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by: Magnolia Heaney


Magnolia Heaney
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M. Dietz

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M. Dietz
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This 91 page Class Notes was uploaded by Magnolia Heaney on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1001 at Louisiana State University taught by M. Dietz in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/222451/hist-1001-louisiana-state-university in History at Louisiana State University.


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Date Created: 10/13/15
Greeks Homer 0 Sourcebook for Test 2 Originate scientific and phiolosophic thought Created democracy Developed humanistic outlook Consisted of small independent and selfgoverning city states Developed rational science interpretations of nature and human community 0 0 Physical explanations Omitted gods from their accounts of how nature came to be Analyzed government law and ethics in systematic ways Rational attitudes didn t end religion 0 Peasants remained devoted to cults gods and shrines Defined human beings by their capacity to use reason Citystates developed democratic institutions and attitudes O 0 Male citizens were able to hold public office and equal before the law Assembly I Met 40 times a year I Debated and voted on key issues Law was a human creation and product of reason Rule by absolute rulers and ppl govern themselves Limitations to democracy 0 O Slavery Inability of women to participate in politics Valued human personality and sought full cultivation of human talent 0 Man of worth pursued excellence I Sought to mold himself in accordance with the highest standards and ideas Common message in philosophy literature and art lla sense of the wholeness of things 0 O O Universe contains an order Law governs both nature and human affairs Orderliness can be comprehended by human reason Citystates often warred with each other Peloponesian War 0 O O O O Btw Athens and Sparta and their allies Drawnout Massacres and civil wars win citystates Shattered Greek spiritually Individualism and factional disputes weakened bonds of community within citystates Wrote lliad and Odyssey Humanist tradition O Concern with man and his achievements 0 To strive for excellence and surpass all others Heroic outlook O Excellence is seen as bravery and skill in battle I Driven to demonstrate his prowess to exert himself to win honor and earn a reputation Poetic form of Trojan War Btw Mycenaean Greeks and Trojans of Asia Minor Theme wrath of Achillies that brought much suffering to the Greeks Trojan War I Agamemnon King I Deprived achiies of his rightful prize a captive girl I Achillies wont submit to this insult and refuses to join the army to fight the Trojans o Intends to make Agamemnon pay for his arrogance o Wont have easy victories wout their greatest warrior I Greeks suffer great losses bc Achillies isn t fighting 0 Human existence has a pattern I Universal plan governs human affairs I People operate within a certain framework I Ppls deeds are subject to the demands of destiny or necessity ILIAD PG 47 o Hector of Troy 0 Son of King Priam 0 Preparing for battle 0 Wife Andromache pleads with him to stay within city walls 0 Hector feels compelled to engage in combat to show his worth and gain honor o Patroclus o Achillies best friend 0 Dies in battle by Hector 0 Achillies 0 Sets aside fight with Agamemnon and agrees to fight 0 King Priam urges Hector not to fight Achillies o Hector does 0 Killed by Achillies o Priam goes to Achillies and requests Hector s body 0 Achillies responds with passion 0 Shows that Homer sees essence of life as the pursuit of glory he is sensitive to life s brevety and to the suffering that pervades human existence How to Read a Primary Source Level One Who wrote it Homer When was it written During Greek Era What type of document is it story of the Iliad Main storyline What is it about Hector son of king Priam is preparing for battle and his wife is pleading with him to not go Hector feels compelled to battle to show his worth and gain honor Achillies best friend dies in battle so he agrees tojoin forces with Agamemnon to fight and slay Hector Achillies kills Hector but is compassionate when Priam asks for his son s body LOVE P 0 Point trying to get across shows that human worth is based on man and his achievements Hector wanted to prove his worth and gain honor by fighting even though he went up against the greatest warrior Level Two Intended audience people of that time and now to show what happened and document their history Why was it written for the people to read during that time or to document what was happening around that time Purpose of document Assumptions behind source Level Three Can I believe this document yes because we have found artifacts to show that this really happened and these people were all real What can I learn about the societyperson who created this document Men strived for excellence and to surpass all others concerned with man and his achievements he was the dominant one in society excellence was interpreted as skill and bravery in battle men had to earn their reputations How does it relate to its context greatest works of that time and still well known today ASSION amp FRIENDSHIP pg 49 Lyric poetry Intended to be sung with accompaniment of a yre Concerned with a poet s own opinions and inner emotions Written by Sappho 0 Greatest femae yric poet 0 Lived on island of Lesbos o Member of aristocracry 0 Had husband and daughter 0 Just one complete poem remains I Rest just in fragments 0 Created metric stanza 0 Established a finishing school to teach music and singing to wetodo girls and prepare them for marriage 0 Wrote poems of friendship and love 0 Some poems are addressed to women I Suggests she s bisexual Tolerated in ancient Greece Didn t deprive woman s status as a virgin Likens her absent friend Anactoria to a defiant Helen of Troy 0 Wiingy eft Sparta to sail away with Troy with her lover Paris I Son of Trojan King Priam 0 Helen didn t spare a thought about her husband kids or family when went away 0 Said goddess of love made her do it o Longing for her friend Addresses passion btw women Woman leaving her and she s upset Reminding her of all the times they had together and how much she likes her 0 O o Admits Aphrodite goddess of love has left her powerless to resist desire 0 Loved her daughter and speaks of her love 0 Lost love 0 Aphrodite responds to her plea for assistance 0 Wants Aphrodite to help her and bring whomever back to her 0 Greek society said men should marry women and bear kids 0 Symbol of female honor virginity 0 Trauma of woman losing her virginity o Virginity tells her she isn t coming back and woman is distressed bc doesn t know what to do without her virginity o How to Read a Primary Source Level One Who wrote it Sappho When was it written during Ancient Greece What type of document is it poems Main storyline What is it about compares her lost friend to Helen of Troy that she left because of goddess of love Passion between women Cannot resist desire bc of Aphrodite Love for her daughter Plea to Aphrodite to bring her love back Woman please to get her virginity back Point trying to get across start of lyric poetry about emotions and how women could love other men and women at not be considered wrong Shows virtue of virginity is important Level Two lntended audience people of the time Why was it written to provide entertainment to people of that time Purpose of document Assumptions behind source Level Three Can I believe this document poems so not supposed to be brutally honest more ofjust the emotions that Sapporah was feeling What can I learn about the societyperson who created this document Ancient Greeks liked lyric poetry which was about emotion love and passion Valued viriginity greatly because women should save that for their husbands Just because women loved other women didn t make them immoral in greek eyes How does it relate to its context greatest female poet rise of lyric poetry Philosophers o Greeks living in city of Miletus coast of Asia Minor conceived way of viewing nature that wasn t mythical o Marked origins of philosophic and scientific thought 0 Cosmologists 0 Early greek thinkers 0 First to see nature as a system governed by laws 0 Sought physical explanations for events 0 Selfconcious and systematic investigation of nature 0 Hippocrates o Headed greek medical school 0 Doctors attacked magical practices and beliefs o Thucydides o Sought logical explainations for human events 0 Sophisits 0 Applied reason to traditional religion law and morality HIPPOCRATES SACRED DISEASE SEPERATION OF MEDICINE FROM MYTH o Hippocratic doctor rejects the belief that epilepsy is a sacred disease 0 Says the epilepsy has a natural explaination o Says ppl are quacks that think gods cause the disease THUCYDIDES METHOD OF HISTORICAL INQUIRY 0 Movement from myth to reason 0 Pervaded in all aspects of greek culture 0 Carefully investigated events 0 First ppl to examine the past with a critical eye 0 Examined men s actions and their motives o Rejected divine explanations o Searched for natural causes 0 Based conclusions on evidence 0 History was a creation of the rational mind and not expression of poetic imagination 0 HISTORY OF the PELOPONESIAN WAR 0 No place for legend or myth o Describes method of inquiry o Cant rely on every piece of history we are given 0 Ppl accept any story from ancient times 0 Ppl don t take the trouble of finding out the truth 0 Poets exaggerate their themes 0 Writing was done to last forever 0 Not romantic or eloquent CRITIAS RELIGION AS A HUMAN INVENTION 0 Sophists 0 Applied reason to human affairs 0 Traveled from city to city teaching rhetoric grammar poetry math music and gymnastics o Sought to develop their students minds 0 Created secular curriculum 0 Critias o Sophist Poet philosopher orator and historian Originally eager follower of Socrates Later become most blood thirsty of the Thirty Tyrants I Oligarchs who gained control of