dichotomy a sharp distinction or opposition underlies Indian White relations The dichotomy is both metaphysical and epistemological The metaphysical view for Native Americans as Momaday describes it has several dimensions I will mention two The first feature of the metaphysical theory is the worldview At one point Momaday comments that the sun is alive and is indiVisible with the earth Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 190 So in some sense the sun and the earth are both alive and cannot be separated from each other Momaday also writes that All things are alive in this profound unity in which are all elements all animals all things Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 190 The Native American worldview is then one in which all things are alive They exist in a profound unity with each other And they are as such inseparable In contrast Momaday implies that the Western worldview is one in which not everything is alive or in unity The second feature of the metaphysical theory is the concept of time In each case the conception of time ows from the more foundational worldview Momaday provides a clear discussion of the concept of time held by Native Americans and Westerners Students should be very familiar with this discussion Momaday also indicates that there is also a sharp epistemological opposition that underlines Indian White relations The distinction that Momaday characterizes as prima facie real self evidently real is between things experienced and things observed Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 190 When things are observed as Momaday points out there is an immeasurable distance between the observer and the thing observed Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 190 The epistemological position in which ones approach to knowledge and truth is from the vantage point of an observer is Western in nature This approach is for example evident in Momaday s initial response to his child that the sun lives in the sky Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 190 Momaday recounts that already another perception deeper in the blood leads him to say The sun lives in the earth Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 190 Momaday who identifies himself as an Indian tells us that the first answer is not true from him He writes But the first answer is not true to my experience my deepest oldest experience the memory of my blood Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 190 One of Momaday s points here is that the Native American approach to epistemology or to issues of knowledge and truth is from the perspective of things experienced Stated differently knowledge and truth are products of experience It is important to note the manner in which the respective epistemological positions for the Native American and for the West ow out of the applicable metaphysical views Momaday also describes a fundamental opposition between Native American and Western views of language and history A conception of language and one of history rely upon not only a metaphysical and an epistemological theory but a theory of values As you re ect upon Momaday s comments about history and language consider the manner in which the Native American and the Western approaches to them re ect metaphysics epistemology and value theory AUDRE LORDE Age Race Class and Sex Women Redefining the Difference Audre Lorde argues that in a capitalist economy or one in which profit is the dominant focus it is advantageous to that economy that some groups are marginalized dehumanized and construed as other not like me As members of this kind of economy we are taught to fear and loathe those who are different There are real differences between us Lorde argues however that we misname misuse and distort differences between us and doing so promotes separation confusion and oppression Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 282 One of the difficulties is that which Lorde identifies as the mythical norm Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 282 The mythical norm is where the power lies Stated differently presumably if we have the qualities of the mythical norm then we have power If we diverge in some way from that norm we may focus upon that one difference alone At least two difficulties result First we may be oppressed in other ways Indeed Lorde suggests that people are oppressed in more than one way Second we are actually participating in oppression And oppression may be dif cult to In Oppression Marilyn Frye argues that oppression is characterized by systematically related barriers1 She provides the analogy of a birdcage If we look at only one wire of the bird cage we do not see the manner in which the wires are related Instead it seems that that wire or that barrier is one that the inhabitant of the cage could easily avoid This microscopic view does not give us a true picture of the situation If however we could metaphorically stand back from the cage and obtain a macroscopic view we would know the reasons that the inhabitant cannot easily escape The wires or the barriers are systematically related in such a way that they encage mould reduce restrict or op press the inhabitant Part of Lorde s task is to encourage us to learn to see oppression We must learn to see the piece of the oppressor in each of us and the systematized oppression to which many are subject GLORIA ANZALDUA BorderlandsLa Frontera Anzaldua certainly agrees with Lorde that oppression is a very serious problem One strategy to address oppression is the counterstance But as Anzaldua tells us the difficulty with a counterstance and with any reaction is that it is limited by and dependent on what it is reacting against Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 303 In other words it is the thing or the group against which one reacts that actually sets the terms or the conditions So in some very real sense the power of the group or thing which is opposed retains a great deal of its power Anzaldua is making a claim that is similar to that made by Lorde when she writes that the master s tools will never dismantle the master s house Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 286 So Anzaldua s strategy is to analyze and address the problem in another manner According to Anzaldua dualistic thinking is a pivotal problem When we draw and maintain a contrast between the oppressed and the oppressor or between us and them we are thinking in a dualistic manner Anzaldua argues that dualistic thinking is a source of persecution violence and war Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 304 However the ultimate source of these problems is the manner in which we cope with the shadow What is the shadow In order to understand Anzaldua s argument it is necessary for us to discuss a particular theory of personality When Anzaldua mentions the shadow she is referring to a concept utilized by Jungian psychologists Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 306 Jungian psychologists are those who theorize or work in the tradition of Carl Jung who lived in the late nineteenth to mid twentieth century In an introductory textbook on personality theory author Christopher Monte provides some helpful comments on Jung s concept of the shadow In accordance with Jung s theories in Two Essays on Analytical Psychology Monte writes Within our personal unconscious there are repressed unacceptable motives tendencies and desires There is thus within us an inferior undesirable aspect to our personality Jung calls this side of our inner life the Shadow the dark half of personality It is the side of ourselves that we would prefer not to recognize Mythologically Shadow symbols include demons devils and evil ones This archetype may be evoked in our relations with another when we feel terribly uncomfortable with a person but are unable to specify exactly what provokes the distress We sense an immediate dislike for some people without being able to verbalized the cause in such cases we may be projecting our shadow side onto him because we recognize in this person something that we do not like in ourselves Jung 1917 p952 Jung theorizes that each individual has an unconscious and underlying the personal unconscious is the collective unconsciousness3 Within the personal unconscious there is the Shadow or the dark half of the personality that we prefer not to acknowledge When we project our Shadow or the dark half of us on to another the actual location of the Shadow is still within us4 Stated differently we are attributing some problem to another but the problem is actually ours it is within us Now how does Jung s theory of the Shadow apply in Anzaldua s argument Anzaldua claims that Chicanos need to say to Whites you ve split yourself from minority groups that you disown us that your dual consciousness splits off parts of yourself transferring the negative parts onto us Where there is persecution of minorities there is shadow projection Where there is violence and war there is repression of shadow Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 304 Anzaldua is claiming that shadow projection is instrumental in the persecution of minorities Stated differently when a minority group is persecuted the persecution re ects the problems of the persecutor In violence or war the issue is that the Shadow in the unconscious is pushed down or back but ultimately erupts Anzaldua is obviously extending the idea of the Shadow in the unconscious to a collective unconscious when she comments on persecution of minority groups war and United States relationships with Mexico Speaking to Americans Anzaldua writes Admit that Mexico is your double that she exists in the shadow of this country that we are irrevocably tied to her Gringo accept the doppelganger in your psyche By taking back your collective shadow the intracultural split will heal When Anzaldua claims that Mexico is the double of the United States she seems to be saying that for Americans Mexico is actually the Shadow of the United States It is in some sense the negative part of the collective unconscious of the United States Stated differently some Americans view Mexico in a negative manner because of the negative features within the collective American unconscious that are then projected onto Mexico The intracultural split is a split within America OK now how does Anzaldua propose to resolve these difficulties Anzaldua argues that a Mestiza may be uniquely capable of resolving them and that she will do so through developing a Mestiza consciousness According to Anzaldua why might the Mestiza be uniquely capable What is Mestiza consciousness How is divergent thinking involved in Mestiza consciousness PRINT THIS UTILITARIANISM JEREMY BENTHAM AND JOHN STUART MILL LESSON SIX STUDY GUIDE Our focus in Lesson Six is the utilitarian theories developed by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill The utilitarian theoriesdeveloped by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill are ethical and social and political theories They were developed in a particular socialpolitical context that arosefrom the Industrial Revolution Therefore some of the questionswe will be asking arethe following What were some of the characteristics of the Industrial Revolution What were the social consequencesof the Industrial Revolution How did Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill respond Utilitarianism particularly asit wasformulated by John Stuart Mill continuesto be one of the dominant ethical theories It standsin contrastto Kant s ethical theory So one of the most central issueswe will consider in this lesson is the mannerin which utilitarianism differs from Kantian ethics While Jeremy Bentham s utilitarianism differed from the theory developed by John Stuart Mill the two theoriesalso shared some differences Therefore one of the tasksin this lesson is to consider both the similarities and differences GOALS OF THE LESSON One goal of the lesson is for studentsto demonstratethe ability to recall and describethe defining characteristics of key conceptsand argumentsin the text readings A second goal is for studentsto demonstratethe ability to analyze and evaluate philosophical conceptsor arguments presentedin the texts The third goal is for studentsto demonstratethe ability to analyze and evaluate the mannerin philosophical conceptsor argumentscan be compared contrasted or resurface in new forms among philosophersand between historical eras The final goal is the central goal of each lesson It is for studentsto achievethe learning outcomesrelevant to the lesson The following is a list of some of the concepts and names with which you should be familiar Industrial Revolution Thomas Malthus Malthusian principles Age of Reform cultural relativism psychological hedonism ethical hedonism principle of utility pleasure principle the Hedonistic Calculus egoistic hook enlightened selfinterest laissezfaire reformers Malebranche Spinoza empirical criterion higher pleasureslower pleasures altruism positive evils the tyranny of the majority Let s turn to some of the issues and do so from the perspective of the Learning Outcomes for the course Learning Outcome Three The successful student will be able to Evaluate the relationship of philosophical ideas to the art literature political and economic structure social hierarchy and the values of their respective societies THE NDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION As Soccio points out the Industrial Revolution in England occurred roughly between 1780 and 1835 Archetypesof Wsdom page 341 The Industrial Revolution asthe nameimplies wasa pivotal juncture in world history In 1798 Thomas Malthus publishedavery influential text that addressedthe possibility of social reform Malthus social analysis of the situation focused upon the dual problemsof overpopulation and underproduction of food Archetypesof lWsdom page 342 Malthus arguedthat it wasimportant to avoid harsh natural cures quot such as epidemicsand aswell asthe historioal cures of war or rebellion Archetypesof Wsdom page 342 In orderto avoid these cures Malthusproposeda setof principles The British ruling classeagerly embracedthe Malthusian principles therefore compounding some of the problemsof the Industrial Revolution Studentsshould be very familiar with the Soccio s description of the Industrial Revolution the staggering social changesthat ensuedfrom it Malthus analysis his Malthusian principles andthe responseby the British Ruling Class THE AGE OF REFORM While the Enlightenment wasthe Age of Reason the beginning ofthe nineteenth century wasthe Age of Reform Archetypesof lWsdom page 344 The beginning of the nineteenth century marked a very significant shift in interestsof philosophers Soccio lists five broad characteristics of this changein focus One feature of this evolution in focuswasthe revival of beliefs in cultural relativism In general cultural relativism is the beliefthatall valuesare culturally determined Archetypesof lWsdom page 73 In the west relativism had dominatedthe theories and practicesof the Sophistsin the ancient Greekworld of the fourth century BC Students should be very familiar with Soccio s discussion of the characteristicsof the changein focus Jeremy Bentham s reformist theoriesare a responseto the social and political context in which he lived Bentham for example stipulated not only what constitutesa democracy but the proper function of govemment Notethe mannerin which Benthamtiesthe properfunction of governmentto the principle of utility Bentham stransformation of personal hedonism into a potent social and ethical philosophy using the principle of utility is a central feature of his reformist responseto the social and political context in which he lived Archetypesof lWsdom page 345 John Stuart Mill s reformist theoriesalso constitute a responseto the social and political context in which he lived While John Stuart Mill is critical of some featuresof Bentham s utilitarianism Mill also adoptsthe principle of utility Mill s emphasison the importanceof altruism and the attendant standardsof right conduct providesone example of his reformist response Mill also focusesupon both the properfunction of education and the necessity for universal education in orderto have a happy healthy society Mill arguesthat the chief task of all rightthinking wellintentioned people is to addressthosecausesof social misfortunethat can be avoided or altered Archetypesof lWsdom page 359 Included among those social misfortuneswould certainly bethe positive evils of life such asindigence severe or complete poverty and disease Archetypesof lWsdom page 359 Note the mannerin which the properfunction ofeducation is linked to altruism Also note that indigencewould undermine the ability to obtain an education and therefore the goal of a fully healthy happy society Learning Outcome Two The successful student will be able to Discuss how differing foundations of knowledge from various cultures lead to different understandings of science natural order religion the Self and use of technological power Soccio s discussion of Bentham stheory is very clear so I will simply mention some of the additional but central issueswith which studentsshould be familiar As Soccio indicates Bentham philosophy is built upon the conceptsof psychological and ethical hedonism We do seek pleasure and avoid pain andthis alone tells uswhat we ought to do Benthamthen enlargesthistheory with the principle of utility also called the Greatest Happiness Principle According to Soccio how doesthe principle of utility enlarge andtransform personal hedonism Bentham s Hedonistic Calculus is important for several reasons First asSoocio indicates it is an attempt to formulate a scientific ethics Archetypesof lWsdom page 345 Second it ultimately focusesupon the balanoeof pleasure and pain If this course of action is one in which there is the greatest pleasure for the greatest number then this is the proper courseof action Third note that pleasure is the greatestwhen it hasthe greatestintensity duration extent etc So the sole emphasisis the quantity of pleasure in comparison with the quantity of pain In regard to his Hedonistic Calculus the above arethe central issues It is not necessary for studentsto focus upon the seven speci c factors involved in the calculation Another crucial and related aspect of Bentham stheory is the egoistic hook or enlightened selfinterest Soocio points out that according to Bentham the egoistic hook showsthat our individual welfare is inseparable from social welfare Archetypesof lWsdom page 346 Further it is proper role of government to ensurethat the enlightened selfinterest of each individual is allowed to develop Archetypesof lWsdom page 346 According to the text what is the egoistic hook or enlightened selfinterest Soocio s discussion of school desegregation providesa very good example of the manner in which the egoistic hook works Archetypesof lWsdom page 346 JOHN STUART MILL Most ofthe issuesin Mill s theory with which we will be oonoemed are clearly presented by Soocio So again I will simply mentionthe issues First one ofthe pivotal featuresof John Stuart Mill s philosophy is his criticismsof Bentham s theory At issueis Bentham s exclusive focus upon the intensity or the degreeof pleasure Studentsshould be very familiar with Mill s critique of Bentham stheory Notethatwhile Mill is critical of Bentham stheory Mill continuesto rely uponthe Greatest Happiness Principle orthe Principle of Utility Act always to promote the greatest happiness for the greatest number As Soccio remarks one characteristic of philosophical interestsduring the Age of Reform was the role of scienti c methodology in achieving reforms Archetypesof lWsdom page 344 We seethis interestin scientific methodology reflected in Bentham s Hedonistic Calculus Mill s empirical criterion also reflectsthis emphasis According to Mill the empirical criterion could be used for discovering the qualitative differencesbetween pleasures As a result according to Mill we have empirical criteria for asserting thatthe higher pleasures mental pleasuresoonnectedwith intellectual moral and emotional life are indeed preferable to the lower pleasures Note the mannerin which the higher pleasures orthe nobler faculties are a central feature of Mill s conception of happinessand therefore the happy healthy society One of the most important contrasts between Bentham s utilitarianism and that developed by John Stuart Mill is the ultimate basisfor their respective theories ln Soccio s discussion of this contrast he points out that that the ultimate basisof Bentham s utilitarian theory wasegoism With enlightened selfinterest the egoistic interestsof the individual are linked to the self interestsof others Archetypesof lWsdom page 346 One can experience lesspain and more pleasurewhen othersalso experience lesspain and more pleasure in a given situation The basis of Mill s utilitarianism is different Mill s utilitarianism is basedupon the social feelingsof mankind the desire to be in unity with our fellow creatures Archetypesof lWsdom page 355 Stateddifferently Mill s theory ultimately restson altruism or the view that we havethe capacity to promotethe welfare of others asa result of our social feelingsfor mankind and the desire to be in unity with each other Archetypesof lWsdom page 355 Therefore in contrast to Bentham s egoistic basis Mill providesa foundation of compassion for each other and corresponding benevolent actions Mill s foundational