General Chemistry IHonors
General Chemistry IHonors CHEM 121
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rae Conroy on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 121 at Liberty University taught by Nancy Richardson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/222415/chem-121-liberty-university in Chemistry at Liberty University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Chemistry study guide 00 000000000 Chapter 1 1 Hypothesis tentative eXplination a Theory eXplination of general causes of certain phenomena with considerable evidence to support it b Law statement or equation that summarizes a broad variety of observations and experiences Element cannot be decomposed into simpler sumbstances compound substance composed of two or more elements miXtures combonation of two or more substances in which each substance retains its own identity Match 54 elements with symbols Tell if element or not Physical properties can be observed wo changing the identity and composition of the substance Color odor density melting point boiling point hardness Chemical properties describe the way a substance may change or react to form other substances Flammability Physical changes changes the physical appearance Chemical change transformed into a chemically different substance I Mass kg I Length m I Time s I Temp K I Amount of substance mol I Electric current A ampere I Luminous intensity cd candela Giga Mega 10quot6 Kilo 10quot3 Deci 10quot1 Milli 10quot3 Micro 10quot6 Nano 10quot9 Pico 10quot12 Femto 10quot15 Density the amount of mass in a unit volume of the substance Dmv 1mL1cmquot31cc 1 g ofwater 1mL 4 degress C Dimensional analysis given unit X desired unitgiven unit desired unit Chemistry study guide Precision measure of how closely individual measurements agree with one another Accuracy how close the measurements agree with the quottruequot value Uncertainties always eXist in measured quantities Zeros at beginning are never significant Zeros between nonzeros are Zeros at the end ofa number are ONLY if they are after a decimal Addition and subtraction answer has same amount of sig figs as the number with fewest decimal places Mult and Div answer has same amount as the number with fewest sig figs Fahrenheit CF 32 59 KF 32 59 27315 Celcius FC95 32 K C27315 Chapter 2 Daltons postulates 0 Elements composed of atoms 0 Atoms of one element are exactly identical but atoms from other elements are not 0 Atoms in one element cant be changed into atoms of other elements by chemical reaction atoms are neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions 0 Compounds are formed when atoms of more than one element combine Radioactivity spontaneous emission of radiation Rutherford discovered alpha and beta rays 0 Beta negaive1 0 Alpha positive2 Atomic theory philosophers o Democritus o Issac Newton 0 John Dalton o Proton 10073 amu o Neutron 10087 0 Electron 5486 X 10quot4 Isotope the different possible versions of each element 0 Know how to write the symbols for isotopes I Atomic number top left of symbol and mass number bottom right Molecular compound contain more than one type of compound Ionic compound compound that contains both positively and negatively charged ions Diatomic elements 0 Help Our Needy Class Find Brains Immediately Molecular formula indicates the actual numbers and types of atoms in a molecule Chemistry study guide Empirical formula gives only relative number of atoms if each type Chapter 3 Combination reactions 2 or more substances combine to form one Decomposition reactions one substance undergoes reaction to create 2 or more substances Combustion reactions rapid reactions that produce a ame Percent composition element atoms atomic weightformula weight X 100 Formula weight sum of atomic weights 0 Account for subscripts Molar massformula weight To get empirical or molecular formulas 0 Convert percents to grams 0 Convert grams to moles of each element 0 Divide larger number of moles by smaller number to get ratio 0 Round ratio to nearest whole number to get subscripts Read 36 Limiting reactant reactant that is completely consumed in a reaction 0 Read top of103 0 Find of moles of one element needed to react with given amount other 0 Subtract found from given in problem of same element 0 Ifmore than zero its not the limiting reactant Percent yield actual yield theoretical yield X 100 0 Look at problem on 106 0 Theoretical yield Grams ofA1 gt mol A1 gt mol A2 gtgrams A2 0 Actual yield is given in problem Chapter 4 Solvent Substance in greatest quantity in solution Solute other substances in solution Electrolyte substance whose aqueous solution contains ions Nonelectrolyte substance that does not for ions in solution Strong electrolytes solutes