athens and massacred opponents o Surviving fragment ofa play 000 0 Men committed crimes until law said no now do them in private 0 God hears everything and knows everything you do 0 Cannot escape him Humanism o Urged human beings to develop physical intellectual and moral capacities to the fullest 0 Shape themselves according to highest standards 0 Make lives as harmonious as a flawless work of art PINDAR PURSUIT OF EXCELLENCE o Pindar o Poet o Expressed greek views of excellence in a praise for a victorious athlete 0 Life is tragic o Triumphs short lived o Misfortunes many 0 Death overtakes everyone 0 Still humans must demonstrate their worth by striving for excellence SOPHOCLES LAUDING HUMAN TALENTS o Passage from play Antigone 0 Man can do pretty much anything 0 Only thing man cant handle is death 0 Teaches himself how to do all these things and is good at them Persian Wars 0 lonian Greeks revolted against Persian rulers 0 Athens sent 20 ships to aid lonians o Darius King of Persia sent force to peninsula of Attica where Athens is located to punish the Athenians 0 Marathon 0 Athenian army defeated Persians o Xerses o Darius son 0 Organized huge invasion ofGreece o Realizing freedom was at stake Greek citystates banded together 0 Bay of Salamis o Athenian navy defeated Persian Armada 0 Plataea 0 Year after salamis o Spartan army crushed Persians HERODOTUS THE HISTORIES o Herodotus 0 Father of history 0 Wrote about Persian Wars 0 Took note of strategy behind victory at Salamis o Athenian General Themistocles I Sent slave to the Persian commander with story that some of Athen s allies were planning to sail out of Salamis I Persians sailed into narrow waters of the way I Persians were destroyed by Greeks o Gods are present in this narrative but not that important 0 Visited Persian lands and found much to praise there o Struck by contrast btw free Greek citizen and Persian subjects who knew only to obey a king 0 Punishment for hubris o Arrogance o Xerses I Seeks to rule both Asia and Greece I Seen as exhibiting such arrogance o Wants to preserve the memory of the past by writing it down and show how 2 races came into conflict 0 Discussion of Xerses ambition o Began regin by building up army for a campaign in Egypt 0 Convinced that Athenians should be punished I If beat them nol will mess with him and name held in honor o Called a conference of leading men to find out their attitudes toward war I Said he will brings the Hellespont and march army thru Europe into Greece I Said dad darius was planning this and should carry it out I Says will not rest until Athens is burned to the ground I Extend Persian empire though Europe and make it one country 0 Oppose said that they Athenians are great fighters I Shouldn t go to war bc no reason to do so I Just going to war so he can get pride Greek Drama 0 Initially served a ritual function linking the Greeks with their Gods 0 Drama became gradually less concerned with the activities of gods 0 Emphasized human personality and universal human themes AESCHYLUS PERSIANS HU BRIS 0 Greek struggle against Persians was a perfect subject for drama 0 Aeschylus 0 Greek dramatist o Athenian nobleman o Fought in battle of Marathon 0 Wrote the Persians I Play that glorified Athenian victory at Salamis 0 Shows Themistocles cleverness in luring the Persians into the bay Heroic demonstration of the Athenian crews Persian messenger that witnesses what happens tells the queen what he saw 0 Characteristic theme in greek tragedy hubris o Overwhelming pride or arrogance 0 When ppl had hubris punished I Forgetting human failabilty and overstepping bounds of moderation o Xerses wanted to be master of both Asia and Greece I Should pay I Should make ppl aware of that they can and cannot do THUCYDIDES FUNERAL ORATION OF PERICLES 0 After the Persian Wars confidence and pride that came propelled Athens to Golden Age 0 Pericles 0 Central figure in Athenian political life 0 Gifted statesman and military commander o In the Peloponesean war btw Athens and Sparta delivered an oration in honor of the Athenian war dead 0 Speech was reconstructed by Thucydides I Describes Athenian greatnes o Contrasted Sparta s narrow conception of excellence with Athenian ideal of self sufficiency of human spirit I Spartans were subordinated all personal goals and interests to demand of Spartan state 0 Athenians didn t require grinding military discipline in order to fight bravely for their city I Cultivation of mind and love of beauty didn t make them less courageous Intended to bolster the morale of a people locked in brutal war ldealized Athenian society Athenians didn t always behave in accordance with these high principles Athenian democracy was an extraordinary achievement Democracy is better bc it is in the hands of all the people Everyone is equal under the law Free and tolerant in our private lives Keep to the law in public affairs Obey ppl in authority positions and obey laws themselves Athens is open to the world Rely on courage and loyalty When Spartans invade them use allies 0 They launch attack by themselves and fight on foreign soil Wealth should be used properly and not to boast Interested in own affairs and those of the city as well Make friends by doing good to others and not receiving compensation Status of Women Women occupied a subordinate position in Greek society Chief function was to bear male heirs for her husband and manage his household Women were secluded in their homes 0 Didn t go to marketplace 0 Didn t sit at same table as husbands and guests Didn t have political rights 0 Couldn t vote or hold office To exercise her property rights women were represented by a male guardian Parents arrage marriages of daughter 0 Father who discovered his daughter had sex could sell her into slavery Adultery is a crime Husband was compelled by law to divorce his adulterous wife and could have her lover executed 0 EU RIPIDES MEDEA Euripides 0 Greek dramatist 0 Individual life vs demands of society 0 Play Medea Focuses on a strongwilled woman whose despair at being cast off by her hubby leads her to revenge Speaks for the deepest feelings of many greek women Says women are most unfortunate creatures No easy escape nor can they say no to marriage Men can go out when bored at home but women just have to sit there Rather stand in battle than bare one child ARISTOPHAN ES Lysistrata Aristophanes 0 Greatest Athenian comic playwright o Wrote Lysistrata o Conveyed revulsion for Peloponesian War 0 Play Women of Athens led by Lysistrata refrain from having sex with their husbands until they make peace 0 Women sized the Acropolis I Rocky hill in the center of Athens 0 Men resort to force but doused with water A commissioner enters and complains about the disturbance Koryphaios one of the doused men that vents his anger Dialogue btw commissioner and Lysistrata 0 Shows attitudes of Greek men and women toward each other Men think women are good for a complete disaster Men think they taught women all they know Women scored is something to be reckoned with Women tolerated men and kept their thoughts to themselves 0 Doesn t mean they were happy or agreed with it Peloponnesian War Athenians organized a mutual defense pact o Delian League 0 Among smaller greek citystates Athens had the most wealth naval forces and population 0 Became dominant power within the league 0 Converted it into empire under Athenian rule Sparta feared that Athens was a threat to their own independence and freedom 0 Saw this during the Peloponnesian war Thucydides o Elected general during the war 0 Banished from Athens for failing to rescue a city under attack by Sparta 0 During exile he gathered info about the world 0 Saw his account as a unique documentary achievement that would serve model for future historian o Studied politics I History was essentially the study of political behavior 0 Sought underlying patterns and general truths 0 Contains insights into human nature techniques of demagogues consequences of mob behavior and spiritual decline of men in wartime THUCYDIDES MELIAN DIALOGUE AND REVOLUTION AT CORCYRA Athenians considered it natural for strong states to dominate weaker ones Concided with view of Sophists o Might makes right Athens invaded island of Melos which resisted Reconstructed dialogue btw Athenian envoys and Melian officials o Tried to persuade Athenians not to launch an unjust war After capturing the town slaughtered men enslaved women and kids and colonized the territory Describes the revolution in Corcyra 0 One of several conflicts that broke out within citystates during Peloponessan war Melian Dialogue 0 Melians wanted to decide on things peacefully and not go to war 0 Athenians wanted them to surrender themselves and save the deaths and other things caused by a war would save them from disaster by giving in Athenians wouldn t agree to be their gfriend because subjects would see that as weak I lncrease size of empire and security of empire 0 Melians said that if they surrender all hope is lost but if they fight still have some chance Athenians say there is nothing dishonorable about giving in to them Melians came to conclusion that they will fight and trust in the fortune the gods will send that has protected them thus far I Really just want to make peace and not be anyones enemy During the war revolutions broke out in several citystates as democrats believed in decision making by citizens and oligarchs those who wanted the rule by select few competed for power Traditional standard of morality were set aside and dangerous passions were unleashed Revolution at Corcyra o Thucydides account of this shows how stresses of war caused a moral collapse and deterioration in quality of political life 0 00 o Corcyraeans massacred those of their own citizens who they considered to be enemies I Men were killed on grounds of personal hatred or debt owed 0 Anyone who held violent opinions could be trusted and those that disagreed were questioned 0 To plot successfully was a sign of intelligence 0 Family relations were a weaker tie than party membership I Parties formed to acquire power by