WEST CIVIL TO 1500
WEST CIVIL TO 1500 HIST 1001
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This 30 page Class Notes was uploaded by Magnolia Heaney on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1001 at Louisiana State University taught by K. Roider in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/222446/hist-1001-louisiana-state-university in History at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Europe in 1500 Demography Population Germany 18m France 16m highest density ltaly 12m highest density spain 8m Britain 4m Lowest Density Poland Russia Cities Naples 200000 Venice 115000 Milan 100000 Paris 90000 London 70000 Rural 85 in west and 95 in the east lived on the land Diet 44 of family budget went to bread 28 to other foods Society Classes recognized by law Clergy class that prayed Nobility class that fought No longer important military Third Class class that worked Peasantry free semifree unfree Middle Class Bourgeoise Economy beginning to change old industries doing well spinning weaving iron work new industries emerging printing firearms silk still mostly farming State System west emerging nation states England France Spain Portugal center italy and germany still dividing into states Austria creating all the qualities of a modern state Does not have one nation language becomes an empire East Ottoman empire strong advancing muslim turkish Poland going in reverse Russia No consequence at this time Church bad shape Pope Alexander VI borgia 14921503 spent most of church resources helping sonone ofthe worst popes ever protestant reformation begaan in 1517 Growth of Towns Medieval towns were not the same as classical towns Classical towns were administrative centers and medieval towns were commercial centers Agricultural Revolution 10th 11th centuries Feudalism provided increased security Technological innovations MoldBoard Plow heavy plow used to turn over heavy european earth Hoarse Collar and Yoke Allow animal to pull with shoulders Scythe used to cut hay can be done standing up can feed livestock in barns Three eld system PWN Northern Italy commercial towns never disappeared revived by crusades Exported timber salt and ironware Imported sugar spices drugs and silk transported knights and pilgrims to the holy land Flanders manufacturing town sheep and wool Developed manufacture of woolen cloth long and elaborate process people specialized in different stages Growth of towns Between Italy and Flanders Trade develops between Towns spring up facilitating trade routes required protection so set up near castles Government did not t into the feudal structure towns would gain right to govern themselves town charters towns gained rights from lords Guilds Characteristics Organization of people who did the same work Controlled production had to be a memberto sell products Guaranteed good quality and fair prices Joined in city projects like building the church or cathedral Structure Mastersran guilds Journeyman bachelor assisted masters Apprentice young boy university another name for guild organization ofteachers and students regulated quality negotiated for services titles are the same Master Bachelor but of arts or science Doctor of philosophy was a learned person France Introduction by 1000 the most powerful gures were dukes and counts liked to elect kings who were weak Treaty of Verdun treaty between three sons of Louis the Pious and the son and successor of Charlemagne which divided the territories ofthe Cololingian empire into 3 kingdoms Early French Kings Louis Vl the fat 11081137 and Louis VII the young 11271180 both enhanced the king s prestige married children to powerful dukes and counts offered justice to the less than mighty such as towns knights and monasteries ifyou wanted justice you went to the king Phillip Augustus 11801223 Southern province is not really french Count of Toulouse most important political figure in province A religious movement spreads in provence Unusually vicious crusade kill anybody you want but the land is mine kill them all and let god sort them out Enhances the kings power Albigensianism Began as a movement to reform the lives ofthe priests make them more spiritual world is divided into good an evil The esh is evil and the soul is good the world is evil but heaven is good According to the bible god created the world therefore god created evil But the god ofjesus would not create evil Therefore the god ofthe bible is not really god but satan Since the church teaches people to worship the god ofthe bible the church is the servant of satan The real god the god ofjesus is a hidden god that only the pure can understand Therefore it is the duty of every Albigensianism to become pure enough to serve the hidden god Pope goes to Phillip Augustus to lead crusade against Albigensianism Louis IX enhanced king s power and prestige also much beloved true christian king made saint 26 years after death Protected weak crusades maintained king s authority strengthened the administration Crusades Introduction A grand effort to take the holy land from the muslims and restore it to christianity by people who were toughmean superstitious and illiterate First crusade 1095 Background Arabs conquer holy land in 7th century Arabs were fairly tolerant of christians and pilgrims then conquered by turks asian muslims less tolerant towards christians Battle of Manzikert 1071 turks defeat armies of eastern roman empire AleXius Comenius appeals to pope for help Pope Urban ll Urban s reasons Help Xian pilgrims help eastern church would boost the prestige ofthe papacy would get rid oftroublesome knights calls a meeting at Clermont Beggars Crusade led by