ideasare evident in his claims about the standardsof right conduct Archetypesof lWsdom page 356 Another important topic is Mill s claim that selfishnessis the principle causeof unhappiness Studentsshould be very familiar with Mill s argument UTILITARIAN ETHICS AND KANTIAN ETHICS In his introductory remarksin this chapter Soccio commentson the Greatest HappinessPrinciple or the Principle of Utility He writes although individual rights and desiresmust be respected the good of the majority ultimately takespreoedenoeoverthe happinessof any one individual or small group of individuals Archetypesof lWsdom page 341 The Principle of Utility requiresthat we seekthe greatest happinessfor the greatest number Yet as Soccio again points out consequencesmatter at least asmuch asmotivesquot Archetypesof lWsdom page 358 In his Commentary on Kant stheory Soccio wrote that Sophisticated Kantians point out however that any universalizable maxim must include concem for and consideration of the likely consequences of action No defensible moral duty can condone indifferenceto what happensto others Archetypesof lWsdom page 336 Here Soccio is pointing out that in Kantian ethics is we are to act from a law that we give ourselvesandthis law should be onethat is applicable to all human beings Stateddifferently we should act from intentions or motivesthat would be universally applicable and we arejudged asmoral or immoral based upon them However for a sophisticated Kantian consequences also matter A casual reading of someof Soccio s commentson Utilitarian and Kantian Ethics might suggest that there is little difference betweenthe two theories However there are several important sensesin which the two theoriesdiffer I will mentionjust a couple ofthem First one ofthe most central tenetsof Kantian ethics is the importanceof intentionsor motivationsof actions lntentionsor motivations provide the basisfor assessing morality or immorality In contrast the focus in Utilitarian ethicsis the consequences Have we indeed acted in such a way that we have achieved the greatestgood for the greatest numbel The answerto this question is the basis for determining whetherthat action was moral or immoral In his Commentary on Chapter Thirteen Soocio points out someofthe limitations of both Utilitarian and Kantian ethicsthat arise from their respective emphases The second related difference is illuminated by revisiting Kant s practical imperative orthe principle of dignity Again this principle is the following Act in such a way that you alwaystreat humanity whether in your own person or in the person of another simply asa meansbut alwaysat the sametime asan end Archetypesof V sdom page332 Kant of course is arguing that we should nevertreat anyonesimply asa meansto achieve some end or goal This would meanthat we should nevertreat someonein a mannerthat ignorestheir good or rights in orderto achieve the greatest happinessfor the greatest number The rights of the person or the good of the particular person should never be overridden for the sake of the greater numberof people or for the majority Learning Outcome Five The successful student will be able to Analyze and assess contemporary problems of global concerns from a philosophical perspective CAN THEY This was Bentham s question According to Bentham since animals suffer we have obligations to not torment them and to prevent others from doing so Some would certainly argue that the treatment of animals is a global concern POVERTY AND CLASS ISSUES PRINT THIS AESTHETIC EXPRESSION ZEN BUDDHIST AND AFRICAN TRADITIONS HERRIGEL AND ACHEBE LESSON FIFTEEN STUDY GUIDE In Lesson Fifteen our focus upon aesthetic expression in the Zen Buddhist and African traditions leads us to ask and to consider several pivotal questions in the history of aesthetics What is art Does art contain or convey knowledge or truth What is the relationship between the artist and the society What is the appropriate relationship between the artist and the society GOALS OF THE LESSON One goal of the lesson is for studentsto demonstratethe ability to recall and describethe defining characteristics of key conceptsand argumentsin the text readings A second goal is for studentsto demonstratethe ability to analyze and evaluate philosophical conceptsor arguments presentedin the texts The third goal is for studentsto demonstratethe ability to analyze and evaluate the mannerin philosophical conceptsor argumentscan be compared contrasted or resurface in new forms among philosophersand between historical eras The final goal is the central goal of each lesson It is for studentsto achievethe learning outcomesrelevant to the lesson The following is a list of some of the names and concepts with which you should be familiar Aesthetic aesthetic experience aesthetic expression catharsis Zen Buddhism artisan artist right presence of mind mysticism Learning Outcome Three The successful student will be able to Evaluate the relationship of philosophical ideas to the art literature political and economic structure social hierarchy and the values of their respective societies AND Lea n Outcome ou The successiul student will be able to Assess how crosscultural interactions lead to diffusion oi ideas and in uence intellectual and cultural traditions AESTHETICS Aesthetics asSoccio reports is the study of perceptions feelings judgments and ideas associated with the appreciation of beauty art and objectsin generalquot Archetypesof lWsdom page 5 Some arguethat aestheticsis a category of epistemology Mitchell s emphasison aesthetic experience indicatesthat she may endorseth is categorization Readingsfrom the Roots of lWsdom page 207 Othersargue that aesthetics is a category of value theory or axiology In some casesphilosophershave argued that aesthetics is itself a branch of philosophy and that it encompassesthe philosophy of art1 The history of aesthetics has beena history of varying emphasesupon metaphysical epistemological and value issues What are some of the central questionsof aesthetics I will discussfour of thosequestions2 WHAT IS ART The question What is art hasbeen central for some philosophers This question is part of what is at issuein Eugen Herrigel s Zenin the Art ofArchery According to Herrigel the form of archery practiced in the Zen tradition is an art It is not a sport a gymnastic exercise Readingsfrom the Rootsof lWsdom page 21 5 So what is art according to Herrigel His commentsaboutthe artist and the artisan begin to point usto Herrigel s answer Herrigel writes Farfrom wishing to awakenthe artist in the pupil prematurely the teacherconsidersit his first taskto make him a skilled artisan with sovereign control of his craft Readingsfrom the Rootsof lWsdom page 21 6 bold pink emphasisadded The artisan hassovereign control over his craft according to Herrigel Stated differently the artisan hasexpert technical competency The artist hasand is something more The artist is the masterwho not only hasexperttechnical competency but hasdone and continuesto do the inner work out ofwhich the art flows and to which it is inextricably linked Readingsfrom the Rootsof lWsdom page21 Herrigel writes that The man the art the work it is all one Readingsfrom the Rootsof lWsdom page 21 7 Art is an expression of this unity or of all as one The artist is an expression of it The work itself is an expression of this unity or of all as one The ritual mask carver Edogo in Chinua Achebe sArrow of Godis also an artist and not merely an artisan He too hasand is morethan someonewho hassimple but expert technical competency Both Edogo in the Arrow of God and the masterZen archerof Zen and the Art of Archery reflect and are part of a unity but in different senses When we ask and answerthe question What is art part ofwhat is at stake is ourtheory of metaphysics We have some indicationsof the metaphysical theory underlying the Zen Buddhist art of archery There are two aspectsof thattheory that are particularly important for our purposes In her introduction to Zen and the Art ofArchery Mitchell points out that Zen Buddhism is a combination of Taoism and Buddhism How arethey combined In a previous chapterof Archetypesof lWsdom Soccio providesa helpful discussion of some of the featuresof Taoism and Buddhism PleaseseeArchetypesof lWsdom pages24 through 58 As Soocio points out one feature of Taoism is the beliefthat Yin and Yang are inseparable but complimentary foroesthat perpetually work togetherin harmony underthe guidance of the Tao Yin the passive force is complemented by and in balanoewith Yang the active force in the Tao In the Tao te Ching Laotzu the consummateTaoist held that the Tao is the source of all things is reflected in all thingsand aooomplishesall thingsthrough the harmonizing of Yin and Yang See Readingsfrom the Rootsof lWsdom pages2527 for an introductory view of the Tao te Ching ln Taoism the generalview is that all is essentially one harmonization of Yin and Yang in aooordanoewith the Tao The conoeptsonin and Yang first asgods then as principlesor forces harmonized by the Tao provide the roots of Buddhism But in the caseof Buddhism the Tao and its harmonizing work with Yin and Yang have more implicit roles So in Taoism and in Buddhism there are two featuresof the metaphysical theory that are particularly important The first is the concept of the Yin and Yang asprinciples or foroesthat are harmonized in acoordanoewith the Tao The second crucial feature is the belief that all is essentially one or all is in one unity ln Zen Buddhism as Herrigel indicatesand asMitchell remarks By letting go you can accomplish everything Readingsfrom the Roots of lWsdom page 21 3 Letting go is the passive force Yin that is in balanoewith Yang the active force through which all is accomplished in aooordanoewith the Tao Further aswe saw Herrigel claimsthat the man the art andthe work are all one Readingsfrom the Rootsof lWsdom page21 But the unity is much broaderthan simply the man the art andthe work Herrigel s oommentson right presenoeof mind begin to illuminate the soopeofthe unity Readingsfrom the Rootsof lWsdom page 214 In the Arrow of God the concept of metaphysical unity differs from that indicated in Zen and the Art ofArchery In the African tradition that unity is one of a community of people and ancestral spirits For example we sawin lfeanyi Menkiti s Person and Community in Traditional African Thought that the word community in this case hasan organic sense A community is not a mere association of independent persons Readingsfrom the Roots of lWsdom page 84 As Menkiti argues in the traditional African conoeption the person is only possible becausethe community first exists Chinua Achebe suggestsa very similar idea in Arrow of God Here the ritual mask carver the artist the spacewhere he makeshis religious art his processand the masksthemselvesseemto be possible only asan outgrowth of and within the context of the community DO THE ARTS CONTAIN OR CONVEY KNOWLEDGE OR TRUTH One of the enduring issuesin the history of aestheticsis whether art contains conveysor points usto knowledge or truth Herrigel and Achebe indicate respectively that the Zen art of archery and the ritual African masksdo convey knowledge or truth In Zen and the Art ofArchery the master s approach to knowledge standsin stark contrast to the Western analytic method of obtaining knowledge Herrigel s description of the Zen Buddhist tradition of the art of archery indicatesthat knowledge is mystical In some forms of Buddhist mysticism the approach to knowledge or truth is one in which it is possible to attain integration with the whole through meditation Further integration with the whole is construed asenlightenment It is this approach to knowledgethat we seein Zen and the Art ofArchery The Zen practitionerwho is a master archeris on the path of enlightenment The Master no longer seeks but finds Readingsfrom the Roots of lWsdom page21 The mastersuspendseffo rts in his inner work and hits the metaphorical target The mastersuspendsefforts to shoot the arrow and hit the target In Chinua Achebe s accountthe ritual masksalso conveythe truth The truth is from a new ancestral spirit who in some sensespeaksthrough the mask Readingsfrom the Rootsof lWsdom page 221 However Edogo the ritual maskcarver is the conduit of this knowledge Knowledge in this case is again mystical ratherthan analytic Here mysticism is communion with the divine What is the role of Edogo s relationship with the community of people and ancestral spirits in this form of knowledge This question leadsusto another pivotal question in the history of aesthetics WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ARTIST AND THE SOCIETY What is the relationship between the artist andthe society This is a central question for some philosophers Art is sometimesconstrued asan exemplification of certain relationshipsin society such asthe relationship between human beingsand machines or a re ection of the struggle between the oppressedand the oppressor Historically one view of art is that it is a form of communication Some seeit assimply an expression of the artist s emotions Others believe that art expressesuniversal or essential human issues Art is sometimesseen as dangerous Some of argued that the artist must promote the social good Othersclaim that art should be pursued for art s sake alone WHAT IS THE APPROPRIATE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ARTIST AND THE SOCIETY ln Zen and the Art of Archer Eugen Herrigel emphasizesthe importance of the relationship betweenthe masterand the pupil The relationship to the wider society is not explicit In the Arrow of God Chinua Achebe suggeststhere is not only a distinctive relationship betweenthe ritual maskcarver and the community of people and spirits but that the carver hasa speci c role in the community What is that role Lesson Twelve NATURAL HUMAN AND CIVIL RIGHTS FOR AFRICANAMERICANS M L KING JR AND MALCOLM X LESSON TWELVE STUDY GUIDE Our emphasis is this lesson is an introduction to the work of Malcolm X and Dr Martin Luther King Jr The focus is upon their respective struggles either for natural human or civil rights We will think about the oppression of AfricanAmericans and the manner in which both Dr King and Malcolm X attempted to address that oppression GOALS OF THE LESSON One goal of the lesson is for students to demonstrate the ability to recall and describe the defining characteristics of key concepts and arguments in the text readings A second goal is for students to demonstrate the ability to analyze and evaluate philosophical concepts or arguments presented in the texts The third goal is for students to demonstrate the ability to analyze and evaluate the manner in philosophical concepts or arguments can be compared contrasted or resurface in new forms among philosophers and between historical eras The final goal is the central goal of each lesson It is for students to achieve the learning outcomes relevant to the lesson The following is a list of some of the names and concepts with which you should be familiar Dixiecrats gerrymandering Black Nationalism I moral tension Christian nonviolent civil disobedience or resistance agape love Learning Outcome Three The successful student will be able to Evaluate the relationship of philosophical ideas to the art literature political and economic structure social hierarchy and the values of their respective societies MALCOLM X Malcolm X s argument in the speech that has been reprinted in our text is generally very clear As a result I will simply provide a brief overview of some of the central features of the argument Malcolm X argues that he like other AfricanAmericans of his era is oppressed So he is providing the perspective of the oppressed According to Malcolm AfricanAmericans had thought of the American system as an American Dream However they are beginning to realize that it is instead an American nightmare Certainly one reason that it is a nightmare is that in the South AfricanAmericans ofthis era are still denied the right to vote This is particularly significant because the Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution adopted in 1870 givesAfricanAmericans a constitutionally guaranteed right to vote The Fifteenth Amendment is the following The right of citizens of the United Slates to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race color or previous condition of servitude And of course the Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution adopted in 1920 gave women the constitutionally guaranteed right to vote According to Malcolm X among AfricanAmericans there is a growing consciousness of the political maneuvering that exploits blacks politically Their awareness of the strategic political position they hold is also increasing That strategic political position is one in which they can and do significantly influence who is elected But AfricanAmerican frustration and anger are increasing because politicians make promises to AfricanAmericans in order to obtain their votes but those promises are not fulfilled The democrats and the republicans are shrewd and deceptive Both parties are guilty of hypocrisy AfricanAmericans are victims of the manner in which the Constitution is bypassed with regard to the South and by the North Be sure to carefully examine Malcolm X s argument hereAs a result AfricanAmericans have no political power What are the solutions for AfricanAmericans According to Malcolm X Islam is certainly part ofthe solution In the speed1 in our text Malcolm X provides specific reasons that Islam is the best religion or philosophy to addressAfricanAmerican issues Malcolm mentionsa long range plan or solution and the more immediate solution in which Islam and Black Nationalism are combined Malcolm explains that his political economic and social philosophy is Black Nationalism Be sure to carefully study Malcolm X s comments on ead1 When he describes Black Nationalism as a political philosophy as an economic philosophy and as a social philosophy Malcolm indicates both some of the structural features oftheir oppression aswell asthe manner in which Black Nationalism will provide a solution Malcolm argues that as an era spreads in which new more realistic analyses of the problems faced by AfricanAmericans are developed and the Black Nationalist approad1 is also used instead ofsticking under your nose or crying for civil rights will begin to expand their civil rights pleas to a plea for human rights And once the socalled Negro in this country forgets the whole civil rights issue and begins to realize that human rights are far more important and broad than civil rights he won t be going to Washington DC anymore to beg Uncle Sam for civil rights He will take his plea for human rights to the United Nations Readings from the Roots of Wsdom page 252 In the above quoted excerpt from his speech Malcolm X suggests that it may not be possible for the combination of Islam and Black Nationalism to solve the scope ofthe problems faced by AfricanAmericans Indeed it will be nery to expand the claim for civil rights to one of human rights which are as he states far more important and broad than civil rights Readings from the Roots of Wsdom page 252 As you will recall civil rights can be generally described as those rights one has as a citizen and as guaranteed by either the Constitution or by an act of Congress Malcolm s point is that as hun39an beings we have certain rights that endure irrespective of whether the state provides or fails to provide legal guarantees for them It is important to note however that Malcolm X is not rejecting the value of civil rights This is evident when he claims that So the only way Uncle Sam can stop us is to get some civil rights passed right now Readings from the Roots of Wsdom page 252 What he is rejecting is an approad1 in which AfricanAmericans must boycott or beg in order to obtain those civil rights Stated differently Malcolm X is rejecting what he sees as Martin Luther King s approach to securing civil rights DR MARTIN LUTHER KING JR Dr King s chief concems were social progress and improving the human condition for all people Dr King was specifically concerned with avariety of issues including segregation the denial ofcivil rights forAfricanAmericans poverty and the war in Vietnam Segregation and the denial ofcivil rights forAfricanAmericanswill be our beginning focus Injustice Segregation and the Denial of Civil Rights Dr King believed that segregation and the denial of civil rights for AfricanAmericans was unjust Segregation and the denial of civil rights were either upheld by positive law or statues or these practices were not prevented by positive law Dr King s argument about these unjust laws was in part the following A just law is a manmade code that squareswith the moral law or the law of God An unjust law is a code that is out of harmony with the moral law To put it in terms of Saint ThomasAquinas an unjust law is a hunan law that is not rooted in eternal and natural law Any law that uplifts human personality isjust Any law that degrades human personality is unjust All segregation statutes are unjust because segregation distorts the soul and damages the personality lt givesthe segregator a false sense of superiority and the segregated a false sense of inferiority i Unjust laws according to Dr King are not in line with the eternal and natural laws of God Further unjust laws degrade distort and damage the soul and the personality Injustice Dr King argues has an impact on everyone In the April 1963 Letter from the