DRESSADRNMENT TO 17
DRESSADRNMENT TO 17 HUEC 4071
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This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nella Jaskolski V on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HUEC 4071 at Louisiana State University taught by J. Kuttruff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/222440/huec-4071-louisiana-state-university in Ecology at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
HUEC 4071 History of Dress and Adornment before 1700 Dr uttl39uff39 January 19 2011 Chapter One Terms Dre s ClothesClothing Costume Draped Dress 0 Fashion 0 Folk Costume 0 Style Tailored Dress 0 Western Dress Zeitgeist Breeching Cross Cultural Influences Cultural Authentication Fashion System 0 Gender Mixtures Status Sumptuary Laws 0 Theme Clothing has existed since prehistorictimes Why do people wear clothes Decoration is the most likely out of protection status and modesty 0 Reason Because clothing still was invented in an enviroment where heat andor cold was not prevelent enough for protection 0 Type of dress worn may be limited by 0 Function style must permit activity 0 Availability of materials Dress can be divided between draped and tailored clothing 0 Draped was developed in warmer climates o Tailored originated in colder climates primarily made with animal furs 0 There are also clothing that combines draping and tailoring o Draped Indian sari with closely tailored bodiceand draped skirt Technology limits or expands options 0 Hand processes 0 Mechanized 0 Powered by electricity Social mores and customs may limit or expand clothing choices 0 Changes and or patterns in social behavior what modern terminology might refer to as lifestyles Functions of dress in the social context can include o Designation of gender differences 0 Designation of status 0 Identification of group membership 0 Ceremonial use of clothing Certain themes grow out of the historical context 0 Politics and political leaders as style setters 0 Political Conflict 0 Economic events including trade and the production and acquisition of textiles and apparel o The theme of technology is often related to the production of textiles and apparel 0 And the various media of communication Part I The Ancient World c3500 BCAD 300 Ancient Middle East 3500 600 BC Crete and Greece 6 2900 300 BC Etruria and Rome c 800 BC AD 400 Locations of Ancient World Civilizations Extent af39the Roman mplre in AD 4t Eiruria THE ANCIENT WORLD C 3000 BC AD 300 0 Roots of Western Civilization are found in area around the Mediterranean Sea Cultures formed the artistic religious philosophical and political basis of western culture Mesopotamia areas surrounding Tigris and Euphrates Rivers 0 Sumerian o Babylonian o Assyrian Egyptian Nile River valley and delta Minoan Island of Crete Mycenaean mainland Greece Dorians dark ages of Greece Classical Greek Etruscans north of Rome central Italy Romans Italian peninsula Civilizations of the Ancient World Tim Period Mesopotamia Egypt Crane Greece Elruriu Roma BL 400073000 Sumcriun Uni cation Civilization or Egypt gooo 1uou Old Kingdom oouriono Risa of Middle Minoan Myocnacan Baliylonin K i ngd om Civilization Civilization iooHno Risa ofAssyiia Dark Age lion sou Dmlinc of Native Homeric RISE ofElrusm Egyptian Civilization MChiliC Period Civilizauon acorsoo Neo Bzbylouian Etruscan Kings riod of Rome 500 400 Persian conquests Golden Age knman Republic 0 Asia and Middle East 4nn3nn Mexaudur the Gieat 300 00 End of Etruscan Confederation 2004 n anan Fmpire u gon Roman Roman Roman Domination Domination Dominalion c3000 BC AD 300 O Costume as well as other art forms of the different Mediterranean cultures showed both independent characteristics and similarities 0 Most garments were draped length of square rectangular or semicircular fabric drapedwrapped to create a variety of styles fastened together with pins fibula or by sewing included loin cloths skirts tunics shawls cloaks and veils Chapter 2 The Ancient Middle East c 3500 600 BC Mesopotamia w Later Sumerian and Babylonian 25001000 BC Assyrian 1000600 BC x Mesopotamia site of the first civilizations in the Middle East DIFFERENCES BETWEEN EGYPTIAN AND MESOPOTAMIAN CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT Civilizations of Mesopotamia displayed greater diversity varied geography and climate speciaized crops nomadic herders greater outside influences invaders incorporated new ideas into older cultures Egyptian civilization relatively slow to change 0 OOO 0 similar geography and climate 0 fewer outside influences o maintained continuity in political and religious tradition Culturai differences in uenced differences in dress Egyptians loved clarity of form in life and in art inc dress Babylonians loved pomp and luxury 0 reflected in heavy fabrics rich patterns elaborate fringes Religion and morality expressed as different views of modesty in dress Historical Background Mesopotamia Mesopotamia between riversTigris and Euphrates Towns and cities developed in southern part 0 agriculture 0 herding Developed increasingly complex social organization Mesopotamian Cultures Sumerians 35002800 BC 0 Developed form of writing kuficcufic that allowed them to 0 keep records codify lawstransmit knowledge 0 Did not develop strong political organization 0 loose confederation of city states Babylonians 20001700 BC 0 