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by: Elenor Yost


Elenor Yost
GPA 3.6

D. Welker

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About this Document

D. Welker
Class Notes
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This 26 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elenor Yost on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HUEC 2032 at Louisiana State University taught by D. Welker in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see /class/222436/huec-2032-louisiana-state-university in Ecology at Louisiana State University.




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Date Created: 10/13/15
Chapter 7 0 Light the electromagnetic energy making things visible the radiant energy resulting from vibrations of electrons 0 Provides illumination and color 0 Defineslocates lines forms and surfaces 0 Can be manipulated by controlling the surface it falls on 0 Visual effects of light rays 0 l Wavelength o 2 Frequency 0 3 Brightness o Wavelength o The distance between highest point of one wave and highest point of next wave 0 Measured in nanometers I One billionth of a meter Visible light 0 Includes wavelengths 7 between 380760 nanometers o Shorter or longer does not stimulate eye receptors 7 darkness 0 Divided into color by wavelength I Red 7 longest I Violet 7 shortest 0 Frequency 0 How fast the wave vibrates 0 Red 7 longest visible wavelength I Slowest frequency 0 Violet 7 shortest visible wavelength I Fastest frequency 0 The color spectrum 0 Visual phenomenon that separates white or balance light into individual wavelengths of visible energy so the eye can distinguish between them 0 White perfectly balanced colors in light 0 Color blind I Eye sees only graduations of gray or some colors and gray I Only rods light receptors are functioning o Scotopic 7 night vision 0 Photopic 7 daytime vision 7 needs light 0 Brightness 0 Level of illumination 0 Depends on amount of energy radiated o More energy 7 brighter the light 0 Visual effects of light 0 Direct 7 natural or artificial sources 0 Re ected 7 everything else we see I Re ected from a surface 0 Color 0 Imbalance of visible radiant energy reaching the eye from light sources and objects o Imbalance I Average deviation from average amount of energy at all wavelengths 0 Seeing color in objects 0 Without light there can be no color I Colors are names to describe various mixtures of electromagnetic energy 0 Color constancy I Objects consistency re ect or transmit light waves only in a transmit light waves only in a particular narrow color range while absorbing all others Chapter 8 0 Color 7 concept or human interpretation of the neutral impulses transmitted to the brain from the normal eye when it is stimulated by various imbalances of visible radiant energy 0 An external occurrence 0 3 aspects of external color 0 Hue value intensity 0 Hue 0 Pure hue I Nothing added 0 As it appears on the color wheel or spectrum 0 Analogous hue I Adjacent to each other on color wheel 0 Complimentary hue I Opposite each other on color wheel 0 Value 0 The lightness or darkness ofa hue I Adding black or white 0 Achromatic I Neutrals black white gray o Intensity o Saturation purity or vividness o Brightness or darkness of a hue I Add complement 0 High 7 bright 0 Low 7 dull 0 Color language 0 Primary I Prime basic hue I Can mix to create all other hues BUT no other hues can combine to create primary 0 Secondary I Binary I Equal mixtures of 2 primaries o Tertiary 7 intermediate I Primary and secondary mixtures o 3 types of color theory 0 Physical or light rays 0 Pigment o Psychological visual Pigment theory Munsell 0 Notation system 7 greatest contribution o Developed exible color sphere 0 System 7 5 primaries I RY G B V I lOcolor wheel Prang or Brewster theory 0 3 primaries I Red yellow and blue 0 3 secondaries I Green orange violet o 6 teItraries I Combine 7 12 color wheel Simultaneous contrast 0 Most powerful illusion of color 0 Any actual differences appear exaggerated o Juxtaposed I Touching or nearby colors PUSH each other apart increasing differences Simultaneous contrast HUES o Gives effect of complement to a dulled color or neutral Touching complements intensify each other Contrasting hues seem complementary Analogous hues push each other apart Identical hues look different 0 Different hues appear alike Simultaneous contrast value 0 Light values darken darker ones dark values lighten lighter ones 0 Extreme value contrasts overpower hue perceptions Simultaneous contrast intensity 0 Bright and dull of same hue emphasize those differences 0 Complements intensify each other After image hue 0 Negative hue afterimage create complementary