Birmingham Jail Dr King writes lnjustioe anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere We are caught in an inescapable network of mutuality tied in a single garment of destiny Whatever affects one directly affects all indirectlyii According to Dr King injustioe anywhere is athreat to justice everywhere Further if justice is delayed too long this is actually a denial ofjustioe Dr King writes We know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor it must be demanded by the oppressed For years now l have heard the words Wait lt rings in the ear of every Negro with a piercing familiarity This Wait has almost always meant Never We come to see with the distinguished jurist of yesterday that justice too long delayed is justice denied We have waited for more than 340 years for our constitutional and Godgiven rightsiii Many had called for Dr King and the Civil Rights movement to simply wait and endure oppression believing that time would simply eliminate segregation and the denial of civil rights for AfricanAmericans In his Letter from the Birmingham Jail Dr King comments on some ofthe reasons it is so difficult to wait He writes I guessit is easy for those who have never felt the stinging darts of segregation to say Wait But when you have seen vicious mobs lynch your mothers and fathers at will and drown your sisters and brothers at whim when you have seen latefilled polioemen curse kick brutalize and even kill your black brothers and sisters with impunity when you seethe vast majority of your twenty million Negro brothers smothering in an airtight cage of poverty in the midst of an affluent society when you suddenly find your tongue twisted and your speed1 stammering asyou seek to explain to your sixyearold daughter why she can t go to the public amusement park that hasjust been advertised on television and see tears welling up in her little eyes when she is told that Funtown is closed to colored d1ildren and seethe depressing clouds of inferiority begin to form in her little mental sky and see her begin to distort her little personality by unconsciously developing a bitterness toward white people when you have to concoct an answer for a fiveyearold son asking in agonizing pathos Daddy why do while people treat colored people so mean when you take a crosscountry drive and find it necessary to sleep night after night in the uncomfortable comers of your automobile because no motel will accept you when you are humiliated day in and day out by nagging signs reading white and colored when your first name becomes n and your middle name becomes boy however old you are and your last name becomes John and when your wife and mother are never given the respected title Mrs when you are harried by day and haunted by night by the fact that you are a Negro living constantly at tiptoe stance never quite knowing what to expect next and plagued with inner fears and out resentments when you are forever fighting a degenerating sense of nobodinequot then you will understand why we find it difficult to waitiV Dr King asserted that they had waited too long and that they must take action Fear and Violence Love and Resistance One of the significant barriersto social progress was white fear of integration and civil rights for AfricanAmericans In The Strength to Love Dr King addresses this fear He argues Racial segregation is buttressed by such irrational fears as loss of preferred economic privilege altered social status intermarriage and adjustment to new situations Through sleepless nights and haggard days numerous white people attempt to combat these corroding fears by diverse methods By following the path ofescape some seekto ignore the question of race relations and to close their mind to the issuesinvolved Others placing their faith in such legal maneuvers asinterposition and nullification counsel massive resistance Still others hope to drown their fear by engaging in acts of violence and meanness toward their Negro brethren But how futile are these remedies Neither repression massive resistance nor aggressive violence will cast out fear of integration only love and goodwill can do thatV Dr King argues that some whites address irrational fears of integration and civil rights for AfricanAmericans through faith in some objectionable or flawed approach Similarly some who struggled to improve conditions for AfricanAmericans relied upon unjust meansin an effort to achieve a just end According to Dr King the means to achieve an end must cohere with that end In other words the end or goal to be achieved is neverjustified by an unjust means to achieve it According to Dr King one unjust means or strategy was violence In the Letter from the Birmingham City Jail Dr King comments on this issue there are hardhearted and bitter individuals among us who would combat the opponent with physical violence and corroding hatred Violence brings only temporary victories violence by creating many more social problems than it solves never bring permanent peaceVi Violence according to Dr King could bring temporary victories but when violence is used it can also serve to violate the basic rights of others The difficulty was to how to bring about timely change without violating the basic rights of others The basis of Dr King s approach was Christian nonviolent resistance or civil disobedience The foundation of this approach is aform of love that is known as agape Agape love according to Dr King along with insightful analysis provides the basis of an approach that is not only just but one that addresses white fears of integration and of civil rights for African Americans In The Strength to Love Dr King addressesthe importance of agape He writes If our white brothers are to master fear they must depend not only on their commitment to Christian love but also on the Christlike love which the Negro generates toward them Only through our adherence to love and nonvioence will the fear in the white community be mitigated A guiltridden white minority fearsthat if the Negro attains power he will without restraint or pity act to revenge the accumulated injustices and brutality of the yearsVii Dr King is counting on the commitments among whites and from those who engage in Christian nonviolent resistance or civil disobedience to a specific kind of love This kind of love is known as agape Elsewhere Dr King provides helpful comments on the nature of agape love In speaking of love atthis point we are not referring to some sentimental or affectionate emotion It would be nonsense to urge men to love their oppressors in an affectionate sense Love in this connection means understanding redemptive good will When we speak of loving those who oppose us we refer to neither eros nor phiia we speak of love which is expressed in the Greek word agape Agape is disinterested love It is a love in which the individual seeks not his own good but the good of his neighbor Agape does not begin by discriminating between worthy and unworthy people or any qualities people possess It begins by loving others for their sakes lt springs from the need of the other personViii Agape as Dr King points out always seeks the good of ones neighbor It is a form of love that is not selfcentered or sentimental While Dr King often links agape with Christianity he firmly and clearly points out that all the great religions acknowledge the centrality of loveix However while love is a pivotal basis for nonviolent resistance or civil disobedience it is coupled with faith in God incisive analysis negotiation and courage Some during Dr King s era commented that Dr King s nonviolent methods of civil disobedience and resistance should have focused upon negotiationX But instead his methods created tension Dr King like Malcolm X contended that the problems were preeXisting The injustices were already present and negotiations had already failed In the Letter from the Birmingham City Jail Dr King describesthe four steps ofa nonviolent campaign 1 collection of facts to determine whether injustices are alive 2 negotiation 3 selfpurification 4 direct actionxi Step three selfpurification was nery in order for the participant to examine him or herself and determine whether she or he could act in a nonviolent manner This step was also used to strengthen oneself in orderto act nonviolently Step two is negotiation lf Step two failed then participants moved on to stepsth ree and four 80 negotiation had already been attempted The tension already existed As Dr King comments the immediate goal of the method was to expose the injustices to bring them to human consciousness and to open them to national opinion so that they could be cured Dr King writes Actually we who engage in nonviolent direct action are not the creators of tension We merely bring to the surface the hidden tension that is already alive We bring it out in the open where it can be seen and dealt with Like a boil that can never be cured as long as it is covered up but must be opened with all its pusflowing ugliness to the natural medicines of air and light injustice must likewise be exposed with all of the tension its exposing creates to the light of human conscience and the air of national opinion before it can be curedXii So while exposing the injustices creates tension Dr King is also suggesting that the tension was already present 80 in what sense did the nonviolent method create or expose tension Dr King clarifies this issue in the Letter from the Birmingham City Jail He writes Nonviolent direct action seeks to create such a crisis and establish sudw creative tension that a community that has constantly refused to negotiate is forced to confront the issue there is a kind of nonviolent tension that is necessary for growth Just as Socrates felt that it was necessary to create a tension in the mind so that individuals could rise from the bondage of myths and halftruths to the unfettered realm of creative analysis and objective appraisal we must see the need of having nonviolent gadflies to create the kind of tension in society that will help men to rise from the dark depths of prejudice and racism to the n39ajestic heights of understanding and brothelhoodxiii While tension already existed in virtue of the injustices and the failed negotiations nonviolent direct action resulted in the kind of creative moral tension that is nery for growth Responses to Shattered Dreams In his April 1963 Letter from Birmingham City Jail Dr King remarks on his shattered dreams of the past He writes In spite of my shattered dreams ofthe past I came to Birmingham with the hope that the white religious leadership ofthis community would see thejustioe of our cause and with deep moral oonoem serve asthe d1annel through which ourjust grievances would get to the power structure I had hoped that ead1 of your would understand But again l have been disappointedxiv Dreams ofsocial political and economic equality ofthe past had been shattered The social political and economic disparities or more specifically the injustices were characteristic of although sometimesin different forms in all areas of the country Despite the shattered dreams of the past Dr King maintained that hearts minds practices and laws could be changed through nonviolent campaigns of hard work and through agape love hope and faith in God In his August 1963 I Have a Dream speed1 Dr King said I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted every hill and mountain shall be made low the rough plaoes shall be made plain and the crooked plaoes shall be made straight and the glory ofthe Lord will be revealed and all flesh shall see it together This is our hope This is the faith that go back to the South with With this faith we will be able to hear out ofthe mountain of despair a stone of hope With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling disoords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood With this faith we will be able to work together to pray together to struggle together to go to jail together to stand up for freedom together knowing that we will be free one dayXV Despite the shattered dreams of the past Dr King maintained his hope of freedom Freedom and equality would come but not simply with the passage oftime and not with violence Instead freedom and equality would be ad1ieved through strenuous efforts agape love faith and hope PRINT THIS LESSON TWO STUDY GUIDE In Unit Two we are beginning our study of modern philosophy Rene Descartes is considered the father of modern philosophy Therefore one emphasis in Lesson Two is the sense in which he is the father of modern philosophy We will think about some of the features of modern philosophy Our beginning study of modern philosophy will allow us to consider some of the distinctions between modern philosophy medieval and ancient philosophy in the west In Unit Two our beginning focus is rationalism So some ofthe questions we are asking are the following What is rationalism What do rationalists believe In Lesson TWO we are addressing Rene Descartes the quintessential or archetypical modern rationalist Therefore we will be thinking about in what sense he was a rationalist How did his philosophy typify rationalism More broadly we are considering some of the pivotal themes and approaches in his philosophy GOALS OF THE LESSON One goal of the lesson is for students to demonstrate the ability to recall and describe the defining characteristics of key concepts and arguments in the teXt readings A second goal is for students to demonstrate the ability to analyze and evaluate philosophical concepts or arguments presented in the texts The third goal is for students to demonstrate the ability to analyze and evaluate the manner in philosophical concepts or arguments can be compared contrasted or resurface in new forms among philosophers and between historical eras The final goal is the central goal of each lesson It is for students to achieve the learning outcomes relevant to the lesson The following is a list of some of the concepts and names with which students should be familiar Epistemological turn natural light of reason natural reason Rationalism a priori ideasknowledge innate ideas a posteriori ideasknowledge actual truths truths of fact coherence theory of truth methodic doubt skepticism methodological skepticism standard of truth clear and distinct ideas the cogito Cogito ergo sum infinite regress ontology an ontological argument Anselm sophism materialism dualism monism pluralism Hobbes thinking substance Cartesian dualism the mindbody problem Soccio s explanations in this chapter are generally very clear As a result Iwill make just a few comments in the process of pointing out some of the things you should be learning as you read and reflect on The Rationalist Descartesquot AND Throughout the Chapter Soccio comments upon the beginning of Modern philosophy and some of the distinctions between medieval and modern philosophy Students should identify and be very familiar with these distinctions I will make a few additional comments that have been derived in part from Frederick Copleston s A History of Philosophy1 THE PROBLEM OF AUTHORITY In the last lesson we saw that medieval society had been characterized by hierarchies that were subsequently challenged Feudalism as a hierarchical social political and economic arrangement was challenged by the developing capitalism In many real and important senses while the sovereign of a particular society was at the top of the hierarchy the Catholic Church actually functioned at the pinnacle of those hierarchies The Church determined what constituted good or moral behavior The Church also determined appropriate areas of study and more broadly what constituted knowledge and the manner in which it could and should be obtained The focus in medieval society was theological Stated differently the dominant emphasis was otherworldly themes guided by the Church We also saw in the last lesson that the Reformation and the Copernican revolution provided the conceptual tools for the critique of the then existing hierarchy of authority and by eXtension the otherworldly or theological focus of the middle ages In the early modern era beginning with Descartes philosophy is progressively emancipated from theology This is the case in at least two senses First prominent western philosophers in the middle ages were theologians However with the advent of modern philosophy most prominent western philosophers were not professional theologians3 Second we cannot claim that all of philosophy was free of religious ideas Religious ideas play a role in the work of such early modern philosophers as Descartes Locke and Berkeley among others However it is important to note that in what Soccio refers to as Descartes genesis Descartes turn inward does not begin with God It begins with the self and self awareness Archetypes of Wisdom pages 255 261 This stands in contrast to Augustine s inward turn as the road to God who provides the basis for Augustine s moral re ections In the early modern era we see a shift in focus from the theological themes of the middle ages to a study of human beings and nature4 One ofthe central features characteristic of the advent of modern philosophy is the epistemological turn Archetypes of Wisdom page 247 Rene Descartes the father of modern philosophy turned to the study of the process of thinking itself As Soccio points out the epistemological turn was a major transformation in the Character of philosophy Archetypes of Wisdom page 247 With the critique of the medieval theological worldview and the hierarchies underlying and connected with it we also see that the status of the individual was elevated In the excerpt from Descartes Discourse on Method reprinted on pages 253 in Archetypes of Wisdom Descartes argues that natural reason is found in all normal human beings According to Descartes natural reason is by nature equal in all normal human beings This is a very significant Claim that has far reaching implications One reason that it is significant is that as Soccio indicates Descartes was arguing that each individual posses the natural light of reason and needs no intervening authority to interpret the great book of the world Archetypes of Wisdom page 247 Stated differently Descartes is arguing that each normal person has the ability to interpret the Bible for him or herself Each person can examine their own fundamental beliefs SCIENCE AND PROGRESS During the late middle ages and the Renaissance renewed interest in science was spurred by a series of advances and eventually the Copernican Revolution was arguably the most noteworthy advance We saw in the last lesson that there was a growing faith that science could and would be able to unlock the mysteries of the universe In order words with the use of science we could and would make significant and ongoing progress With the advent of the modern age philosophers also adopted the ideal of extending human knowledge in order to make progress5 This ideal is implied in the work Descartes pursues He begins at the very beginning at that which he clearly and distinctly knows is true in order provide a certain or sure basis for philosophy Science and the ideal of progress influenced philosophy is another manner Although Renaissance scientists did not deny that the nature of the world had a divine origin they were primarily interested in the qualitatively determinable immanent structure of the world and its dynamic processes 6 Renaissance scientists emphasized the use of mathematics in their Investigation of the nature One of the crucial aspects of Descartes philosophy is his focus upon a process that is scientific and mathematical Descartes wanted to employ a method that was rigorous and therefore resulted in certain or sure knowledge Since mathematics is deductive Descartes used a deductive method What is a deductive method Let s begin with arguments There are two broad classifications of arguments Inductive and deductive We will focus on deductive arguments DEDUCTIVE ARGUMENTS An argument is a relationship between statements in which some serve as or provide reasons or evidence called premises for the truth of another statement the conclusion A deductive argument is one in which the truth of the conclusion is included in the premises There are several kinds or types of deductive arguments Below is a classic deductive argument thatl have reformulated All human beings are mortal Socrates is a human being Therefore Socrates is mortal In the above argument the word mortal means of course will eventually die The conclusion that Socrates is moral will eventually die is implicitly included in the premises If all human beings will eventually die and Socrates is a human being of course he will also die Note also the concept of a human being includes within it the concept of mortality since all human beings by definition are mortal One of the most striking examples of Descartes use of the deduction occurs in his ontological argument Archetypes of Wisdom page 264 265 For Descartes the concept of God is qualitatively different from all other concepts God is supreme perfection according to Descartes The concept of supreme perfection is not only included in the concept of God but is in some sense the same as the concept of God The concepts of God as supreme perfection includes within it the idea that God is not lacking in any supreme perfection Since according to Descartes existence is a supreme perfection God cannot lack existence Therefore God exists Next we will turn to some other features of Descartes