overthrowing the existing regime I Members of parties felt confidence in each other bc they were partners in crime 0 Love of power operating though greed and personal ambition were cause 0 Leaders of parties in the cites had programs that seemed good but really were seeking out to win the prizes for themselves 0 As a result of these revolutions deterioration of character 0 Society was divided into 2 hostil camps each side viewed other with suspicion o Corcyra I First example of breakdown of law and order Socrates Marked decisive turning point in greek philosophy and thought Rational individual became component of humanism Agreed that study of physical nature was less impt then study of man Concerned with comprehending human character Provided a method dialogue of arriving at knowledge Dialogue was the sole avenue to moral insight and self knowledge Showed that human mind wasn t passive vessel that just had info poured into it Participants in dialogue were required to play an active role and think critically Relations with ppl should involve rational discussion 0 Ppl learn from each other and improve themselves Accused by his enemies of corrupting the youth of Athens and not believing in the city s god 0 Went on trial for his life PLATOTHE APO LOGY Plato Plato o Wrote the Apology 0 Where most of Socrates trial comes from Socrates tells the court that the Delphic Oracle had said there was no one wiser than Socrates o Socrates decided he was going to converse with people reputed to be wise I Didn t think of himself as wise Conversed with people thought to be wise but found himself wiser o Angered ppl he encountered people poets artisans 0 Why so many false accusations against him The pursuit of truth was the highest human activity 0 lnvolved person s whole being 0 Transformed human I Enabled him to live in accordance with moral values that could be defended rationally Cannot stop preaching but it is gods will and wont disrespect him If put to death nol will be able to take his place Convicted and sentenced to death Rather die than give in to them People who sentenced him to death will have more severe punishments Athenian aristocrat Disciple of Socrates Affected by deterioration of Athenian politics during war Rise of demagogues violent conflicts btw oligarchs and democrats and execution of Socrates showed Athenian democracy was a failure Hostitlity towards democracy stemmed from upperclass background Promise of reforming individual though critical use of reason Individual couldn t undergo a moral transformation while living in a corrupt society For an individual to be able to achieve virtue state must be reformed PLATO THE REPUBLIC Proposed organizing government in harmony with needs of human nature People who are driven by desire for food possession and sexual gratification farmers tradesmen or artisans Those who are courageous and assertive soldiers Those few with capacity for wisdom philosophers o Entrusted with political power Many would be ruled by the few who have natural leadership ability Philosopher kings o Finest products of states educational program 0 Weild absolute power I People lose rights to participate in politics I State manufactures propaganda and strictly control education in order to keep masses obedient Citizens would gain leaders distinguished by their wisdom Dialogue btw Socrates and man named Glaucon Views on the character 0 Once we have a clear view of the character we can defend our position 0 Philosophers make good rulers bc I Constant passion for knowledge I Want to know every little thing I No info is insignificant Genuine philosophers are thse whose passion is it to seek the truth Standards of beauty justice and goodness exist that are universally valid 0 Apply to all people at all times Forms 0 Standards are in a higher world 0 Known only through mind and not senses 0 Ordinary person bases opinion in every day experience I lmperfect understanding of beauty justice and goodness 0 Philosopher through reason reaches beyond the realm of Forms and discovers the truth 0 Such ppl are the natural rulers of the state Allegory of the cave o Distinction btw higher world of truth and lower world of imperfection 0 Dialogue of Socrates and Glaucon compares those ppl without knowledge of the Forms to prisoners in a dark cave 0 To the prisoner chained in the cave the shadows of artificial objects constitue reality 0 When freed prisoner comes into sunlight he sees totally different world 0 Returning to the cave he tells other prisoners that the shadows are only imitations of reality I Gets laughed at I Opinions are shaped by the only world they know 0 Philosophers who ascend into Forms posses true knowledge 0 Everyone else posses opinions deceptive beliefs and illusions o Philosophers have duties to guide ignorant The perfect state is one governed by reason Democracy is flawed bc most ppl lack ability to deal with matters of the state In the end democracy changes to anarachy Tyrant worst person 0 Lunatic who dreams that he can lord over mankind and the heavens Aristotle Came to Athens to study under plato At the Academy for 20 years Aristotle tutored Alexander the Great Opened up school of philosophy 0 Called Lyceum ARISTOTLE HISTORY OF ANIMALS POLITICS and NICOMACHEAN ETHICS Scientific thinking has both rationalism and empiricism o Rationalism pursuit of truth thru thought alone independent of experience with natural world I Advocated by Plato Valued reason and observed nature and collected classified and analyzed data Empiricism is the foundation for subjects such as geology and biology Careful observation of chick embryo shows empiricism Followed emprial methology when studying politics 0 Undertook series of historical studies of the constructions of greek states 0 Most significant and complete constitution of Athens wrote politics 0 masterwork of political phiolosophy based ethics on reason ppl achieved moral well being when the avoided extremes of behavior and chose moderation Nicomachean Ethics 0 Dedicated to his son 0 Shows characteristics that make up greek idea of excellence Seeks to determine what is the best constitution 0 Conclusion reflects the premise of moderation or middle way as path to virtue in all things 0 Forming a constitution for the state power should reside in the hands of the middle class rather than poor or aristocracy Rests on principles of moderation and balance Some people become angry at the wrong things and cant be appeased until they seek vengeance Foolish people endure every insult without defending themselves In the middle is the proud man who is angry at the right thing and with the right people Eventempered and moderate in all things Inscription of Tiglathpileser I Essay gt Level One 0 Who wrote it I King Tiglathpileser I an Assyrian 0 When was it written I Around 1115 1077 BC 0 What type of document is it I Inscription about how great the King is 0 Main storyline I Talks about how good the King is and how he conquered so many people He claims that he has a special relationship with the God Ashur and he is conquering other people because Ashur told him to gt Level Two 0 Intended audience I The people he has conquered 0 Why was it written I It was written to assert the King s dominance and to convince the people of their defeat I It was also written so that people would not rebel against him 0 Assumptions behind the source I There was a lot of con ict in the area I There were probably some rebellions and that may have caused the King to want to write this inscription gt Level Three 0 Can I believe it I The document is most likely genuine but the King probably exaggerated his power I Also he claimed that he was being told what to do by Ashur so he probably made that up to control people 0 What can I learn about the societyperson who created this document I People believed that King s had special relationships with Gods I There was a lot ofwar in this environment and this King conquered a lot ofpeople o How does it relate to its context I The inscription is meant to show the power of the King I People really believed that the King had a special relationship with a God and that he was only doing as he was told Therefore this was a justification for conquering other lands Epic of Gilgamesh pg 4 Greatest work of Mesopotamian literature Written in 2000 BC About a king that ruled the city of Uruk Theme human protest against death At the end learns to accept reality and theres no escape from death Shows Mesopotamians struggle to face reality People are displeased with Gilgamesh so turn to gods for help Gods create a man to teach Gilgamesh a lesson Gilgamesh is with a harlot and sees Enkidu at a watering hole The harlot takes her clothes off and Enkidu is seduced by her Forget why he s here and breaks bond with animals Becomes best friends with Gilgamesh They kill a monster together When Gilgamesh was washing his clothes a goddess fell in love with him but he didn t feel the same Goddess gets mad and tells her father to send monster down to kill Gilgamesh Gilgamesh slays the monster and now gods send down something to kill his BFF Enkidu dreams of how he will die and tells it to Gilgamesh He would die of sickness Dies in shame because didn t die in battle with honor Gilgamesh wept for 7 days and 7 nights and says he will grow his hair long and run around in a lion skin Goes on a search for eternal life Runs into the divine winemaker who tells him that his quest isn t successful Tells him to run around and be merry while he still can How to Read a Primary Source Level One Who wrote it unknown When was it written during the Mesopotamian era What type of document is it storypiece of literature Main storyline What is it about a king is hated by his people so gods send down a guy to take care of him They become bff and gods decide to kill his friend Gilgamesh is so upset that he goes on a quest for eternal life Comes to a winemaker and she tells him god did not intend for humans not to die Point trying to get across shows their fear of death and haven t come to terms with reality Level Two Intended audience childrengrandchildren