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by: Elenor Yost


Elenor Yost
GPA 3.6

Jessica Pattison

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Jessica Pattison
Class Notes
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This 31 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elenor Yost on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HUEC 2045 at Louisiana State University taught by Jessica Pattison in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/222430/huec-2045-louisiana-state-university in Ecology at Louisiana State University.




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Date Created: 10/13/15
H 5 N n u 3 H 339 D C U E 239 n 339 0 Fr39 lt n O 3 H 2 3 D D H 339 D 3 1 U H m u 0 1 to D 3 D 1 9 D 1 n 339 m 3 E U D m 1 H 5 Which of the following is not true of the American fashion industry To offset the decline in sales of haute couture a riers have opted to Al 5 slim ll l U39lb 9 N protectionism 9 This was a prototype of a modernday retail business where fur trading companies established posts over a wide area of the undeveloped US where overhead goods priced at less than retail 11What kind of store highly emphasizes fashion coordination specialty department department and specialty store chains discount variety 12Department stores that were able to compete successfully with chain organizations did which 39 39 of the following m 14Which of the following statements is true of department stores 15This retail operation deals with either 1 category of merchandise or specializes in related categories of merchandise store ownership group chain department store 16Which of the following statements is uncharacteristic of a boutique carry highly individualized and specialized merch typically small shops n ifr r l5 W9 sian couture 18This retail operation is completely dedicated to fashion in the rise and peak stages and their assortments are both broad and deep in the uppermiddle to higherprice ranges law imemi i 3 boutiques apparel chain stores none of the above 19Essentially the retailer is the manufacturer when goods are produced exclusively for one retailer with brand name 20Which of the following describes the production package method of offshore production 21Which of the following is an illegal method for and offshore manufacturer to get around US quotas TF When products state made in AMERICA that only means the materials are products of manufactured in and sold in America The international women s show in Dusseldorf is called IGEDO Globalization implies that one would have a closedmind toward their neighbors in other countries and keeping in mind that the American way is the other acceptable A WalMart store in South Korea would be successful because the American store format translates well in the S Korean culture Createurs are the readyto wear equivalent to 1 Name sign here amp Print name on SCANTRON SHEET and indicate test i 2 Print name in indicated portion of scantron BUBBLE IN YOUR NAME LSU ID and FORM Form 1 in the grade or education block on your scantron sheet HUEC 2045 EXAM 1 Spring 2010 1 Multiple Choice Select the one best answer to complete each of the following and mark the letter of the answer on your scantron 1 Which of the following is not a part of marketing a Buying b Selling 0 Sales promotion d Production e Research 2 Blue jeans illustrate the concept of classic fashion for all the following reasons except a Bluejeans are a simple design b They have had acceptance by many people and by many sociocultural groups in contemporary society for a long time c It has been possible to continually update the basic styling of jeans d Bluejeans can be found in all price lines e Usually the fashion cycle of blue jeans shows a rapid rise and rapid decline 3 Which of the following is not a principle of fashion according to the text a Fashion is unpredictable except for those persons who have fashion sense b Advertising and promotion cannot change the direction of fashion unless the public is ready for change 0 Fashions are created by consumers through acceptance or rejection of offered designs d Fashion change is subtle and gradual and rarely shifts dramatically e All fashions end in excess 4 Which of the following is not an acceptable de nition of fashion a Fashion is change b Fashion is the current interpretation of any style 0 Fashion is what my customers are wearing d Fashion is the prevailing design accepted and worn at a given time e Fashion is a mysterious and unpredictable force that in uences all of us 5 The components of fashion which are changed to create a new fashion are silhouette color details line color silhouette details texture ber color details texture texture color ber silhouette details fabric color texture rap96x 6 The components of fashion which change most slowly in today s fashion cycles are a color texture b silhouette line 0 details bers d fabric values e color silhouette 7 Which of the following statements about fads is accurate a They are initiated on the stree and follow the downward theory of fashion dissemination b Much of the faddish merchandise is aimed at the mature customer whose desire for change is more openly expressed c They are more frequently evident in expensive accessories such as ne jewelry and leather goods from wellknown producers d A typical cycle for a fad is rapid rise a brief culmination and an even more rapid decline e An item that has the characteristics of a fad will never have a culmination period 8 Which of the following does not refer to silhouette a straight or tubular b ruf ed or