effect 0 Hue stimulates afterimage of complement against white 0 Mixes visually with any surface hue a new color combination of the two 0 Extended viewing of complement dulls stimulus hue After image value 0 Extreme value creates a erimage of its opposite 0 Negative value after image mixes with other surface hue After image intensity 0 Complementary hue afterimage dulls hue viewed and brightens complement 0 Negative value afterimage dulls hue Irradiation 0 Value irradiation 7 light areas spill over into darker areas 0 Light values advance and enlarge 0 O O O I Dark recede and reduce o Shadows emerge I At crosspoints of white grid on black background Visual mixtures o Pointillism 7 points of color mix Visually into new colors 0 Hue value intensity Temperature 0 Hues Warm 7 red orange yellow ranger Cool 7 blue green Violet Value I Light 7 cooler o Re ects light rays I Dark 7 warmer o Absorb light rays 000 o Intensity I Bright7wa1mer I Dull7cooler Motion 0 Advance 7 warm light bright o Recede 7 cool dark dull o Warms 7 unite o Cools 7 separate 0 Brights 7 clash Vibrate o Dulls 7 blend Size 0 Warm light bright 7 enlarge 0 Yellow 7 most enlarging I White red green blue black 0 Cool dark dull 7 reduce I Black 7 most reducing Psychological effects of color 0 Action gender drama sophistication seasons Color schemesharmonies o By neutralizing them I Add color s compliment o By mixing 2 widely separate colors to introduce a common color 0 By placing one color on top of other colors 0 By using a neutral color 0 By using rough texture shadow light in rough surface to key colors Related harmonies o Monochromatic o Analogous I Together on color wheel I Two or more colors next to each other Contrasting harmonies or schemes o Complementary 7 2 hue I Opposite from each other 0 Double complementary 7 4 hue I 2 adjacent hues and complements o Adjacent complementary 7 3 hues I 2 complements and one hue next to one Single split complementary 7 3 hue I l hues and hue on each side of complement 0 Double split complementary 7 4 hue I Hue on each side of two complements o Triad harmony 7 3 hue I Three hues equidistant from each other on the color wheel Inverted order harmonies 0 Color whose home value is usually light is darkened and used with another color whose home value is usually dark and then lightened I Dark yellow and light violet I Dark brown and pale blue 0 Texture 0 Visual and tangible structure of a surface or substance 0 Critical to appeal I 1 It s the medium from which apparel is made I 2 Appeals to 3 senses o Sight touch hearing 3 aspects of texture o Tactile qualities of a surface 0 Tactile qualities of a manipulated 3D substance 0 Visual qualities of surface and substance Textile components 0 1 Fiber content 2 Yarn structure 3 Fabric structure 4 Finishes Fiber content I Basic chemical substance from which yams and fabrics are made I Long filament fibers 0 Shiner smoother cooler touch 0 Stronger fabrics I Short staple fibers 0 Duller rougher fuzzier warmer touch 0 Weaker fabrics o Yarn structure I Made by spinning fibers into yarns I Appearance 0 Type of fiber amount of twist direction of twist number of piles simple or novelty combination of fibers 0 Fabric structure 0 O O O The way the yarns are interlocked into a at fabric Varieties 0 Most dramatic easily seen differences in texture Woven 0 Generally strongest 0 Most stable less stretch o Balanced weave stronger than unbalanced 0 Stability 7 darts seams etc o Shapes at fabric to body contours Knits 0 Greater exibility o Wrinkle resistance 0 Stretchier Withstands less stress than woven o Direction of the yarns 0 Critical to the way a fabric will or will not behave o Nonwovens have grain 0 Holds crisps shapes better than on a bias 0 Lengthwise grain o Strongest 0 Place in direction that receives greatest stress 0 Diagonal between lengthwise and crosswise yarns 0 Flexible softness and drapeable o Finishes Affect fabric surface characteristics 0 Surface contour surface friction thermal character Surface contour Deviations from absolute smoothness Creates a sharp silhouette Rough 7 looks softer Smooth looks hard Seams o Disappear in rough or patterned Surface friction Resistance to slipping Determines extent to which surfaces slide over each other or stick together Thermal character 0 How a fabric feels to touch 0 Function of absorbency 0 Generally more absorbent fibers warmer to touch than synthetics o The tactile quality of manipulated 3D substance 0 Flexibility compressibility extensibility resilience density Textures reaction to light 0 Admit I Transparent translucent o Absorb I Opaque 0 Transparent I Admits the most light I Can see through it clearly o Translucent I Admits some light