philosophy THE PROBLEM OF AUTHORITY Throughout the chapter Soccio comments on the manner in Which Descartes rejects authority on certain matters and rejects aspects of authority in particular senses Students should be very familiar with these comments THE FATHER OF MODERN PHILOSOPHY Soccio provides several reasons that Descartes is considered the father of modern philosophy Archetypes of Wisdom pages 248 249 Students should be very familiar with these reasons Included are the senses in which Descartes rejected the Scholastic model of philosophy and science RATIONALISM One of the most important distinctions in modern philosophy is that between rationalism and empiricism The rationalists in this context refer to the early modern philosophers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the so called continental philosophers Descartes 15961650 Spinoza 16321677 and Leibniz 16461716 The empiricists of this era with whom we will be concerned in the next lesson are the British Empiricists Locke 16321704 Berkeley 1685 1753 and Hume 17111776 Since the distinction between rationalism and empiricism is one of the most important in modern philosophy students should be very familiar with the tenets or the central features of each theory Students should be very familiar with Soccio s comments in the section entitled Rationalism Archetypes of Wisdom page 249252 Soccio provides the following initial summary definition of rationalism Rationalism is an epistemological position in which reason is said to be the primary source of all knowledge superior to sense evidence Rationalists argue that only reason can distinguish reality from illusion and give meaning to experience Archetypes of Wisdom page 249 Emphasis in the original In the above initial summary definition we see several important factors First rationalism is an epistemological position In other words it is a theory of knowledge or a theory of what constitutes true or certain knowledge and the manner in which we have or attain it Second we see an emphasis upon reason Reason as Soccio points out in this initial summary definition is the source of all knowledge But as we will see below reason actually functions or works with innate or a priori ideas Reason importantly for the rationalists is superior to sense evidence or information from the senses Further only reason can distinguish reality from illusion and give meaning to experience Rationalists such as Descartes then reiect sense experience or that which we experience through the senses as the origin of knowledge Soccio s initial summary definition of rationalism provides a good starting place to help us understand rationalism but there is more to the concept There are several crucial features of the concept of rationalism Students should be very familiar with the following fundamental features of rationalism 1 INNATE OR A PRIORI IDEAS 3 USE OF REASON 4 DEDUCTIVE METHOD 5 COHERENCE THEORY OF TRUTH According to rationalism there is a very important sense in which innate or a priori ideas constitute the origin of knowledge within human beings Soccio discusses the rationalist theory of the nature and characteristics of innate or a priori ideas Archetypes of Wisdom page 249 through 255 Students should be very familiar with Soccio s comments In A History of Philosophy Modern Philosophy From Descartes to Leibniz Frederick Copleston provides the following helpful comments on innate or a priori ideas Philosophers such as Descartes and Leibniz accepted the idea of innate or a priori truths They did not think of course that a newly born infant perceives certain truths from the moment when it comes into the world Rather did they think that certain truths are virtually innate in the sense that experience provides no more than the occasion on which the mind by its own light perceives their truth These truths are not inductive generalizations from experience and their truth stands in need of no empirical confirmation It may be that I perceive the truth of a self evidence principle only on the occasion of experience but its truth does not depend on experience7 So again for continental rationalists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries such as Descartes the fundamental source of knowledge for the human being is most immediately the innate or a priori ideas with which that human being is born Experience more specifically that which we see hear touch or othenNise perceive through the senses provides merely the occasion on which we recognize or become aware of the ideas or the truths that are innate Innate or a priori ideas are the fundamental truths with which reason works What then is the role of reason The use of reason and the deductive method are central to rationalists such as Descartes Again Copleston provides some helpful comments He writes But a belief in self evident principles is not sufficient by itself to characterize the continental metaphysicians of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries The point which characterizes Descartes Spinoza and Leibniz is rather their ideal of deducing from such principles a system of truths which would give information about reality about the world Their ideal was the ideal of a deductive system of truths analogous to a mathematical system but at the same time capable of increasing our factual information3 In the above quote Copleston is arguing that for rationalists such as Descartes the theory of innate or a priori ideas alone does not adequately capture the nature of that rationalism Instead the rationalists of this era first relied upon innate or a priori truths as the source of knowledge within human beings They argued then that through the use of reason by a deductive method we could deduce from those a priori or innate ideas factual information about the world A coherence theory of truth is also a crucial feature or a central tenet of the rationalism of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries Students should be very familiar with Soccio s discussion of the coherence theory of truth Archetypes of Wisdom page 249250 METHODIC DOUBT AND THE STANDARD OF TRUTH The discussion of Descartes methodic doubt and his standard of truth are very important Please see Soccio discussion in Archetypes of Wisdom pages 255 261 Why does he use methodic doubt At one point Soccio tells us that methodic doubt is a form of skepticism What is skepticism In what sense is methodic doubt a form of skepticism What standard of truth does Descartes use THE DREAM ARGUMENT AND THE EVIL GENIUS ARGUMENT In the section of the text entitled Maybe It s All a Dream Soccio provides an excerpt from Descartes Dream Argument Archetypes of Wisdom page 257 258 This is an extremely important argument in Descartes philosophy Students should be very familiar With the argument and With Soccio s comments about it Soccio provides an excerpt from Descartes Evil Genius Argument in the section of the text entitled The Evil Genius Archetypes of Wisdom page 258 259 This argument is also extremely important in Descartes philosophy Students should be very familiar With the argument Students should also be very familiar with Soccio s comments that begin in this section of the text and continue in the subsequent section THE COGITO Descartes cogito is also extremely important The Cogito as Soccio indicates is a reference to Descartes absolutely pivotal argument Cogito ergo sum think therefore I am Students should be very familiar with the argument and Soccio s comments DESCARTES PROOFS FOR THE EXISTENCE OF GOD The section of the text entitled The lnnate Idea of God is a beginning account of Descartes arguments for the existence of God Please be sure to review the reasons that Descartes cannot use Aquinas arguments for the existence of God The above identified portion of the text includes several of Descartes arguments for the existence of God The subsection entitled The Perfect Idea of Perfection includes several related arguments Please note that for Descartes the idea of supreme perfection is innate Therefore according to Descartes the idea of God is also innate or a priori Soccio also addresses Descartes ontological argument Be sure to note the definition of an ontological argument Review Anselm s ontological argument then focus upon Descartes ontological argument and Soccio comments Descartes ontological argument is extremely important One reason that is so important is that the conclusion Descartes reaches in the argument provides him with the basis for concluding that the external world or corporeal things exist Meditation IV excerpted in Archetypes of Wisdom page 265 266 Students should be very familiar with Descartes and Soccio s related remarks in the section of the text entitled Reconstructing the World Archetypes of Wisdom page 265 266 THE MINDBODY PROBLEM We first get a glimpse of the mind body problem when we become familiar with Descartes dualism In the excerpt from the Meditations Descartes makes the following claims On the one side I have a clear and distinct idea of myself inasmuch as I am only a thinking and unextended thing and as on the other I possess a distinct idea of body inasmuch as it is only an extended and unthinking thing it is this I that is to say my soul by which I am what I am is entirely and absolutely distinct from my body and can exist without it Meditation VI reprinted in Archetypes of Wisdom page 265 There are several important things to note in the above quoted excerpt First when Descartes writes that I am only a thinking and unextended thing he identifies himself solely with who he is as a thinking thing which he construes as the soul Stated differently mind or soul is what makes him essentially who he is The distinction between that which is unextended and that which is extended is the following Extended things are spatial and therefore occupy space Unextended things are not spatial and therefore do not occupy space So Descartes argues that that he essentially is a non spatial thinking thing or a soul second on the other hand he has a body The body is extended or occupies space The body is unthinking So the mind or the soul is the thinking thing that does not occupy space and it is essentially who he is On the other hand the body is an unthinking thing it occupies space and it is not essentially who he is Third the mind or soul is entirely and absolutely distinct from the body As a result he concludes that the soul can exist without the body Soccio points out that Descartes dualism Cartesian dualism is the Conviction that human beings are a mysterious union of mind soul and body of incorporeal substance and corporeal substance with each realm operating according to separate laws The mind follows the laws of reason but otherwise is free The body is governed by the laws of physics and falls under the rule of cause and effect The human body is no freer than any other material thing The soul is somehow dispersed to all parts of the body but thinking enters the brain through the pineal gland Archetypes of Wisdom page 267 Let s look at that last sentence again The soul is somehow dispersed to all parts of the body but thinking enters the brain through the pineal gland The relationship between mind and body is the central feature at the mindbody problem that arises from Descartes theory Soccio writes Dualism generates one of the most tenacious timeless and timely questions What is the relationship of the mind to the body Archetypes of Wisdom page 267 The problem is that it the mind and the body are entirely and absoluter distinct then what is the relationship between the mind and the body How can or do they Interact PRINT THIS AMERICAN PRAGMATISM PEIRCE AND JAMES LESSON NINE STUDY GUIDE In Lesson Nine we are studying the pragmatism of Charles Sanders Peirce and William James 80 the broad questions we will ask include the following What are some of the central features of their respective philosophical theories How did James build upon the work of Peirce In what senses are their theories similar How does James philosophy diverge from that of Peirce One of the significant issues is the manner in which social political cultural and scientific issues and theories shaped the theories developed by Peirce and James The role of evolutionary theory was particularly important 80 one of the most pivotal issues is the manner in which evolutionary theory shaped the work of Peirce and James A final question is the manner in which pragmatism could be utilized to address contemporary global concerns GOALS OF THE LESSON One goal of the lesson is for students to demonstrate the ability to recall and describe the defining characteristics of key concepts and arguments in the teXt readings A second goal is for students to demonstrate the ability to analyze and evaluate philosophical concepts or arguments presented in the texts The third goal is for students to demonstrate the ability to analyze and evaluate the manner in philosophical concepts or arguments can be compared contrasted or resurface in new forms among philosophers and between historical eras The final goal is the central goal of each lesson It is for students to achieve the learning outcomes relevant to the lesson REMINDER When you are preparing a lesson keep in mind that you are also at the same time preparing for the PHIL 212 Assessment that students will take near the conclusion of the semester The following is a list of some of the concepts and names with which you should be familiar Pragmaticism pragmatism pragmatic method true ideas false ideas advocate philosophical creed tenderminded toughminded psychic violence forced options pragmaticist theory of truth pragmatic theory of truth determinism indeterminism the dilemma of determinism maximize satisfactions altruistic utilitarianism the heroic life pragmatic religion the healthymindedquot the morbidmindedquot antiintellectual subjectivistic selffulfilling prophecy pragmatic paradox Let s turn to some of the issues and do so from the perspective of the Learning Outcomes for the course Learning Outcome Three The successful student will be able to Evaluate the relationship of philosophical ideas to the art literature political and economic structure social hierarchy and the values of their respective societies AND Learning Outcome Two The successful student will be able to Discuss how differing foundations of knowledge from various cultures lead to different understandings of science natural order religion the Self and use of technological power SOCIAL POLITICAL ECONOMIC CULTURAL AND SCIENTIFIC ISSUES The last half of the nineteenth century was an era that continued to be shaped by the social political and economic issues that were interwoven with the industrial revolution As we saw in the lesson on Philosophical Marxism Karl Marx developed a distinctive analysis of this complex situation In the United States the last half of the nineteenth century was also an era colored by many significant problems During this period there was a continuous struggle over immigration to the United States and in the relationships between new immigrants and longer term Americans The struggle between Native Americans and others was an ongoing problem The battle over race issues as it shaped and was shaped by economic and political issues was not only evident in the Civil War but throughout the remainder of the second half of the nineteenth century and beyond The last half of the nineteenth century was also shaped for a very significant battle over women s rights In the late nineteen century there was a period of severe economic depression An often deadly struggle between labor and management plagued this period in American history But as Soccio reports the last half of the nineteenth century was also an era of bold action expansion great confidence in science and a belief in continuous progress Archetypes of Wisdom page 423 Evolutionary theory was particularly influential THE INFLUENCE OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORY The last half of the nineteenth century was a period of great confidence in science and Darwin s theory of evolution played a very significant role As Soccio reports People believed in continuous progress in uenced in part by a social interpretation of Darwin s theory of evolution that promised never ending growth and improvement Archetypes of Wisdom page 423 In order to understand the social interpretation of Darwin s theory let s begin with a thumb nail sketch of Darwin s theory of evolution Darwin as you know hypothesized that through a process of natural selection species evolve In natural selection the members of a species that have the requisite constitution not only survive while others without that constitution do not but they reproduce Their progeny or their children then have those characteristics that enabled their parents to survive The process then continues in the case of this generation again those who are the most fit survive and reproduce In the case of human beings for example it is often argued that those who could see the best run the fastest had the most intelligence had bodies that were best suited for reproduction and so forth survived and had children There are several important issues One issue is that those who are the fittest are those who survive The second important issue is that the process of evolution continues The social interpretation of Darwin s theory usually includes at least two features In the theory that is typically described as Social Darwinism the emphasis is upon the survival of the fittest in a society Social Darwinism is often used to argue against social responsibilities to aid to support or to even have empathy with those who are the most disadvantaged in a society Social Darwinism in this sense is evident in Malthusian principles However in James theory we see a positive moral interpretation of Social Darwinism According to James those who fight for the good and against evil those who engage in the heroic life are the healthiest and the happiest Archetypes of Wisdom pages 440 441 The implication is that it is this group that constitutes those who are the most fit in the society There is a second sense in which Darwin s theory is given a social interpretation In this case the view that evolution continues becomes one in which society continues to progress Again we see that this idea is central to James theory but it is not a feature of Peirce s philosophy James once again provides a positive moral interpretation The good for James is to maximize satisfactions to minimize frustrations and therefore to increase happiness and the prevalence of the good In the good society not only have satisfactions been maximized and frustrations minimized but the world s stock of goodness and resulting happiness have increased Archetypes of Wisdom page 440 In Darwin s theory the survival of the fittest and evolution are intimately related In the social interpretation of Darwin s theory they are also inter woven In the case of James we see that social progress is achieved through not only those who have a heroic life but through other push and pull give and take processes Archetypes of Wisdom page 440 FUNCTION INSTRUMENTAL VALUE PRACICAL CONSEQUENCES The idea of natural selection is a central tenant of Darwin s theory The perspective of an evolutionary biologist provides an approach for understanding this feature of Darwin s theory An evolutionary biologist would ask the following questions in regard to eye sight Why did eye sight develop More specifically she would ask What was the purpose or function of eye sight What was the instrumental value or what is the value of eye sight as an instrument What were the practical consequences of gaining eye sight It is evident that the above feature of evolutionary theory had a significant in uence on the work Peirce and James Although the philosophical theories developed by Peirce and James differ in several respects both focus upon practical consequences Both ask the questions What is it for What does it do What is its function or instrumental value What are the practical consequences Learning Outcome Two The successful student will be able to Discuss how differing foundations of knowledge from various cultures lead to different understandings of science natural order religion the Self and use of technological power CHARLES SANDERS PEIRCE What are the practical consequences Peirce s theory of meaning relies upon an answer to this question According to Peirce the meaning of a word or an idea is determined by the context and specifically the practical consequences Whether for example we construe something as hard or soft depends upon testing it to determine whether it is actually hard or soft So we must always look at the actual context Further meaningful ideas always make a practical difference Archetypes of Wisdom page 440 Stated differently they are for something they do something they have some actual function or value as an instrument to achieve something Students should be very familiar with Peirce s theory the manner in which is shares similarities with James theory and differs from James theory WILLIAM JAMES Although William James developed an empirically based philosophy he was critical Of British Empiricism Archetypes of Wisdom page 432 He was also critical of Rationalism with their context less universal vision of truth The empiricist thrust is evident in James method He asks What s it for What is its purpose or function What is its instrumental value or is value as an instrument to achieve