pleated c bellshaped or bouffant d bustle or backfullness e All of the above 9 Fashion is 39 quot y not 39 quot y is best 1 39 39 J by which ofthe following statements a fashion is in uenced by political events b fashion tends to repeat in cycles c fashions tend to change gradually d fashions can trickleup from the streets e fashions are in uenced by famous people 10 Which of the following factors has in uenced the rate of fashion change a invention of the sewing machine and manmade fibers b modern communications c live TV coverage of events around the world d a larger more affluent middleclass with money to spend e All of the above 11 Projections for the consumer of the future indicate that consumers will not a be better educated b be more af uent c be more mature d be concerned more with variety than value e include a prime target market segment of working women 12 New designs that are still in the introductory stage of the fashion cycle are generally a introduced as a higherpriced merchandise b worn by large numbers of young people c unrelated to the previous season s fashions d produced in large quantities e from Paris 13 Highfashion merchandise is generally highpriced because a the cost of the design experimentation and development must be covered in the price of the highfashion garment b retailers often feel that they can get extra profit from highfashion merchandise c af uent customers tend to discard clothes after a few wearings d designers and manufacturers of highfashion goods receive very high salaries e stores must often take large markdowns on highfashion merchandise selected to give the store a fashion image 14 The culmination stage of fashion may be extended a ifa fashion becomes a classic b if changes in details are continually introduced c if the fashion has been created by a leading designer d if the item is heavily advertised e a and b 15 Where on the fashion cycle would apparel offered by Sears and Montgomery Ward s most likely be located a introduction stage b rise stage c culmination stage d decline stage e obsolescence stage 16 Where on the fashion cycle would fashion innovators most likely be located a introduction stage b rise stage c culmination stage d decline stage e obsolescence stage For questions 1721 Fashion cycle A Fashion cycle B Fashion cycle C 17 In the fashion cycles illustrated above the vertical line to the left of each cycle measures a how long the fashion lasted b how much each item cost c how many retailers carried this item d how many items were sold e how many markdowns were taken 18 The horizontal line beneath each cycle measures a how long the fashion lasted b how much each item cost c how many retailers carried this item d how many items were sold e how many markdowns were taken 19 Fashion cycle A represents a a fad b a classic c a knockoff d a typical fashion cycle e a or b 20 Fashion cycle B represents a a fad b a classic c a knockoff d a typical fashion cycle e a or b 21 Fashion cycle C represents a a fad b a classic c a knockoff d a typical fashion cycle e a or b 22 Which of the following is not a cultural condition favoring stability in dress a education b tradition c isolation d poverty e limited technology 23 Money that an individual or family has left over after providing for food basic clothing shelter taxes and transportation is called a personal income b disposable income c discretionary income d net income e gross income 24 War and disasters tend to make people revert to styles previously fashionable develop a need for fashions compatible with their altered environment and attitudes adopt styles of their national leaders seek new and individually distinctive fashions discard their wardrobes for others that are militaryinspired rap96x 3 25 Physical mobility has contributed to changing fashion demand in all of the following ways except one It is that a Distinctive regional patterns of dress are recognized and adhered to in the US b Customers seek outofseason merchandise for their travels to areas with different climates c Knockoffs of French couture designs can be found and purchased in local stores the season after they are shown in Paris d A broader merchandise selection is needed to satisfy more sophisticated consumers who are exposed to many cultures e Consumers who are transferred in their jobs from one part of the country to another bring their clothing preferences with them 26 All of the following except one are economic factors currently being studies by fashion professionals to predict consumer demand It is a the increasing number of people over the age of 65 b the continuing in ationary spiral c the rise in minimum wages d changes in birth rate e the trend toward a more casual lifestyle 27 Individual demand for fashion goods is affected by a shortterm economic trends b longterm economic trends c the amount of disposable income the individual has on hand at a given time d consumer expectations for future economic af uence e all ofthe above 28 Studies that divide broad groups of consumers into smaller more homogenous target segments are called a psychographics b economics c demographics d sociology e census 29 Which of the following age groups is most responsive to fashion change a 1524 b 2534 c 3544 d 4554 e 5564 30 Which of the following is the more significant figure to fashion producers and marketers a per capita personal income b disposable personal income c discretionary personal income d personal income e takehome pay 3 1 Which of the following statements about psychological factors in uencing fashion is not true satisfaction