I Can identify hazy silhouette behind it but not sharp detail 0 Opaque I Emits little or no light I Interacts only with surface 0 Smoothness roughness penetrable depth I Absorbs or re ects all of it I Absorbs 7 dull I Re ects 7 shiny o Shiny textures I Advances I Enlarges wearer I Highlights body part where used I A small accent area of shine will balance a larger area of dull surface Texture and color 0 Colors I Shiny surface 7 lighter than dull one I Fuzzy surface 7 slightly dulls I Firm smooth surfaces 7 at 0 Iridescent fabrics 0 One color yarn in one direction another color yarn in other direction Pattern 0 An arrangement of lines shapes spaces in or on a fabric 3 aspects of pattern 0 Source interpretation a1rangement 4 major pattern source categories 0 1 Nature I Frequent beautiful motifs I Flowers 7 most popular 0 2 Manmade I Specific places events I Hats maps bricks keys etc o 3 Imagination I Creativity from material sources I Abstract images o 4 Symbolism I Special type of imagination I Visual images stand for something else I Natural or manmade objects 0 Interpretation 0 Realistic stylized abstract 0 Arrangement 0 Arrangement of motif source on fabric 0 Plan yardage needs if patterned 0 Repeat I Distance from where a pattern starts ends then starts again 0 2 ways to introduce pattern to fabric 0 In fabric during fabrication 0 Applied on fabric surface Chapter 18 o Rhythm 0 Feeling of organized movement or motion of elements Related eye movement I Gives order to elements 0 Keep movement within the boundaries I Body off balance 0 Diagonals countered I Opposing diagonals O o Rhythmic I Smooth uniform owing o Staccato I Lack of movement pause dramatic o In uences body size I Size direction dynamics 0 More lively I More attention 0 More subtle and sophisticated I More understated o Understatement 7 more potent restraint o Rhythm and elements 0 Rhythm and elements 0 Linear rhythm I Dramatic climaX without repetition o Repetition rhythm I Elements I Strengthens rhythm o Regimented rhythm I Limitations of parallelism alteration 0 Graduation I Leads to climax o Undulating rhythm O I Line around central point Contrast rhythm I Accents rhythm I Focus attention 7 change 0 Structural design 0 O O Graceful I draped folds I soft gathers I curved seams and edges staccato I straight lined parallel pleats I tucks series darts graduated tiers I ounces smocking shirring I good over small areas 0 decorative rhythm O O stately I rows of ribbons I braids I pleated edges graceful I gathered or ared ruf ed edges 0 emphasis O O O O OO O 0 creation of a focal point most important center of interest I all others subordinate focuses Viewer s attention I directs the eye manipulates attention to enhance wearer one dominant theme idea backgrounds I show less emphasis I too much 7 confusing I too little 7 boring dull what and where to emphasize I dictated by fashion trends how to emphasize I elements 0 grouping contrast dominance leading lines contrast elements repetition sufficient plain space detail 0 how much emphasis I use restraint o introducing emphasis any structural edge emphasizes body part 0 skirt hems I knees legs 0 o sleeve hems I shoulders arms waist hands 0 necklines I face neck 0 whatever usually covered I exposed I decorative o purposed to attract attention 0 enforces structural lines o emphasis in structural design 0 extremes of fit or fullness I puffed sleeves shoulders I snug midriff o hue value intensity I small amounts right spots 0 pattern and texture I one motif dominate o harmony o agreement in feeling 0 consistency in mood o pleasing combination of different things 0 requires agreement I functional structural decorative I culturally subjective principle 0 culturally acceptable 0 rhinestones on denim 0 common awareness and acceptance I mood its interpretation I essential to unity o withoutinterrelatedness I cannot be unity o harmony physical effects 0 garment parts in scale 0 combined proportions I agree with each other and figure 0 avoid I extremes monotony o advancing qualities I receding o countering 7 reinforcing I harmonize I every part blends o harmony o o o unity O 0000 000 000 0 all parts feel they belong together relates and integrates garment parts sense of completed oneness coherence quality of being whole and nished creates calm completed effect garment attribute to wearer relationship I all parts belong I worked together for ONE complete consistent effect resolves con ict and competition organizing attention around central theme harmony I everything relates 7 not necessarily completed unity provides sense of completion inseparable parts are all interdependent integrates every aspect of design 0 unity psychological