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by: Magnolia Heaney


Magnolia Heaney
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T. Allen

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T. Allen
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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Magnolia Heaney on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2061 at Louisiana State University taught by T. Allen in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see /class/222449/hist-2061-louisiana-state-university in History at Louisiana State University.


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Date Created: 10/13/15
l Iquot S P Uquot 9 N 9 5 00 U N O Complicity Review John Winthrop was the governor of what colony Massachusetts Bay One ofthe main goals ofthe authors is to bury the myth that slavery The myth of slavery being identified in the national consciousness as a Southern institution believing slavery only existed in the south The three brothers who were cotton brokers in Montgomery Alabama Lehman Brothers Henry Emanuel Mayer An industry magnate sent his son to the south to study the cotton trade Junius Morgan sent 1 Pierpont Morgan The history of the United States is usually told in the following manner Backwards The amount of cotton mills in New England by 1860 472 In 1850 the south was home to how many plantations 75000 A bale of cotton measured at 5ft amp 500Ib Jeremiah Thompson was the inventor of this phenomenal method of delivering goods Black Ball Line Cotton Triangle Many Southern Planters sent their daughters to New York to this school for a good solid education Rutgers Female Institute By some estimates the North made how much off every dollar a Southern planter earned 40 cents from every dollar In 1770 every adult male in New England drank 1 and Quarts of Rum When this slave was purchased in Connecticut her bill of sale included a profile quothis Heirs amp Assigns forever Flora The Mayor of New York who offered to secede from the Union with the South Fernando Wood An international shipping magnate who s summer home is the current residence of the Mayor of New York Archibald Gracie The cotton gin increased the productivity of cotton by Fifty Fold 50 times greater How many times was Venture Smith sold by the time he was thirty six 3 This elite group controlled the means of producing one fifth of all US textiles The Boston Associations This colonial crop was known as quotwhite gold Sugar The key dynamic force that drove the phenomenal success of New England was The commercial economy created by slavery N N N N U N 4 N U39I The tombstone of this person reads The son ofa king he was kidnapped and sold as a slave but by his industry he acquired money to purchase his freedom Venture Smith The Great Negro Plot of 1741 took place in what city NEW YORK CITY Manhattan is a borough in New York Which of these three quotslavesquot was not convicted of murdering Adrian Hoghland John Clause Robin Quaco were convicted The contriver of the quotNegro plotquot to murder and plunder in 1741 John Hughson This small state launched over a thousand voyages to Africa for Slaves for the ban in 1808 Rhode Island A slave ship was a hugely risky investment but a successful voyage was how much greater than an ordinary trading voyage 10 times more This American commander of the Continental Navy also the slave ship the Sally Esek Hopkins Cultural historians believe the dance Africans did on the deck of slave ships became the Caribbean Limbo The notorious Bunce Island is locate in what African country Free Town Sierra Leone quotgrommetosquot were Free black workers A cunning slave trader who operated in Philadelphia and was later convicted of kidnapping George Albertie The only American ship captain that was sentenced to death for pirating slaves form Africa Nathaniel Gordon The leader of the first important Black Self Defense association David Ruggles With his actions made himself into the quotWhite Nat Turnerquot John Brown The estimated value of the 4 million enslaved Africans on the eve ofthe US Civil War was 3 billion Of the three Africans arrested in the revolt of 1712 in New York which one was tied to the wheel Clause What was the personal grievance that led Quack to attempt to burn down Fort George permission to visit his wife Barbara What did Daniel Horsmanden detail account of the trial of the slave conspiracy prove In 1741 blacks talked about constantly about freedom This fugitive slave was paraded through the streets of Boston and shipped back to Savannah and received 39 lashes Thomas Sims Rum was important to the New England Economy how many distilleries were there in Massachusetts and Rhode Island U39I U39I N U 4 U1 U1 U1 0391 U39I l U39I 00 U1 U3 0391 O nearly 70 On the eve ofthe Civil War the enslaved African population in the US was near 4 million On the cusp ofthe Civil War the ten major cotton states were producing what percentage ofthe World s cotton 66 Who was the founder ofthe abolitionist newspaper called the Liberator William Lloyd Garrison Who was the publisher of the Narrative ofJames Williams an American Slave American anti Slavery Society The hero of the slave revolt aboard the Slave ship name the Creole Madison Washington The single most notorious slave ship in the history of the US Slave Trade Wanderer The author of the Suppression of the African Slave Trade to the United States of America 1638 1870 WEB Dubois Probably the richest and most audacious slave trader in US History James Dewolf How many Africans were crammed into the slave ship the Erie 900 The name of the 3rd slave ship purchased by the Brown family to enter into the slave trade Sally Her great grandfather sat on the grand jury convened to consider evidence of impeachment this former Confederate president Jefferson Davis This extraordinary Black Boston pamphleteer denounced Thomas Jefferson s Notes on Virginia David Walker This African American anti slavery activist challenged the enslaved to let there motto be resistance Henry Garnet In 1850 it is estimated that the southern cotton states enslaved 23 million This Northern born New Englander he went south to seek his fortune was known as the King of the Ya n ke es Nathaniel Russel Venture Smith dedicated his autobiographical memoir to this dedicated teacher Elisha Niles It is said that this person s testimony was the engine that drove the conspiracy trial of the Great Negro plot in New York in 1741 Mary Burton An African man in his primed could be purchased for this amount of Rum 150 gallons Brazilians labeled the slave ships that brought