with things as they are is a primary factor in accelerating fashion change curiosity and the need to experiment keep fashion demand alive the majority of the population tends to adhere to convention in dress often the need to overcome feelings of inferiority can be satisfied through apparel a person s selection of apparel can be a bid for companionship rep99 s 32 In successful fashion merchandising designs that have consumer acceptance appear in the greatest volume in retail stores when the design is on the point on the fashion cycle a introductory b early rise c late rise d decline e culmination 33 Which of the following is worn by most of the American public a prophetic fashions b innovative fashions c high fashions d mass or volume fashion e nonfashions 34 The designer who uses hisher talents to adapt or change the successful designs of others and works for a manufacturer is called aan a high fashion or name designer b stylistdesigner c freelance designer d artistsketcher e couture designer 4 35 The horizontal ow theory of fashion adoption is dependent on the fact that garments from couture designers can be copied lineforline a youthoriented culture that makes all age groups desire to dress alike the introduction of new styles to many social groups at approximately the same times strong promotional efforts by manufacturers and retailers unisex dressing which allows men and women to wear the same kinds of garments rug99 s 36 Fashion in uentials must have which one of the following traits a a great deal of time to devote to clothing selection b riches and fame c impeccable good taste d a desire to aunt tradition e popularity within their group so that others are prone to copy them 37 Which of the following statements about fashion followers is not accurate a the mass fashion industry is profitable because there are many followers b within any group the majority of individuals tend to be followers c observations of fashion in uentials help industry planners predict the directions in which fashion followers will go d fashion followers purchase the same thing season after season e fashion followers exhibit mixed feelings about a new designithey both want and fear the selection of something unfamiliar 38 The difference between a fashion innovator and a fashion in uential is a the innovator wears extreme highfashion styles while the in uential wears classic styles b the innovator is first to try new styles the in uential is the person whose adoption of a new style gives it prestige among a group c the term fashion innovator refers to fashion directors in major specialty stores fashion in uential refers to consumers who are fashion leaders in their community d fashion innovators affect only a small segment of the population while the fashion in uentials have a nationwide effect on fashion e there is no difference between the two 39 Which theory of fashion adoption probably has the least acceptance today upward ow downward ow horizontal ow trickleacross massmarket rap96x 40 The upward ow theory of fashion adoption depends on which group of consumers to exert the strongest in uence a young members of the lowerincome group b stars in the media c political figures who are in uential on the social scene d the very wealthy who are relatively conservative e collegeeducated children of lowerincome groups 41 The upward ow theory is illustrated by a copies of a Parisian design are seen in a department store b a top New York designer develops a collection for a major department store chain 5 c several department stores advertise the same fashions at the same time d coveralls the uniform of the laborer have become popular casual wear for teens in af uent neighborhoods e a and b 42 Practical business considerations imposed on fashion designers include a producing designs at a profit b producing designs within the f1rm s predetermined wholesale price range and fashion image c availability and cost of materials d available production techniques and labor costs e all of the above 43 The designer who creates designs for several manufacturers either doing adaptions or original designs is known as a a highfashion or name designer b stylistdesigner c freelance designer d artistsketcher e couture designer 44 The individuals who have the most in uence on the continued success of the fashion industry in this country are a fashion in uentials b fashion followers c retail fashion buyers for major dept stores d fashion innovators e leading Paris designers 45 Which of the following statements is n0t true in regards to the American fashion industry It is a predictor of our nation s economy does not absorb a huge amount of consumer spending is constantly changing mass production is inexpensive 990 46 Which of the following is n0t true a timelessness in one component that defines fashion b a cuffed hem is an example of one style of the design khaki pants c a lineforline copy is produced in similar materials d fashion in the beginning stage of the fashion cycle appears at retail in full assortments 47 the direction in which fashion is moving a avantgarde b fashion style c fashion trend d fashionforward 48 American families moved to the suburbs and men resumed their jobs while women stayed at home hosting cocktail parties required them to wear garments such as ballet slippers and cocktail dresses in the a 1920s b1930s c1940s dl950s 49 Governmental limitations were placed on types and amounts of fabric used in manufacturing civilian clothing resulting in a frozen fashion silhouette a 1900s b 1920s c 1940s d 1950s 11 Matching For