effects 0 O O 0 most powerful effect job well completed design process followed ows easily Chapter 1 o What is design 0 Decision making in many activities in everyday life 0 Design 0 process I planned attempt to achieve order and beauty I process of purposeful visual creation I form of problem solving to reach a goal 0 product I end result or nished product of the process or plan I sensory design 0 products that appeal to 5 senses I behavioral design 0 human experience of interpreting sensory design 0 steps in design process 0 Set the goal I determine purpose of project 0 Examine relevant outside in uences I factors must know about user or market for intended product Establish design criteria I how should it function based on needs determined by relevant outside in uences 0 Make the plan I all possible design ideas as solution to goal 0 Carry out the plan I develop patterns construct samples adjustments etc 0 Evaluate I does is meet the relevant criteria 0 Design process 0 follow steps 0 practice 0 became a keen observer I interpret ordinary things as new ideas 0 Chapter 2 o aspects of design 0 function 0 structure 0 decorative o in order of importance 0 functional design I most important I how does it work I How does it perform I 4 general function needs 0 l movement 0 all garments must provide ease I added to garments to provide for extra space in apparel to allow for movement I shoulder hip bust arm ad leg circumferences length areas 0 ease 0 standard ease I allows for movement 0 style ease I creates a look 0 2 protection 0 weather conditions 0 insects other creatures 0 plant life 0 bacteria secretions etc o 3 environmental modi ers o clothing regulates energy ow 0 resistance to evaporation insulation 0 effects heat transfer 0 4 health and safety 0 allow body to be safe from hazards 0 provide comfort and ef cient I special functional needs 0 l occupationalsports o protective clothing 0 high fiber performance 0 industrial and farm workers 0 2 proper use 0 dangerous I improper or unintended use 0 3 action potential 0 purpose and function of garment determines degree of action potential in design 0 4 children 0 safe functional and attractive apparel 0 less concern with appearance 0 5 pregnancy 0 absorbency o loose fit 0 comfort 0 layers attractiveness o o 6 elderly 0 physical changes 0 sensitivity to temperature changes 0 increased hypothermia 7 139 ll Jorrlj 39 IIJ I II 1 o extent of condition 0 ame resistant washable 0 easy accessibility o attractive I structural design allows a garment to function affects both function and appearance fabric construction lines and shapes successful design 0 simple 0 purity of form 0 timeless beauty requirements for good structure 0 well proportioned 0 simple 0 suited to its purpose 0 suited to material used 0 suited to process use to make it I decorative design Chapter 3 something added surface enrichment least important aspect 3 ways to incorporate decorative design 0 color or pattern in fabric 0 construction detail 0 decorative trims or fabrics applied to surface of garment agree with function structure design 0 never used to camou age 0 never an afterthought 0 can be both functional and decorative 0 uses moderation o abstract or stylized 7 more attractive placement of decorative design 0 place where attention to be drawn 0 place safely I friction snagging strain pressure 0 anchor larger or heavy trims decorative quality 0 natural beauty I nothing added linen furs 0 not decorative design 0 culture illusions clothing 0 decorative design I subordinate 7 function structure I commands greatest attention 0 decorative designs command attention 0 optical illusions I eye can be fooled o cultural values I acceptance of others 0 visual perception I choosing the best interpretation of available visual cues o 2 aspects of visual perception I stimulation 0 sensory awareness of visual image or cue I interpretation 0 mental recognition that visual image represents familiar object 0 visual illusion I occurs when something is not as it appears to be I misinterpreted or misapplied visual cues I created and controlled I cultural and physical desired effects cognitive learning 0 deals with factual intellectual and mental things 0 conscious learning affective learning 0 deals with feelings attitudes values beliefs emotions subjective judgments cultural conditioning o 1 opinions about clothing 0 2 concepts of beauty and ugliness o 3 what constitutes acceptable appearance 0 4 degrees of susceptibility or resistance to visual illusions o 5 concepts of ways to gain acceptance aesthetic purpose of dress 0 to promote acceptance of the wearer o to present a favorable visual impression to others 0 to create an