Africans to the New World quottombeiosquot which meant Bearers of Tomb Africans revolted aboard this slave ship when it was transporting them from Richmond to New Orleans Creole History 2061 Fall 2010 Dr Allen 1 John Winthrop was the governor of what colony 2 One of the main goals of the authors is to bury the myth that slavery 3 The three brothers who were cotton brokers in Montgomery Alabama 4 An industr ma nate sent his son to the south to study the cotton trade 5 6 7 8 9 WM Ogto www WNH L Lquot How many times was Venture Smith sold by the time he was thirtysix This elite ou controlled the means of roducin onefifth of all US textiles This colonial crop was know as white gold i The key dynamic force that drove the phenomenal success of New England was The tombstone of this person reads The son of a king he was kidnapped and sold as a slave but by his industry he acquired The Great Negro Plot of 1741 took The onriver of te Negro plot This small state launched over a thousand voyages to Africa for Slaves for the ban in 1808 The history of the United States is usually told in the following manner The amount of cotton mills in New England by 1860 In 1850 the south was home to how many plantations A bale of cotton measured at Jeremiah Thompson was the inventor of this phenomenal method of delivering goods v at mun 39u ank ith the South nr will u The Ma 0 m mwt in The cotton gin in money to purchase his freedom lace in wh mum ltwy i u 1 ills Mar to murder an plun A slave shii was a hugely risky investment but a successful voyage was how much greater than an ordinary trading voyage This American commander of the Continental Navy also the slave ship the Sally Cultural historians believe the dance Africans did on the deck of slave ships became the The notorious Bunce Island is locate in what African country grommetos were A cunning slave trader who operated in Philadelphia and was later convicted of kidnapping The only American ship captain that was sentenced to death for pirati The leader of the first important Black SelfDefense association 34 The estimated value of the 4 million enslaved Africans on the eve of the US Civil War was slaves form Africa With his actions made himself into the White Nat Turner Of the three Africans arrested in the revolt of 1712 in New York which one was tied to the wheel 37 What was the personal grievance that led Quack to attempt to burn downFort George quot El ma mam i c quotvim i 1 llllu ti 39 7 w 39 quot slave was paraded through the streets of Boston and shipped back to Savannah and received 39 lashes l r Carri W n quot m mew J La mx fugitiv e ELL 39 This 40 Rum was important to the New England Economy how many distilleries were there in Massachusetts and Rhode Island I L M M r r i af mmm 39 quotI in mm 3913 r 1 42 On the cusp of the Civil War the ten major cotton state were producing what percentage of the World s cotton 43 Who was the founder of the abolitionist newspaper called the Liberator 44 Who was the publisher of the Narrative of James Williams an American Slave WEN 45 The hero of the slave revolt aboard the Slave ship name the Creole 46 The single most notorious slave ship in the history of the U S Slave Trade 47 48 The author of the Suppression of the African Slave Trade to the United States of America 16381870 Probably the richest and most audacious slave trader in US History 49 How many Africans were crammed into the slave ship the Erie I 50 The name of the 3quoti slave ship purchased by the Brown family to enter into the slave trade 51 Her reat randfather sat on the grand jury convened to consider evidence of impeachment this former Confederate president 52 This extraordinary Black Boston pamphleteer denounced Thomas Iefferson sNotes on Virginia 53 This AfricanAmerican antislaver activist challened the enslaved to let there motto be resistance u rww ltvm 1mrs nm i M w l 55 This Northern born New Englander he went south to seek his fortune was known as the King of the Yankees Venture Smith dedicated his autobiographical memoir to this dedicated teacher It is said that this person s testimony was the engine that drove the conspiracy trial of the Great Negro plot in New York in 1741 ed for this amo unt of Rum JEN 39Cquot5mllu 39VMMJEUWquot mquot tas ansporting them from Richmond to New Orleans mm pzw WmltmmU mU4mJZ c xiv AFRICANS AND THEIR HISTORY and perspectives necessary for a liberating movement This book attempts to contribute to these several needs The vastness and diversity of Africa and the many unexplored sources make it virtually impossible to write a complete history text Consequently I have been selective in presenting chapter themes and data to support them I have made no attempt to be all inclusive rather I have preferred to present a theme and to illustrate it with examples from various geographical and cultural regions of the continent While all regions of the continent and indeed the diaspora receive appropriate treatment the primary stress has been put on the black societies because of their greater numbers and larger roles in Africa s past and because racial denigration placed them in a uniquely disadvantaged position which for many cen turies significantly affected the course and interpretation of A ican history and from which their continued struggle for political eco nomic cultural and psychological freedom is already causing major transformations in our own times and will no doubt in its own way help to free millions of nonblacks in and outside A ica I alone am responsible for the presentation and interpretations in this book but I have benefited more than 1 can explain from the direct and indirect in uences of many former professors stu dents Africans in many walks of life and innumerable authors some of whose works appear in the bibliography I am very grateful to the Clark University Cartographic Labo ratory and its designer Norman T Carpenter and draftsman David Spinney for producing the maps for this book I also extend thanks for the kind assistance of the Stetson Library staff at Williams College and Howard University Of course my immediate family Rosemarie Joanne and Joseph Earland the extended family provided both the initial inspiration and the continuing support necessary for the completion of this task Joseph E Harris Williams College Williamstown Massachusetts l A Tradition of Myths and Stereotypes The history of Africa is relevant to the history of black pgple throughout the world This is partly because persons of A can ancestry are dispersed throughout the world and partly because of the general derogatory image Africans and black people evteg