Peter the Hermit and Walterthe Penniless Disaster Knight s Crusdae 2500050000 1095 is rst European wide persecution of Jews Took Antioch but was then surrounded by turkish army Peter Bartholomew had a vision of a true spear Siege of Jerusalem 1099 killed everyone Crusader States Modeled on feudalism Kingdom of Jerusalem County of Edessa County of Trupoli Adapted slowly to Eastern Culture Other Crusades Third Crusade 11891192 Saladin Conquered Jerusalem in 1187 Europeans Richard the Lionhearted England Phillip Augustus France Frederick Barboasa Holy Roman Emperor Made a deal with Saladin to allow pilgrims to come Fourth Crusade 1204 sacked Constantinople Children s Crusade 1212 needed an army of innocents merchants sold them into slavery 7th and 8th crusades Led by Louis IX of France Last Crusader State Fell 1291 Results Failed to keep holy land removed some troublesome knights raised prestige of church England V lliam the Congueror1066 1087 conquest of england 1066 Introduced norman feudalism Henml11001135 circuit judges all important legal cases decided by him and his officials answerable only to king Henm ll jury trial verdict speak the truth grand jury speak against Rise of Parliament Barons great lords ofeurope Principles Barons must approve certain taxes King must obey laws and customs of kingdom Barons acting in council see to it that king obeys laws No individual baron can punish king only as a group Simon de Monfrant leader of portion of barons who rebelled against the king captured him and looked for support from barons called meeting of barons added representatives from towns and shires Edward I 12721307 Model Parliament 1295 public relations effort that turned into institution became the custom to call both groups to increase taxes and then to introduce new laws Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire Papacy lntro pope was a political power 6001860 governed central italy gained power 600 Rome governed by Ostrogoths 476540 Byzantine Empire conquered 540590 ruled poorly Pope Gregom the Great 590604 threat of lombards Gregory negotiated a treaty with the Lombards Romans and Central ltalians ask Gregory to become their political leader He declared that the bishop of Rome is head of all western christians rst to use the term pope Monasteries Origins of Monasteries Over time monasteries gained political in uence associated with military force within the structure of feudalism St Benedict c 480503 rules for monastic living Chastity poverty and obedience Also monks should work as well as pray Provided the pope with increased political power as well as religious authority Introduction to the Holy Roman Empire Division of Europe before 900 AD Louis the Pious 814 840 divided the empire into three parts for sons sons not sa s ed treaty ofverdun 843 sons divide europe helps divide france and germany from one another Holy roman empire is german part of this division given to louis the german Otto the Great 936973 got dukes and counts to recognize his authority defeated Magyars at Battle of Lechfield 955 Extended his influence into ltaly Holy means christian crowned in Rome Emperor Not a roman Empire It is a german empire Cooperation Before romans chose new pope church leaders came up with new system 11th century cardinals would choose cardinals were usually the priest ofrome cardinals would nominate and present choice to congregation ofrome Medieval Thought Background to the problem Concerned about next life All christians concerned about christian issues how one is saved achieve salvation Early on based strictly on christian writings With the fall of the roman empire plato socrates greek drama was lost in the west NOT in the east Christian writers have only christian texts bible writings of church fathers Framing the Problem Saint Augustine Late Roman writer knows about roman texts big fan of plato Imperfect reflections of perfect things God is an externally perfect being who conceives the ideas of things the human soul is a reflection of god humans become more aware of god by improving soul God reveals himself in scriptures When you have faith you learn about god Augustine argued everything you experience in this world prepares you for the next Faith and reason do not disagree The Problem Faith and Reason Aristotle made much more sense reason but he was not a christian Christians said just ignore it we don t have to respond to aristotle PreAguinas Thinkers St Anslem 10331109 first to tackle aristotle christianity the most important thing is faith faith helps you understand through reason Peter Abelard 10791142 was a priest and professor wrote a book called yes and no took 158 major propositions and wrote cases for both sides tells everyone to make own conclusions the principles of christianity cannot be proven by reason It isjust a superstition Thomas Aguinas12151274 Summa theologica Faith and reason complement one another they do not contradict takes an issue in christianity and shows the reason why it is right and why it is wrong and then gives the correct answer Aguinas Illustrated Dante s Divine Comedy Virgil will guide Dante through hell virgil is reason Reason will help you avoid sin but every once in a while their is a barrier you cannot pass That is when you need faith PostAguinas Thinkers William of ockham 12851349 God is NOT reason and to say so insults god becuase it restricts him to human understanding Reason to understand this world faith to get to the next 101209 Roman Empire 1 Introduction 0 The Roman empire really begins around 27 BC I The difference between the roman empire and the roman republic is that is has a different constitutional structure I All