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by: Elenor Yost


Elenor Yost
GPA 3.6

J. Myhand

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J. Myhand
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elenor Yost on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HUEC 2014 at Louisiana State University taught by J. Myhand in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/222432/huec-2014-louisiana-state-university in Ecology at Louisiana State University.




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Date Created: 10/13/15
Grains Objectives List grains used for foods Describe health bene ts of including grains in the food plan Draw the structure of a cereal grain and identify the basic components Describe the cooking procedure for cereal pasta and rice and describe the well prepared product Explain the proper storage of grains Cereal Grains are seeds Examples wheat oats rice corn ax seed They are still living so storage is important Do not have to alter much to cook must hydrate to eat Many nutrientsFolate B vitamins and other vitamins Uses of grains Make our from wheat to use in baked goods Also can put other grains in baked good Hot and cold cereal Alcohol beer rice wine and corn whiskey Why are they so important Culturally de nes cuisine Plant food that is high in ber B vitamins fat soluble vitamins Easy to grow store and prepare Good for the environment Lots of calories with little fat No cholesterol Phytochemicals Plant chemicals that have the ability to prevent free radical formation In their best form within whole grains Examples in grains lignan sapanines phytics acid Some are resistant starch which interferes with blood glucose absorption Protect against cancer because they are antioxidants The trolox equivalent is how well can a food ght production of oxygen radicals Good in grains because they are antioxidants Nutrients Carbohydrates Fat and Protein High in Vitamins and Minerals Tyamine ribo avin niacine B 6 penathinic folate When grains are re ned all nutrients are removed and tehn added back enriched Can t add back B 6 and Vitamin E Now folate is added back to re ned grains Fiber CHO with beta linkage beta glycocytic bond which makes it a ber Not in re ned grains Need diet with insoluble and soluble ber SolubleCannot be digested BUT gives feeling of fullness with less calories Absorbs water and adds bulk InsolubleHelps move food through GI tract more ef ciently So much that is not digested causes rapid transit speeds it up Soluble ber helps heart disease because it traps bile acids and excreted instead of recycled into the liver lowers cholesterol because its taken with bile acids Fermentable ber soluble ber that is fermented by bacteria in the colon Improves health of the colon wall because of short cain fatty acids from fermentable ber Composition of grains See picture Chaf the husk we do not use Bran rich in nutrients high in ber B vitamins phytochemicals and minerals Germ rich contains food fat monounsaturated fat oils fat soluble vitamins especially vitamin E Endosperm CHO nad protein matrix gives us energy through calories Re ned vs Whole Bran and germ are removed when grains are re ned to increase shelf life make uniformly acceptable Fiber and vitamin E are removed and never added back even with enrichment Preparation of Grains Must rst hydrate grains then heat which causes the endosperm to swell and go through gelatinization Storage Whole grains require more because its still living Don t want it to sprout or die Cannot freeze because the structure will change Can only freeze after cooking 6 month window in the refrigerator Can store whole grains dry if they are cauum packed eliminates oxygen to avoid rancidity If on the shelf always make sure it s in a dry sealed and cool Re ned grains do not need special storage because all of the living parts have been taken out Starches What is it An ingredient instead of a food Straight chain amylose and branched amylopectin Digestible Bland not very much avor used mostly for structure Sometimes derived from grains corn starch and wheat our or roots In cooking they are usually thick but pourable Corn starch is made from the endosperm of the corn Molecules with greater than 10 glucose units are polysaccharides each glucose being a monosaccharide When amylose is heated it is responsible for gel formation Amylopectin doesn t fel water gets in and they can t settle Most Starches have a 41 amylopectin amylose Hydration The granules will suck up liquid and become slightly swollen When you add heat water penetrates even further and granule swells more gelatinization Rapid heating can