where have inherited from Western history A recognitlon o e magnitude of this problem is the acknowledgment of the hpavy burden on the shoulders of the historian who seeks honest y to reconstruct the black historical experience but who at the same time realizes that even before that task can be fulfilled a SOlld historical foundation must be established by confrontingf and destroying the multitude of myths fashioned by Europeans 0 yes teryear and transmitted to the contemporary world h Race in general and myths and stereotypes surrounding p ys ical features and skin color in particular have been so pervas1ve and basic in black white relations and in accounts of those inter actions that in spite of a stream of scientific ev1dence to the con trary the concept of black inferiority continues to thrlve m mlany minds Since the origin and perpetuation of that conceptl avle been supported by the denial of a meaningful and mtellectua cu 2 AFRICANS AND THEIR HISTORY tural and historical A ican experience it is appropriate that this concise history of Africans should present an analysis of the e ects of historical myths and stereotypes about Africans Perhaps the best approach to an understanding of this problem should begin with an examination of some of the early character izations of Africans in history in order to see how the roots of racial prejudice became interwoven in Western culture which internationalized the concept of black inferiority and colonized Africa s history The denigration of Africans can be traced back beyond the Christian era into antiquity and in later times any one who wished to employ degrading stereotypes about black people could easily establish reference points in classical times when outstanding scholars and writers described Africans as strange and primitive creatures Many of those descriptions have remained with us and have contributed immeasurably to the per petuation of denigratory myths about Africans and black people generally That the Greeks and Romans knew a great deal about and were sensitive commentators on the physical features of blacks in Africa is confirmed by the copious evidence proVided by classi cal writers and artists Although Professor Frank Snowden in his book Blacks in Antiquity Ethiopians in the GrewRoman Expe rience is not convinced that racism was cultivated in the Greco Roman experience he has nonetheless confirmed that skin color was uppermost in the minds of the Greeks and Romans when describing Ethiopians and that artistic representations are suffi cient in quantity from the sixth century BC to permit the con clusion that tightly curled or woolly hair broad attened noses lips thick often puffy and everted prognathism were African characteristics familiar to the Hellenistic world Admittedly the psychological interpretation of history is extremely difficult to document especially for the classical era and thus highly Vulnerable to criticism but all critics must know that the psychological factor is crucial to an eventual understand A Tradition of Myths and Stereotypes 3 ing of the roots and growth of an attitude that is so fundamental a determinant of history The preeminent preoccupation With the blackness and physical type of Ethiopians must have made a deep imprint on Greek and Roman minds particularly in the less sophisticated ones That Ethiopians were blameless as Homer described them need not have signified equality but could indeed have been intended to describe their remoteness from CW i1ization the farthermost men and imply that they were thus ignorant of and not responsible for the complex problems of the civilized Greek world How profound and extensively employed was the following proverbial expressmn of the times which is cited by several authors including Snowden To wash an Ethiopian white On the one hand this expreSSion could and no doubt did signify the futility of trying to alter that which nature had made But note the contrasts blackness represented dirt which one could not wash clean white In short not only might libertarian interpretations be drawn from these classwal deScriptions of Ethiopians who were also described as pious and just by Classical writers but there is also eVidence for the View that seeds of color prejudice were sown conSCiously or uncon sciously It is interesting to note that of the two streams of infor mation the one that has survived and has had the greater impact is that of the mysterious and savage With a few selected quotations from some of the class1cal writ ers the African could be shown to be a strange barbarous and subhuman creature Although this was not the primary focus of those writers it is nonetheless important especially for the Renaissance and Age of Reason when Europeans took a greater interest in the outside world from the point of view of trade pol itics and exploration Maps were made and the areas unknown to Europeans were gradually filled in and described Thus Euro peans interested in Africa turned to the writings of the ancrents so many of whom had had a firsthand glimpse of parts of the con tinent Based on these early accounts maps and books were pro 4 AFRICAN S AND THEIR HISTORY duced and became valuable to European readers merchants mis sionaries explorers students and others Although the father of history Herodotus made significant contributions to the evolution of history as a field of study in attempting to explain A 39ican culture which was so different from his own he sowed seeds of racial prejudice that shaped blackwhite images for centuries to come He frequently referred to Africans as barbarians and characterized the people of Libya by saying their speech resembles the shrieking of a Bat rather than the language of Men Barbarian and savage were terms that embodied no racial significance as such for they were used to describe many other groups of people but they did connote inferiority The point to be emphasized is that once European savages refined their lifestyle there remained no visible label of inferiority whereas the blackness of Africans became identi fied with and lingered in the minds of Europeans as a badge of primitiveness A part of this must be explained by the way in which Africans were described as animals and monsters The bat was the reference point for Herodotus but Pliny the Elder dis cussed Africans who by report have no heads but mouth and eies eyes both in their breast and others who crawled instead of walking L The thirdcentury geographer Solinus wrote a book entitled Collection of Wonderful Things which was available to men dur ing the Middle Ages In it Solinus described Aethyop of the