of the institutions stayed but all power diverted to the emperor I Ended in 476 AD in the west and 1453 AD in the east 2 Augustus Caesar 63 BC14 AD Creator of the empire 0 Grandnephew ofulius Caesar I When Julius Caesar died he had no legitimate heirs Marc Antony 8230 BC I Felt that he should have been the heir to Julius Caesar Made a deal that said that the Senate will have amnesty if they will allow for Caesar s will to be read out loud o The will was read in public75 of Caesar s wealth went to Augustus and he was also named the heir to Caesar 0 Important because Augustus instantly becomes a player in the political arenainstantly a force to be reckoned with There emerges a power triangle among the three players Augustus Antony and the Senate I The Senate and Augustus power up and defeat Antony After Augustus didn t become counsel Augustus goes to Antony Antony and Augustus made war on the Senate I Antony and Augustus succeed in defeating the Senate the Senate is no longer a player in the political forceAntony and Augustus divides the Roman estate Antony takes the west and Augustus takes the east 3 Augustus Caesar 0 It isn t long before Antony and Augustus fight for total controlAntony allies with Egypt whose ruler at the time is Cleopatra 6930 BC The decisive battle is the Battle ofActium 31 BC I It s a sea battle In this battle Augustus eet defeated the combined eet of Antony and Cleopatra Antony survives and runs back to Egypt to build up another army he fails and he commits suicide Augustus captures Cleopatra and wants to parade her around Rome she doesn t want to and commits suicide He s in charge of everything after this battle 4 Constitution of the Empire Something Old 0 Augustus goal was to restore the old republic o In the new system he kept most of the old institutions counsuls tribunes Senate Assembly and Plebeian Council I He is a part of most of these institutions 5 Constitution of the Empire Something New 0 ImperiumProconsularemaius infinitum I Imperium authority or power to command an army I Proconsulare authority of proconsul which is without time limit I Maiusgreater authority than any other procounsul I Infinitum for life 0 Had supreme authority in all areas where soldiers were stationed 0 Army from now on took oath of loyalty to the Emperor not to Rome I Power was given to Augustus by the assembly 0 Title of quotEmperorquot first used by Vespasian 6979 AD 0 Tiberius 1437 AD gave senate power to choose emperor 6 Solving the problems 0 Augustus sets out to solve the problems 0 Countryside Use of upper class from all over the Empire I What they want is Roman values Wanted the senate to act responsibly I Tried to encourage all upper classes to join in his reform 0 Cities quotbread and games I The senate gave Augustus as a personal possession Egypt 0 Provinces I Local selfgovernment I Oversight by qualified governors I Pontius pilate a good example 7 PaXRomana Roman Peace 0 Most peaceful time because Rome didn t have serious enemies 20 BC 180 AD I Gave the opportunity for Christianity to spread 101409 Roman Culture 1 Romans ever developed a sophisticated culture of their own When they saw the architecture poetry drama and philosophy of the Greeks they loved it and began to adopt Grecian culture 2 Romans were much better with engineering so they could build better Epic Poetry a Greek form Romans had one too but while we know nothing about Homer we know a ton about Virgil 1 Virgil 7018 BC 1 Aeneid i Story Aeneas the hero is the son of King Priam of Troy At end of Trojan War Aeneas ees with his family and some followers and seeks a place to settle That s what the poem s about the wanderings ofAeneas His mother supposedly is Venus Each place he stops he asks mom quotIs this where we should settle but mom always answers quotnoquot He winds up in Rome Mom says this is where he should settle Story ends Aeneas is the founder of the Roman people a mix of Trojans from Troy and the local population Romulas is a little later founds the city of Rome 1 Great lessons Doesn t have much to do with eternal lessons this is a poem about patriotism and loyalty to your own He is writing this when Augustus was developing Rome 2 Romans were concerned about patriotism We are too We can kind ofidentify with Romans 2 HistoryHistorians a Object was to teach the values Remember the four fathers and four mothers i Livy 5917 AD 1 Background Wrote the history of the Republic Virtually everything we learned about the Republic came from him He says In the founding of the Republic the Romans were best known for their virtue their gravitas their pietas their hard work etc Tells story of Sinsinatus He also writes in his history is that the biggest problem in his time is that the Romans seem to be losing those values Instead of simple living they lust a Argues What we need is men of virtue like those that eXisted in the old days of the Republic ii Tacitus 55120 AD 1 Background Writes about the Roman Empire after it s been around for a little bit He doesn t like the Roman Empire Why Because it s lost it s old values The men don t have gravitas the pietas Instead of simple living they are lusting They are lazy ii39 lt a Argues What we need is the kind ofmen who were around when Livy was around honest men men of virtue 2 Wrote Germania and described German culture s simple living and virtue He is writing a criticism of Rome AmmianusMarcellinus 330395 AD 1 Background Writing when Rome really is in decline Asks why It is declining because we no long have the same virtues No longer have the gravitas the pietas Wasting time a Argues What we need is men who were like those when Tacitus was around Don t write on the