that the legend is intened to be passed onto Not us as students Why was it written it might have been an oral tale and someone wrote it down to remember it and that could pass on to others Purpose of document Assumptions behind source Level Three Can I believe this document no because they believed in different things than we do today and the story isn t believable in this dayage What can I learn about the societyperson who created this document They relied a lot on the gods to help them with their problems or everyday functions in life They were fearful of the unknown and possibly teaching a lesson to not search for eternal life or don t be bad because then the god s will spite you How does it relate to its context it was the greatest work of all Mesopotamia and it shows their religious beliefs at the time and how they felt about different things at that time Code of Hammurabi pg 7 Babylonian king Discovered by archeologists Shows king accepting the laws from the sun god Shows moral values class structure gender relationships and role of kingship Cover public and private matters Marriage and family fraud duties of public officials crimes and punishments etc Hammurabi said he had a divine duty to uphold justice punish evil and further welfare of people 2 approaches to punishment for a crime Pay money to the victim llEye for an eye Penalties vary according to social status of the victim 3 classes Free men and women Protected by the law of retaliation Commoners Not wholly free but dependents of the state or serfs on the land Receive money if they are the victim Slaves Receive money if they are the victim Laws relating to business transactions show importance of trade in Mesopotamia and willingness of government to intervene in these matters and regulate Some of the outcomes are determined by the will of the gods Laws concerning family place power in the husband but code protected women and children Punished government officials severely How to Read a Primary Source Level One Who wrote it Babylonian King Hammurabi When was it written 1750 BC in Babylonian era What type of document is it list of laws documented on huge stones Main storyline Hammurabi said he had divine power and made the laws to govern the society of Babylonia Shows how the power in the family was based in the father figure but that women and children were not to be harmed It also shows his favor of a heirachal system of class structure because only the llfree men and women could be punished like llan eye for an eye Shows their reliance on trade during this time Gives insight into moral values class structure gender relationships and role of kingship Level Two lntended audience citizens of Babylonian living in that time Why was it written to ensure the people were on the same page with all the laws and also to make them more concrete since they were written down Assumptions behind source no list of laws had been written down up until this time Hammurabi wanted complete control and so wrote the laws down for everyone to see and recognize him as the ultimate ruler of the land Also to show people where they stood in society Level Three Can I believe this document yes because archeologists have found artifacts big stone tablets and there was evidence in a strict social class structure during this time What can I learn about the societyperson who created this document they relied heavily on the father as the power figure they would punish corrupt officials more severely they respected women and children although they believed they had little to no power they relied heavily on trade and business transactions and they had a strict social class structure that favored the llfree men and women How does it relate to its context gives us a glimpse into the Babylonian society and way of life and helps piece together things going on throughout this time Hymns to the Pharaohspg 11 Kings ruled in Egypt in accordance with divine commands and law was seen as godgiven Individuals were subordinates to the gods Nature and humans were controlled by divine beings Citizens were subjects that obeyed their Pharoahs Power of their gods and rulers were absolute and not an issue for discussion or change Divine kingship King or pharaoh to be both god and man Controlled the flood waters of the nile Kept irrigation system working Maintained justice Expressed will of gods by his words Hymn to Ramesses Written when he died Says people are all going to be fulfilled and not suffer right now Want everything in the land to be fruitful and plenty Shows their devotion to the king and belief he is all powerful and has an affect on their lives even when he is dead Guidelines for the Ruler pg 12 Responsibilities of a pharaoh Should prepare their sons to rule Compile a list of instructions on how to rule the kingdom Composed by King lssi Should strive for excellence and no faults Should bring about trust because of its lasting worth Composed by Amenemhet Said no one has suffered when he was a ruler and son should do the same Said all his commands were obeyed Prepared for King Merikare by his father Should be kind Should be trusting but always watch his back Should calm the upset oppress no one and expel no one How to Read a Primary Source Level One Who wrote it unknown but written to King Ramesses and another unknown king at the time of their death written by king lssi Amenemhet and Merikare s father When was it written during the Egyptian period after the death of the Pharoah or while Pharoah was still alive giving instructing to his son What type of document is it Hymn guidelines Main storyline shows their reliance on pharaohs and divine kingship in that they control every aspect of society from the nile to the irrigation to maintaining justice Shows they believe that the pharaoh still helps them out even when he is dead and that power of the gods were not negotiable pharaohs were giving advice to their sons on how to rule as they did and keep the peace Level Two Intended audience Pharoah who had died and other gods sons of Pharoahs Why was it written to pay homage to the dead Pharoah and to pretty much kiss his butt so that he would still bless them even in death written to make sure that the sons ruled in accordance with their father s wishes after he has deceased Assumptions behind source had a huge reliance on divine kingship in that the rulers were human embodiments of gods and they would go up to the gods once they died They paid homage to his death so he would continue to bless them even when he s dead in each guideline the pharaoh points out what he has done and his successes and says the son should follow in accordance Also gives pointers on how to be a good ruler Level Three Can I believe this document I believe that it was actually written but I don t believe that the Pharoahs did have all this power because the people during this time had a nonrealistic view about culture yes because we know that when the pharaoh died the son took over but we cannot believe the content because just because the pharaoh says he was so great and did this and that we have no proof because scribes at that time favored the Pharoah What can I learn about the societyperson who created this document they relied heavily on their kings and to their gods Citizens were subordinate to the gods Pharoahs thought highly of themselves and the next ruler was their son so they kept it in the family and all ruled similar to each other How does it relate to its context gives insight on religious beliefs and practices of the people during that time Hymn to Aton pg 13 Amenhotep Pharoah of Egypt Monotheism Suppressed worship of many gods in Egypt and insisted that Aton and himself be worshiped Aton Seen as the creator of the world A god of love peace and justice Changed his name and built a new capital city Akhetaten Became center of the religious cult New religion failed after his death Masses of Egypt didn t follow him nor did the preists who liked traditional beliefs Sucessors left capital and monuments to Aton were destroyed Hymn that glorifies Aton How to Read a Primary Source Level One Who wrote it King Akhenaten When was it written during the Egyptian time period What type of document is it it is a hymn to Aton Main storyline King Akhenaten wrote it to the god Aton because he started a new religious cult and believed in monotheism only worship one god and that Aton was the all powerful god Believed he could do anything on earth and responsible for peace prosperity and justice Level Two Intended audience Aton Why was it written to show his devotion to Aton and how people at the time should worship only one god Assumptions behind source Akhenten started his own religious cult and built a new capital for it He thought that they should only worship him and one god He thought Aton was the creator of everything and responsible for every aspect in a persons life Level Three Can I believe this document believe that it actually was written but the assumptions he makes about what this one god can do are outlandish because egyptains had a problem with facing reality What can I learn about the societyperson who created this document Egyptians relied heavily on gods and thought they were responsible for everything When Akhenaten created his new religion he brought the view of monothelism to light and worshiped only one god How does it relate to its context shows culture and religious beliefs of Egypt Love Poetry pg 15 Egyptian women were concerned with marriage kids and the home Suffered fewer disabilities compared to other societies Had legal rights could enter priesthood and have access to the other world after death Both men and women were under love s power and wrote much about this Man is admiring his loved one s beauty Saying everything about her is beautiful and blows him away Without her he is nothing and suffers Physically and emotionally sick from being without her Only she can cure him Women also wrote poetry Get giddy when see their love Do foolish things when they are around Their hearts flutter with love Instructions of Ankesheshonq pg 16 Some held