Created an autocratic state 0 King Hammurabi famous for his code of law covering almost every facet of life influenced later Middle Easter law codes Assyrians 1000612 BC 0 First great military machine standing army iron swords o Cruel feared and hated NeoBabylonians Chaldeans 612539 BC 0 Destroyed Nineveh capital of Assyria 0 Known for its luxury and wealth astronomers Persians 5390 BC 0 o A new and greater power Map of Mesopotamia 4 s Wham W m4 5r 7 7 x VELH Y n m Farmf U 39 A l 39 f Ennxquotquotquotquot 4 c m yowrf f f Bonsaiw v4 m new M40 Mesopotamia 3100 BC l OO BC Nlcdircrmncam 564 i imkm 7 0 zoom Persian Gulf Mesopotamian Social Structure 0 Social classes clearly defined nobility far above rest of society free men intermediate class of artisans tradesmen lesser public officials and laborers the poor worth little farmers M worth nothing foreign captives wives and children sold into slaveryto meet ebts Patriarchalfamilystructure o subordinate position of women 0 children had no legal rights 0 OOO Mesopotamia Fabrics and cloth production 0 garments most likely made of wool I barley wool and oil main products and were traded o linen was produced and used but less important than wool o variety of fabrics and decorations were quite complex 0 Sources of costume evidence 0 Largely derived from visual materials seals wall paintings statues excavation of tombs Evidence for costume is mostly visual Sumerian Gold Wig Helmet Sumerian Figure Sumerian Tablet Sumerian Painted Sumerian Cylinder Seal Jar Mesopotamia Summary 0 Clothing designed not to compliment the body but to cover it Wool warm and bulky was primaryfiberfor clothing 0 linen and cotton used in later periods but not to great extent 0 Aspects of dress that are still used 0 high crowned headdress Assyrian kings Eastern Orthodox Christian priests o veiling of women outside the home Kaunakes used in European art to symbolize people from little known or distant lands of the Middle East Sumerian Cuneiform Writing Cuneiform tablet circa 310 BC showing a list ofrations Sumerian Architecture Reconstruction of the Ziggurat at Ur Cloaks provided protection against the weather They were probably made from animal skins leather or heavy felted cloth Sumeria King ofLagash ampfamily 5 2500 BC 0 Tufted amp plain wrapped skirts on men 0 Wrapped tufted garment on woman King of Lagash amp family 2 2500 BC 0 Tufted amp plain wrapped skirts on men 0 Wrapped tufted garment on woman N ii an 3 2 Vi 5 1v Sumeria 35002500 BC Early Sumerian men amp women wore wrapped skirts that were held in place with wide belts Sumerian man and woman in kaunakes type oAt first skirts were probably made from sheepskin with fleece attached Later woven cloth hadfringe at the bottom to imitate tufts of wool onfleece The Greek ward kaunakes has been applied lo this am or am like iahric Sumerian female Men shaved their hair or wore it long were bearded or cleanshaven Headdresses 1559 L Coronets hair ornaments earrings from royal tombs of Ur Bronze head Later Sumerian and Babylonia 25001000 BC styles evolved slowly Gradually styles increased in complexity o Rulers c2100 BC were shown in wrapped garment and distinctive headdress i f Before 2300 BC men are shown both cleanshaven and with beards Later men are depicted only with beards Nearsumenan Fums a Prince ulLagzsn Babylonia and Assyl ia Babylonians 20001700 BC 0 Created an autocratic state 0 King Hammurabi famous for his code of law covering almost every facet of life influenced later Middle Easter law codes 0 Assyrians 1000612 BC 0 First great military machine standing army iron swords o Cruel feared and hated Babylonia l study for hammurabl law The code of Hammurabi with delall u the slele Assyria King Assurhanlpal and his Queen Assyrian Empire 1 53 gt v 939 Al 1quot quota 4W4 gl I i n I A 39 quot l T 2 WWW 5 u ak n Assyria Comment JALZ do not need to bab om39a and as Han tes to know the backgroung for each seperate need tsbutwm King Assurbanipal with lions BabyloniaAssyria Tunic Wrapped fringed shawl Wedged sandals Curled hair amp square beard Tall tapering headdress BabyloniaAssyria BabyloniaAssyria Men were beardedthe hair and beard arranged in small curls perhaps made with curling irons The King s heard was longer than that of other men and su pplemented with a false section Lowerclass men had shorter beards and hair Amongthe hat styles was a high brimless hat similar to the Fez or Tarbush a modernday traditional Arab style Sandals had thicker or thinner soles Earrings bracelets and armlets were worn Decorative motifs used forjewelry often resembled those seen on pattern fabrics Babylonia Assyria accessories Assyria Assyria Soldiers wore a short tunic a corselet of mail and a wide belt The mail was probably made by sewing small metal plates onto leather or heavy cloth Helmets fit the head closely coming to a peaked point at the back of the head Both sandals and high boots were worn Assyrian Soldiers BabyloniaAssyria Men and women s styles showgreater differences Women39s dress now covers upper body Kaunakes garment becomes associated with religious figures Fabrics were elaborately patterned Women also wore fringed shawls draped around the body Assyrian Women Earlier hairstyles for Assyrian women are elaborately arranged Later styles were simplified to curly shoulderlength hair
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