test that the Empire fell because they lost old virtues If you do make fun ofit This is typically Roman and typically American We always complain about this 3 Philosophy a Stoicism lt v39 Originally Greek Zeno ofAthens 335264 was the founder of stoicism iquot Romans liked it because it fit so well with what they already thought Universe is governed by rational principles which make up the Logos One can call those principles whatever one likes Iupiter Zeus God Yahweh Each person has a spark of those principles inside himher This is what the stoics called the soul They used the term quotholy spirit This is your connection with the Logos Very Socratic Purpose oflife is for each person to try to understand what the Logos wants for himher and adapt to it When and where you were born or not born gender who your parents are these factors are given to you Stoics will say quotyou can t be anything you want to be So accept it and move on So take advantage of your opportunities and recognize them for what they are You do it with gravitas with pietas with a sense of duty etc Look how practical this is Romans were big on practicality and this fit with what the Romans believe a Romans were very innovative European law is based on Roman law They were concerned with In this huge territory with so many different types ofpeople are there laws that can apply to all romans c Iurisconsuls legal theorists who came up with the principle of natural law i Principles of Natural Law 1 A person has a right to face hisher accuser 2 No person should be punished for what heshe thinks 3 A person is innocent until proven guilty 4 Slavery is legal but contrary to nature 5 Liberty means doing anything the law allows 6 The law says quotLive honorably harm no one and give everyone hisher due 101609 Christianity Part 1 Cicero 10643 considered to be the greatest orator in the city of Rome Lived during the Age of Generals A stoic Wrote a book for his son 0n Moral Duties In it he said quotphilosophy is a wonderful thing but you don t learn about human nature by sitting in a room full of other people talking about it To learn about being a human get involved in politics Seneca 465 Nero s tutor Very interested in stoic idea that we all have a spark of the divine in us No evidence that he even knew about Christianity 1 Introduction a AD Anno Domini began with birth ofesus CE or quotCommon Era is often used b By LAW Christianity became official religion of Roman Empire in 395 AD Went from a fairly obscure religion in Palestine to the only legal religion in the West at the time of the Roman Empire In uences language of church was Latin Greek c New Testament was written in Greek and language of the Western church was Latin d Christianity spreads well within the Iudaic Assumption that God works through humans 2 Roman Religion a Roman religion was derived from Greek religion They took old gods and fitted them into new gods ex Aphrodite becomes Venus b Roman Religion was equated with power and patriotism They recognized leaders as gods This was a way of saying quotworship the emperor as God in order to show your loyalty to the state Roman Religion may be equated to the pledge of allegiance in modernday standards ii39 It is a public expression of patriotism c Imperial Cult i Developed in Roman Empire ii Was a personification of Rome as a female goddess iii The festivals of the Imperial cult were to encourage patriotism d Spiritually unsatisfying i Didn t offer much at all in terms of spirituality If you had spiritual needs they couldn t be satisfied through Roman religious process So the Romans began to search for other religions that were spiritually satisfying ii39 3 Mystery Religion all eXisted before Christianity a P Here Mystery means a ceremony or a service that is unknown to non believers You have to be a believer to participate in the mystery You become a believer by some sort ofinitiation Sometimes called the competitors of Christianity This re ects the spiritual yearnings of the Romans Cult of Isis Egyptian Isis is a motherly figure Must be baptized by water from the Nile River No blood ceremony Major festival was the Ritual murder of Sarapis an annul festival For 3 days believers mourned on the 3ml day Sarapis rose from the dead Cult was expensive To advance from one level of the priesthood to the neXt cost money which was not true of Christianity Priesthood was celibate Celibate means not married i Sarapis husband When you die you appear before him and he judges whether or not you have been sufficiently good to go to heaven ii Horus son Mithras Persian taught that you as a believer in this religion you should struggle to do good If you don t you are by default supporting the evil god To become initiated you had to kill a bull Idea was life comes from the ancestral bull By killing the bull the blood spreads out and calls life This religion appealed to men and especially soldiers There are a lot of Mithras temple along fighting grounds Major festival was his birthday December 25 i Zoroastrianism Cult of Mithras is a derivative of this Zoroastrianism and Mithras taught that there are really 2 gods in the universe a god of good and a god of evil They are in con ict with each other Cybele Not Sure first recorded in Rome in 204 bc She is also a mother goddess We know least about this because the ceremony had something to do washing away sins with blood Christians really into getting rid of this one because it was too close Festival in March the ritual killing of Attis followed 3 days later by his rising of the dead i Attis husband Common features of Mystery Religions Good and evil struggled for control of the world i39 Believer