filthy fashion of the people of that countrey of their monstrous shape of the Dragons and other wyle beasts of wonderful nature there Solinus did not need to refer to the people as inferior or subhuman that was rather clearly established by describing their monstrous shape and juxtaposing them next to Dragons and other wyle beasts These were indeed strange people whom European readers could easily consider subhuman or at most would regard as less worthy than themselves Descriptions such as these are scattered in much of the European literature up to the A Tradition of Myths and Stereotypes 5 present time Even if that tradition were unconsciously devel oped and much of it probably was the Christian era ushered in another dimension n A most decisive derogatory racial tradition stems from the bib lical interpretation of Noah s curse of Ham The Bible did not apply any racial label but the idea of race laterbecame attached to the descendants of Ham A collection of JeWish oral traditions in the Babylonian Talmud from the second to the Sixth centuries AD holds that the descendants of Ham were cursed by being black and this belief received even greater elaboration during the Middle Ages when according to one source Noah s curse was explained It must be Canaan your firstborn whom they enslave Canaan s children shall be born ugly and black h our grand children s hair shall be twisted into kinks their lips shall swell Men of this race are called Negroes their forefather Canaan commanded them to love theft and fornication to be banded together in hatred of their masters and never to tell the truth 39lndeed that passage includes not only a pretty clear description of the color and physical type of the cursed people it also pre sents the principal stereotypes associated with blacks thieves fornicators and liars O The translation of a Hebrew manuscript of Benjamin ben Jonah a twelfthcentury merchant and traveler from Spanish Navarre not only supports the same theme but also suggests that it was fairly widespread There is a people who like animals eat of the herbs that grow on the banks of the Nile and in the fields They go about Thomas F Gossett Race The History of an Idea in America Dallas 1963 p 5 2Robert Graves and Raphael Patai Hebrew Myths New York 1964 p 121 6 AF RICANS AND THEIR HISTORY naked and have not the intelligence of ordinary men They cohabit With their sisters and anyone they find These sons of Ham are black slaves3 Not only was Benjamin Jonah sure about the characteristics of those blacks he was also certain they were the sons of Ham To the extent that this latter point was generally accepted by Euro peans to that same extent could the inferior position of blacks be explained by Noah s curse and thus rationalized biblically The image of Africans as inferiors was reinforced irther by arguments of several Christian missionaries ministers and others who explained that an African was better otf a slave in a Christ ian society than free in African Savagery One is reminded that most missionaries or other Europeans did not visit Africa until the latter part of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries but all the same Africa was presumed to be savage It was also argued that the Bible spoke of slavery without condemning it No doubt these arguments were convincing rationalizations to many Europeans especially during the era of the slave trade The Euro pean settlers in America became increasingly apprehensive about the apparent contradiction of maintaining in slavery a converted African That apprehension was soon overcome however when several of the American colonies passed statutes that held that conversion did not necessitate manumission These acts encour aged the importation of Africans as slaves and removed the fear masters had that baptism might place them in Violation of Chris tian teachings In fact from the latter part of the seventeenth cen tury conversion of the slave was argued both as a rescue operation from barbarism and also as an effective instrument of social control The extension of black slavery abroad and its ratio nalization by Christians were historic occurrences in the interna tionalization of the idea of black inferiority 3Robert Hess The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela A IWel h Century Description of NorthEast Afnca Journal of African History Vol VI No l 1965 p 17 A Tradition of Myths and Stereotypes 7 Several writers on the slave trade illustrate the trend William Bosman a Dutch slaver dismissed black culture out of hand in his book A New and Accurate Description of the Coast of Guinea 1705 His book was widely read and for many years was regarded as authoritative In 1725 James Houston wrote Some New and Accurate Observations of the Coast of Guinea in which he described A icans thus They Africans exactly resemble their Fellow Creatures and Natives the Monkeys Thomas Phillips s slave journal noted that Africans were generally extremely sen sual so intemperate that they drank brandy as if it were water deceitful in their dealings with Europeans It is strange that Phillips condemned Africans for deceiving European slavers Another prominent slaver and writer during this period was John Barbot who published A Description of the Coasts of North and South Guinea 1732 He explained that the slave s condi tions in his own country were so appalling that it was kindness to ship him to the West Indies and more considerate masters not to mention the inestimable advantage they may reap of becoming Christians and saving their souls It is curious however that Barbot continued tho it must be owned they are very hard to be brought to a true notion of the Christian religion being natu rally very stupid and sensual and so apt to continue till their end On the one hand he saw Christianity as a rescue effort that would save the African s soul on the other hand he doubted that Africans would ever become Christians One is reminded of the note of irony expressed by the French philosopher Montesquieu in 1748 It is impossible for us to suppose these creatures to be men because allowing them to be men a suspicion would follow that we ourselves are not Christians At least this philosopher seems to have detected the dehumanization of Africans by Euro pean Christians Geographers also made a contribution to the European image of Africa Robin Hallett in The Penetration of Africa quotes from an African map published in Paris in 1761 8 AFRICANS AND THEIR HISTORY It is true that the centre of the continent is filled with burning r sands savage beasts and almost uninhabited deserts The scarcrty of water