unflattering views of women Priest Ankesheshonq gives advice to his son Don t love a married woman Don t give wife money Don t open your heart to her only to his mother Saying that wife will go elsewhere and cheat Don t tell her she s beautiful Don t sleep with married women or hookers Women should never talk bad about their husbands If women is wealthier man should obey her How to Read a Primary Source Level One Who wrote it man woman preist Ankhsheshonq When was it written Egyptian time period What type of document is it poems advice Main storyline story shows how Egyptians viewed love and women One account shows a man confessing his love and admiring his lovers beauty one shows Level Two lntended audience both men and women to their lovers and a father to his son Why was it written to confess their loveadmiration to their lovers to say they are lost and sick without them a fathers advice to his son about women and how they are no good Assumptions behind source the poem is a man comparing his lover to everything beautiful and every aspect of her is compared to something a man is lost without his love and the only thing that can cure him is his lover a woman confesses that her heart flutters when she gets around her love and a father tells his son not to sleep with married women or spoil them or open his heart to her Level Three Can I believe this document it s a poem so its not entirely based on real accounts but the advice to the son is somewhat outlandish because you should love your wife and give her your wealth and tell her how beautiful she is The only truth in this document is that you shouldn t sleep with married women because their husbands will come after you What can I learn about the societyperson who created this document the Egyptians had differing views on love and relationships Some were hopeless romantics and wanted to treat their lovers like kingsqueens but others were skeptic of women possibly from being hurt in the past or learned behavior from their fathers How does it relate to its context shows Egyptian societial view on relationships The Assyrian Empire Inscription of TIGLATHPILESER pg 17 history was marked by empire building while led ppl to have relationships with others in different culturesregions Two leaders of empire building Assyrians and Persians Assyrians Semitic people from N lraq King governed absolutely and nobiles appointed by king kept order Traveling inspectors checked on their performance Network of roads helped them to keep informed about potential enemies Conquered people had freedom as long as they paid tribute to Assyrians Tiglathpileser describes his conquests and punishment of rebellious people He is the highest ruler Gods commanded him to expand territory Fought 6O kings and won and conquered all neighboring territories easily Cut off peoples heads and piled them up at walls of the city Stole their goods Took prisoners of combated soldiers Took goods burned city of people who were unruly Persian Empire Inscriptions of Cyrus and Darius pg 18 Under Cyrus Persia conquered all lands between the Nile in Egypt and the Indus in India Conquest took 25 years Absolute monarchy justified by religion Ruled empire with divine approval Developed system of administration Gave stability and unity through their different territories Cyrus describes his conquests Did not allow anyone to terrorize subjects Kings paid tribute to him because he was so great Returned all enslaved people to where they were originally from King Darius Constructed palace Dug 40 ft and 20 ft into the earth and built palace Brought in different woods from different areas as well as stone and gold Palace made of gold ivory stone silver brought from throughout the land People from everywhere helped build the palace How to Read a Primary Source Level One Who wrote it Tiglath King Cyrus and Darius When was it written Cyrus and Darius Persian rule Tiglath Assyrian rule What type of document is it written accounts of their rein and what happened when they ruled the kingdom Main storyline each story is about the king s accomplishments during his rule and sort of a bragging account of what each accomplished whether it was conquering everyone and throwing their heads at the foot of a wall or constructing a lavish palace Level Two Intended audience people at the time to remember what they did or possibly others in different times so that the kings can be remembered Why was it written wanted to be remembered for what they accomplished by further generations and sort of a bragging account of what they did do Assumptions behind source wrote about what they did so others would remember how great they were and all their accomplishments as a ruler Level Three Can I believe this document some parts of the account might be exaggerated but I feel the core points and true What can I learn about the societyperson who created this document this was the empire building segment of history and how each ruler of Persia or Assyria conquered neighboring lands and expanded their rule past their little community How does it relate to its context shows accounts of empire building Myth Making Outlook of Ancient Near East pg 20 Mesopotamia and Egypt interpreted nature and human experience thru myths Nararated deeds of gods in past who brought the world and people Scientific vs mythical thinking Scientific Views physical nature as inanimate impersonal and governed by universal law Viewed as an quotitquot Natural objects obey universal rules Appeals to reason Analyzes nature logically and search for general principles Mythmaking Sees nature as personified Alive with gods and demons who manipulate things Doesn t see repetitive laws inherent in nature Attributes all occurrences to the actions of unpredictable gods Explain nature by narrarating stories Appeals to the imagination Personification of Natural Objects Personifies inanimate objects Seeks the who behind events Attributes events to wills of gods From Mesopotamian literature About table salt alive a fellow being One sees salt to end bewitchment and other believes himself bewitched and calls on fire to destroy enemies Says without salt no meal is good Designed by gods to eat with food Wants salt to break his enchantment and will honor salt if it does Brings on fire because think he s bewitched Burn whomever cursed him destroy them Enuma Elsh Babylonian Genesis Mesopotamia poem of creation Example of mythical thinking Chief god of Babylon slays mother of sea salt and constructs the cosmos from her carcass Shot winds at her belly to open her mouth then shot arrow through her belly cutting her insides Lord split her belly into 2 parts and but half in the sky Set up 3 consellations for each of the 12 months Appointed him creature of the night to signify days Lament for Ur Gods and Human Destiny Mesopotamians and Egyptians believed their destinies were determined by gods Assembly of gods decide to punish city of UR God calls storms to the land hurricanes wind Sets fire to the city Left city of UR in a ruin People lay dead throughout the city How to Read a Primary Source Level One Who wrote it people during the Mesopotamia and Egyptian time period When was it written during the Mesopotamia and Egyptian time period What type of document is it poems Main storyline people in Mesopotamia contributed everything that happened to the gods They personified salt and thought of it as a person who could rid them of evil and personified fire and spoke to it as a person to destroy whomever bewitched them They contributed daynight and constellations to the slaying of a god and explained why disasters happened due to the will of the gods Shouldn t piss off gods because they control everything Level Two lntended audience salt fire people of that time Why was it written salt to pray that it would rid him of bewitchment fire to pray that it would punish the people doing harm enuma elish written to tell why there were stars in the sky and the changing from night to day lament for ur written to say what happened when the gods got mad at the city of UR and decided to destroy it as punishment Assumptions behind source Level Three Can I believe this document no because we think scientifically and not mythically We know salt and fire aren t things that can talk and help us out with life We know why the sun rises and falls and why there are stars in the sky We also know why natural disasters happen And these are not attributed to the gods What can I learn about the societyperson who created this document shows that they were mythical thinkers and personified objects as if they were people They relied heavily on the gods to show them the way and to help them through their daily lives How does it relate to its context shows how they lived during this time period Hebrews Principal founders of western civilization Belief in monotheism One god who demands good behavior from people One and only god Originated in Mesopotamia and migrated to Canaan Some went to Egypt to become farmers Moses Led the Hebrews from Egypt through god s will Unified in belief of Yahweh while wandering through the desert Saul First king of Hebrews Soloman Hebrew kingdom reached height of its power Saw gods everywhere in nature Either gods or homes of gods lnvented myths Not fully sovereign Not eternal but born or created Existence depended on prior realm When grew old or sick limited their power If gods did wrong destiny or fate punishes them God was transcendent Above nature Natural objects were merely god s creations Yahweh was fully sovereign Absolutely free no limitations on his power Eternal and source of all universe God gives humans moral autonomy Ability to chose between good and bad Ppl measured their actions by god s law and responsible for own behavior Led people to become aware of themselves Hebrew Cosmogony and Anthropology pg 26 Hebrew scriptures Collection of 39 books written over several centuries by different people Record of Jewish religion and development Genesis Cosmogony view of the generation of the universe Shows gods power Didn t worship moon stars etc Though nature as