pursued the good and resisted evil ii39 Last judgement iv Ceremonies involving blood v Initiation ceremony ofsome kind vi Major festivals of some kind Hp 4 Iudaism at the time of Christ a Sadducees Priestly traditional conservative b Pharisees i Teachersscholars ii Iudaism must have controlled change iii Angels Satan Last Iudgement iv Rational Argument 101909 Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire 1 Problems 2 External Problems a Germans IndoEuropean peoplenorth of the Roman Empire Social and Political system 1 Basic unit was the clanjoined together to create tribes 2 The men were warriors and soldiersall of the agriculture were left to the woman 3 Political system was loyalty to the chiefdom a Chiefdom and his small group ofloyal warriors ruled the political system i It was shameful to have the chief appear less brave than his warriors ii Not an organized state Entry into the Roman Empire 1 First came into the Roman Empire as slavesover time not only did the germans settle along the border of the Roman Empire they were encouraged to settle because ofpopulation loss and they were drafted into the Roman Army 2 Only after 300350 AD that the Germans start coming across as armies b Parthian Empire Persia The Parthian Empire is a revival of Persia The Romans fought wars with Parthia off and on for about 300 years never was a threat however Parthia drained the romans resources ii39 b Internal problems a Loss ofpopulation perhaps 25 between 250 and 400 AD i Caused by plagues and epidemicsmay be smallpox or a small case of the bubonic ii Caused a downturn in revenue and men for the army b Need for men and money for the army i The losses continued to increase c Downward spiral c Political Problems a Commodus 180192 AD i Considered one of the first awful commandersthis began the downward spiral in politics ii Begins the string of barracks emperors b Barracks Emperors 192284 AD i Called the barracks emperors because they are put into power by the armyemperors are at the mercy of the army c 20 emperors in 49 years 235284 AD d Revival under Diocletian and Constantine 284337 AD a Diocletian 284305 AD i Internal issues were the most serious problems ii Reformed the army iii Froze society 1 He wanted to guarantee revenueissued an order that say that if you were in a certain class and ifyou die your offspring had to take over your positioneveryone was to stay in place so society basically got frozen a It didn t workyou cant freeze society iv Political reforms 1 Introduced political reforms at the very top but it didn t work however while he was alive the empire rebounded himself b Constantine 312337 AD e Decline Resumes a After 350 AD the germans are coming as armies b Rome is sacked in 410 Ad c Fall of Rome 476 AD i Odoacer ii Romulus Augustulus 1 Last emperor in the West d Empire stayed in the East until 1453the decline is only in the West at this point 102109 Christianity 11 Introduction Two Fundamental questions in Christianity then and now 0 What should Christians believe 0 Who tells Christians what they could believe I For the first 350 years there were no popes nor bibles so the early Christians had to work out and find out things for themselves The Church to 70 AD 0 Organization I Temple system I 70 elders called Presbyteroi o Elected by the congregation I Episcopus 0 President among these organizations 0 First issue Preach to nonJews Gentiles I James 0 The brother ofJesusbelieved that they didn t have to preach to the GentilesBelieved that they should obey the Jewish law I Paul 0 Key opponent to Jamesbelieved that you should preach to the Gentilesrecognized that Jerusalem was the head of the church I Compromise o Agreed to preach to Gentiles under the condition that o NonJewish Christians must not worship idols Would be a problem with the Roman state later on quotabstain from unchaste 0 Must not eat the esh of animals that have been strangled and must not drink animal blood I Acts 1520 0 The head of the Christian church is still Jerusalem o Destruction ofJerusalem 70 AD I Was destroyed because in 66 AD the Jews rose up again Roman Rule The Christian church was destroyed in 70 AD 0 The roman army came in and chrushed everyonedidn t distinguish Jews from the Gentiles Issues 70250 AD 0 Organization of churchs I The same as it was in Jerusalemslowly but surely the president begins to appoint the Presbyteroi O 0 Slowly this morphs into priests and bishops o What should Christians believe I Bishops argued what to believe through the mail 0 Marcion c 150 AD I Was a bishop from Egypt who declared that Christianity must get rid of the old testament o Believed that the old testament God was not the God of Iesusthe only books that Christians should read 0 Luke 0 Acts 0 Paul 0 The early bishops decide to keep the old testament because they say it predicts the coming ofesus 0 Canon Measuring Stick 0 The first list that we have is the Muratorian Canon c 200 AD 102309 Christianity 111 1 Constantine 288337 AD a Roman Political Situation b Battle of Milvian Bridge 312 AD i Maxentius ii In Hoc SignoVinces iii Night before battled Constantine prayed for a sign on how the battle would go A vision with a cross quotby this sign you shall conquer appeared He had his soldiers paint crosses on their shield Killed Maxentius and defeated his army iv Constantine becomes 1st Christian emperor c Association with Christianity i Constantine had association with Christianity before 312 but he does not make Christianity the religion of the empire and he allowed pagan worship His mom and wife had been Christian ii Constantine gets really involved in Christian teaching and theology After Ierusalem fell there