cause starch to swell and burst this causes it to lose it s ability to thicken Complete gelatinization occurs at 2120 F Gel Formation After gelatinization the granules turn from being pourable sol to a gel that will not ow Retrogradation when too much of the gel settles nad the water will come out weeping also called Synerisis Interfering agents Sugar competes with the starch for the water Too much sugar will cause the starch to no become as thick Acid lemons makes the starches fragment break at a low ph smaller molecules will cause it to have more ow More liquid that needed will affect the thickness Milldbutter will reduce thickness fat coats starch granule so not as much water can get in Less likely to thicken up Successful Starch cooking 1 Separate starch molecules E Fat with a rouX our and butter then add warm liquid darker the rouX the thinner the rouX because it reduced the thickening powder of the our b Cold water slowly add cold water until all granules are suspended c Sugar puddings add sugar before adding liquid and then heat 2 Add liquid 3 Add heat medium 4 Stir 5 Boiling 6 Continue heating until its completely cooked Quick Breads Quick bread vs Cake quick breads are less sweet and more wholesome banana bread muffins waf es Also quick compared to yeast breads Basic Ingredients Flour Salt Leavening agent Liquid Varying Ingredients Fat Oils Eggs And many more Methods of Mixing l Muffin Method dry ingredients wet ingredients with few strokes Do not over stir because it causes the bread to not be tender a In stirring process proteins gluten will separate from the CH0 and become rubbery 2 Biscuit method solid fat our with other dry ingredients and then cut them in together Use knives or pastry cutter use a tool not fingers so the fat doesn t melt Cutting fat into small pieces and allow them to get covered with our Needs to stay cold so far stays solid Mixture should look granular Add cold liquid to milk MiX with few strokes sometimes kneading it until it is soft dough Drop biscuit no kneading not aky wrung96x h Kneading procedures gluten just a little makes air pockets i Fat in biscuits interfere with gluten production j Shortening shortens gluten 3 Creaming Method commonly used in cakes Soild fat sugar and beat air into it becomes light and uffy a Sharp edges on sugar crystals out mixture and traps air b Room temperature fat so that is plastic moldable but not melted Can pick it up and bend it c Don t want anything melting or solidifying d Everything needs to be room temperature including eggs and milk e Trying to make an emulsion fat w liquid suspended in it Leavening Baking soda reacts with water to form sodium carbonate Will not just add water but also miX with an acid for avor Reacts at room temperature As soon as baking soda is added to acid it starts to react No more than a tsp of baking soda per cup of our Acids Buttermilk coco yogurt molasses apples lemon and vinegar Baking powder Dry powdert acid with cream of tarter making your own leads to a cleaner taste At store double acting combo of ingredients with different compounds Acts 2 times first when its initially make it and then again when heated Must stay dry to work well Baking powder and baking soda can age 6 months Recipes call for both so you don t have to use so much baking powder Air or Steam no chemical leavening at all Egg whites beat air into egg whites bubbles will form and hold shape Fold them into mixture that is our and liquid heat it air pockets will stay and leaven Butter and Sugar creaming method Steam air comes from liquid ingredients and enough protein in bread cream puffs When heat is applied Gelatinization of our DeXtrinization surface of bread will break apart and brown on the surface Maillard reaction amino acids and sugars are heated together ow Carmelization heat and sugar Fat will melt Leavening agents will be activated and C02 will be produced Proteins will coagulate from eggs and our Steam is produced from liquids Oven Spring initial rising that takes place before gelatinization If you don t pre heat oven you lose spring Spoilage of baked products Quick breads will spoil easily because of retrogradation amylose settles and water is lost Retrogradation can be reversed add more water and reheat Doesn t work in microwave unless you are eating immediately Refrigerator temperatures promote retrogradation Store quick bread at room temperature or freeze them What can go wrong Gluten over develops Bad soda or baking powder Too much leavening or not enough Cook too high or too low Bread is too dry because of our Not enough our gummy Over missing or over too hot causes tunnels because of