that eXist in solutions as complete or nearly complete ions Weak electrolytessolutes that eXist in solutions mostly in the form ofmolecules with only a small fraction in the form ofions Table on 125 Precipitation reactions result in insoluble product 0 Precipitate insoluble product Acidbase reactions 0 Acids ionize in aqueous solutions to form hydrogen ions I H becomes by itself Chemistry study guide 0 Bases acceptreact with H ions I Dissociate and add OH ions Spectator ions ions that appear in identical forms among the reactants and products ofa complete ionic equationsame on both sides Complete ionic equation all soluble strong electrolytes shown as ions 0 Everything is shown in equation Net ionic equation when spectator ions are omitted from the equation 0 Only things that change are shown Redox reactions electrons are transferred between reactants charges change 0 Oxidation rxn loss of electrons by a substance molecule becomes positively charges 0 Reduction rxn when molecules become more negatively charged Oxidation number actual charge for monatomic a ion 0 Atom in elemental for Ox 0 P H o Monatomic ions K 52 Ox is the charge of the ion 1 2 o Nonmeatal usually negative Ox I Oxygen usually 2 I Hydrogen When bonded to nonmetals and 1 when bonded to metals I Fluorine1Halogens1 o The sum of the OX s in a polyatomic ion equals the charge of the ion The higher the OX the higher the reactivity Molarity number ofmoles of solute per liter Dilution process of adding water 0 Moles of solute before dilutionmoles of solute after dilution 0 Molarityoriginal X Volume orginal Molarity dilute Xvolume dilute Page 149150 Chapter 5 Energy capacity to do work or transfer heat Energy used to cause an object with mass to move against force Ioule unit for energy Calorie amount of energy need to raise the temp of 1 gram ofwater from 145 C to 155 C o 1 cal 1184 I o 1 Cal 1000 cal1 kcal Work w Force F Distance d Heat q Potential energy energy in position relative to other objects Kinetic energy energy when in motion First law of thermodynamics ENGERGY IS CONSERVED Chemistry study guide AE q w when heat is transferred TO the system q is positive negative when heat is transferred FROM the system When work is done on system by surroundings w is positive When work done on surroundings by system w is neg 00000 I pos gains heat Neg loses heat 0 w I pos work done on system 0 AE I pos net gain energy neg net loss energy State function property ofa system that is determined by specifying the systems condition or state 0 Internal energy and enthalpy I E and H Enthalpy thermodynamic function that accounts for heat w in processes occurring at constant pressure when no forms ofwork are performed besides P V work o H E PV 0 AH AE PV AE PAVq w W q AH Hfinal Hinitial Calorimetry measurement of heat ow Specific Heat c o q m X c X AT Hess s law if steps of enthalpy AH will equal the sum of the steps AH neg work done by system Chapter 6 Frequencyv squot1 Wavelength M m o c7tv I c speed oflight Electromagnetic Spectrum shortest to longest o Gamma Xrays ultraviolet infrared microwave radio Planck s constant 0 EhV I E energy I h plancks constant 6626 X 10quot34 Photoelectric effect light shining on a clean metal surface causes the surface to omit electrons Transition energies with Bohr model 0 E HcR1nquot2 Principal quantum number n 0 Positive integral numbers 0 As 11 increases to orbital becomes larger Chemistry study guide 0 As 11 increases so does energy Angular momentum quantum number j o Integral values from 0 to n1 o Defines shape of the orbital o Spdf corresponds to values of 0123 Magnetic quantum numb er ml o Integral values between and t39 o Describes orientation in space ms spin 0 1 2 or 12 Chart page 227 Degenerate orbitals orbitals with the same energy Pauli Exclusion Principle 0 No two electrons in an atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers nlml ms Hunds rule 0 For degenerate orbitals the lowest energy is attained when the number of electrons with the same spin is maximized Electron cinfigurations Spin makes nmrmri possible Chapter 7 Mendeleev and meyer organized first periodic table by atomic weight 0 Trends Effective nuclear charge increases from right to left and going down Size of atoms and ions increases left to right and going down I Anions are bigger than parent ions 0 Ionization energy in rowsincreases left to right and decreases going down 00 0 Groups Alkali metals 1A Alkaline earth metals 2A Oxygen group 6A Halogens 7A The noble gases 8A OOOOO Chapter 8 Ionic bond bw ions of opposite charge Covalent bonds share electrons Lattice energyenergy required to completely separate a mole ofa solid Electronegativity increases left to right and going up 0 0 nonpolar o small number polar