qllzstt39onx 5054 lderltl the correct sxlhauettefxgme thh xts sxlhauette name Fume Slumms 50 rectangle 51 boufEmbellshaped 52 slim 53 busdc 54 straighamlmlar For Manx 5559 55 Silent Gmeration a 19651979 56 BabyBoo rs I 19251945 57 GenerationX c 19802000 58 GenerationY d 19461964 59 Gchneration e 1900192 For quzm39onx 6054 match the appraprmze term thh lts tune a Indecent 1 Smart c hideous d shameless e dowdy 50 10 yrs b4 its time 51 yrs before its time 62 nits time 53 1 yz a erits time 54 10 yrs a er its time 1 True or False If we statement ls true xndxeate your answer an the scantrarl m the T aptxan If the statement ls zlse xndxeate you answer an the Scarltrarl m the F aptla 65 quot39 39 39 39 39 39 quot 39 39 39 ni39h mm mm rm nllzn nHln n39nlnnim 66 r r r r 57 Sales pmmotion can have an accelerating effect on fashion eyeles 5s A style is always a stylewhed1er or not it is in fashion 69 J r m r I e fashion eyele 72 A I L 7 7 0 7 7 GNU 7 78 7 O 80 81 Sumptuary laws may be based on religious or moral principles 000000 Aww 85 8 ON 8 8 00 89 90 91 gt1 gt1 once the in uence is gone Lineforline copies would be located at the introduction stage of the fashion cycle This season s haute couture collection by a top Paris designer would be located at the rise stage of the fashion cycle Disposable personal income is roughly equivalent to takehome pay Fashions are independent of the environment in which they are worn Economically backward countries usually retain national customs in dress longer than do more advanced nations In their own way styles recur in fashion acceptance although never exactly as they were in the past because of differing environmental conditions There is a direct relationship between the growth and strength of the middle class and the growth and extent of fashion demand A widespread economic recession generates increased fashion demand Psychographic studies help merchants determine the income of potential customers Fashions are created by designers manufacturers and sales promotional efforts A brilliantly executed style by a top designer assures its immediate fashion acceptance Being a public figure such as a political leader musician artist actor or athlete almost automatically results in a person s high in uence on fashion Approximately 90 of the new designs introduced each season by the fashion industry become fashions which are accepted by consumers A vertical ow of fashion adoption definitely operates within the fashion industry famous designers and major manufacturers are studied and copied by lesserknown designers and smaller manufacturers Reasons for following rather than leading in fashion include admiration for others lack of interest desire to be different and feelings of inferiority A Ford automobile is about the same as a fad in the fashion world The young are a large independent group who exert considerable in uence on fashion styling Styles do not reoccur with adaptations that suit the times in which they reappear they remain the same all the time any time 92 93 94 95 Tshirts originally French cotton underwear were adopted by Canadian soldiers during World War I Anthropologists concluded that similar silhouettes appear in fashion approximately every 100 years We all balance individuality with the need to belong People deviate from the dress of certain groups in order to be accepted in that group 96 opposition by the majority is an important part of the definition of fashion 97 Demographics defines a regional climate 98 Most all fashions are revolutionary Chap 6 Women s and Child ren s Apparel Industry 10282008 104500 AM Development of the American RTW industry o Men s RTW came first o Then came women s RTW 0 Economic Importance o More apparel manufacturing firms than textile firms o Women s girl s over 12 of total clothing expenditures employment and value of factory shipments o Has provided jobs for women immigrants minorities semiskilled and unskilled NAICS Grouping for Apparel o 315 Refer to Table 11 pg 8 o 3rd 315 apparel manufacturing o 4th 315129 knitted CS accessories o 5th 315x23 men s and boys CS women s and girl s CS respectively Table 61 pg 212 History and Growth of Women s RTW o Custommade o RTW standardized sizing 0 19th C instructions printed in magazine Godey s Lady Book Peterson s amp Grahams Magazine Ebenezer Butterick 1863 Young industry 0 20th C 19205 new developments o Fashion Plates 0 European Origin 0 To depict styles Hand to Machine o Elias Howe inviented sewing machine 1945 o Isaac Singer perfected sewing machine volume output 18505 c Early Immigrants A source of manpower Ellis Island NY 1920 Developments In The 20th century o Improvements in Technology and Retail Distribution 0 Cut sew mass districubtion retail advertistments o Increasing Need for RTW 0 Changing women s roles o WWI c 19405 American designers 0 Paris Inspired 0 Dorothy Shaver prez of Lord amp Taylor Advertised clothes designed by Americans n Claire McCardel Norman Norell Publicly owned vs Privately owned Apparel Firms o 1960 s Going Public 0 Consumer spending went way up 0 Deal wtextile suppliers and large retail distributors o 1980 s Going Private 0 Leveraged Buyouts specialized investors buyout companies stocks and sellout assets to make them smaller c 19905 Some Go Public 0 Initial Public O ering IPO choose how much stock you want to sell out to stock holdersinvestors CHOICE Development of Unions o Sweathshops o International Ladies Garment Workers Union ILGWU founded by 2000 workers to try to improve working conditions 0 Triangle Shirtwaist Fire 1911 200 workers in the building 