something else What is its cash value These are James questions But as Soccio indicates James ultimate answer is moral Soccio write James went beyond Peirce s intentions and used pragmatism to present a moral theory and to make a case for religious belief Archetypes of Wisdom page 429 430 James ultimately asked Does this make me feel at home in the universe Does this ensure not only my happiness and survival but that of others Does this increase the stock or the prevalence and depth of good in the world Pragmatic Method and Philosophy James s pragmatic method and his theory of truth are two of the most pivotal features of his philosophy In the section of the teXt with the above title Pragmatic Method and Philosophy there are four particularly important issues with which students should be familiar The first is what James called the cash value of statements Archetypes of Wisdom page 430 Please note that his method focuses upon efforts to determine the cash value of statements ideas or theories The instrumental value or truth of an idea is intimately related to the concept of the cash value of an idea Soccio s comments at the bottom of page 4356 and the top of page 436 illuminate what James means by instrumental truth The second important feature of the method is the inspection of competing ideas in a dispute in order to determine whether this is a practical difference if one follows one idea in opposition to the other Third be sure to note the distinction between true and false ideas Finally please note the remarks about James method Why is it important that this is a method The TenderMinded and The ToughMinded This is a particularly important section of the text We see here the distinctions he draws between the two types of mental make up This discussion also points to some elements of his critique of both empiricism and rationalism along with the difficulties with some philosophy and the problems we may undergo if adopt certain kinds of philosophy Truth Happens to an Idea In this section of the teXt we have an account of James sustained criticism of the rationalist s model oftruth So this is another very important section Here we see that James argues that there is no disinterested truth Stated differently truth is not context free Truth is not universal according to James Nothing is true for all creatures at all times everywhere Think about the reasons he claims that The most violent revolutions in an individual s beliefs leave most of the old order standing Excerpt from Pragmatism quoted in Archetypes of Wisdom page 435 The Dilemma of Determinism A pivotal feature of James philosophy is his position on determinism and indeterminism There are several reasons James rejects determinism One of the issues is that determinism relies upon the laws of cause and effect Like Hume James argues that cause and effect have not been conclusively demonstrated But there are additional reasons he rejects determinism Be sure to note the actual dilemma he describes This provides a central reason that he rejects determinism and accepts indeterminism or freedom of the Will Ultimately James argues that determinism is incompatible with our spiritual need for freedom Archetypes of Wisdom page 438 439 According to James neither determinism nor freedom of the will can be proven So the test or whether we accept one or the other is determined by the practical consequences of each He argues that since the belief in free will better suits his need for moral rationality or the possibility for a rational basis for concluding that I ought to do something or ought not to do something then the belief in free will is the superior belief Morality and the Good Students should be very familiar with the discussion in the section I have commented on this section in some of the preceding areas of this study guide James concept of the good is essential for understanding his moral theory his views on religion and his concept of social progress Pragmatic Religion James views of religion and religious eXperience along with his concept of the heroic life are central to his philosophy So students should be very familiar with the comments in this section of the teXt One of the most significant features of James views on these issues is that his approach of course is pragmatic Therefore he is asking the same kinds of questions that he asks in his other philosophical theories What is the cash value What are the practical consequences What is the function or what is this for One particularly interesting feature of James philosophical perspective on religion is the contrast he draws between those who are healthy minded and those who are morbid minded Why does he think that the morbid minded person has a clearer perspective PRINT THIS SCIENCE FAITH AND THE ADVENT OF MODERN PHILOSOPHY LESSON ONE STUDY GUIDE In Unit One our first task is an introduction to the nature questions and branches of philosophy Our focus in this unit is the first learning outcome of the course which is the following The successful student will be able to explain the Ancient and Medieval Western Traditions that give rise to the Modern period and to the Scientific Revolution In this lesson we are exploring some of philosophical issues connected with scientific revolution and the advent or the coming and arrival of modern philosophy The pivotal scientific advance that we are considering is the Copernican Revolution We are also very briefly examining The Reformation GOALS OF THE LESSON One goal of the lesson is for students to demonstrate the ability to recall and describe the de ning characteristics of key concepts and arguments in the text readings A second goal is for students to demonstrate the ability to analyze and evaluate philosophical concepts or arguments presented in the texts The third goal is for students to demonstrate the ability to analyze and evaluate the manner in philosophical concepts or arguments can be compared contrasted or resurface in new forms among philosophers and between historical eras The nal goal is the central goal of each lesson It is for students to achieve the learning outcomes relevant to the lesson The following is a list of some of the concepts and names with which students should be familiar Metaphysics Ontology Cosmology Epistemology Ethics Logic Social and Political Philosophy Aesthetics The medieval worldview feudalism The Enlightenment The Age of Reason Sir Francis Bacon Novum Organon The Reformation Martin Luther the NinetyFive Theses Copernicus The Copernican Revolution the School of Chartres the modern worldview the geocentric worldview Ptolemy Hermes Trismegistus Ordo Mundi humanism NOTE ABOUT CITATIONS IN THIS STUDY GUIDE This study guide includes two formats for citations Citations from the course texts are provided within the body of the study guide rather than being presented as footnotes This format allows students to more easily locate the relevant material in the texts without the need to refer to the footnote citations at the conclusion of the study guide Citations from other sources are presented as footnotes in the body of the study guide The references are then presented at the conclusion of the study guide This method reduces the number of lengthy references within the body of the study guide PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES The word philosophy derives from the Greek philo sophia which means love of wisdom So philosophy literally means love of wisdom Soccio also takes another approach when he lists the questions that are often considered in philosophy Mitchell s emphasis is upon the value that philosophy can have for navigating through life s difficulties and the dangers it can pose when it is misused Soccio and Mitchell both provide conceptions of the branches of philosophy with which students should be familiar Learning Outcome 2 The successful student will be able to Discuss how differing foundations of knowledge from various cultures lead to different understandings of science natural order religion the Self and use of technological power Let s begin by thinking about this learning outcome and what it means First what are foundations of knowledge They are ultimately based either in a position on metaphysics or ontology In this course we will begin to define Metaphysics as the study or the view that addresses fundamental questions about reality or what is most real Mitchell defines Ontology as the study of being Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 1 Mitchell includes ontology within metaphysics As Soccio tells us Epistemology is the branch of philosophy that asks questions about knowledge its nature and origins and whether or not it is even possible Archetypes of Wisdom page 5 Cosmology comes from the Greek word Kosmos which means world universe or orderly structure Archetypes of Wisdom page 563 So we are thinking about the metaphysical or ontological bases of knowledge and the manner in which they lead to different concepts of cosmic order and epistemology Soccio discusses several other branches of philosophy Archetypes of Wisdom pages 5 and 6 Student should be very familiar with them Learning Outcome One The successful student will be able to Explain the ancient and medieval Western Traditions that give rise to the Modern period and to the Scientific Revolution AND Learning Outcome Two The successful student will be able to Discuss how differing foundations of knowledge from various cultures lead to different understandings of science natural order religion the Self and use of technological power AND Learning Outcome Four The successful student will be able to Assess how crosscultural interactions lead to diffusion of ideas and influence intellectual and cultural traditions In the brief chapter entitled Overview of Modern Themesquot Soccio provides a lengthy characterization of the Medieval world view along with the manner in which the Reformation and the Copernican Revolution were factors that lead to the Enlightenment and therefore to the advent of Modern Philosophy In order to understand Soccio s arguments in this chapter and in order to better understand Keita s arguments about scientific progress during the Renaissance it is necessary to begin with some background history of philosophy Many of the remarks in this Study Guide are based upon the following two texts Dawn of Modern Science and Philosophy in the Middle Ages The Christian Islamic and Jewish Traditions1 We will begin with a brief overview of some of the features of Ancient Greek philosophy ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPY Ancient Greek philosophy is sometimes divided into two groups of philosophers The first group is the PreSocratic philosophers The Pre Socratics philosophers are those Western or Greek philosophers before Socrates Thales the first Pre Socratic philosopher lived from 624 545 BCBCE Socrates lived from 470 399 BCBCE The second group of Ancient Greek philosophers is the Classical Greek philosophers Classical Greek philosophy begins with Socrates 470 399 BCBCE and ends with the Roman Empire Stoics in approximately the second century ADCE PRESOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY The Pre Socratic philosophers diverged from thinkers in near eastern civilizations such as the Babylonians and the Egyptians and from the earlier Greek thinkers The divergence occurred along three dimensions First both earlier Greek thinkers such as Homer and the Pre Socratics struggled with but ultimately accepted the views that there are unseen causes of events and that there is a distinction between appearances and reality Archetypes of Wisdom page 17 Homer and other early Greek thinkers focused upon the roles of the gods as instrumental in that which we observe However the Pre Socratics relied upon naturalistic thinking rather than supernatural thinking to explain features of the world Stated differently the Pre Socratics moved away from mythic and religious thinking of their predecessors and focused instead upon phenomena of this world Second the Pre Socratics engaged in the practices of rational criticism and debate Third while Homer and other early Greek thinkers focused upon the capricious unpredictable acts of the gods to account for particular events the Pre Socratics provided systematic universal definitions These three tenets of early philosophy science evident among the Pre Socratics continue to be central to scienti c practice in the modern era CLASSICAL GREEK PHILOSOPHY Classical Greek philosophy begins with Socrates and ends with the Roman Empire Stoics The Classical Greek philosophers continued to struggle with and over a possible distinction between appearances and reality and over whether events have unseen causes The Classical Greeks continued the tradition of rational criticism and debate and many worked toward systematic universal definitions Yet Classical Greek philosophy differed from Pre Socratic philosophy The most essential distinction is that while the Pre Socratics focused upon the natural world or specifically upon cosmology or ontology the Classical Greeks also emphasized the study of human beings and that which constitutes excellence for the human being Stated differently the Classical Greeks added a focus upon human behavior and that which is good or right for human beings A second feature of Classical Greek philosophy is the emphasis on humanism Stated differently they believed that it was human beings not the gods that could improve conditions for human beings As Soccio points out in an earlier chapter the classical Greek mind was predominately secular Archetypes of Wisdom page 214 In other words Classical Greek thinking was primarily focused upon concerns with this world and not with the sacred or the religious The Classical Greek philosophers typically held that through the use of human reason we are capable of distinguishing truth and error and between reality and illusion Archetypes of Wisdom page 217 There are several important threads or themes that run from ancient Greek philosophy through medieval philosophy and on to modern science and philosophy An additional thread or theme is natural law ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHY AND NATURAL LAW P hagoras 6th Century BC Pythagoras was a Pre Socratic philosopher who lived in the 6 1 century BC It was Pythagoras who introduced the vision of natural law2 The Pre Socratic philosophers before Pythagoras had conceived of the universe chie y in terms of matter or the material For example Thales believed that water was the basic or primordial principle of the universe while Anaximenes believed that it was air Pythagoras and his followers the Pythagoreans focused upon form rather than matter As Thomas Goldstein explains in Dawn of Modern Science Pythagoras and his followers the Pythagoreans discovered that matter presents itself under infinitely structured conditions and develops according to definite patterns or laws an ultimately mathematical phenomenon Goldstein explains Form in its stationary aspects is a phenomenon that is measurable in geometric terms and the motion or evolution of matter occurs in relationships that can be measured in algebraic terms3 The Pythagoreans also discovered that musical notes differ in height according to basic mathematical relationships They discovered that music therefore is another expression of the inherent order that speaks to us through the vocabulary of mathematics4 And mathematical relationships point to fundamental laws that underlie the multitude of things that we can observe 5 The Pythagoreans ultimately recognized the inherent order and harmony of the universe Plato c 427348 BC Plato a Classical Greek philosopher adapted the work of several Pre Socratic philosophers From the Pythagoreans he adapted the focus upon an inherent order in the universe the harmony of the universe and the ideal of harmony and order in the state and in the soul In the Timaeus Plato introduces the concept of the Demiurge The Demiurge is an initial rational cause that introduces order into the disorder6 As such the Demiurge is a creative principle However Plato does not argue that the Demiurge creates out of nothing nor does he construe the Demiurge as God The most central view that he adapted from the Pythagoreans was the focus upon Form Aristotle 384322 BC Aristotle another Classical Greek philosopher believed that reality consists of the natural world There is no supernatural world However the natural laws or the laws of nature structure the universe As Soccio remarks in an earlier chapter Aristotle believed that The universe is ordered in that everything in it follows consistent and discoverable laws of nature everything can be understood in terms of those fundamental laws Archetypes of Wisdom page 156 Human beings although special are part of the natural order and behave according to fixed laws and principles Archetypes of Wisdom page 156 emphasis in the original Aristotle argued that the laws of nature govern the universe Human beings as part of the universe as also governed by the laws of nature Aristotle also argues for the concept of the Unmoved Mover as the first cause of the universe The Unmoved Mover in Aristotle s theory is not a God or a deity KEITA ON EARLY GREEK NATURAL PHILOSOPHY In The African Philosophical Tradition Lancinay Keita argues that in the second century AD the world was weary of Greek dialectics which seemed to lead to no certain results Platonists Stoics Epicureans could only repeat the theories of their various schools without making any further advances Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 40 Keita is making two points in the above quoted excerpt First we know that beginning with the Pre Socratics the emphasis was upon rational criticism and debate Each subsequent philosopher developed a critique of the work of his predecessors This dialectic according to Keita and others did not lead to results that were certain or sure 5600 nd Keita argues that one of the difficulties with ancient Greek natural philosophy was that although they often relied upon or at least used observations of the natural world empirical observations they did not engage in experimental testing to confirm their theories Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 42 Consequently once again their conclusions did not result in certain knowledge The additional but absolutely crucial difficulty according to Keita is the following Scientific progress through empirical observations and testing actually explain or can provide certain results only within a holistic conception 0f the universe Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 40 The hOIlSth metaphysicalcosmological theory of the universe as Keita suggests must include the source of motion or that of source of energy and change in the universe Keita argues that in their natural philosophy the ancient Greeks focused exclusively upon observation but they did not engage in experimentation in order to verify their hypotheses or theories about the natural world We know that the Ancient Greeks sought universal definitions or concepts We also know that they held some holistic concepts such as the laws of nature or natural laws and the mathematical name of the universe But one Of Keita s central claims is that the ancient Greeks omitted a second related approach that was necessary in order to make progress in science It is that they did not adopt the ancient EgyptianAfrican concept of a holistic universe guided by one deity or god Keita argues that it was not until the Renaissance when this holism was again part of science along with the experimental method that progress was made and the scientific revolution developed We will brie y trace these issues through the Middle Ages THE MIDDLE AGES The description of the period in history known as the Middle Ages or as the Medieval Era is somewhat controversial7 The reason is that such descriptions suggest that this period between the ancient and the modern worlds was one that was simply the intervening era Stated differently this was not a very signi cant cultural social political scientific or philosophical period in history However many philosophers of history and historians of science argue that during this period many significant contributions were made to philosophy and science3 In some cases the contributions could be described as positive In other cases the contributions were those in which significant negative critiques of the dominant views in the Medieval period provided the fuel for subsequent advances in science and philosophy The argument here is that the contributions of the lVIiddle Ages were both positive and negative Let s take a brief look at some of the factors that contributed to the rise of the Middle Ages and some of the features of that period As you know the Roman Empire was vast The fall of the Roman Empire was a long process There were undoubtedly many factors that contributed to the fall One was probably the varying talents and virtues of the string of emperors Another was the on going struggles with so called barbarians Those struggles were two fold On the one hand people that were described as barbarians continued to pour into Roman cities Their languages and customs along with the social and political institutions to which they were accustomed differed from those of Roman citizens Some historians and social commentators have argued that the in ux of barbarians resulted in such significant social and political disruptions that the consequence was the