was no center of Christianity Constantine takes a very intense approach to resolving issues d Constantinople Byzantium i Constantine created his own city Byzantium and renamed it Constantinople or Constantine s Polis ii When West fell in 476 the Byzantium empire was what remained 2 Church of Nativity in Bethlehem a Funded by Constantine s mom 3 Church of the Lateran a Constantine hooked it up and it has the 15tbascilla in Rome 4 Orthodoxy and Heresy a Orthodoxy right thinking b Heresy wrong thinking c Examples ofheresies i Donatism 313316 AD 1 Sacraments a Does a sacrament depend on the moral standing of the priest performing them Donatus said yes The bishops decided Donatus was wrong therefore his belief donatism was a heresy ii Nature of Christ 1 Debate what exactly is Christ Trying to apply a Greek rational thought to Christianity 2 Arius a Associated with an Egyptian Christian bishop Arias He says i ii39 God is selfexistent God created Christ so Christ does not exist on his own 1 God the son cannot be equal to god the father because God is eternal god created Christ Therefore Christ is not eternal God cannot share or turn over his power to anyone God is immutable and the Gospels say that Christ changed 1 God is immutable does not change Christ changes so Christ is not equal to God Furthermore Christ was created by God not born of the Virgin Mary 1 Christ was not born of the Virgin Mary This is why we gave up Greek Gods because that s just ridiculous 3 Arianism a Council of Nicaea 325 AD i ii They argue here Constatnine presides over this They came up with Nicaean Creed Decided 1 Claiming Christ is not equal to God diminishes the sacrifice 2 If Christ were created what would prevent God from creating more Christs That also would diminish the sacrifice 3 Therefore Arius s beliefs are heresy wrong thinking 4 Authority who tells Christians what to believe a The Council ofNicaea also dealt with the issue of authority b Who were the most important bishops Those from the most important cities i Great Bishops Rome Alexandria Jerusalem and Antioch ii Constantinople would be included later b Nicaean Creed i And in one Lord Jesus Christ the Son ofGod begotten of the Father the onlybegotten that is of the essence of the Father God of God Light of Light very God of very God begotten not made being of one substance with the father But those who say 39 there was a time when he was not and 39he was not before he was made and 39he was made out ofnothing or 39he is of another substance or 39essence or 39the Son of God is created or 39changeable or 39alterable they are condemned by the holy catholic and apostolic Church 5 Constantine s Legacy a Constantine s son was an Arian He wanted Christianity to be empire He didn t believe in Nicaean Creed Constantine believed this too b Theodosius declared Christianity the religion of the Roman Empire 379395 AD i 380 AD Nicaean Christianity ii 391 Prohibited pagan sacrifices iii 395 Christianity was the religion of the Empire 6 The Dilemma Should Christianity be a state religion 1 Should it outlaw all other religions and bring their practitioners before state authorities 2 Should Christians pray to Christ for victory in battle Council in 313 AD proclaimed Christians who refused to serve in the army could be excommunicated In 416 only Christians could serve in the army 3 How can one suffer for the faith if the state enforces one s religion 102609 Islam I 1 Introduction Religion of most of today s Middle East HOW DID THIS GET STARTED WHAT WERE THE CONDITIONS HOW DID IT EVOLVE VS CHRISTIANITY quotthis sounds like a good test question i Christianity dominated until Islam Scholars estimate when the Crusaders showed up that 50 of the Middle East was still Christian Partially has to do with Muslim policy From the beginning Islam was closely associated with the state It is a political movement as much as it is a religious movement Mohammed was as much a political as a religious leader Role in Western Civilization Islam i means quotSubmit oneself to God ii it was all conquest Muslim A person who studies Islam Creed quotNo God but Allah and Mohammed is his prophet 39 Christianity s creeds are very long Flag of Saudi Arabia says the creed on it Insight into Islam it has the creed and beneath it a sword Christians have a trinity God Allah is a single God Allah is the same as Yahweh that s how Mohammed made it He preaches in the 7th century AD in an area where there are strong Christian and Jewish ideas Critics often accuse him ofusing others ideas He believed he was worshipping the god of the Jews and Christians The quotpeople of the book are Christians and Jews They have to pay an eXtra taX That is the difference iv As the Arab armies move Eastward they run into Zoroastrians in Persia quotWhat do we do with them Muslim scholars ask if they have a book Zoroastrians had no books so they gave them one They go past that and run into Hindus Do they have a book Yes Good they are people of the book Why isn t there a largescale conversion 1 These guys are Arabs and the people they are conquering are not Arabs They are suspicious ofnonArabs Arabs do not want to live with the locals because they are scared of corruption They created big cities Cairo and Baghdad They began as Muslim cities to not associate with locals NonMuslims pay an eXtra taX The treasurer doesn t want a lot of converts because he gets a lot of income if people don t convert It s not terribly high but some people don t want to pay it so they convert E op 5v 9 iquot lt Equot 2 Mohammed a Background to 615 AD i Born c 575 AD ii iii V Born in city ofMecca 1 In Arabian peninsula 2 At the time Mecca was a trading city