146 died bc only one fire escape o Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Worker s Union ACTWU o Union of Needetrades Industrial And Textile Employees UNITE o 1995 ILGWU ACTWU UNITE One of the largest unions in the US Fight against sweatshops and for better conditionsfair wages Combined UNITE HERE UNITE M Hotel Employees amp Restaurant Employees International Union Organization of an Apparel Firm o Executive MGMT establish firm s goals 0 See activities are doneguidelines amp deadlines are being met o Merchandising plan develop present product lines o Anticipate change and create solutions for changes o Marketing and Sales define target market 0 O O 0 Develop positioningtarget strategies to aim for market o Operations manages peoplephysical property 0 Is machinery operating correctly Are we producing enough 0 QualityQuantity Control o Finance manages financial resources 0 Human Resources Accounting Reshaped By Computer Technology o EDI Linkages o CIM Computer Integrated Manufacturing 0 QR Quick Response Vanity FairWalMart 1St QR partnerships 0 Rapid Replenishment solve the problem of overstock Cutting down on orders running out Call manufacturer n Cuts down on large amounts Lean Retailing not buying too much if you re not going to sell it RTM Real Time Merchandising Closer to a selling season line Avoid large amts of stock allows manufacturerretailer to work together a Changes needed RTM allows it to happen quickly Agile Manufacturing gov sponsored QR madetoorder a Body Scanning similar to couture Cut make sew ship tomorrow Design to Consumer Line Development Preadoption Stage o Seasonal Lines collectiongroup of styles designed for spec season 0 Spring Summer Transition Fall 1 Fall 2 ResortHoliday o Highpriced before lowpriced o Preadoption early stages of development 0 QR 0 Review what will sell for collection let it all out then cutback o Desiging the Line 0 Designers ideas are created 0 Sample makers sewers 0 Line development 0 O O o Developing the Line 0 Merchandisers see what will sell what will be a hit 0 Product development 0 Product development team Line Development Postadoption o Production pattern o Sample Styles o Pattern Grading grading o Marker Making marker o Spreading o Cutting cut ticket October 30 2008 Inside Shop garment construction is complete in firm s own facility Outside Shop garment construction and sometimes cutting is contracted out to another firm Type of production systems o Single operator a single operator does all sewing on a garment o Progressive Bundle System an operator sews just one part of the garment in an assembly manner o Unit Production System UPS Types of Production Systems Marketing o Sellthrough of a line the extent to which a line moves through the marketing channel to the consumer Presentation of Lines Seventh on Sixth 0 Created 1992 nonprofit created by CFDA Equal op to sell and grasp target market Reliance on a Sale Force Advertising and Publicity National ampTrade 0 Cooperative Advertising fiber co and manufacturer or manufacturer and retailer share advertising cost Designer Trunk Show in house designers travel to certain clients 0 Good way to advertise name and publicize collection EX NYC Fashion Week not only in NYC but trying to incorporate it into a global event for others 0 Free marketing for desginers 0 Invite media and special retail buyers only o Ex Invest banking firms financial analysts investors trend setters 0 New Form of Media Critics Bloggers o Use of Fashion to Sell Movies and viseversa Manufacturers Relationships with Retailers o Chargebacks financial penalties imposed upon manufacturers for transgressions o Matrix buying retailer concentrates his purchasing with a limited group of vendors Manufacturers Into Retailing o Manufacturerowned Retail Stores 0 Prime shopping areas large and complete stock at regular price attractive store environment customer service 0 Factory outlets o Manufacturer s shops within stores 0 Retailerreal estate gtgt sales volume for dept o Instore shops Nature of The Industry DIFFERENT TYPES OF PRODUCERS o Manufacturers firm performs all manufacturing func in own factory 0 Buy fabric and do the desiging pattern making grading cutting sewing and assembling of garments 0 Complete control over production and quality o Apparel Jobbers firm that handles all processes but contracts out the sewing and sometimes cutting Large and small companies high and low prices Contract out cutting sewing and special techniques bc special machinery required Advantage minimal capital investment due to resourcing out different machines o Contractor independentlyowned factory that sews amp often cuts goods to specs of an apparel jobber that hires them outside shop 0 O O The Contracting System Outside Shops SIZE OF APPAREL COMPANIES Dominance of small specialized firms o Multiproduct giant companies 0 Diversification Sara Lee Branded Apparel VF Corporation Jones Apparel Liz Claiborne Kellwood Co 0 Acquiring Other Companyies Vanity Fair gtgt VF Corporation 0 Conglomerates Sara Lee SPECIALIZATION BY PRODUCTS AND PRICES o Product Specialization outerwear dresses sportswear bridal etc o Price Specialization designer bridge better moderate budget Prevalence of Style Piracy o Knockoff copied adapted translated sometimes pirated never considered stolen Proliferation of INDUSTRY LICENSING AGREEMENTS o Licensee manufacturer o Licensor wellknown name o Royalty Fee of wholesale sales Financing By Factoring o Factor co that supllies manufacturers with operating capital o Factoring Commission a fee based on of sales Location of Fashion