fall of the Roman Empire Others focus upon the on going military con icts with various nomadic groups or barbarians that eventually overran the Empire When the Roman Empire fell a way of life ended There was a collapse of the social political and economic infrastructure as well as Roman cultural life that had been heavily in uenced by Greek culture First during this period there was a suppression of the Greek tradition of free inquiry in the former Roman Empire For example Emperor Justinian closed the School of Athens in 529 AD9 Greek scholars took the Greek philosophical teth and ed to Eastern cities such as Antioch and Alexandria where they eventually came under Islamic control10 Living conditions in the former Roman Empire changed in an irreparable manner Life could be generally characterized as a harsh frontier existenceM In the Dawn of Modern Science author Thomas Goldstein speculates about the atmosphere and the responses He writes The end of Roman civilization in the West all the more crushing because it occurred in a series of long drawn out and repeated barbaric invasions like the outbreaks of a volcano that refuses to subside would have left a mood of collective despair an orgy of bleak and impenetrable hopelessness had it not been for the inspiration of Christianity12 It is likely that the collapse of the social political and economic infrastructure as well as Greek in uenced Roman culture did lead to collective despair and hopelessness In the West some argued that Christianity offered hope AUGUSTINE AND AQUINAS AU relius Augustine 354 430 ADCE was one of the most prominent theologians and philosophers in the West during the Middle Ages In the early stages of the collapse of the Roman Empire Augustine and some others believed that Christianity not only offered a way to turn away from the hardships of earthly existence but it required turning away from this world Augustine believed that it was necessary to turn inward According to Augustine the turn inward is where one can find the road to God13 Augustine also argued that Christianity required turning away from any scientific pursuits According to Augustine it was not necessary for Christians to probe into the nature of things Further Christians need not be concerned about the force or number of elements the motion of the heavenly bodies the species and the nature of animals plants stones or mountains or about distances or coming storms14 He argued instead that It is enough for the Christian to believe that the only cause of all created things whether heavenly or earthly is the goodness of the Creator the one true God15 Augustine denied that scientific knowledge was necessary for Christians Instead it was sufficient for them to believe that God is the Creator Some have argued that Augustine s view of the universe was not large enough to hold nature and God science and faith1 While the Classical mind was predominately secular Medieval thinkers were chie y focused upon theological issues Stated differently Medieval philosophers who were typically priests or clergy were focused upon theology or talking about and studying GOd Archetypes of Wisdom page 214 Despite Augustine s beliefs about the necessity of an inward turn and his rejection of the value of scienti c knowledge he was not opposed to the use of reasoning Instead Augustine and other Medieval philosophers attempted to reconcile faith and the use of reason Soccio notes that for Augustine reason by itself is powerless and even perverse Archetypes of Wisdom page 218 Faith according to Augustine makes understanding possible and is a necessary condition for productive philosophical inquiry Archetypes of Wisdom page 218 In order words for Augustine and for other Medieval philosophers faith or belief in God has the central role Thomas Aquinas 1225 1274 ADCE was another very important Western Medieval philosopher and theologian Many of his theories differed from those of Augustine One reason was that Aquinas and others at the University of Paris had gained access to some of Aristotle s work that had been unavailable for several centuries Some of Aristotle s teth were eventually 11 translated by Arabic speaking Islamic philosopher theologians It was subsequently translated from Arabic into Latin when Latin scholars gained access to the teth in former Islamic countries such as Spain and in Alexandra Egypt a largely Islamic city One significant reason that Aquinas exposure to some of Aristotle s work was so significant was that in Aquinas proofs for the eXistence of God that he relies heavily upon Aristotle s naturalism Aquinas like Aristotle begins with his observations of the natural world and uses these observations to argue that God eXists Although Aristotle s naturalism is evident in Aquinas proofs for the eXistence of God faith in God dominates Aquinas approach to the proofs and to the remainder of his vast body of philosophical and theology work Aquinas s God centered view also shapes his conception of natural law In Aquinas view the eternal law of God is manifested in human beings as God s natural law And it is natural law that provides the basis for all that we can construe as moral conduct17 The views of Augustine and Aquinas could certainly be construed as conservative when they are compared with another view during the twelfth century This collective conservative view shaped much of the Medieval thought and eventually became the dominant View18 It is this worldview that Soccio characterizes as the Medieval worldview There was a period during which the conservative view of religion science and philosophy was in competition with a more liberal position The seat of the more liberal view was the former cathedral school the School of Chartres in France The Twelfth Centum School of Chartres in France During much of the Middle Ages the work of Plato was only available to the Christian West through the Christianized interpretation of Plato that is Neo Platonism The faculty at Chartres however gained access to translations of Plato s work as well as that of some of the Pre Socratics specifically that of the Pythagoreans At Chartres William of Conches reinterpreted Plato s concept of the Demiurge as identical with the Christian concept of God19 As a result of the reintroduction of Plato and the Pythagorean theories along with the reinterpretation of some of Plato s work the fundamental or basic vision of the ordered structure of the universe was reintroduced to the west20 0rdo Mundi universal unity can be broadly construed as the hallmark of Medieval thought However it was the motto and pivotal belief of the faculty at Chartres Universal unity as it was entwined with their introduction of natural law to western science was the foundation of their more liberal view of Christianity and the relationship between science and religion21 In twelfth century France the position at Chartres was that the natural universe and God s world were related22 Goldstein provides the following broad characterization of their views In their vision the laws of nature the perceptions of the mind as much as the contributions of the ancient philosophers to scientific understanding were all encompassed within the divine universe and its design23 The above quoted passage is signi cant for several reasons First in contrast to the conservative view held by Christian philosophers such as Augustine the masters at the School at Chartres argued that belief in God and following the tenets of Christianity were consistent with the scientific study of the natural world and human beings Second according to the scholars at Chartres the human mind operates according to the same rational laws as nature As a result the laws of nature are susceptible to human understanding24 So the Chartres motto OI dO mundi specifically meant unity of mind and nature Third the Chartres scholars argued that the Book of Genesis could be given a naturalistic interpretation so that while God had created the world something inherent in nature continued the process of creation or evolution25 This something in nature was the natural laws given by God Human beings in their view were also subject to these natural laws Note here that creationism is compatible not only with a scientific approach but with continual creation and some form of evolution The notion that nature is an autonomous largely self regulated world was a new concept in the Middle Ages that was introduced at Chartres Another implication as the above quoted passage suggests is that not only should scientific understanding be pursued but that the focus of scientific knowledge natural law is a product of God s creation Thinkers such as those at the twelfth century School of Chartres made several positive contributions More broadly thinkers during the Middle Ages made positive and negative contributions MIDDLE AGES SOME POSITIVE CONTRIBUTIONS The work of the Pre Socratics differed from that of near eastern thinkers as well as that of the earlier Greeks The Pre Socratics left behind those mythic and religious accounts although they continued to believe that there are unseen causes of events and that appearances differ from reality The Pre Socratics differed because they used naturalistic rather than non naturalistic supernatural thinking They practiced rational criticism and debate They also sought and provided systematic universal explanations and definitions The classical Greek philosophers used the same practices but they also turned to the study of human beings During the Middle Ages thinkers sought to consolidate knowledge into a cohesive whole Augustine for example developed the first philosophy of history See Archetypes of Wisdom page 217 and Readings from the Roots of Wisdom pages 99 101 Upon his view all of history has a beginning a middle and an end that is orchestrated by God So all historical events move toward an end pre ordained by God All knowledge and understanding then fits within this God centered view During the thirteenth century the era of Thomas Aquinas the fundamental social and political movement was the unification organization and synthesis of knowledge Archetypes of Wisdom page 220 The goal was to unify consolidate organize and synthesis knowledge Stated differently they wanted all instances of knowledge to t together in a cohesive and systematic manner They were seeking a systematic universal knowledge or knowledge that was not only systematically related but true for all people at all times That which I have described as the conservative views of Augustine and Aquinas along with the more liberal view of the School at Chartres had a universal orientation to knowledge This universal orientation to knowledge or more specifically the effort to unify consolidate organize and synthesize all knowledge was a legacy that the Middle Ages left to modern science As we see modern science also seeks systematically related universal knowledge At Chartres the religious interpretation of natural law also evident in the work of Aquinas retained its religious interpretation The religious interpretation of natural law or the laws of nature was a particularly significant contribution to the advent of modern science and modern philosophy Both grew out of the Medieval idea of faith in a universal order a religious feeling for the ultimate unity of all life Although the scholars at Chartres argued that nature is an autonomous largely self regulated world they argued that human beings by their God given powers of their rational minds ought to be able to enter into the divine secrets of the universe and the natural world since both were governed by the same natural laws The belief that human beings could understand the secrets of the natural world was a legacy that the Middle Ages left to modern science and philosophy Finally at Chartres while science continued to be Godcentered there was a push toward science as a pursuit that was to be independent of philosophy Another contribution of the Middle Ages could be described as negative MIDDLE AGES SOME NEGATIVE CONTRIBUTIONS HIERACHIES Western society was characterized by feudalism Feudal societies were those in which the state usually had relatively little centralized authority The exception was that in some feudal societies the King owned all land and transferred it when he choose to do so to other top ranking members of the nobility Feudal societies were characterized by a strict hierarchical division of social classes with the nobility at the top of the hierarchy and the serfs the peasantry at the bottom The serfs were enslaved to the lord of the manor and to the land The political economy of the feudal social was local and agricultural Stated differently economic activity was focused at the level of the manor where agricultural activity took place26 Hierarchies were characteristic of medieval society in a second sense Western Philosophers Theologians during Aquinas era imposed a hierarchy of knowledge in which the highest place was held by revelation as it was interpreted by the church neXt were faith and theology philosophy came last Archetypes of Wisdom page 223 There are several implications One implication is that since the church interpreted revelations and revelations held the highest place on the hierarchy of knowledge the church ultimately determined what constituted knowledge Another implication is that since the clergy or more simply the priests determined what constituted knowledge the priests were thought to have some kind of special knowledge that allowed them to do so The further implication is that clergy determined that which constituted the good or the right Stated differently they determined ethical as well as good social and political behavior They also determined valuable spheres of inquiry The conservative worldview during the Middle Ages was not only transcendental or otherworldly but as Soccio points out not even Aquinas was free to pursue the truth wherever it led he started from the truth always ultimately supporting Christian doctrine Archetypes of Wisdom page 223 Despite Aquinas use of natural reasoning there is a definite sense in which the conservative worldview during the Middle Ages negated the value of the natural world and scientific inquiry A significant philosophical critique of this worldview was necessary in order to move toward a new and different conception of the world the universe The Reformation then the Copernican Revolution provided some of the most pivotal bases for this critique THE REFORMATION AND THE COPERNICAN REVOLUTION Theorists disagree about all of the factors that contributed to the rise of the Enlightenment One possible factor was the re conquest of Spain from the Islamic rulers and access to teth on Islamic science in Spain and other former Islamic strongholds Revitalized trade and nascent or newly developed capitalism in twelfth century France is sometimes identified as a factor In this case the issue is the following Enterprising businessmen in the late Middle Ages were sometimes in con ict with the hierarchical way of life that was feudalism The new capitalists not only wanted free markets not governed by others but they sought new markets from which to obtain goods and at which they could trade The individualism of the nascent capitalists therefore stood in contrast to the social political and economic hierarchies that generally characterized medieval society The Reformation and The Copernican Revolution are generally recognized as having pivotal roles in the movement toward the Age of Reason They provided the conceptual tools for the philosophical critique of the dominant transcendental worldview of the Middle Ages Soccio provides a brief but good discussion of both The Reformation and The Copernican Revolution Students should be very familiar with these While early capitalism challenged authority and elevated the status of the individual both the Reformation and The Copernican Revolution posed perhaps the most significant challenges to authority while at the same time they elevated the status of the individual THE ENLIGHTENMENTTHE AGE OF REASON Soccio provides some comments about the worldview during the Enlightenment Students should be very familiar with his remarks Soccio implies that the worldview during the Enlightenment was characteristically opposed to the church and was anti religious In the next lesson we turn to Descartes the first modern philosopher In that lesson we will draw several additional contrasts between Medieval views and Modern views There we will see that while not all philosophers in the early Modern period were opposed to the church and anti religious philosophy and science now as separate enterprises were typically developed either without specific reliance upon a concept of God as explanatory or without an explicit reference to God Some were developed without a concept of God As Soccio points out the then new view was one in which the universe was construed as one of regularity and ordered a universe that followed natural laws Archetypes of Wisdom page 243 This holistic view of the universe included the assumption that the universe was mechanistic and inherently mathematical Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 42 Keita argues that the neo Greeks second century Roman philosophers who had been greatly in uenced by the Greeks as well as the Renaissance thinkers were significantly in uenced by the Hermes We know that later Medieval thinkers gained access to translations of important teth in Alexandra Egypt And the translation of Hermetic writings was among them 27 As a result it is likely that the major western medieval thinkers were in uenced by The Classical African Thought of Ancient Egyptians Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 39 Again that view is that there is a unity between the material and the metaphysical worlds Empirical observation is not suf cient for genuine science True science also includes verification of hypotheses through testing Sir Francis Bacon 1561 1626 is a founder of the modern scientific method and the author of such seminal texts as Novum Organum Archetypes of Wisdom page 240 He developed a complete theory of induction in which observation and experimental verification were joined in an effort to gain knowledge of regularities in the natural world But as Keita argues empirical observation and experimentation are explanatory or only actually can explain when they are unified with the belief that motion or energy and change in the universe have an ultimate metaphysicalcosmological source Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 41 Keita 17 suggests that this ultimate metaphysicalcosmological source is one deity Without this unifying belief scientific progress is not possible Readings from the Roots of Wisdom pages 38 43 In Keita s view Sir Francis Bacon excluded this holistic position Therefore Keita is critical of the Baconian approach With the scientific revolution and the advent of modern philosophy we see a move away from the idea that the inner unity of the world the universe as centered in the sphere of other worldly ideas The worldview shifts from heaven and God to earth and mankind As Keita suggests the problem became one of the possibility of scientific progress The difficulty was the possible basis of a universal unity behind or underlying the many things we perceive in the material world PRINT THIS NATURAL AND CIVIL RIGHTS FOR WOMEN STANTON AND WOLLSTONECRAFT LESSON ELEVEN STUDY GUIDE In this lesson we are studying two seminal texts from the first wave of the women39s movement Mary Wollstonecraft s A Vindication of the Rights of Women was published in 1792 The second text is the Declaration of Sentiments As Mitchell points out Elizabeth Cady Stanton agreed to write the Declaration after the 1848 Women s Rights Convention Readings from the Floots of Wisdom page 239 While both Wollstonecraft and Stanton argue that women and men have inherent and equal rights that derive from God Stanton also argues that women and men must have equal civil rights GOALS OF THE LESSON One goal of the lesson is for students to demonstrate the ability to recall and describe the de ning characteristics of key concepts and arguments in the teXt readings A second goal is for students to demonstrate the ability to analyze and evaluate philosophical concepts or arguments presented in the texts The third goal is for students to demonstrate the ability to analyze and evaluate the manner in philosophical concepts or arguments can be compared contrasted or resurface in new forms among philosophers and between historical eras The final goal is the central goal of each lesson It is for students to achieve the learning outcomes relevant to the lesson The following is a list of some of the names and concepts with which you should be familiar Seneca Falls The Declaration of Sentiments Elizabeth Cady Stanton Mary Wollstonecraft First Phase or Wave of the Women s Movement Political philosophy social philosophy justice substantive justice distributive justice sovereignty natural rights human rights civil rights moral legitimacy oppression elective franchise disenfranchisement deontological ethical theories Learning Outcome Three The successful student will be able to Evaluate the relationship of philosophical ideas to the art literature political and economic structure social hierarchy and the values of their respective societies MARY WOLLSTONECRAFT Mary Wollstonecraft an English woman wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women during the