creation of one supreme and eternal being Anthropology how men and women were created Created in gods image and subordinate to nothing but god God created heaven and earth day and night rivers and land man out of our likeness Garden of eden Man was placed there where he could eat any tree except knowledge of good and evil God created woman from rib of man Adam and Eve lived here where humans were free from death or other bad stuff How to Read a Primary Source Level One Who wrote it different authors of Hebrew descent When was it written different time periods but all throughout Hebrew era What type of document is it compellation of Hebrew scriptures Main storyline showed their belief in not personifying objects and that one god created everything on earth including man There is one god that is all powerful Level Two lntended audience people at the time or for other to see records of what they believed in Why was it written to show what they believed in and how their views different from previous people Assumptions behind source didn t personify objects believed in one god thought there was one god who created everything Level Three Can I believe this document cannot know for sure how things were created but it is what is in the Bible today but no one can ever know for sure how earth and everything else was created More believable than personification of objects What can I learn about the societyperson who created this document shows they are becoming more realistic in believing how the world works Shows they believe in one god Yahweh and first religion to really differ from that How does it relate to its context Covenant and 10 Commandments 29 Covenant Central to Hebrew religion Made between god and themselves God chose them to be the 151 recipients of his law Viewed it as a great responsibility God chose them to set an example to other nations Exodus The Covenant Moses received covenant on Mt Sinai and the time of the Hebrews retreat from Egypt and wandering in the desert Moses told god that he did what god asked of him In return god said he will come to Moses in form of a cloud so people can hear when he speaks to Moses and believetrust him forever Exodus The Ten Commandments Moses received these specified laws from god Lord came down to Moses and the people and identified himself Said Have no gods before him Make themselves images of god Don t take lords name in vein Remember the Sabbath Honor father and mother Don t kill Don t commit adultery Don t steal Don t bear false witness Don t covet neighbor s wife How to Read a Primary Source Level One Who wrote it different Hebrew authors When was it written during the Hebrew era What type of document is it compelation of Hebrew scriptures Main storyline god made a pact with Moses to save the people Moses held up his end of the bargain by getting people out of Egypt God came down to moses and the people and handed them the ten commandments on how to live according to god s will Level Two Intended audience people at the time and future people Why was it written written account of what they believed happen and to help future followers see where their heritage lies Assumptions behind source Level Three Can I believe this document more believable than other ones that personifies objects Written in Bible today and believed by most religions What can I learn about the societyperson who created this document shift from mythology to belief in one god that created all things Showed god s a good and gracious god by keeping his promise Start to actually take life serious and accountable for own actions God s Greatness and Human Dignity pg 30 Hebrew s belief in god showed a human dignity Human beings are highest creation only subordinate to god Only ones to chose btw good and evil Hebrew scriptures containing hymns praising Yahweh Some written by King David Renowned harpist and composer Warrior and king Psalm 8 rejoices greatness in god Marvels lord s love for humans by having been given dominion over earth and its creatures Psalm 104 praises god s majesty and wonders of his creation of earth and it s creatures How he created the sky clouds heavens waters mts Etc How to Read a Primary Source Level One Who wrote it some were written by King David and others When was it written during Hebrew era What type of document is it Hebrew scripture containing hymns Main storyline how god created everything and praising his love for humans and earth and thanking him for giving us power over everything but him Level Two Intended audience people at the time and future followers Why was it written to give a written account of what they believe in so people can read and decide to follow them or for their future ancestors who can see what they went through and thought so they can follow in their footsteps Assumptions behind source Level Three Can I believe this document yes God did create everything and we should give him thanks for everything and making us chief commander of the earthly world What can I learn about the societyperson who created this document showed belief in one god created everything humans could chose btw right and wrong evolving societies How does it relate to its context Humaness of Hebrew Law pg 33 Recorded in the Torah First 5 books of the scriptures Source of law was god because he is good and concerned with human welfare More concerned with people than property Expressed humane attitude towards slaves and rejected idea of one law for nobles and another for common ppl Liviticus Neighbor and Community Laws governing economic social and political relationships gave practical expression to God s universal standards of morality 3 book in scriptures Contains laws governing actions with neighbors and the community Don t hoard all your crops for yourself Don t steal or lie to another Don t oppress people Don t judge people unfairly Don t hold grudges Be nice to strangers Deuteronomy Judges Witnesses and Justice Composed in 7 h century BC 6 centuries after exodus from Egypt Reflects the new problems faced by Hebrews who established a society and kingdom Linked message with authority of Moses Central theme attainment ofjustice Appoint judges and officers in all towns and give them fair judgement Don t take sides or bribes Must have more than 1 witness to charge someone with a crime If a slave comes to you cant give him back to his master Provide him with food and shelter and not oppress him Cant oppress hired servant who s poor Give him money everyday People are accountable for own sins If you forget your harvest leave it out there for poor people How to Read a Primary Source Level One Who wrote it unknown but people of Hebrew descent When was it written Deutoronomy written centuries after moses took people to promised land during the Hebrew reign What type of document is it laws and codes to follow Main storyline gives instructions on how to treat your neighbors and others and also how to run the new empire Don t lie to neighbor don t steal don t hold grudges be nice to everyone don t judge people unfairly don t oppress people Must appoint judges in each town to judge fairly must have more than one witness to a crime cant give slave back to master cant oppress anyone who s poor People are accountable for own sins Level Two lntended audience people living at that time Why was it written shows them how to act to neighbors and how to rule this new empire Assumptions behind source Level Three Can I believe this document yes because these were laws and codes at that time written that everyone had to follow What can I learn about the societyperson who created this document shows that they are a becoming a complex nation and need ruleslaws to govern behavior did in accordance to Moses and shows they are saying people are responsible for their own actions and have the right to chose How does it relate to its context Human Sinfulness pg 35 Hebrews saw sin as violation of god s law and breach of covenant Corrupts created order and brings suffering into the world Sin was a universal phenomenon Deserving of god s punishment Even if someone commits sin god is still compassionate and merciful Sinners can renew commitments to god Genesis Origin of Sin 3 chapter of genesis Origin of evil Adam and eve disobeyed god by eating from tree of knowledge Driven from garden of eden Marks the beginning of human history suffering and death Shows concept of original sin Snake tricked eden to eating from the tree Realized each other were naked Heard god coming and hid from him God made them clothes when sent them out of Eden Job Problem of Undeserved Suffering Written btw 7 h and 14 h century Best example of Hebrew literature Asks questions and impels us to ponder them and think about relationship with god God tells Satan that there s no one like his servant Job Wholehearted upright that shuns evil Satan tells god that he is only good because god has protected him from misfortune Satan tells god to put an end to this Satan destroys his kids possessions and afflict him with boils Job doesn t curse God When gets in presence of 3 friends he says God has treated him unjustly and doesn t know why its happening Friends tell job that God wouldn t punish an innocent man Job says that he is and that the wicked go unpunished while he has always done right Friend gets mad that Job is trying to justify himself against god Also gets mad because friends aren t answering Jobs questions God replies to Job Doesn t provide a clear answer Gives him series of rhetorical questions Reminds him its Jobs duty to not find fault with god bc he created all Job apologizes and God forgives him How to Read a Primary Source Level One Who wrote it Hebrew When was it written 7 h and 14 h century job What type of document is it Hebrew scriptures Main storyline shows how adam and eve defied gods word and were punished but then when repented given forgiveness even though they caused all the bad things in the world to come out Job always obeys god and Satan says the only reason why because job has had no misfortunes Satan kills Jobs family takes away possessions and put boils on Job but