Market Centers o Market Center city with an enclave of apparel companies vendors that produce and sell merchandise at the wholesale level to retail buyers 0 Apparel manufacturers and retail distributors New York LEADING MARKET CENTER o Secondary Fashion Centers 0 LA well known for swimwear 0 Miami known for children s wear Close to Caribbean island and use cutmaketrim807 0 Dallas bridal evening gowns 0 Chicago outerwear coats Apparel Marts Regional Selling Centers o 1 To sell to small fashion retailers in surrounding area o 2 To serve as a wholesale selling facility for producers who have area headquarters o 3 To house regional showrooms for apparel firms outside the area o Marketweek Future of NY as a Fashion Center o Fashion is spreading but NY will remain the center Children s Wear o Nature of the Industry 0 Majority of firms are small NY Miami 0 3 seasonal linesyr o Industry Specializations 0 Price size type of merch 0 Type age or size group not merchandise category 0 Sizing after size 4 sizing differs according to sex Boys 14 menswear o Marketing Activities 0 3 trade showsyr in NY 1 in Miami Menswear 10282008 104500 AM Economic Importance o 2500 separate companies o 200000 employment o 20 billion wholesale value History and Development o Early beginnings in the 19th C 0 Development of men s RTW Slops poorly made low end fabrics n For sailors needing clothes moving port to port 0 From tailors to manufacturers Tailoring for wealthy Brooks Brothers 1818 specialized in tailoring to man 0 Work clothes for laborers Cali Gold Rush Levi Strauss canvas for tents workwear denim Shirtwaist dresses 0 Standardization of sizes Before women wwar o TwentiethCentury Developments 0 The Amalgamated Now UNITE HERE Unions developed bc poor labor conditions 0 Public Ownership in the 19605 0 Private Ownership in the 19805 Nature of the Industry o Similarities between the menswear and women s wear industries Specialize in clearly definable categories Present seasonal lines Feature designer names Complete collections Classi cation merchandising Produce globally o Differences from women s wear industry 0 Dominated by larger firms 0 Long established brand names 0 Contracting system less common Types of Firms 0 O O O O O o Menswear o Menswear and women s wear vice versa Geographic Locations Decentralized o Levi Strauss o Hartmarx o Haggar Farah o Importance of New York showrooms o Centers of Production 0 WembleyWemco o Haspel Design and Production Procedures o 1980s interest in fitness 0 1 Demand for exercise clothing 0 2 Change in tailored clothing sizing o Drop diff between the chest measurement and the waist measurement Athletic Fit Tailored Clothing o Production is slow o Highly skilled operators required o Much handwork is involved o Emphasis is on selection of fabrics rather than styles alone o Styles change slowly and gradually Development of a Line o 2 seasonsyr o Samples made in only a few fabrics Production o Inside shop quality control o Piece goods reservation PGR o Many hand operations Complex Sizings o Dualsizing system chest figure types Simplifying Sizes SMLXL Hand Tailoring grades 1 to 6 Custom Tailors and Tailors to the Trade o Custom TailorMadetoOrder FirmBespoke Tailor 0 Produce a custom garment on own premise o MadetoMeasure FirmTailor totheTrade 0 Cut individual garments by exact measurements of customers who place orders through retail stores Sportswear Design and Production o Seasonal lines 4year o Development of a Lines 0 Emphasis on styles not fabric 0 Fabric is preselected o Production outside shops Simplified Sizing o Importance of the Collection Concept o Increase of Classifications Merchandising o Lowers markdowns lowers stock invest speeds inventory Marketing of Menswear o Manufacturer s Brands o Targeted Customer Approach o Designer Labels and Designer Licensing o Retail Channels of Distribution 0 Branded Concept Shops instore shops Dept store strategy to promote lifestyle labels 0 Merchandiser Brand Manager ManufacturerOwned Reatil Stores Dual Distribution o Dual Distribution System 0 Describes manufacturers who own and operate retail stores in which they sell their products the same products that are also sold to independent retailers for resale Marketing Activities by Trade Associations o Clothing Manufacturer s Association CMA NAMSBVibe Style o The Fashion Association TFA for the entire apparel industry o The Magic Trade Show o California International Menswear Market CIMM o Menswear Trade Showings Fashion Explosion in Men s Accessories o Hairstyling cologne jewelry Accessories 10282008 104500 AM Fashion Explosion in Men s Accessories Fashion Accessories o Constantly forecast changes and cycles o Blend follow or lead and innovative o Footwear handbags gloves hats neckwear eyewear and jewelry Footwear o Primitive people o Hand craft variations o Shoes slippers athletic shoes and boots o Men women children Organization and Operation o Began in New England 0 Ninewest Timberland o Shifted to Midwest 0 Nike 0 Largest shoe producer in US 0 Does not own manufacturing facilities 0 Focuses on marketing wholesaler o Imports 0 Dress shoes 0 Higher price points 0 Italy Production o Last wooden plastic or aluminum forms in shape of a foot over which the shoes are constructed 0 More exact measurements o Lasts material quality and number and type of operations determine Quality and Price o Giant companies dominate industry Women s Shoes After WWII o Age and income lines 0 High Fashion 0 Other manufacturers Ninewest Kenneth Cole o Medical Health Conditions o Fashion Leadership 0 Hollywood Sex and