optical illusion if necessary major types of illusions 0 static I not moving 0 auto kinetic I appears to move static illusions 7 5 types 0 l geometric o 2 depth and distance 0 3 after 7 image 0 4 simultaneous contrast 0 5 irradiation geometric illusions o l carpentered illusions I lines spaces angles 0 2 size and space illusions I incorrect distances or sizes estimates 0 3 directional illusions I strong linear direction 0 carpentered illusions I mullerlyre line illusion o lengthens or shortens I poggendorf illusion o displacement of interrupted diagonal line zottner illusion o intersecting lines 7 diagonal parallel o angled to or away from each other wundt illusion o caves in hearing illusion o bulges out horizontal 7 vertical 0 vertical line seems longer sander parallelogram o lengthens 7 widens gure apparent angle size 0 in uenced by spacing of surrounding lines subtle curves 0 more circle 7 rounder o shorter 7 atter I angular distortion 0 angles superimposed on square area seems pointed 0 size and space I aubert illusion 0 lled space seems larger than un lled space 0 line length relations I titchener and lipps circles 0 size di erences exaggerated I arrow illusion 0 size controlled by direction 0 directional I diagonals o lopsided wobbly I horizontals 0 width I verticals 0 height 0 depth and distance illusions I foreshortening or receding horizontal convergence and perspective 0 angle size changes viewed far away I ambiguous gures 0 gure ground reversals I spontaneous change of position 0 object seems to stay same sudden change 0 vantage point 0 after image 7 look at image over stimulated still see image I irradiation o perception of light area spill over darker areas Chapter 4 0 elements of design 0 space line shape and form light color texture pattern 0 space I 2 dimensional at pattern I 3 dimensional I empty area where other elements are placed organized by introducing lines o subdivide rearrange push pull manipulate enclosed o shape gure positive foreground unenclosed 0 space ground negative background 0 cues in uencing perception of shape and space I size of spatial divisions overlapping closeness of shapes density of spatial divisions convexity and concavity I size of spatial divisions o advancing attening I overlapping o shapes appear on or in front of other shapes I closeness of shapes 0 advance 0 isolate not touching free oating I density of spatial divisions o advancing o texture patterned o receding o hollow space attening I convexity and concavity o convex o pushes out protrusion o concave o caves in indentation 0 character of enclosing lines I determinate 0 thick solid sharp 0 enlarge advance I indeterminate 0 thin fuzzy blurred broken 0 atten airy recede o convex body curves I shoulder points shoulder blades bust abdomen hips buttocks elbow o concave body curves I neck waist knees ankles wrists 0 location size and position of body curve I everybody concavity helps define a convexity I every garment depends on body convexities for support 0 psychological effects bold assertive I advancing o shapes smaller than surrounding space 0 lled patterned or texture shapes 0 enclosed by solid thick sharp lines against plain ground 0 softer atter o attening I juxtaposed shapes of similar sizes enclosed by thin broken fuzzy lines o introducing spatial effects I open space 7 few structural lines I closed space I decorative 0 space between 0 fabric pattern construction detail applied trims Chapter5 0 line 0 most fundamental element in design 0 silhouette I edge or outline of a garment style lines that divide space within the garment functions of line I visual illusions mood and character leads the eye to specific feature on figure or design visual illusion 7 line I horizontal lines direct eye across and widen vertical lines direct eye up and down and lengthen the figure diagonal lines will slim figure if angle not too abrupt mood and character 0 line qualities 0 vertical horizontal diagonal thin thick straight curved leads eye to specific feature 0 the stronger the line the more effective the illusion 0 there are innumerable combinations 0 each combination will change total effect reinforcing and countering lines 0 creating optical illusions o divide and break up space 0 use in direction of desired emphasis introducing lines in apparel o structural lines 0 construction lines real or perceived edges creases or folds o decorative lines o trims fabric pattern 00 0 Chapter 6 o shape 0 created by line and space 0 at 2 dimensional area enclosed by a line 0 evokes images of geometry 0 3 dimensional area enclosed by a surface I hollow 0 interior is seen as volume 0 clothing parts I solid 0 interior is seen as mass 0 human form the