period of the French Revolution The teXt was eventually published in 1792 Mary Wollstonecraft s A Vindication of the Rights of Women focuses upon the distinctions between women s and men s lives during her era Some comments about women s lives in England during this era may be helpful Author Ralph M Wardle provides some remarks about this era when he comments on both British statutes those laws made or enacted by a legislative body within the political community or the government and British common law the body of law derived from judicial opinions rather than from statutes enacted by a legislature or from the constitution According to Wardle a statute passed by the British parliament in 1770 declared that all women of whatever age rank profession or degree whether virgin maid or widow that shall for and after such Act impose upon seduce and betray into matrimony any of His Majesty s subjects by means of scent paints cosmetics washes arti cial teeth false hair Spanish wool iron stays hoops high heeled shoes or bolstered hips shall incur the penalty of the law now in force against witchcraft and like misdemeanours and that marriage upon conviction shall stand null and void1 As the above quote from the statute indicates if a woman used make up among other things in order to seduce or betray a man into marriage and the man learned of this then the marriage was null and void or essentially cancelled Commenting on Common Law during this era Wardle writes the common law of England ruled that whatever property a woman owned before marriage or might receive thereafter became automatically her husband s Sir William Blackstone in the chapter Of Husband and Wife in his Commentaries on the Laws of England explained the ruling by maintaining that when women became one with their husbands they lost their legal identity and he claimed that the law was designed for women s protection and bene t Dr Johnson however had a different explanation Nature has given women so much power he declared that the law has wisely given them little But whatever the reason the fact remained that English common law allowed women little real freedom and incidentally left wealthy girls a prey to unscrupulous fortune hunters seeking to settle themselves in life by means of an advantageous marriage2 According to the common law of England any property a woman owned before marriage or received after marriage became that of her husband According to Blackstone one of the most important commentators on law the reason for this law was that when a woman marries she loses her legal identity The ultimate justi cation for both the automatic transfer of property and the fact that the woman lost her legal identity was held to be two fold It was to benefit and protect the woman Next we will turn to Wollstonecraft s argument in our excerpt from A Vindication of the Rights of Women In A Vindication of the Rights of Women Mary Wollstonecraft develops two general related arguments The first is the manner in which the oppression and unjust treatment of women results in a lack of virtuous behavior justice and rationality among women Readings from the Roots of Wisdom pages 276 278 and 280 As you may know virtuous behavior is behavior that is consistently or habitually good We Will see that other philosophers make similar claims that the oppression or the unjust treatment of a group results in both internalized difficulties for individual members of the that group along with external problems for individuals and the group as a whole The second related argument that Wollstonecraft makes is that the just treatment of women would benefit women and the society as a whole In general justice is giving each his or her due or what that person deserves One concept of distributive justice as Mitchell indicates is the distribution of benefits and burdens in a society Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 264 As Mitchell suggests there are two main theories of this conception of distributive justice One conception is utilitarian In this case the focus is upon the moral outcome of actions The pivotal idea is that when the greatest happiness is achieved this constitutes the good or in this instance justice Deontological ethics is the other dominant theory Kant was the famous originator of deontological ethics As you will recall Kant emphasized the morality of intentions that underlie actions Stated differently the action is moral if the intention behind the action is itself moral Kant s focus was also upon respect for the person in virtue of the fact that a person is capable of reasoning In general deontological ethical theories have this dual emphasis upon the morality of the motive or the intention and upon respect for persons As Mitchell indicates Wollstonecraft s concept ofjustice is both deontological and that which we now identify as utilitarian Her deontological and utilitarian conceptions of justice have the same basis Natural Rights Three of Wollstonecraft s arguments will illuminate the relationship between the deontological utilitarian and natural rights components of her theory In the first argument Wollstonecraft claims that a mother should treat servants in a specific manner in order for her children to observe and feel the natural equality of man Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 277 Wollstonecraft s argument raises two questions In what sense is equality natural What is the basis of natural equality In the second argument Wollstonecraft addresses the relationship between liberty or freedom and Virtue along with the relationship between reason and liberty Wollstonecraft writes Moralists have unanimously agreed that unless Virtue be nursed by liberty it will never attain due strength and what they say of man I extend to mankind insisting that in all cases morals must be fixed on immutable principles and that the being cannot be termed rational or Virtuous who obeys any authority but that of reason Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 278 Wollstonecraft is arguing first that it is true for women as well as for men that a person cannot be Virtuous or cannot consistently act in a moral manner if that person does not have liberty or freedom Her second related claim once again is that morals must be fixed on immutable principles This means that that which is moral is based upon principles that do not and cannot change So Wollstonecraft is not a relativist The third related claim again is that that being cannot be termed rational or Virtuous who obeys any authority but that of reason Wollstonecraft is making two points here First one must rely upon reason in order to be Virtuous or rational Morality is not based upon sentiment or feelings as Hume would and did argue Instead ones ability to reason provides the basis for ones ability to act in a Virtuous manner And reason of course is the basis of any rationality Second a person cannot be either Virtuous or rational if that person must rely upon any other authority other than reason SO in summary Wollstonecraft is arguing in the above quoted passage that in order for a person to be Virtuous or rational that person must be free to rely upon the authority of reason in which we find unchanging principles for that which constitutes moral behavior and rationality Part of Wollstonecraft s point here is that if women are denied freedom then women cannot rely upon the authority of reason and therefore be either Virtuous or rational Let s turn to the related argument in which Wollstonecraft links rights and reason Wollstonecraft argues that when the rights of women are denied and as such they are treated in an unjust manner this assumes that women only have duties and that it is men only who have rights Wollstonecraft writes that in this case the man is assumed to be the sole master of his house because he is the only being who has reason the divine indefeasible earthly sovereignty breathed into man by the Master of the universe Allowing this position women have not any inherent rights to claim and by the same rule their duties vanish for rights and duties are inseparable Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 280 Wollstonecraft is making several important claims in the above quoted section of the teXt One claim she makes is that reason is indefeasible earthly sovereignty This means that reason is or provides the basis of earthly authority and that that authority cannot be undone or made void In other words women and men have reason and reason for each of us constitutes authority that is inalienable or that cannot be taken from us or given to others Second she characterizes reason as divine and as breathed into man by the Master of the universe So reason in some sense is divine and its source is the Master of the universe or God Third Wollstonecraft argues that Allowing this position women have not any inherent rights to claim Allowing what position She is claiming that if we allow that only men have reason or the ability to reason then women do not have any inherent rights to claim Again Wollstonecraft is making several points One point she is making is that reason and rights are linked Wollstonecraft is also indicating that rights are inherent or they are innate in some sense Stated differently she is claiming that these rights are what we could identify as natural rights and that they have their ultimate source in 30d3 And again these rights are indefeasible or inalienable Wollstonecraft is suggesting that the free exercise of reason is a natural right The final claim is that by the same rule their duties vanish for rights and duties are inseparable Part of Wollstonecraft s point is the following When we have a right to something for example a right to bear arms this right implies that others have a duty at minimum to not interfere with that right A right marks out a metaphorical space that others ought not to trespass The duty then at minimum is not to trespass the boundary of that space Wollstonecraft s explicit or stated argument is that if women do not have rights then they do not have duties Her implicit or unstated point at this juncture is that women and men both have rights and duties And again these rights are natural rights given by God Our initial two questions were the following In what sense is equality natural What is the basis of natural equality Equality for Wollstonecraft is natural is the sense that it derives from the Master of the universe The basis of natural equality is the natural right or inherent right from the Master of the universe to the free exercise of reason According to Wollstonecraft women and men have natural equality It seems that for Wollstonecraft the pivotal injustice is denying women freedom and therefore the natural right to use reason and the immutable principles there to order to be just virtuous and rational Stated differently the essential difficulty seems to rely upon a failure to respect the person and the problematic intention that underlies that failure If this injustice is rectified Wollstonecraft seems to argue then not only will women benefit but so will their children their husbands and the society as a whole ELIZABETH CADY STANTON Stanton s arguments in the Declaration of Sentiments is provided in language that may be more familiar to students and her arguments are less compact than those in Wollstonecraft s A Vindication of the Rights of Women Consequently I will simply point out some of the issues with which students should be familiar THE DE CLARA TI ON OF SEN TIMEN TS AND THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE The initial paragraphs of the Declaration of Sentiments have a striking similarity to those of the Declaration of Independence The very significant difference is however that Stanton adds women to Jefferson s claim that all men are created equal Why did Stanton intentionally copy the form and some of the content of the Declaration of Independence In order to begin to re ect on this question let s rst consider the nature and purpose of Declaration of Independence There are at least two related senses in which The Declaration of Independence is a founding document of the United States The Declaration ofIndependence was of course our formal declaration of independence from Great Britain It includes an argument or supporting reasons for our declaration of that independence This document also outlines some of the most pivotal ideals or principles on which the United States was founded The Declaration of Independence includes a conception of human beings their relationship to God to each other and to the state It includes a conception of good government and a failed government The Declaration of Independence also outlines the criteria that should be met in order to justify refusing allegiance to the government resistance to the government and a revolutionary change of government THE LAWS The central demand in the Declaration of Sentiments is that which we now identify as civil rights Stanton writes we insist that they women have immediate admission to all of the rights and privileges which belong to them as citizens of the United States Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 240 In general CiVil rights are those rights that are guaranteed to citizens as citizens and by the United States government either through the Constitution or by other acts of Congress The pivotal civil right demanded in the Declaration of Sentiments is the elective franchise or the right to vote Readings from the Roots of Wisdom pages 240 and 242 The basis for the demand for civil rights for women is the following All men and women are created equal by God Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 239 All men and women have inalienable rights that are given to them by God through the laws of nature Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 239 through 241 Stanton identifies these rights as sacred Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 240 She further construes them as equal human rights Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 241 Stanton is arguing that human beings whether female or male have inalienable equal rights given by God Stated differently she is arguing that equal natural rights based upon the natural law given by God provide the foundation for the demand for equal civil rights for women and for men In The Resolutions of The Declaration of Sentiments we see that Stanton like John Locke addresses the relationship between human made laws positive law and the laws of nature Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 241 Our first obligation they both argue is to obey the natural law that is known to human beings According to Stanton the principles of the natural laws are implanted in human beings by God Locke and Stanton both argue that if a law a human made or positive law conflicts with the natural laws of God then that law is invalid This is a very important point One reason is that this position on the validity of law provides the basis for resisting government and ultimately for the revolutionary change of government Dr Martin Luther King Jr relied upon this kind of argument as a basis for CiVil disobedience Dr King argued that if human made laws positive laws con ict with or violate the natural laws of God then not only are those laws invalid but we are justified and more importantly obligated to engage in civil disobedience Another reason that this position on the validity of positive law is so important is that it differs in a very significant manner from other views For example in some theories a law is valid if it is promulgated or announced to all 10 and applicable to all in the society In other theories a law is valid if it is made and enforced by those with political power John Locke Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Dr Martin Luther King Jr do not support either of the two alternative views OPPRESSION One of the terms you may have noticed in the both The Declaration of Sentiments and in A Vindication of Rights of Women is that of oppression We will see the word oppression used in some of the other teth we will be reading in the remaining weeks of the semester So it is important not only to understand this concept but that we use one uniform concept Marilyn Frye a contemporary philosopher provides a very helpful conception of oppression because it is applicable to diverse groups In her essay entitled Oppression Marilyn Frye argues that human beings can suffer or experience limitations but this does not necessarily imply that they are oppressed4 What then is oppression Frye writes The root of the word oppression is the element press The press of the crowd pressed into military service to press a pair of pants printing press press the button Presses are used to mold things or atten them or reduce them in bulk sometimes to reduce them by squeezing out the gasses or liquids in them Something pressed is something caught between or among forces and barriers which are so related to each other that jointly they restrain restrict or prevent the thing s motion or mobility Mold Immoblize Reduce The mundane experience of the oppressed provides another clue One of the most characteristic and ubiquitous features of the world as experienced by oppressed people is the double bind situations in which options are reduced to a very few and all of them expose one to penalty censure or deprivation For example it is often a requirement upon oppressed people that we smile and be cheerful If we comply we signal our docility and our acquiescence in our situation We need not then be taken note of We acquiesce in being made invisible in our occupying no space We participate in our own erasure On the other hand anything but the sunniest countenance exposes us to being perceived as mean bitter angry or dangerous This means at the least that we may be found difficult or unpleasant to work with which is enough to cost one one s livelihood at worst being seen as mean bitter angry or dangerous has been known to result in rape arrest beating and murder One can only choose to risk ones preferred form and rate of annihilation5 Marilyn Frye comments further on oppression She argues The experience of oppressed people is that the living of one s life is confined and shaped by forces and barriers which are not accidental or occasional and hence avoidable but are systematically related to each other in such a way as to catch one between and among them and restrict or penalize motion in any direction It is the experience of being caged in all avenues in every direction are blocked or booby trapped6 As you read both A Vindication of the Rights of Women and The Declaration of Sentiments think about the manner in which the women described in each teXt are oppressed How are they caught between or among forces that restrict immobilize mold and reduce them In what sense are they in a double bind How are they caged in In subsequent lessons we will return to the Frye s conception of oppression PRINT THIS LESSON THIRTEEN STUDY GUIDE In Lesson Thirteen we are thinking about the traditional African view of duties and rights along with a Latin American perspective on duties Claims about rights and duties are intimately linked to concepts of personhood or what it means to be a person Menkiti s presentation of the traditional African perspectives on duties and rights includes a conception of personhood in which one can make ontological progress toward becoming a full person as one ages The traditional African position as presented by Menkiti raises several sets of questions One such set of questions focuses upon the similarities and contrasts with the Existentialist philosophy of Jean Paul Sartre Another important set of questions is that given the traditional African view how should people of the community be treated if they are not construed as persons or as full persons If only a person has rights and not all individuals in the community are persons then what protects those individuals from others or from the community as a whole Menchu s Latin American perspective from Guatemala like the traditional African view focuses upon the primacy of duties to the community Rights claims seem to be absent altogether in the Maya Quiche community Yet the Maya Quiche people have been subjected to eXtreme oppression by some others in Guatemala Are or would claims to human rights be helpful to the Maya Quiche people or are there more effective bases for resistance One goal of the lesson is for students to demonstrate the ability to recall and describe the defining characteristics of key concepts and arguments in the teXt readings A second goal is for students to demonstrate the ability to analyze and evaluate philosophical concepts or arguments presented in the texts The third goal is for students to demonstrate the ability to analyze and evaluate the manner in philosophical concepts or arguments can be compared contrasted or resurface in new forms among philosophers and between historical eras The final goal is the central goal of each lesson It is for students to achieve the learning outcomes relevant to the lesson The following is a list of some of the names and concepts with which you should be tamiliar Ontology epistemology processual nature of being social selfhood ontological progression living dead ancestral community the nameless dead collective immortality personal immorality JohnPaul Sartre choice freedom Humanism John Rawls community collectivities constituted human groups Learning Outcome