he still doesn t spite God Job starts talking to his friends and realizes he hasn t done anything wrong for god to treat him like this and starts to spite him God comes down and asks Job a series of rhetorical questions and job repents and god forgives Level Two lntended audience followers at that time and future followers Why was it written to show that even if you do bad things god will always forgive Also tells why bad things happen to humans in the first place Assumptions behind source Level Three Can I believe this document more believable then many gods doing many things Don t know if its true or not or this could just be a fictional story made up to make people trust in god What can I learn about the societyperson who created this document they believed god was forgiving and if you were sorry your sins would be abolished Believed people were responsible for their own actions and not the actions of others Also that every action has a reaction and even if you always do good things bad things will happen but must trust in god that he wont put you though things you cannot handle How does it relate to its context Age of Classical Prophecy pg 40 Marked by rise of prophets Spiritually inspired people who believed they were chosen by God Reminded Jews to their duties to God and his law Carried god s messages to leaders Emerged in the 8th century Expanded Hebrew religious thought Denounced explotation of poor greed of wealthy and oppressive behavior of powerful Said that all were a betrayl of Yahweh and his moral laws Said core of Hebrew faith was morality not rituals to Yahweh Amos and Isaiah Social Justice Disparity existed btw the wealthy and poor Small farmers faced loss of land to moneylenders Amos Prophet in 8th century Felt compulsion to speak out against this Said rituals they were performing weren t essence of the law lssiah Lived in 8th century Him and his disciples wrote his book Some attributed to later disciples Said rituals mean nothing to him and to stop doing them Shunned rich and powerful for being mean to the poor Isaiah Peace and Humanity Envisioned unity of people under god Showed monotheism All people live together in peace and harmony How to Read a Primary Source Level One Who wrote it Amos Isaiah and his followers prophets When was it written Amos written in 8th century lsaiah written in 8th century and then some after by the Second Isaiah What type of document is it Hebrew scriptures Main storyline Amos spoke out about how small farmers had to give up their land to moneylenders because couldn t pay says that rituals don t mean anythingits how you treat others lsiah denounces rich for treating the poor unjustly and says rituals don t mean anythingits how you treat them lsaiah2 people should live in peace and harmony under god because that s how he wants it Level Two Intended audience people living at the time Why was it written to scorn some people s actions and tell them how to right themselves to tell people how to live Assumptions behind source Level Three Can I believe this document yes because people were oppressed back then and these prophets are right when they say that its how you treat people and not your rituals to Yahweh What can I learn about the societyperson who created this document believe in treating everyone fairly and not unjustly punishing everyone Going away from rituals and more towards how to treat others correctly and to live in peace with one another Becoming more and more sophisticated communities How does it relate to its context 1 Discovery of New Civilizations Greek civilization Greece sandy soilnot fertile Get lots of rainfall Mountain range Homer lliad lived around 700 BC Wrote the odyssesy wrote a poem About a war where the gods are interfering People believed that the story homer wrote was a myth An epic poet of archaic period Wrote the iliad and odyssey Iliadstory of a quarrel between two greek leaders Supposively iliad and odyssey were narrated from the mycenean era Troycity in asia minor Controlled the enterance to the Hellespont the waterway that greeks imported grain from the black sea Sappho 600 BC women poet Wrote poety about love desire longing Hesiodepic poet Wrote Theogony and Work and clays Wrote about the titans and the Olympian gods Wrote about relationship between human and gods Ar tehomer wrote this poem about courageous deeds But talked about gods who went to far and goes insane Henreich Scheilman german who came from middle class german family merchants Had to be pulled out of school by his drunken father Scheilman taught himself ancient history and loved the stories of homer Decided to leave Germany and makes his way to Californiain 1850 for the gold rush He sets up a business where he sells shovels for the diggers beer and other stuff He became extremely wealthy Then he decides he wants to discover the city of troy Believed the Iliad was trueused the iliad as a map He finds a hill and they start digging and they find massive walls Then Henreich digs and finds golden reassures People still didn t believe him even after he found troy DISCOVERED THE SITE AT TROY B Minoan Civilization 0 Centered on island of crete 2500 BC1370 BC o trade was a major part of civilization 0 they were not warlike people artwork just showed people and landscape no war scenes were painted 0 people lived on the coasts 0 used bronze 0 built huge palaceshad large store rooms 0 dif cult to farm in Greece and get grain production 0 grew olives and grapes main crop 0 used olive oil for cooking and food 0 olive oil was used as fuel 0 People would bathe in it 0 Olive oil was easy to preserve o Grapesmade wine from 0 Merchant princes ruled O Creteinhabited as early as 7000 bc Had many palaces for merchant princes rulers whose major interest was trade Linear Aa system of writings invented by the Minoans May have been inspired by Egyptian hieroglyphs Written on clay tablets by drawing lines and were usedfor economic documents Linear B the later form of the Minoan script Recorded an early form of greek The use of greek at Knossos suggest that warriors conquered and occupied crete Were written on clay tablets and stored information about inventories of supply Minoancity found by sir Arthur evans KnossosCity in Crete ruins of the palaces where discovered there C Mycenaean Civilization Merchant princes headed centralized governments They were very militaristic Art featured battle scenes People were buried with weapons armor and chariots Mountainous terrain Also were very involved in trade Very wealthy people Had palaces Had a problem with population declining ag production and costly government may have caused the fall of the civilization Some historians think that mceneans were overwhelmed by invasion of less advanced greek speaking tribes the dorians ll Time of Turmoil Troyfound by Henreich Scheilman MycenaeHenreich sheilman goes to Agamemnon s city mycea and finds graves In one of the graves scheilman finds a gold death mask Found weapons in graves Sir Arthur Evans English oxford professor Read about Scheilmans exploits Was brought treasures from crete Decided to go to crete and see if he will find ruins He found a palace with elaborate paintings Also saw running water and there were pictures of people and bulls Found Minoan clay tablets with writing on itunknown language Civilization he found was known at myceanean Mycenaeanheinrich schleiman found Minoancity found by sir Arthur evans Wine and Olive Oil Made from the main crops grapes and olive Would trade with Greece Creteinhabited as earlya s 7000 bc Had many palaces for merchant princes rulers whose major interest was trade Linear Aa system of writings invented by the Minoans May have been inspired by Egyptian hieroglyphs Written on clay tablets by drawing lines and were usedfor economic documents Linear B the later form of the Minoan script Carl Blegen Michael Ventris tiripode Dorians 1200 1000 BC Archaic Greece Dark Ages 1000750 BC 11 Mycenean cities collapsed An era without literacy descended on the Aegean lron came into use and pottery painters began to develop historically informative art The economy centered on the village and the household There was a decline in trade and each community had to produce everything for itself Reduced population caused less competition for farmland and a economy of self sufficiency L cal stronmen tookthe lead in overnment ml A he kings were not as powerful as the prev us ings during the mycenea era These kings were expected to fight side by side with their people The kings were expected to prove themselves worthy to rule Archaic Age 750550 BC A Characteristics B Poets and Pre Socrates scientific writing 0 Thales of Miletus o AnaximanderOne of Thales of Miletus s students Believes that there was an unseen element that caused everything to happen He called it the aperion all is aperion it s the basis of all the cosmos Believed that the world was in a cylindrical shape surrounded by fire 0 Pythagoras of Samosmade up the Pythagorean theorem Believed that the primal element in the universe was number Believed that spheres made up the universe He believed earth divided into three parts the earthly part and the cosmosthe moving stars then the third part was made up of the gods all is number Believed that each number represented something 1 Unity 2 Feminine number 3 The perfect number combination of 1 and 2 o Wrote about beginning of life 0 Believed in the cosmos air fire water earth Delphi oracles Olympic Games Phoenician alphabet Oracle at Delphi Sappho Hesiod quotTheogonyquot and quotWork and Daysquot Homer quotlliadquot and quotOdysseyquot Pre Socratics Thales of Miletus624548believed that water was the original element and that s how the other elements were created Analyses earthquakes as a natural event of nature All is water Anaximander Pythagorasmade the pythagoreum theorem Hippocrates of Cos Greeks seem to be more eager to understand the world around them instead ofjust saying that oh itsjust the gods and going on with their lives They question many things in life other characteristics of revival durinq archaic aqe Increase in