body 0 a successful garment 0 3D form of parts I functionally practical I allow for movement protection and comfort I aesthetically pleasing 0 visual concepts of solids o visualize all around as a solid object at the same moment visual effects in dress basic guidelines 0 directionlength o garmentbody o shape space effects 0 garment detail effects 0 fit 0 direction of dominant lines and shapes 0 proportion 7 length in relation to width 0 number and kind of countering lines o necklines o dominantly vertical I elongates face and neck narrow shoulders o dominantly horizontal I add width to narrow faces pointed chins o curved I counters straightedged angular faces 0 angular I counters rounded faces 0 collar terminology I pictures in lab manual 0 3 basic collar types I at full roll partial roll I at 0 neckline curves same shape as garment neckline partial roll 0 neckline curves are straighter than garment neckline full roll 0 neckline curves are straight 0 stand fall gathered ruf ed o gathered or pleated to fit neckline seam 0 longer neck seam on collar I cowl o turtleneck variation bunches over stand I convertible 0 stand fallback o atfront I shawl 0 does not have gorge line 0 extension of bodice front 0 bodices 0 basic bodice I waistline position normal I basic bodice is very tted 0 other terms I princess lines blouson yokes strapless surplice o dart does not go to breast tip 0 Princess line can come from shoulder aim hole can cross bust tip 0 waistlines o dropped waist empire waist midriff yoke o 3 basic sleeve types 0 setin kimono raglan o skirt types 0 basic aline ared gore wraparoundsurplice gathered fullness pegged trumpet tiered ounce 0 types ofpleats o knife 7 folding all in one direction inverted 7 two knife pleats facing each other box accordion kilt o kick 7 knife pleat not sewn o bifurcated wear 0 means two legs 0 basic dress styles 0 onepiece garments 0 basic normal fitted 0 styles without waistlines 0 styles that extend out from the body Chapter 22 o proportion o the law of relationship of spaces I in relation to 0 relationship of distances sizes amounts degrees or parts 0 4 levels I within one part 0 length to width among parts 0 one area to adjoining area part to whole 0 whole to a part whole to environment 0 O O O o out t to wearer o proportion guidelines 0 O O O O O O O O unity plus variety slight deviation from precise divisions smaller part large enough larger part small enough for comparison golden mean 23 58 11618 oval face relationship to part whole proportion most pleasing for Us 2 types of relationships I similarities 0 equal proportions I differences 0 extreme proportions 0 human body 0 O O O O exquisite and complex proportions rare 7 equal divisions and multiples cultural ideals of beauty natural breaks heads I number of times the height of the head fits into the total height of the body 0 vertical body proportions I lower number of heads 0 larger head in relation to body I higher number of heads 0 smaller head in relation to height of body I average height for western figures 0 standard 0 75 heads 0 fashion figures 0 810 heads Africans I narrower across hips I thicker from front to back Asians I smooth at front and back torso I slight waist indentation Caucasian I wider across hips I more waist indentation center of gravity I greatest weight concentration I women 7 hips I men 7 shoulders o psychological effects 0 more equal proportions I more stable I equal added shapes add weight I more equal proportions o more fragile Chapter 23 0 scale 0 consistent relationship of sizes to each other and to the whole regardless of the shapes 0 rst cousin to proportion but compares ONLY sizes 0 relates sizes of small areas to each other I bows collars trims pattern I accessories ijewelry 0 whole to environment size of garment parts I size ofwearer o in scale I size relationships in garment or design are in agreement 0 out of scale I size relationships are clumsy or extreme 0 color and texture I advancing 0 enlarge 0 large scale 0 receding o minimize I small scale 0 0 basic guidelines 0 eye measures size ONLY I in relation to the garment on the body 0 extreme body sizes I avoid extremes 0 dress and patterns 0 size of accessories I contrast 0 tiny enlarges large gure 0 large pinpurse overpowers small gure I repetition 7 reinforces o tiny minimizes small gure 0 large pursepin enlarges large person 0 size ofpattern I repetition 7 reinforces o tiny complementsminimizes small gure 0 large pattern enlarges large person I contrast 0 tiny motif enlarges large gure 0 large pattern overpowers small gure 0 guidelines for pattern I motif 0 a single or repeat design or color 0 size small enough 0 completely seen from one angle 0 small