the City Men s Shoes o Dress Shoes 0 Once most important sales category 0 Currently a niche market o DressCasual and Casual Shoes 0 At one point only acceptable for ages 1825 0 Timberland Sebago Rockport Stride Rite Red Wing Shoes 0 Florsheim Johnston amp Murphy o Produced abroad 0 Clark s England Bally Switzerland Ferragamo Gucci Bruno Magli Italy Children s Shoes o Stories of magical shoes 0 Cinderella Dorothy Puss in Boots o Wear and Tear o Outgrow 0 Active participant o Conformity o Adaptation for adult styles o Materials 0 Leather vinyl substitutes plastics canvas o Athletic Shoes 0 Identification 0 Trend of school uniforms less likely to see athletic shoes Athletic Shoes o Charles Goodyear 0 sneakers o Vulcanizing process for rubber in late 18005 rubber bonding to canvas tops Keds Converse Inc All Star o Casual dress trend o Specialized Industry 0 Walking running climbing aerobics racquetball biking hiking golf Super specialty shoes specialty sporting goods stores Merchandising and Marketing 0 o FFANY Fashion Footwear Association of New York 300 corporations amp 800 brand names New York Shoe Expo 3year o AAFA American Apparel and Footwear Association National trade assoc representing apparel footwear 0 Brand Names Payless Shoe Source 0 Shoe departments most commonly leased Industry Trends o 22 billion pairs of shoesyear purchased 0 98 manufactured overseas o 84 made in China o Important to coordinate with fashion trends 0 Donna Karen 0 Highly competitive Gucci Prada Louis Vuitton Ferragamo Manolo Blahnik Christian Louboutin Handbags o Best selling classification in the accessories industry 0 Designer it bags 0 Fashion coordination concept o Casual sportswear more formal o Send messages personal statements 0 Professional student at home mom etc Organization and Operation o Small industry o Imports from Europe South America Far East o Brand names and designer labels 0 Licensed out Anne Klein Donna Karen Ralph Lauren Marc Jacobs 0 Judith Leiber o Not only made of leather to be considered high quality Merchandising and Marketing o Advertising through brand name and designer 0 Manufacturers too small o Trend savvy o Windowstore displays o Magazine advertisements o Catalogs o Internet Industry Trends o Severe competition with foreign imports 0 American designers o National Fashion Accessories Association NFAA 0 Promote domestic handbag industry domestically and abroad o Fashion Accessories Shippers Association FASA 0 Support interests of importers as well as manufacturers of handbags and related goods Market Weeks and Trade Shows o Must move in faster lane than anyone else o 5 fashion weeks in NY 0 Summer January 0 Transitional March 0 Fall May 0 Holiday August 0 Spring November o Femme Show NY January May September 0 Largest trade show o Fashion Jewelry World Expo and Providence Expo Paris Premiere Class March October 10282008 104500 AM Retailing in the Past 1800s 0 Small country stores Trading posts Little or Specialty shops Itinerant Peddlers traveled from farm to farm offering for sale small conveniences 0 Late 1800s improving TRW industry 1920s 0 Department stores 0 Men s women s children s departments Retail Operations o Retailing Process final step in the distribution of merchandise o Retailers sell merchandise in small quantities to the general public 0 Store retailers Operate fixed store locations Play off extensive displays of merchandise Mass media 0 Nonstore retailers internet sales site mail order catalogue o NAIX 4445 general merchandise and nonstore retailers Department Store o 50 employees o Wide variety of merchandise lines 0 Men s women s children s apparel o Furniturehome furnishings appliances 0 Bedding o Categories offered in separate departments Origin of Department Store o 19th Century 0 Attractive interiors 0 Merchandise policies 0 Merchandise assortments grew o Catered to female customer o Aaron Meyer Morris Rich Branch Stores 0 O O o Store established at parent location and opens additional stores in another but is operated and controlled by parent facility o 1950s o Half of retail sales volume through branches 0 19705 Store Ownership Groups o Corporation owns autonomous department and specialty stores which were once independently owned o Differ from chains o Filene s of Boston Specialty Stores o Deals with either one category of merchandise or specialize in related categories of merchandise Large Specialty Shops o Departmentalized almost all a part of a store ownership group o Dedicated to fashions in the RISE and PEAK stages o Broad and deep assortments o Uppermiddle to highest price range Small Apparel Specialty Shops o Mom and Pop establishment 75 o High attrition rate replacement rate is equivalent 0 Convenient 0 Knowledge of customer s needs and tastes 0 Purchasing loyalty with manufacturers Boutiques o Little shop carrying a collection of highly individualized or specialized merchandise that is presented in a nontraditional manner Chain Store Retailing o Retail Chain a string of similar stores merchandised and controlled from a central headquarters 0 General merchandise chains Sears 0 Specialized apparel or accessory chains Limited o No flagship standardized warehouse o Central office where they operate from Specialty Apparel Chains o Prior to 1920 waist stores o 1920 to 1929 the chain store era c To focus on a particular segment of the consumer market and the fashion interests of that market o Feature their own private labels buying power is so large General Merchandise Chains o WalMart o Sears o JCPenny s o Dillard s MailOrder Houses Nonstore o MailOrder House