forces the different animals to come together to the same place to drink It happens that finding themselves together at a time when they are in heat they have intercourse one with another without paying regard to the difference between species Thus are produced those monsters which are to be found there in greater numbers than in any other part of the world 39 Hugh Murray a popular geographer of the early nineteenth cen tury described the continent as an area of mystery with wild and strange aspects of man and nature Africa was a strange place inhabited by strange people where monsters dwelt and strange things happened These were all part of the evolving image of Africa a place where creatures less than human survived in an order less than civilized African or black inferiority as a concept reached its high point when it became intellectualized by philosophers of the Enlight enment In a footnote to his essay entitled Of National Charac ter which appeared in his Essay and Treatises 1768 the m uential Scot philosopher David Hume wrote a I am apt to suspect the negroes to be naturally inferior to the white There never was a civilized nation of any other com plexion than white nor even any individual eminent either in action or speculation No ingenious manufacturers amongst them no arts no sciences Hume probably did not realize how monumental his ignorance was but it is doubtful that such a philosopher did not realize his great contribution to the stereotypic image of black people Another ignominious pronouncement came from the German phllosopher Georg Hegel in his Philosophy of History After a cursory discussion of A ica he noted A Tradition of Myths and Stereotypes 9 It is manifest that want of selfcontrol distinguishes the charac ter of the Negroes This condition is capable of no development or culture and as we have seen them at this day such have they always been At this point we leave Africa not to mention it again For it is no historical part of the world it has no move ment or development to exhibit Having given Africa about eight of a hundred pages Hegel dis missed it from the remaining 358 pages Most of these myths were formulated long before anything like serious relationships were established between Africans and Europeans One can only surmise about the impact of those myths on European attitudes toward blacks and one can imagine what early European sailors and explorers thought when they landed in Africa and saw the objects of those centuriesold stereo types For indeed it is clear that Prince Henry the Navigator and others had access to the early writings and oral accounts about blacks in Africa 39 Even before the peak of the Atlantic slave trade there were already signs of racial prejudice among Europeans There is the example of an unusual African visitor to Scotland in the Middle Ages a lady about whom a poem was later written She achieved a kind of fame with knights and nobles but in spite of her sexual charm she was described as having a mouth like an ape a catlike nose and looking just like a toad Similar examples may be found in Shakespeare s works For all its liberal aspects Othello shows some of these stereotypes Brabantio for example expresses disgust that his daughter might incur disrespect by seeking the sooty bosom of such a thing as thou referring to Othello The black slave in Titus Andronicus is referred to as thick lipped while Tamora is reviled for loving a barbarous Moor another degrading description of the times These are all light touches of black devaluation but they had a message that demeaned black people It is certainly possible that by the six lO AFRICANS AND THEIR HISTORY teenth century for many Europeans such stereotypes had become so common as to go seemingly unnoticed It is noteworthy how ever that in 1601 Queen Elizabeth reacted to the growing num V ber of blacks in England by ordering their deportation Clearly degrading racial descriptions developed in parts of Europe prior to the high point of the Atlantic slave trade This is particularly significant since a sizable number of Africans were taken to Portugal and other places in Europe as slaves long before the Americas were visited by Columbus It should be stressed therefore that these denigratory judgments about blacks were being strengthened in Europe at the same time that Europeans were establishing serious contacts with A icans a relationship that culminated in the slave trade to America Thus some Euro peans were aware of and had owned black slaves who were iden tified as inferiors long before the extensive trade in Africans was extended to Brazil and elsewhere in the Americas It is essential to stress that a combination of European attitudes about blacks the fact of black visibility and the demand for cheap labor all combined to entrench the institution of slavery and the deeply embedded myths that were used not only to justify slavery but black inferiority as well Consequently the racial con ditions that followed in the Americas especially in the United States were logical sequences to those earlier attitudes about Africans and Western institutions the governments courts and churches for example supported those beliefs Given that posi tion it was natural for Europeans to conclude that Africans had no history and no written language two other great myths But a society that justified its expansion overseas and into Africa in particular in terms of the civilizing mission to uplift the hea thens and savages of Africa could not regard the history or lan guage of the latter group as being worthy of serious study That would have amounted to retrogression rather than the progression by now so deeply ingrained in the Western tradition It must be emphasized therefore that one of the greatest contributions A Tradition of Myths and Stereotypes ll Europeans made to the New World was the expansion and entrenchment of the concept of black inferiority Of the many Americans who helped stigmatize blacks during the era of slavery in the United States John C Calhoun one of the most in uential political leaders of his time stands out In many ways Calhoun spoke for whites especially planters when he explained that the black man as an inferior should occupythe doorsill so that the more superior whites could develop Civiliza tion Calhoun is reported to have stated that if he could find a black man who could understand Greek syntax he would con sider the black race human The Kenyan political scientist Mazrui in a pamphlet entitled Ancient Greece in African Politi cal Thought refers to a speech in which Kwame Nkrumah Cited the case of a Columbia