Boats coming from India would come through Red Sea It was a place of warehouses and storage centers Then the boats would go up to Syria 3 Lots of goods are traded here but a lot ofideas are traded too 4 Mecca is basically Pagan It is a pagan pilgrimage center People come to worship magic stones here There is also Christianity Iudaism Zoroastrianism Arabs iv Hashim family 1 This family is still around 2 Kingdom ofordan is called Hashemite King ofordan Not Mohammed he only had girls It is over the succession issue that Sunnis and Shiites hate one another 3 His father died when his mother was carrying him 4 His mother died when he was 6 He became an orphan 5 He was raised by relatives Khadijah 1 When he reached young adulthood there was no place for him in family businesses Mohammed came to the girl Khadijah for a job 2 She had 3 husbands who had already died and had inherited their businesses 3 She asked Mohammed to marry her and he did 4 She was older welltodo leading figure in the city so this is okay 5 This marriage gave him instant status He became an vi vii viii important man in Mecca because he was Khadijah s husband He began to do important activities that important men did one of these was retreats Jesus did this the 40 days in the wilderness Mohammed began to do this Night of Power 610 AD 1 2 1 1 The retreat in which Gabriel visited Mohammed This is simply the first of the revelations after this he has many Angel Gabriel On one of his retreats Gabriel came to him and told him to teach the word the truth Message Submit oneself to God a One believes b One will do right and see that right prevails c One will not do wrong and see that wrong does not prevail d Day ofjudgment e Other obligations as time went on b Preaching 612622 AD i 615 AD Denied the pagan gods were gods 1 Beforehand he preached they were lesser gods ii Pressure from other people in Mecca 1 This gets him into trouble because people worship the pagan gods and more so because it was a pagan pilgrimage center The businessmen are concerned about losing pilgrims and therefore money 2 Criticism of Mohammed picks up iii 619 AD Death of Khadijah 1 She was his biggest supporter she could protect him because of her status in the community 2 Now criticism really picks up he decides to depart from Mecca iv 622 ADD Departure for Medina c Medina i In Medina Mohammed becomes a political figure He becomes most important politician The city his followers are accepted ii Muslims become highway robbers 1 This was led by Mohammed 2 quotThey are not robbing they are defending themselves from Mecca what a Muslim would say iii Battle of Badr 624 AD 1 Major caravan guarded by 900 men passed near Medina caravan was traveling from Mecca to Syria Mohammed and followers attacked with 300 men They defeated defenders of caravan and captured it 2 Word gets out that Mohammed defeated 900 men with 300 men and those men around him decide quotHis god is our god Sign me up Tribes around join Mohammed to make a state of which Mohammed is leader iv War with Mecca 624630 AD 1 Mecca decides to organize an armed force v Victory over Mecca 630 AD 1 Mohammed wins d Success in Mecca i He doesn t punish conquered people he rewards them i Issuance oflaws Makes Islam more like Iudaism than like Christianity 1 Look at Deuteronomy look at Leviticus 2 Islam is a religion oflaws Christianity is not Iudaism is He is a political religious and military leader ii39 iv Pilgrimage to Mecca 632 AD He gets mad that people are still doing pagan traditions and pilgrimages 2 Mohammed goes on a pilgrimage to Mecca from Medina He engages in a number of ceremonies that essentially turn these Pagan practices into Islam practices So you can still do your stuff but now it s Muslim That s a lot better than trying to abolish it Mohammed thought V Death 633 AD 1 Who succeeds him Vi Pilgrimage film 1 Youtube quotThe Pilgrimage Hajj to Makkah Part 25 3 Expansion ofIslam 632 715 Ad a Expansions i Leadership Abu Bakr the first caliph 1 Friends ofMohammed elected him 2 Caliph quotsuccessor to the prophet with all the powers except prophecy a This is a political position 3 He is a warrior First thing he does is take Muslim armies North ii Expansion into Syria iii Islam expanded throughout the Middle East North Africa and Spain to 715 AD 1 They conquer all these areas These are militaryconquests They defeat Byzantine N African Gothic armies They are not just missionaries like in Christianity They are conquering to spread the faith b Reasons for success N 102809 Islam II 1 Introduction a Conquests stopped in early 8th century AD i Reason is that Arab armies are defeated b Defeat in Eastern Iran 715 AD i Defeated by the Turks c Failure to take Constantinople 718 AD d Defeat in France 732 AD i Defeated by Franks 2 A Muslim Society These were the categories of society A lot of misconceptions today even with Muslims a At the top Arab Muslims i Even though they are conquering for Islam they are very suspicious of the people they conquered Two reasons Muslims didn t necessarily want you to convert to Islam Arabs don t trust the natives and they build first camps outside ofpopulated areas because they are afraid of quotcultural pollution these camps evolve into cities Best known was Cairo Started out as a Muslim camp Other famous city is Baghdad Another reason in Islamic society if one is not a Muslim you have to pay a taX b NonArab Muslims i Those people who did convert to Islam ii They were often regarded with suspicion by the Arabs iii Over time some of these places became Arab and local populations became quotArabizedquot Like Egypt now speaks Arab c Christians and Jews People of the Book i