steam Burn bottom and not the top Too close to the bottom Wrong kind of pantoo big so heat won t get in Not preheating the oven Over circulation How to make quick breads more nutritious fruit whole wheat our or other types substitute for fat olive oil for butter Spinach Flax seed or other seedsnuts Yeast Breads Basic French bread our water and yeast some salt Yeast bread and the store White bread is not worth your money you get a lot more for your dollar White bread made that way to have a longer shelf life Homemade yeast bread more wholesome because there aren t extra chemicals in it you can crumble this not white bread Smell triggers appetite Types of our Bread our the most protein in it hard ours have more protein and more gluten use for yeast breads All purpose and whole wheat ou they have the same amount of starch and protein in them Used for anything 0 Bleached for cakes o Unbleached better for most other applications Mid range between allpurpose and cake our still has protein in it Cake our almost protein free high on the CH0 side bleached In yeast breads the leavening agent is yeast that produces C02 Living organism metabolizes our and sugar When heated C02 expands and water steam forms network of air pockets Yeast sacchomyces cervisiae a fungus If it is heated for too long it will begin to make alcohol Yeast will add avor and change the dough because of starch metabolism Types Cake yeast compressed oldfasioned works fast because it doesn t have to be hydrated already moist Activedry yeast type we use most often has moisture removed yeast has not grown yet Rapid rise yeast quicker some people don t like it Bread machine yeast specifically meant to be used unproofed all dry ingredients at the same time 1 tsp of yeast for every 1 cup of our Too m expand uch yeast makes at bread too heavy and air pockets collapse because they too must yeasty taste and structure will be damaged What will affect leavening l N E 4 V39 Salt retards yeast development still need salt but too much controls yeast growth and C02 production Sugar quick food for the yeast breakdown of sugar just takes one bond can make yeast grow quicker Too much will make the bread moist but also will interfere with the avor Raises solutes too high and makes the dough very soft too much can kill yeast Fat butter fat can coast yeast cells and slow growth Add oil last so it won t interfere Too much fat will also shorten gluten and change the texture Cold can shock the yeast so that it won t grow especially initially a Can refrigerate bread dough because its already alive and grown and will just slow down Heat Too much can kill the yeast An ideal temperature for yeast is also ideal temperature for humans 105 F Liquids and yeast Fats an Water is often used as liquid for yeast bread but also with milk good because it adds nutrients and changes avor and texture 0 Milk makes finer texture smaller holes 0 Color of crust is darker o Helps bread stay fresh and retards staling Juice works fine citrus especially 0 Change color 0 Adds nutrients o Acidity changes texture o Sweeter Role of liquid is to be a solvent hydrates yeast sugar our 0 Seperates starch from gluten starch is dissolved not gluten o Hydrates protein 0 Provides steam for leavening o Allows for gelatinization of starch Must measure correctlytoo much goes at too little and the bread won t rise enough and it won t be elastic enough High protein our absorbs more water d oils Optimal level improves volume the grain texture weave affects the crust Adding fat makes it keep longer Plastic fats moldable are usually better but olive oil is very good too Tenderizes it helps support leavening supports increased numbers of air cells Adds avor and improves mouth feel The best time to add fat is after the dough is formed Salt Eggs Controls rate of yeast growth and adds avor Salt substitutes don t work Sea salts and kosher slt work the best Too much bread will be at and dense Best time to add salt is with the liquid when mixing the dough because it disperses better Increases shelf life Also increases solubility of gluten so that it s easier to extract Not essential but adds color nutrients structure protein makes it so er and easier to handle Maillard Reaction sugar and amino acids reactn when heat is added eggs will induce the reaction because of proteins and will cause browning Adds moisture Sweeteners Sugar honey brown sugar Food for yeast Helps retard staling attracts moisture and holds it so it will not go bad as quickly Adds avor Slows down gelatinization allows bread to expand for a longer period of time in the oven


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