a retail operation that sells to consumers through the medium of a catalog as a result of orders placed by mail telephone internet 0 Montgomery Ward 1872 0 Sears late 1880s 0 1920s Mail order opened retail chains Discount Retail Stores o Discounter retail establishment that regularly sells its merchandise at lower prices concentrating mainly on national brands o Offprice retailers o Offprice factory outlets o Warehouse clubs Franchising o Franchise agreement 0 Franchiser parent company provides a franchisee owner operator or a retail unit with Exclusive use of established name Assistance in organizing training merchandising and management 0 In return of a stipend fee Designername Franchise Boutiques o 1970s European RTW Domestic Apparel Franchise Boutiques o Late 1970s o Athlete s Foot American Designer Franchise Boutiques o Ralph Lauren Betsey Johnson Shopping Centers and Malls o Shopping Center prepanned architecturally homogenous grouping of retail stores plus a parking area that is larger than the area occupied by the stores themselves Direct Selling Retailers o One that sells merchandise by contacting customers through 0 Doortodoor approaches 0 Inhome party plan o Catalogs supplement the relatively limited supply of merchandise samples Flea Market Retailers o Independent sellers who rent a booth on a temporary basis Catalog Showrooms o 1960s popular in 1970s o Print and distribute catalogs usually featuring wellknown national brands Warehouse Clubs o Specilize in bulk sales of national brands at deep Private Label o Goods are produced exclusively for one retailer with brand name of retailer or one of retailer s brand names o Retailers into manufacturers General to Specialty Retailing o Increase of competition from specialized apparel chains on their own apparel departments Hypermarkets o 1960s superstores began in Europe o Gigantic supermarket and discount store with no dividing walls that sells everything o Low prices name merchandise provides service TV and Home Shopping Factory Outlets o Owned and operated by manufacturers of top brand and designer name clothing o Out of date merchandise Category Killers o Retialers that specialize in tremendous assortments of single kind of mercandise o Destroying competitors who sell the same merchandise o Substantial savings The Consumer o Background never take consumer for granted o 1960s early 1970s o Mid 19705 focusing more on consumer o Mid 19805 economy was strengthened more spending o Early 19905 decade of the consumer o Late 19905 weaker economy le55 spending o Early 20005 more debt Cheapskate chic Crossdresser Crossshopper goes from apparel to automobiles Masstige The Power of the Consumer Table 41 Organizing the Industry Around the Consumer o Customer Service 0 Ultimate Consumer 0 Business Consumer o Create products to satisfy customer The Marketing of Fashion o The Marketing Approach 0 Marketing identifies the customer determines what products to offer customer and how to and still profit 0 Merchandising process through which products are designed developed and promoted to pos 0 operations that implement marketing and merchandising by physically selling 0 Marketing Concept a customercentered approach of achieving the company s goals by determining 0 Marketing Strategy Target Customers o Target Market 0 Individual customers or companies 0 Small homogenous group or small diverse group Market Segmentation o Dividing the heterogeneous market into smaller customer divisions that have similar characteristics the firm can satisfy 0 Income lifestyle fashion prefs interests sizes occupations o Demographics and Psychographics o Mega Niche Companies Marketing Mix o Product o Price o Place o Promotion The Marketing Environment o Microenvironment forces close to the company that influence its ability to serve its market 0 Suppliers 0 Marketing channel firms 0 Competitors o Publics o Other parts of the company o Macroenvironment factors in the larger societal setting in which the company functions 0 Demographic economic influences o Technological natural factors 0 Political legal environment 0 Social cultural environment Macroeconomic Factors that Affect Consumption of Fashion Table 42 o Population grouping 0 Age 0 Ethnic origin o Lifestyle o Income Analysis of Customers Fashion Preferences and Trends o Pointofsale data POS o Data mining o Stockouts when merchandise a consumer wants is not in stock when consumer wants it 20 to 30 at retail 0 Chargebacks financial penalties retailers demand of vendors for various reasons 0 Markdowns reduction from an original retail price Quick Response as a Marketing Strategy o Getting right merchandise to market at right time o Push system and pull system 0 Relies on Electronic Data Interchange The Marketing Concept and Manufacturing Distribution Serving Consumers in the Next Millenium o Floorready Merchandise 0 Merchandise packaged and ticketed o ConsumerReady Merch 0 Retail stores become the theatre 0 Customized products sent directly from manufacturer to consumer Federal Legislation Affecting the Fashion Business o Federal Laws Regulating Competition 0 Sherman AntiTrust Act 1890 0 Clayton Act 1914 0 Federal Trade Commission FTC Act 1914 o RobinsonPatman Act 1936 o CellerKefauver Act 1950 Product Labeling Laws to Protect Consumer Wool Products Labeling Act 19391984 Fur Products Labeling Act 1951 Flammable Fabrics Act 1953 o Textile Fiber Products Identification Act 19661984 o Fair Packaging and Labeling Act 1966 o Care Labeling of Textile Wearing Apparel Act 1972


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