University Zulu student who in a speech of 1906 responded to Calhoun What might have been the sensation kindled by the Greek syn tax in the mind of the famous Southerner I have so far been unable to discover but I could show him among black men of pure African blood those who could repeat the Koran from memory skilled in Latin Greek and Hebrew Arabic and Chaldaic It is doubtful that Calhoun s beliefs would have been altered by that oration especially from a black student but he might have wondered about his general ignorance of black people and their history I A great landmark in this historical drama occurred during the latter part of the nineteenth century when modern industrial nationalism in Europe and imperialism abroad contributed to the development of ideologies that sanctioned as necessary and nat ural white donors and black recipients of civilization It was the great contribution of Darwin s theory of evolution and the subse quent emergence of the concept of Social Darwmlsm that syn 12 AFRICANS AND THEIR HISTORY thesized the old ideas and provided fresh support for old beliefs Given the racial situation in the United States immediately fol lowmg the Reconstruction era it was only natural that white Americans would contribute to the expansion of Social Darwin ism and the theory 39of black inferiority Among the most in uen tial proponents of Social Darwinism were William Graham Summer professor of political science at Yale University39 Josiah Strong a popular latenineteenth century historian lectuier and Congregational clergyman John Burgess William Dunhin U B Phillips and several other prominent professors at Collin bia University This is a very small but important sample of the great array of United States scholars politicians and writers who spread the stigma of black inferiority In 1885 Strong envisioned that the AngloSaxons will move down upon Mexico over upon Africa and beyond And can anyone doubt that the result of this competition of the races will be the survival of the fittest In 1118 Our Country is Possible Future and Its Present Crisis Strong answered his own question It seems to me that God with infinite wisdom and skill is training the AngloSaxons for an hour sure to come in the world s future the final competition of races for which the AngloSaxon is being schooled Whether the extinction of mfenor races seems to the reader sad or otherwise it cer tainly appears probable In 1896 William Summer emphasized that if you asked Thomas Jeiferson whether in all men he meant to include negroes he would have said that he was not talking about negroes In fact in his notes on the State of Virginia Paris 1784 Jefferson observed that never yet could I find that a black man had uttered a thought above the level of plain narration39 never saw even an elementary trait of painting or sculpture A Tradition of Myths and Stereotypes 13 In his book American Historians Harvey Wish provides per haps the best concise statement on the influence of the Burgess Dunning U B Phillips school of thought They con vinced textbook writers that Radical Reconstruction was a basic error because the Thaddeus Stevens Charles Sumner group assumed that Negroes were capable of selfgovernment the inference clearly being that blacks were not capable of political responsibility Some critics have observed that Joseph de Gobineau s Essaz39 sur 1 in galit Essay on Inequality was the most directly in u ential publication on racism in the nineteenth century Gobineau a Frenchman extolled the racial purity of the Nordics and explained that as the Franks N ordics mixed with Gallic stocks the former became weaker and more decadent which eventually led to their overthrow by commoner elements the leaders of the French Revolution In his book The Foundations of the Nine teenth Century Houston S Chamberlain an Englishman who later became a German citizen expanded on Gobineau s ideas Chamberlain attempted to show that almost everything worth while in history had been accomplished by Nordics He com bined the ideas on the evolutionary struggle with the will for power and presented a doctrine of the master race later adopted by Hitler Another in uential person in this context was Francis Galton an Englishman who developed the mental tests and statistical methods for understanding individual differences Galton wrote Hereditary Genius 1869 in which he argued that the intellec tual standard of the Negro race was low and would remain so Although these and other protagonists of white superiority did not elaborate on Africa or the African their frame of reference provided an inferior place for blacks both scientifically and socially 1 Indeed simultaneous with the appearance of Social Darwinism and Gobineau s Essai was the accelerated expansion of Euro 14 AF RICANS AND THEIR HISTORY peans into various parts of Africa Concurrent with both of these occurrences was the academic division of Africa into two areas the Hamitic in the North and the Negro in the south The sig nificance of this division related directly to the subject of stereo types of the African past Egypt s place in history is indisputable and there remain various kinds of documents to confirm a rich ancient civilization that had a great impact on Asia and Europe Moreover Egypt is geographically a part of the African conti nent and the blood of indigenous Africans has always been there Yet some scholars and other observers even today exclude Egypt from African history and include it as part of the Middle Eastern world The questions that logically emerge from this are Who were the Egyptians and what was the relationship between them and other Africans One of the foremost proponents of the division of Africa into HamiticNegro areas was C G Seligman an English anthropol ogist who later became a German citizen In simplified terms Seligman applied the concept of Social Darwinism to A ican ethnography which amounted to the attribution of absolute val ues of white and black physical types with the latter at the lower rung of advancement According to Seligman the Hamites who are Europeans ie belong to the same great branch of mankind as the Whites civilized Africa The civilizations of Africa are the civilizations of the Hamites its history the record of these people and of their interaction with the two other African stocks the Negro and the Bushman Seligman described the ancient and modern Egyptians as Eastern Hamites With a few strokes of the pen Seligman thus denied that A icans had devel oped a civilization and attributed the meaningful aspect of their history to outsiders The clear inference of this hypothesis was