Vertebrate Paleontology BIOL 371
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alvera Metz on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 371 at Liberty University taught by Marcus Ross in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see /class/222408/biol-371-liberty-university in Biology at Liberty University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Vertebrate Origins Naturalism Demands some kind of evolution NatureNatural processes alone are options Blastula stage where embryonic cells form a hollow ball Gastrula Stage where cells cup inward forming internal body cavity and opening will become either mouth or anus The blastophore becomes the mouth for protostomes and the anus for deuterosomes Characterstics of Deuterosomes Posterior blastophore quotGill Slits or homologous structure 2 part mesocoel wducts Fossil Remains of formerly living organisms found in sedimentary rocks formed by deposition ofsediments 5 Aspects of Paleontology Discovery Documentation Description U ses Discovery Fossils found more abundantly in badlands coastlines quarries and riverbeds Document Bonesfossils type of sedimentary rock and additional features At the lab 0 Mechanical Separation ofbone from matrix rock 0 Chemical Separation After and during preparation 0 Consolidants fossil glue 0 Display I Real vs Cast 0 Curation I Protect the Fossil I Make available for study I Catalogue Description Taphonomy study of organismal decomposition transport burial and exumation Exumation everything that has happened from the organism from the time it died to the time someone is looking at it 19 Phyla are in the fossil record of3540 total phyla Continental Drift Theory Alfred Wegener 1915 1922 English edition Antonio Snyder Pellegrini 1859 Creationist same year Origin of Species Wegener s argument 0 quotFitquot of Continent 0 Geological similarities across oceans Mtn Ranges 0 Climate Issues ancient climate indicators 0 Fossil distributions Pangaea o Mesosaurus Lystrosaurus Cynognathus Glossopteris Sea oor spreading o Oldest ocean rocks 180 MYA Sea oor spreading continental drift Plate Tectonics 0 Distribution of organisms Migration Evolution Extinction Endemism organisms only known to a particular area Climate Reconstruction o Sedimentary rocks record the conditions in which they were formed Depositional Environments 0 Types of fossils may indicate environment 0 Issue of transportation 0 O O 0 Biology amp Fossil Vertebrates Functional Morphology 0 Study organisms physical structureshow they were used in life 0 Questions asked I How fast I How strong I How did it y I How and what did it eat Main approaches to functional morphology 0 Compare with living organisms I EXtant phylogenic bracket I General morphologic comparisons with living organisms o MechanicalEngineering approaches I Mathematical models Phylogeny Tracing ancestry and relationships among organisms diagrams Molecular Phylogeny Discovering relationship through the comparisons of homologous molecules from different organisms Methods 0 Comparison ofNucleic Acid gene sequences 0 Distance method through use of trees to summarize relative distance information I Unweighted Pair Group Method wArithmatic Means UPGMA molecular clock I Neighboring Joining NI pair apparently similar species then make distant links until tree is complete I Minimum Evolution ME seeks to minimize sum lengths in the tree Common Ancestors Last universal common ancestor LUCA Cladistics morphological and mathematical approach to phylogeny Describes characters and characteristics Character states are numerically coded Numbers are then put into a character matrix and analyzed to build a cladogram Parsimony Least number of events in a tree Clade a defining characteristic to a group 0 Within clade Ingroup 0 Outside clade Outgroup I Anchor cladogram I Possess none of the sharedderived characters that define ingroup Paraphyletic group Define some but not all members of the clade EXReptilia Polyphyletic group a group of organisms that does not share a common ancestor EX Pachydermata o Elephants and Rhinos both share thick skin but both derived different ways Monphyletic group Arose from a single ancestor and includes all living and fossil descendants of that ancestor EX Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata and Family Canidae Baraminology quotBaraquot create and quotMinquot kind Hebrew Words Approaches o Breeding biological species concept Hybrids o Numericalcomputational Lateral Line System Parallel sensory organs along side of the body that detect movement through water pressure change Bone formation Bone forms from mineralization of collagen wapatite calcium phosphate Osteocyte cells control bone growth and development Two types ofbone o Dermal sourced from superficial embryonic tissues I Ex Plates