Three The successtu student will be able to Evaluate the t39eiatinnship 0t philosophical ideas to the art literature political and economic structure social hierarchy and the values oi their respective societies AND Learning Outcome Four The successful student will he ahle to Assess how crosscultural interactions lead to dittusion oi ideas and influence intellectual and cultural traditions RIGOBERTA MENCHU Excerpt from I Rigoberta Menchu An Indian Woman in Guatemala OPPRESSION As Mitchell points out Rigoberta Menchu won the 1992 Nobel Peace Prize for her work organizing the peasant people of Guatemala Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 20 In the complete teXt Menchu provides an account of extreme oppression at the hands of the wealthy landowners the government and the military In rural Guatemala most of the indigenous people work in the finals the plantations as agricultural workers According to Menchu eXtreme poverty is a way of life for Indian people such as the Maya Quiche Menchu writes I had five older brothers and sisters I saw my two eldest brothers die from lack of food when we were down in the fincas Most Indian families suffer from malnutrition Most of them don t even reach fifteen years old When children are growing and don t get enough to eat they re often ill and this well it complicates the situation1 Wages for plantation work were eXtremely low But land under cultivation by the Maya Quiche people was also typically confiscated by wealthy landowners with the assistance of the Army Menchu describes the tactics of kidnapping imprisonment torture and murder used by the government in order to attempt to eliminate resistance Menchu provides a very gruesome description of torture and death of a younger brother This brother eventually died when he was burned to death by the military in front of members of his family2 Menchu s mother was kidnapped raped tortured and eventually allowed to die3 Although Menchu provides details that outline the manner in which both her brother and mother were tortured those details are too disturbing to present here The eXtreme oppression to which the Maya Quiche people were subjected provides one key that can help us to understand the significance of the Maya Quiche beliefs and practices RESISTANCE Mitchell provides a clue to the nature of Menchu s metaphysical view when she characterizes the worldview of the Maya Quiche people of Guatemala as one that focuses upon ones place in the cosmos Stated differently Menchu describes a view in which the indigenous people are embedded in ineXtricable relationships with their community the wider society the natural world and the universe as a whole The sun is presented as the one supreme father who is analogous to the Judeo Christian conception of the one God The moon is the one mother to all Together the sun and moon are the pillars of the universe The earth is also presented as the mother and father of all One of the central beliefs of the Maya Quiche people is that suffering iS their fate While Menchu does not provide a concept of fate in the excerpt in our text in the more complete text she clarifies that their fate of suffering is something that is imposed upon them by the landowners the government and the soldiers4 Menchu s text presents an account of an evolving social political and economic consciousness in which she address this fate of suffering One of the significant issues is religion We see in our excerpt that Menchu is critical of the Catholic priests in her community The reason is that they are not supportive of Maya Quiche traditions However there are two very important things to note First Menchu considers herself a Christian Second although she believed the priests had been helpful in the Maya Quiche cause they had ultimately undermined it Menchu writes I began traveling to different areas discussing everything I must say one thing and it s not to denigrate them because the priests have done a lot for us It s not to undervalue the good things they have taught us but they also taught us to accept many things to be passive to be a dormant people Their religion told us that it was a sin to kill while we were being killed They told us that God is up there and that God had a kingdom for the poor It prevents us from seeing the real truth of how our people live5 Menchu argues that the priest taught the Maya Quiche to be passive and that it was in heaven that they would have a kingdom According to Menchu these beliefs prevented the Maya Quiche from grasping the reality of their situation and how they could respond to it So how do they respond to their situation In view of the belief that the indigenous community is inextricably linked in a series of complex relationships how does this shape their view of what they should and should not do How should they approach work the natural world culture and customs ancestors as well as future generations and the problem of suffering According to Menchu the indigenous people of Guatemala are in relationship with the past the present and the future as well as nature a wider oppressive community and the universe In Menchu s account how did these features of indigenous culture shape their philosophic ideas of responsibility dignity and endurance IFEANYI A MENKITI Excerpt from Person and Community in Traditional African Thought Menkiti develops a fairly straightforward argument so I will provide a brief outline of some of the crucial features Menkiti begins with conceptions of personhood in traditional African and in Western In the Western view persons are identified through a physiological or psychological quality of the lone individual In contrast the traditional African view holds that the communal world has both ontological and epistemic primacy Those facts make personhood possible Second the Western view holds one is either a person or one is not a person In contrast the traditional African view is that of a processual nature of being Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 79 Stated differently the view is that an individual is progressively incorporated into the community and transformed by that incorporation The community plays a vital role as catalyst and as that which prescribes norms One can fail at becoming a person Full personhood is social self hood and it characterized by inbuilt excellence There is an ontological progression toward full personhood that continues through incorporation into the ancestral community of the living dead Personhood according to Menkiti is inseparably linked to moral functioning as one participates in communal life through the discharge of various obligations defined by ones station Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 82 One for example must have a sense of justice in order to be owed duties of justice Similarly one has rights if and only if one is a person Consequently the implication is that animals cannot have rights Further incorrectly ascribing rights to animals could result in resource allocation problems in which the problem of competition for scare resources would arise between those who are significantly disadvantaged and animals The traditional African view of personhood has some similarities to the Existentialist View espoused by JeanPaul Sartre However the two Views must not be con ated There are three signi cant differences between the two Views The first issue is whether man is a free unconditioned being Menkiti tells us that for Sartre a human being is unconditioned in the sense that we are not constrained by social or historical circumstances Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 83 The second View relies upon a conception of reason Please be familiar with Menkiti s argument here The third contrast arises out the conceptions of the infant or child on the one hand and on the other hand that of the adult Again please be familiar with Menkiti s argument The conception of community in traditional African thought differs significantly from the conception of community in Western thought Similarly the concept of duties and rights in traditional African thought differs significantly from that in Western thought IFEANYI A MENKITI How might Menkiti s theory suggest a response to the problems of the elderly in our society JEANPAUL SARTRE Menkiti points to the paramount importance of choice in JeanPaul Sartre s theory It is through the individual s choices that that person makes him or herself as a self Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 83 Further according to Sartre s theory we are radically free Each of us is a free unconditioned being a being not constrained by social or historical circumstances Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 83 We are free unconditioned beings in a second sense Sartre is an atheist so his theory is atheistic Readings from the Roots of Wisdom page 61 In Sartre s theory we are not created by a deity nor does a deity have a role in the world 80 upon this view there is no deity to whom we are responsible and there is no deity to save us We are radically free Freedom is according to Sartre tragic burdensome and anxiety producing But our radical freedom also provides us with a tremendous opportunity Sartre is a humanist much in the sense of the humanism of the Classical Greek philosophers those prior to the medieval philosophers and many of the Renaissance philosophers Humanism as Soccio reports is the name given to any philosophy that emphasizes human welfare and dignity belief that human intelligence and effort are capable of improving conditions in the here and now Archetypes of Wisdom page 564 Sartre a humanist by his own description believed that we are capable of improving conditions here and now Readings from the Roots of Wisdom pages 5964 According to Sartre we always have a choice and therefore we determine who we will be This freedom of choice extends to the possibility of addressing social problems and how we respond to them The individual s radical freedom and the central role of choice mean that in Sartre s view we can address the ills of society We are not determined by society Instead we always have a choice to act MORE KANT LESSON FIVE STUDY GUIDE In Lesson Five we are continuing our study of Immanuel Kant Kant s moral philosophy remains one of the dominant views of ethics in the western world So it is very important to understand his views One of the issues will be thinking about the manner in which his phenomenalnoumenal distinction underlies his ethical theory Two of the questions we will consider are the following What is Kant s view of persons and the manner in which persons should be treated In what sense is Kant s ethical theory applicable in contemporary life GOALS OF THE LESSON One goal of the lesson is for studentsto demonstratethe ability to recall and describethe defining characteristics of key conoeptsand argumentsin the text readings A second goal is for studentsto demonstratethe ability to analyze and evaluate philosophical conoeptsor arguments presentedin the texts The third goal is for studentsto demonstratethe ability to analyze and evaluate the mannerin philosophical conoeptsor argumentscan be compared contrasted or resurface in new forms among philosophersand between historical eras The final goal is the central goal of each lesson It is for studentsto achievethe learning outcomesrelevant to the lesson REMINDERS 1 Work that we do in one lesson provides a foundation for subsequent lessons 2 When you prepare a lesson you should also be preparing for the MidTerm Exam and the PHIL 212 Assessment 3 Please be sure to keep a copy of the study guide for each lesson I recommend that students review each study guide in preparation for the MidTerm Exam and the PHIL 212 Assessment The following is a list of some of the concepts and names with which you should be familiar theoretical reason practical reason the good will inclinations autonomy maxims duty moral duty hypothetical imperatives categorical imperatives persons Kingdom of Ends the practical imperative the principle of dignity John Rawls a thought experiment original position veil of ignorance justice retributive justice distributivejustice social justice Susan Moller Okin Family Justice Learning Outcome Two The successful student will be able to Discuss how differing foundations of knowledge from various cultures lead to different understandings of science natural order religion the Self and use of technological power KANT S MORAL THEORY What is Kant s moral theory What are the underpinnings of this theory In other words what is Kant s metaphysics of moral Kant develops a Universalist moral philosophy or a moral theory that Kant argues holds for all people at all times Kant s moral philosophy continues to be very influential So it is very important to understand the features of his theory There are several very crucial features of the theory PHENOMENALNOUMENAL DISTINCTION The phenomenalnoumenal distinction underlying Kant s moral theory is very important for understanding the broader moral theory he develops So we are revisiting it in this lesson As Soocio tells us Kant startswith the hypothesisthat ideassuch ascauseand effect self identity the external world and God can bejustified becausewe keep relying on them Archetypesof lWsdom page 323 This is Kant s general approach in his Critical Philosophy and in his metaphysics of morals For Kant selfidentity the cosmos and God are transcendean ideasthat are also regulative ideas Theseideasreferto the noumenal world Note that in the metaphysicsof moral the distinction betweenthe phenomenal and the noumenal self is crucial to his project V thout the noumenal self human freedom and moral responsibility is not possible One ofthe important distinctions Kant drawsis that betweentheoretical reason and practical reason Studentsshould be very familiar with this distinction and its role in Kant s moral theory THE MORAL LAW WITHIN The necessary and universal therefore a priori character of the moral law is another very important aspect of Kant s moral theory As Soccio points out according to Kant morality is a function of practical reason Morality is basedon our consciousnessof necessary and universal moral laws Archetypesof Wsdom page324 Since moral laws are necessary and universal three things follow First they are a priori Second they cannot be discovered by observing actual behavior Third they are a feature of reason or how we actually think According to the text why is the moral law necessary and universal THE GOOD WILL AND ACTS OF THE WILL One of the most important aspects of Kant s moral theory is his argument that the good depends upon our will or our intentions Stated differently we are good in virtue of our intentions or what we intend to do if circumstances do not prevent it This view stands in contrast to another moral theory in which we are judged solely by the consequences of our actions According to the text what is a good will How doesacting from the will differ from acting from inclinations How doesacting from the will re ectautonomy Soccio explainsthat when we will something we issue ourselvesan internal command that re ectsour intentions Thesecommandsare maxims A maxim is the reasonor rule according to which an act is done or not done Archetypesof lWsdom page 327 MORAL DUTY What is duty What is moral duty Why must moral duty be oon nedto the universal obligations of all personsundersimilar circumstances HYPOTHETICAL IMPERATIVES AND THE CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE One of the most important features of Kant s moral philosophy is the categorical imperative According to the text what is a hypothetical imperative Why doesa hypothetical imperative provide an inadequateor inappropriate basisfor determining moral duty What is a categorical imperative How are universality and necessity involved in the categorical imperatives Why is a categorical imperative important to moral duty What is the categorical imperative THE KINGDOM OF ENDS Kant s practical imperative or principle of dignity is a crucial feature of his moral philosophy What is the Kingdom of Ends What is the relationship between rationality being a person and being a memberofthe Kingdom of Ends If a being is a memberofthe Kingdom of Ends how should we treatthat being What is the practical imperative or the principle of dignity The practical imperative or the principle of dignity is the following Act in such a way that you always treat humanity whether in your own person or in the person of another never simply as a means but always at the same time as an end Excerpt from The Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals reprinted in Archetypesof lWsdom page 332 emphasisin the reprinted text What does Kant mean when he says that we should treat ourselves and others as ends He meansthat we should treat ourselves and others as thought they have intrinsic worth or worth that is not dependent upon anything external Instead that worth is inherent Learning Outcome Three The successful student will be able to Evaluate the relationship of philosophic ideas to the art literature political and economic structure social hierarchy and values of their respective societies AND Learning Outcome Four The successful student will be able to Assess how crosscultural interactions lead to diffusion of ideas and influence intellectual and cultural traditions AND Learning Outcome Five The successful student will be able to Analyze and assess contemporary problems of global concerns from a philosophical perspective CONTEMPORARY RESPONSES JOHN RAWLS JUSTICE AS FAIRNESS As Soccio tells us John Rawls attempt to re ne Kant s moral theory in A Theory ofJustice has been and continuesto be very influential Archetypesof lWsdom page 332 Rawls title A Theory ofJustice raisesthe initial question about the meaning of justice The word justice is from the Latin word jus which means right or law 1 In philosophy we generally think that there aretwo broad categoriesor forms ofjustice One form is retributive justice This form of justice is conoemedwith redressing injuries or more speci cally addressing violationsofthe law We could saythatthe Criminal Justice System is concernedwith retributive justice The second form ofjustice is distributive Distributive justice is also sometimesidentified as social justice It is distributive or social justice with which John Rawls is concerned in A Theory of Justice In that text Rawls reminds us that a theory of distributive or socialjustice is onethat is concernedwith a characteristic set of principlesfor assigning basic rights and duties and for determining what they take to be the proper distribution of the bene ts and burdensof social cooperation2 So from the quoted remarks we seethat a theory of social justice or distributive justice is concernedwith the properdistribution ofthe bene ts one hasasa result of living in a society along with the burdensor disadvantagesof being a memberof that society Rawls remarks further that although peoplemight hold different theoriesofjustioe they still agreethat institutionsarejust when no arbitrary distinctions are made between personsin the assigning of basicrights and duties and when the rules determine a proper balance between competing claimsto the advantagesof social life In the above quoted remarks arbitrary distinctions would be those distinctionsthat are not based upon a fixed rule but are the product of a person s or group s choice or preference Also in this setof remarkswe begin to seeindioationsthat Rawls is developing a theory ofjustioe in which justice is fairness Pleasebe familiar with Soocio s discussion of the two basic principles to which the rational agent looking out for his own selfinterestwould agree A rchetypesof lWsdom page 333 Rawls thought experiment andthose featuresof it including histheory of the original position andthe veil of ignorance are crucial conoeptsin developing histheory of justice 80 studentsshould be very familiar with these SUSAN MOLLER OKIN JUSTICE GENDER AND THE FAMILY The application of a conoeptofjustioe to the family is controversial Some feminist philosophers including Susan Moller Okin have arguedthatjustice in the family is a pivotal issue Somecontemporary ethicists conoernedwith ethical issuesin health care and specifically with related issuesof the distribution of resouroeswithin the family have also arguedthat we must addrewhat constitutesjustioe within the family Soccio reportsthat Susan Moller Okin analyzes Rawls theory of justice with special attention to issuesof genderandthe family Archetypesof Wsdom page 334 Someof the issuesto consider asyou read Soccio s commentson Susan Moller Okin s theory arethe following What is her implied criticism of Kant s moral theory What is her central criticism of Rawls theory Why according to Susan Moller Okin is Rawls analysis ofjustice ambiguous Learning Outcome Five The successful student will be able to Analyze and assess contemporary problems of global concerns from a philosophical perspective Consider contemporary issuesasdiverse asthe use of torture medical treatment for thosewith communicable diseasessuch as HIVAl DS the allocation of resourcesto feed and provide medical care and shelterto thoseliving in poverty here and abroad In what sense if any might Kant s practical imperative or principle of dignity apply in above situations Are there ever circumstancesunderwhich we should treat someone merely asa meansto something else such astrying to achieve the greatest good for the greatest numberof people