that inferior blacks were civilized by superior Hamites whites and that the degree of political and cultural evolution of Africans depended on the amount of white blood the blacks had Sir Harry Johnston a popular observer of A ica in general and A Tradition of Myths and Stereotypes 15 the Bantu in particular graphically portrayed his views in A Com parative Study of the Bantu and Semi Bantu Languages The Negro in short owes what little culture he possesses before the advent of the Moslem Arab and the Christian white man to the civilizing in uence of ancient Egypt but this influ ence travelled to him not directly up the White Nile but indi rectly through Abyssinia and Somaliland and Hamites such as the stock from which the Galla and Somali sprang were the middlemen whose early traffic between the Land of Punt and the countries round the Victoria Nyanza was the main almost the sole agency by which the Negro learnt the industries and received the domestic animals of Egypt Three Americans who greatly in uenced anthropology in the United States Samuel G Morton a physician and professorof anatomy who wrote works on the human crania Jos1ah C Nott a scientist and his collaborator George Gliddon an American consul in Egypt collected and studied crania from Egypt and concluded they were Caucasian crania Nott Gliddon and others thus explained the accomplishments of the Egyptians as products of the Caucasian race and not of blacks Thus it was Egypt which was not regarded as African that served as the civilizing force the Hamites whites who were the carriers and the blacks who were the waiting recipients The stamp of racism thus not only made its indelible imprint generally on Africa Africans and all black people it also prejudiced schol arly studies of black people up into the present one rs reminded of how the French history textbooks castrated African history by teaching Africans up to a few decades ago our ancestors the Gauls The French were not sharing their biological or racral Ol l gin but indeed were entrenching the idea that meaningful African history and culture came with the French The most impressive challenge to the Hamitic concept has l6 AFRICANS AND THEIR HISTORY come from the Senegalese writer Cheikh Anta Diop who draw ing on evidence from eyewitness accounts of Herodotus and oth ers concluded that the Egyptians were indeed black and their contributions to the world agriculture science religion the cal endar writing etc were all contributions of black people According to Diop It remains true that the Egyptian experiment was essen tially Negro and that all Africans can draw the same moral advantage from it that Westerners draw from GraecoLatin oiVilization4 If Plato Eudoxe and Pythagoras remained in Egypt for thirteen to twenty years it was not only to learn recipes Diop con cluded 39 Manyof the guiding lights of Western civilization scholars soientists and public officials continued to believe in the class1fication of the races with blacks occupying the lower rung and much of the terminology applied to Africa is still stereotypic From what has already been said it should be clear that the term Hamitic is unacceptable as a racial label because it has a long historical association with the concept of black inferiority For an objective approach to the understand ing of any group of people the language should be as precise and free of prejudice as possible Two other terms that denigrate Africans are native and tribe Regarding native even the English historian Arnold Toynbee who maintained that Africans were civilized by Euro peans wrote that when Europeans call people 39 I natives a cul tural distillation takes place and the former do no t understand the Cheikh Anta Diop The Cultural Contributions and Prospects of Africa the International Conference of Neg W It d Proceedings of re rt er 39 Issum June November 1956 s an Artists Presence Africazne Specral A Tradition of Myths and Stereotypes l7 latter The term native usually connotes a person of a lower order One rarely if ever refers to the natives of the United States unless depicting the Indians Yet the term is still applied to Africanswithout regard to their national or ethnic origin Toyn bee s observation in this instance is a telling one for as long as Africans are regarded as natives the approach to them will no doubt remain paternalistic European colonial officials and apol ogists so distorted the term in reference to native courts native administrations and the natives that it is not an authentic description of Africans The classification of African political units as tribes also made a major distinction between Europeans and Africans His torically the term was used to denote subordinate units such as the divisions of the ancient Romans into Sabines Latins and Etruscans The tribe was regarded as a more primitive unit which in time evolved into a civilized one The tribe was too small and lacked the complex organization and inctions of the nation Social Darwinism of the nineteenth century justified this as the order of things for Africa The Caucasian type was represented as possessing superior linguistic political and cultural capacities Since in the European View African politics had not reached the level of complex centralized systems of government without which the higher attainments of civilization could not be achieved the term tribe was employed One hardly needs to state that the term Negro also is pejorative stereotypic and meaningless as a description for Africans In short as with the terms Hamitic and native tribe and Negro as general labels for Africans suggest denigratory characterizations and therefore prejudge the African or black experience From the dawn of the twentieth century the concept of black inferiority was fullblown and internationalized It was even poet ized in Kipling s The White Man s Burden With it imperialists and racists justified the power of whites over blacks The coming of radio movies and television further entrenched blatant and 18 AFRICANS AND THEIR HISTORY subtle forms of the concept Thus since prejudice as learned behavior is a result of observation and participatiOn in social pat terns and institutions and as the foregoing pages have shown the derogation of blacks became deeply rooted in Western traditions the conclusion is that Westerners in general from childhood became exposed to socializing patterns of behavior that in its stratification and separation of blacks and whites nourished an explicit and implicit ideology of racism Westerners also carried this idea to the global communities they colonized Some critics argue that