Scutes Teeth o Endodermal Sourced from deeper embryonic regions I Ex Endoskeletal bone Sarcopterygian Tetrapod Transition Transition to quotAmphibiaquot first 5 Most important challenges to overcome in evolving to land 0 Support I Fish are buoyed by water and their backbones are adapted for lateral movement Gravity is a big challenge on land and support between limbs and spine as well as for internal organs is needed 0 Locomotion I Tetrapods move very differently than fish The pectoral and pelvic fins of Eusthenopteron contained the major proximal bones of the tetrapod limb but a lot of changes needed to occur including o Elongation of limbs o Reinforced limb girdles 0 Mobile hinges wristelbow 0 Extended range of motion 0 Feeding and Respiration I Feeding o In basal tetrapods the articular bone in lower jaw connects to the quadrate in the skull I Respiration 0 Two main modes may use one or both 0 Costal Ventilation Ribs and costal muscles expand and contract lungs o Buccal Pumping Air is sucked into the mouth and throat and rammed into lungs think frogs and burping in humans 0 Sensory Systems and Water Balance I Lateral Line system useless on land I Eyesight and smell needed to evolve Stapes bone for hearing a modified version of the hyomandibular element Seen in early tetrapods Need to maintain water balance early tetrapods likely stayed close to water and evolved semipermeable skin coverings to compensate for water loss 0 Reproduction Probably laid eggs in water with an aquatic larval stage Some fossil tadpoles in rock record Phylum Chordata 5 Definin Characteristics The NonVertebrate Chordates Subphylum Urochordata 0 ex quotTunicatesquot and quotSea Squirts 0 ex Shankuclava o Metamorphosis I Larval Stage 9 tadpoleish I Adult Stage 9 sedentary 0 Presence of notochord nerve cord etc More apparent in larval stage Subphylum Cephalochordata 0 Ex Amphioxus Cathamyrus 0 Ex Yunnanozoon and Haikouella Subphylum Vertebrata The Vertebrate Chordates Earliest Vertebrates o Myllokunmingia o Haikouichthys I Both placed m hm m from China I Small streamlined animal Characteristics of Vertebrates o All Chordata features GroupAgnatha Includes Living Pteromyzontidae and Myxinoidea Includes Extinct Conodonta Astrapsida Arandapsida Heterostraci Anaspida Thelodonti Osteostraci Galeaspida and Pituriaspida lawless Fishes quotagnathansquot o Suckers or raspers for mouth 0 No bone may be cartilaginous Family Pteromyzontidae Lamprey o Parasitic Family Myxinoidea Hagfish o Benthic scavengers o Tentacled mouth wsome toothlets Conodonta Tooth comb fossils Tooth elements are made of apatite one of the main components of bone m H 7 M Blostratlgraphy tooth elements used as markers Astrapsida Apparent lateral line Arandapsida Fewer 1 quot Heterostraci y 1 a 4 Main Groups 0 Cyathspids o AmphiaXids o Pteraspids o Psammosteids Anaspida Thelo donti Mac 11quot rou No bony head shields scaly fish fairly at Scales made of dentine Osteostraci mwm Large head shiel 7 Up to 45 gill pouches largest number in any vertebrate Lack paired fins Pituriaspida Bony head shield Unusual large openings immediately below the eyes Group Gnathostomata Includes Placodermi Chondrichthyes Acanthodii Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii Iawed Fishes Ex Dunkalosteous 2021 ft with teeth apart of skull See Cobelobus model for bone memorization Placodermi mm Hiiw v 1f mv r 1 quotKiwi l w Mobile bony shields 5 Clades o Arthrodiraplacoderms I gt200 enera rd VJ law 11 w in 1 I Coccosteus 3D preserved skull I Dunkelosteus 21 ft long I True teeth 0 Antiarchplacoderms I Ex Bothriolepis 0 gt100 species 0 B canadensisclass specimen Condrichthys quotCartila 39nous Fishes shark ancestors l m Acanthodii quotSpiny Sharks Not true sharks rs on ventral side held by a fixed hardened spine 1 o 2 dorsal 6 pai exception 0 The exception f V I FAD First Appearance Datum 1 I Possibly able to erect spine as defenslve mechan1sm to stick into predator Scapulocoracoid detached from head shield allowing gills to open further for more efficient respiration Most lacked teeth Fixed scales in most that grew by addition of bone and dentine Large eyes supported by sclerotic plates Gill rakers sharpened spikes in throat make up for lack of teeth Osteichth Mans quotBony Fishes Includes Actino ter ii and Sarcopterygii 311er lEljl 341m Actinopterygii quotRayfinnedquot fish group 0 Nearl all fish toda eX beta etc Dentary lower jaw Maxilla upper jaw PremaXilla upper jaw Palatoquadrate palate Sarcopterygii quotLobefinnedquot fish group 9 Cm Dcquot mini all 0 Ex Lungfish alive today group Dipnoi 0 Ex Coelocanth group Actinistia o Evolutionary precursor to tetrapods 0 jump from fish to tetrapod transition point 0 Most advanced Sarcopterygian fish 0 Transition features
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