They had certain restrictions put on them One was they had to pay an eXtra taX Generally they couldn t bear arms They couldn t testify in a Muslim court but they could appeal There were certain societal restrictions like they couldn t wear green because it was the color of the prophet d Slaves i According to Islam you cannot enslave a Muslim You can enslave a nonMuslim and if that person becomes Muslim he is not necessarily free ii Slaves were used for much more important positions than our own agricultural slaves in the past A great example is Joseph from the Old Testament Aspects of Islam a Qur an Koran i Qur an means lecture or recitation 1 People called Aetolas study the Bible like priests 2 Also there are people who just study the Bible freely just like in Islam ii Revelations given to Mohammed 1 The book is the revelations given to Mohammed by the angel Gabriel Supposed to be God s word as delivered to him by the angel iii Collected after his death 1 Mohammed wrote none of this down After he died after a battle and remember his closest followers were warriors Abu Bakin decided it was important to write it down The Quran is the collection of what his followers believed were the revelations 2 These are sayings people remember him saying Disputes over what is true and not true 3 Koran is an edition of 7 different translations made in the 10th century Just like the Bible scholars tried to decide what was important quotThese must be the words of God this must be it iv Descriptions of divine qualities V Lessons on how to live vi Not history 1 Not like Christianity Basically collections of stuff Ifyou look at the index the index for God is 7 pages 2 Usually lessonsparables b Hadith i Sayings of Mohammed not revelations 1 So they collected as many things about life that Mohammed said that were not revelations and this was called the Hadith There are 100000 of these Muslim scholars argue over which are real ii Examples 1 God curse the woman who wears false hair and the woman who ties it on 2 A slave must not be given a task heshe is unable to perform 3 God loves most the freeing ofa slave God hates most divorce 4 Do not exceed bounds in praising me as the Christians do in praising Jesus the son of Mary by calling Him God and the Son of God I am only the Lord39s servant then call me the servant of God and His messenger 5 When the bier of anyone passeth by thee whether Iew Christian or Muslim rise to thy feet 6 Mohammed said quotThat person will not enter Paradise who hath one atom ofpride in his heartquot And a man present said quotVerily a man is fond of having good clothes and good shoesquot Muhammad said quotGod is Beauty and delighteth in the beautiful but pride is holding man in contemptquot 7 Every eye is an adulterer and every woman who perfumeth herself and goeth to an assembly where men are wishing to show herself to them with a look of lasciviousness is an adultress 8 Verily to honor an old man is to show respect to God 9 Were it not for fear of troubling my disciples verily I would order them to clean their teeth before every prayer 10 Giving alms to the poor hath the reward of one alms but that given to kindred hath two rewards one the reward of alms the other the reward ofhelping relations c Duties i The Creed There is one God Allah and Mohammed is his prophet ii Frequent Prayer 1 Koran says this quotIn morning and at night 2 Muslims pray 5 times a day iii Almsgiving iv Fasting Ramadan V Pilgrimage to Mecca Hajj 1 Germans were Krauts Japanese were nips Vietnamese ukks Iraq is the Hajjs Started out you had to go 1X a year then it became 1X in a lifetime as Islam spread now it is 1X in a lifetime if you can afford it vi Possibly Iihad 1 Every person s personal struggle to do good Iihad d Virtues i Must be publicly and privately moral ii A person must do right and see that right is done must not do wrong and see that wrong is not done N Decline ofthe Middle Ages Spiritual Declone Decline of the church Pope Boniface Vll 12941303 pretty worldly one ofthe more political ofthe popes liked to dress up like the roman emperor King like countries had the power to tax church property Boniface sent letters to all secular rulers that said the church will no longer pay taxes King must recognize the pope rules everything Phillip the fair blonde pope isjust a politician Kidnapped Boniface and put him on trial in france Elected Clement V using threats and bribery1305 pardoned phillip and moved papacy from rome to avignon 100 years was between france and england really awful not at war anymore brutal Urban V 1462 1370 moves papacy back to rome rome is a disaster city he begins to restore it Cardinals have to reform lifestyle so they can be a credible religion Hold new election because they don t like Urban Vl 13791389 Elect Celement Vll 13781394 now have two people claiming to be pope Great Schism 13781417 two people claiming to be pope and then three in 1410 catastrophe for church Political Decline 100 years war 13381453 Germany Holy Roman Empire disunity after 1254 Evemthing Declined Black Death reaches Europe 1346 combination of bubonic pneumonic septicemic typhus and maybe anthrax Little optinum 10001250 AD 2530 of Europe dead Because ofterrible population loss some were able to negotiate better deals with lords Peasants began to own land Concentration ofwealth All the wealth of huge families down to 1 or 2 people Black death was god punishing for something 1 prove to god you want to atone for your sins and he will stop thos 2 satan is doing this witchcraft emerges a rise in witchcraft rise in witch hunts 3 When in doubt persecute the Jews
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