myths and stereotypes are only periph eral concerns in African history But others believe that stereo typic Africa is deeply embedded in intellectual history and thus continues consciously or unconsciously to in uence relation ships with and accounts of Africans When critics generalize about tribal wars in Africa the inability of Africans to govern themselves the excessive corruption in African societies whether correct or not the implications often are that Africans are unique in those regards One therefore senses the need to emphasize Africa s enormous size and diversity and the fact that there is multiple causation much of which stems from an oppressed past rooted in gross derogation that shaped perceptions of Africans and nonAfricans alike The efforts to redress these issues have been continuous Of particular note were movements such as the Harlem Renaissance in the United States Negritude in France and Negrismo in Cuba which sought an intellectual redemption of Africa and African peoples by revealing the diversity scope achievements longevity and complexity of African cultures and their in uence in Europe Asia the Americas and elsewhere More recently building on panAfricanism and black studiesconsciousness movements the Afrocentric perspective often grossly exagger ated by critics has gained widespread appeal among Africans and their descendants especially That perspective focuses on the study of blacks as subjects instead of objects of history and cul A Tradition of Myths and Stereotypes l9 ture and on initiatives as well as reactions to outside forces This approach not only centers the study of the black experience on the indigenous peoples of Africa it also seeks to reveal the values goals aspirations and the vision ofAfrican peoples in the course istor OfThe mist blatant forms of stereotypes have been muted thanks in part to scholars writers and others including Africans in par ticular African critics have increased in number as has the vol ume of their candid assessments of the African condition One is thus able to assess the comparability of Africa s first generation of independence and that of other powers in Europe Asia and the Americas Africa s struggle to affirm its identity is para mount The accommodation of Africanity Islamic and Western in uences the triple heritage as Kenyan political scientist Ali Mazrui has characterized it is a complex phenomenon rooted in ideas about the worth and achievements of peoples and their values The major challenge for African peoples their descendants abroad and non Africans alike is how to transcend deeply ingrained Eurocentric biases establish more relevant guidelines with language expressive of the mutually understood meanings and thus reveal the historical and contemporary reality of Africa Africans and their descendants abroad 1 Who is the author of Medical Apartheid Harriet A Washington 2 The painter that provided the benevolent image ofJames Marion Sims Robert Thom 3 Which pharmaceutical company holds the copyright on the famous image of James Marion Sims Pfizer Inc 4 The name ofthe enslaved African female in the famous image ofJames Marion Sims m 5 Between 1963 1993 the number of African Americans diagnosed with diabetes increased by 6 The percentage of HIV infections that are African Americans are 7 What percentage of children African Americans are infected with HIV arm 8 Black young men s suicide rate has increased by what percentage over the past 20 years M 9 The involuntary sterilization of women in the south was known as quotMississippi appendectomyquot 10 When did anesthesia become readily availableLate 1830s 11 The common medicine for malingering slavewhippings 12 Scientist who studies different groups of men race scientists 13 The author of Crania Americana Samuel George Morton 14 The author of The diseases and physical peculiarities of the Negro Race Dr Samuel A Cartwright 15 Drapetomania the quotescaping disease for slaves comes from Greek words for flight and insanity 16 Eating dirt Chacexia Africana 17 Struma Africana form oftubermln i 39 39 as anAfr39 18 Hebetude singular laziness or shiftlessness that caused slaves to and abuse their owner s property 19 The author of Types of Mankind George R Gliddon 20 What percentage of Sub Saharan Africans are quotDuffy Negative m 21 Every year from 1750 until emancipation one out of how many Black women gave birth E 22 A term for the fear of medical care iatrophobia 23 The doctor who pioneered eye surgery Dr James Dugas 24 The name ofthe African female that Sims used to try to cure vesicovaginalfistulaAnarcha or Lucy 25 Dr Francois Marie Prevot used enslave African women to perfect cesarean sections 26 Enslaved African who helped save the city of Boston from smallpox Onesimus 27 One of the first exhibits in the New Cork City Zoo Ota Benga a pygmy man 28 Known as the Venus Hottentot Saart39ieBaartman 29 George Washington s nurse maid JoiceHeth 30 Two headed Siamese twins Millie Christine 31 A black mathematical prodigy Blind Tom 32 The name of the African slave that jaw was cut open by J Marion Sims Sam 33 A black physician who constantly defended the human rights of African Americans James McCune Smith and W 39 39 Cobb 34 This African American vanished and the resurfaced at the Howard Morgue m m 35 Grandison Harris was known as quotResurrection Man 36 One out of how many blacks in the North were diagnosed insane m 37 He commissioned the infamous Tuskegee studyDr Taliaferro Clark 38This young man exposed the syphilis study Peter Bunxton 39 The founder of Planned Parenthood Margaret Sanger 40 This journalist began the idea that there were quotcrack babies Charles Krauthammer 41 This African American fled a circus and tried to have his surgically implanted horns removedCavin Bird 42 Dr JH Guenebault listed what number of distinguishable black characteristics 43 The skeleton of this African American woman is on display at the Gerogia Medical CollegeBessie Wilborn 44 This doctor was the inspiration of the movie the Black Stork Dr Harry J Haiselden 45 This person was implanted with an experimental Abicocor artificial heart James m 46 The former head of South Africa s Chemical and Biological weapons program WouterBasson 47 One of many prison research survivors Jesse Williams 48 This African American was given 47 micrograms of plutonium without his consentEbb Cede 49 How much money was offered to crack addicted African American men and women to be sterilized200 50 The Laurence G Pauqin Middle School where Norplant was first tested was located in what cityBaItimore


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