scale motifs o structural designs I seams darts gathers pleats etc 0 large scale motifs 0 large smooth unbroken areas 0 rm erect smooth gure 0 bold aggressive assertive straight forward 0 small scale motifs and patterns 0 delicate dainty 0 small children elderly I petiteaverage gure 0 small scale prints 0 camou age stooping hollows bulges from aging o introducing scale in fabric I style features notions trims pattern fabric texture jewelry and accessories I style features 0 appear as part of garment 0 pockets collars ruf es bows cuffs belts etc 0 fashion gure proportions 0 drawing the body 0 realism I natural sized gure 0 idealism I unnaturally long I elongated gure 0 gure proportions 0 gure broken into partssections o halves or thirds 0 head to waist waist to knee knee to toe 0 head to end of torso end of torso to ankle 0 gure section guidelines 0 lines de ne and label sections I guide to draw a pose 0 lines show sewing lines on dress forms or mannequins I helps dress gure I properly draw garment details I sewing lines always needed 0 princess lines I parallel to each other I breaks gure into quarters I cross bust tip 0 pro le view I side view of gure I front and back ofbody 0 heads I height of gure 0 created by heads tall I normal heads 0 78 I fashion gures 0 9 10 0 balance lines o plumb line 0 line runs straight down perpendicular to oor I through the pit of the neck 0 used to keep gure standing straight on page 0 center front line 0 0 middle of torso I shows positionpose of torso 0 moves independently of balance line 0 helps draw pose 7 ribcage pelvis 0 center back 0 CB spine 0 not imaginary sewing line 0 follows back bone from neck to end of torso o angles 3swing lines o l shoulder lines I through pit of neck I shoulder point to shoulder point I parallel to bust area 0 2 waistline I through navel I smallest part of tors I parallel to hip line 0 3 hip line I end of torso I fullest part ofhips I parallel to waist I above crotch point 0 action lines I sets a pose in motion or movement 0 perform dynamics 0 aids in balance of figure 0 dynamics between natural body segments 0 basic figure forms 0 drawing arms and legs I forms are exaggerated in length I simplified shape and width 0 foreshortening 0 explains visual development of bends in the body as seen and drawn Chapter 10 Abling o designer sketching and fashion illustration 0 designer39s sketch I to show off the clothing I is for trade I details Worth 1896 0 fashion illustration I to show off the person wearing the clothing I is for the consumer o designer sketch I projects all details of designer s I immediate visual focus 0 drape construction fit fabrication 0 fashion illustration I projects certain attitude from a specific type of woman I immediate visual focus 0 pose 7 woman wearing this garment 0 style 7 how she feels in it 0 types ofposes o Xpose tpose ipose spose o poses 0 each garment has a shape 0 artist39s pose selection of right pose o it should enhance the I SHAPE and STYLE of that garment o attitudes in poses o conveys the message I how customermodel feels in outfit I what target category garment look fits 0 fashion industry s point of view I artist must select pose to re ect intended attitude 0 attitude contradictions o contradiction I bridal dress in nontraditional pose 0 look 0 less expressive o more specific 0 more informant I about garment not wearer o feel 0 sets a specific mood o attitude 7 expressive o conveys how model I feels in garment Chapter 24 0 balance 0 feeling of evenly distributed weight 0 resulting in equilibrium steadiness and stability 0 each garment part I interacts with all other I achieve stability 0 3 types ofbalance 0 horizontal I sides balance each other 0 vertical I upper and lower parts balance I prevents feeling of top or bottom heavy o radial I center and outer edges I concentration of weight near center 0 2 types of horizontal balance 0 formal or symmetrical I sides mirror images 0 informal or asymmetrical I sides dilTerent I overall feeling of equal weight distribution 0 Balance and elements 0 balance can apple to EVERY aspect of EVERY element 0 advancing and receding o opposing qualities complement and balance each other 0 balance and principles 0 all linear principles contribute to balance 0 contrast enlivens countering avoid extremes 0 balance essential I harmony ananglesswing linesd unity o psychological balance 0 vertical balance I steadiness 0 horizontal balance I stately and regal o informal balance I dynamic casual complex 0 spatial balance I equal internal and external pressure 0 introducing balance 0 structurally I direction of seams edges I counter 7 reinforce


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