population Slow economic revival wine and olive oil trade beginning of coinage Birth of the polis Geography of Greece People lived around the Aegean sea Hilly terrain very mountainous Had rainfall Not that much flat land Mainly governed by city statespretty independent Faster to get places in Greece by boat Grew grapes and olives all over the hillside Characteristics of the polis citystate Birth of polis Characteristics Polisurban core in the surrounding countryside Colonization Used water around to trade olive oil and wine Colonies were built around the water Set up as independent entities They have strong ties with the mother city Chattel slaveryindividual is owned by another individualcould be bought and sold Slaves were other Greeks Slaves were mostly conquered people or born into slavery one could sell themselves into slaveryor their children Unwanted child would be sold into slavery Exposure when you leave your unwanted child in front of a temple and leave them to the gods If that child was found they would be raised as a slave Oligarchyruled by a few TyrannyRule by a tyrant someone who has taken over the government by force Tyrants were not always bad people that negatively impacted the country Democracy Three examples Sparta Was an oligarchy Located in Laconia Far from the water Not good at sailing Main focus dominating their region Would conquer and then enslave their neighbors Emphasis on strong military would subdue the enslaved population Had helotsthey were slaves owned by the state 90 enslaved Constant fear of uprising from slaves l Believed that Spartan women were considered the last line of defense Would prepare the Spartan women for attack Women had more freedom in Sparta Society built on strength and power Lycurgus father of Sparta made Spartan children at age 7 taken from family and sent them to military camps to be raised as warriors Gerousiaspartan council of old men Advised the Spartan kings Usually 60 Corinth Flat Narrow strip of land connecting two countries Became a very wealthy city because of its location and double harbors People would take their boats to Corinth and would have their boats dragged across the land Corinthians made money off of the shipping Cypselus is the tryant he was very popular When he died his son took over as a tyrant but is less popular Athens Only city that had a democracy Only city state that survived during the black plague Was in the middle of everything close to Corinthhad trade w them Used a lot of ships Very attractive place to go to good place begins to boom Very rapid rate of growth Very good place to start a business If you owe money and you go into debt some people would sell themselves into industry or their children Solonwealthy aristocratpoet who is chosen to lead Athens He was the problem solver Solon decided to cancel all debts Solon prohibited Athenian slavery and Athenian people selling themselves He wasn t against slavery he was okay with Spartan slaves just not Athenians father of Athenian democracy 5000 citizen when Athens was at its height justice was the same if you were wealthy or nonwealthy Boulecity council where the members where chosen by random people 0 Pisistratustryant that takes over Athens by force 546 bc508bc o Hippias o Cleistheneswanted to make Athens stronger so that tryants could not take over Creat ostracism Kicked out the tryant hippius o Ostracismall the citizens in Athens would get together and would write down a person that seemed to be a threat and if one person was in the majority they would exile them Used this practice as a way to prevent tyrants from taking over 0 Wanted to make an alliance with Persia Persia said they would only form the alliance only if they declared Darius their king 0 The ambassadorspeople who tried to make a deal with the Persians came back and the people were outraged They wanted democracy They end up getting exiled Persianss 0 Were indoeupropean related to linguistic group of greeks hittites o Cyrus560530 united the people of Persia by alliances negotiation and conquest He created a unified Persian kingdom Conquered his neighbors o Tolerance for different religious practices 0 Keep the vast empire together by carving out conquered territories into provinces o Provinces ruled by the people who rule there 0 Kings were all powerful not gods though 0 Used governors to rule in distant territories The roads in Persia were used for armies and for the travel of taxes Zoroastrianismthere is internal conflict in the cosmos There is a powerful god of good Believed that by worshipping ahura mazda you are joining the fight against evil It is monolotry some would say monotheistic but not quite Ahura Mazdazoroastrian god Engaged in a eternal struggle against forces of evil and darkness Dairusconverted to zoroastiranism Sardisplace where the Persian governor resided Greeks wanted to form an alliance with the Persians but Persians said they would only if they would declare Darius the most powerful man The lonian were ruled by Persians and decided to rebel against the Persians Asked other cities to help them with their revolt Greek Golden age 500403 BC Persian Wars 490479 lonians decided to revolt agains the Persians The ionians asked other cities to help them revolt Eretria and Athens were the only citites that helped the lonians revolt They rebellion involved burning down several buildings in sardis o The revolt was crushed eventually by the Persians The Persians were angered by the Athens and eretrias help in the revolt so they decided to take revenge They burned the city of Eretria The Persians decided to take revenge on Athens next and the Persians attacked Athens with Hippius the previous tyrant in Athens The Persians were strong militaristically because of strong numbers of people and large amount of weapons They had archers and spearmen The Athenians were nervous so they appealed to Sparta for help but they refused general theme for the Spartans to refuse to help and stay neutral Miltiades was the leader of Athens and he decided to fight against the Persians Instead of waiting for the Persians to come they decided to charge the Persians The Persians decided to retreat back to Athens because all of the Athenians were on the beach therefore no one was in the city The Athenians got back in time to meet the Persians they had trouble navigating back to Athens This battle was a huge victory for the Athenians They took pride in their democracy They were fighting for what they believed in o The Persians were pissed when they cam back home and were embarrassed by their defeat so darius decides to launch a large invasion into Athens 0 Xerxes son of Darius Takes over the plan of invasion of Athens after Darius dies 0 Hoplite heavily armed foot soldier o Phalanxarmy formation that was formed the hoplites would march in a group A The Athenian empire B Peloponnesian war 431404 ll Golden Age society and culture Epic of Gilgamesh Essay gt Level One 0 Wrote it I The writerwriters are unknown I It was found on numerous tablets so there may have been multiple authors I Writers were Mesopotamians 0 When was it written I Gilgamesh says that all the people of Eridu will cry over the death of Enkidu I Therefore it was probably written around the period of 3200 to 2000 BC I In 2100 BC a scribe compiled a King s List which was a record of all the kings that were believed to have reigned in Sumer I Therefore this could have been written before this period and that is how the scribe knew to include Gilgamesh or this was just passed down orally until it was written I Gilgamesh was said to be the King ofUruk which lasted from around 38003 200 BC I Therefore the story may have been written shortly after his reign or during it o What type of document is it I This is an Epic story 0 Main storyline I Gilgamesh is a young King who befriends Enkidu Together they slay monsters and the Gods kill Enkidu to punish Gilgamesh Gilgamesh is horrified by the death of Enkidu and realizes his own mortality He searches for Utnapishtim who the Gods had given eternal life After a long journey Gilgamesh finds the man he was seeking However he is told that he must cherish the life he has now because only the God s have eternal life gt Level two 0 Intended audience I The intended audience is probably other Mesopotamians in particular Sumerians I At the time cuneiform was only written by scribes who had to learn it and keep track of things I Therefore it was likely written by a scribe or multiple scribes 0 Why was it written I In this time period people often wrote about Kings so the story was probably meant to entertain However I think it was also meant to teach a lesson and show that even Kings are subject to death 0 Assumptions behind the source gt Level three The Epic of Gilgamesh shows that people thought the Gods were all powerful The Gods intended to punish the King because the people prayed to them and they created Enkidu However Enkidu and Gilgamesh became good friends The Gods became angry at the two men and punished Gilgamesh by killing his friend This shows that people thought no one was above the Gods Even the Kings were subject to the wrath of the Gods 0 Can I believe this document The document is not likely a forgery because it was written on tablets that can be dated back to a certain time period However the story could have been made up There is a story within this Epic about the ooding of the world which may or may not have happened however there is a story about the ooding of the world in the Bible also This King may have existed but the story may be exaggerated o What can I learn about the societyperson who created this document This society thought that Gods were all powerful and they were created to serve the Gods The scoeity thought the Gods could help them when a ruler was unjust because they prayed to the Gods to teach Gilgamesh a lesson This story is very gloomy and probably relates to the people s outlook on life They lived in a time where the rivers often ooded and destroyed their civilization There was often epidemics and plagues in some cities 0 How does it relate to its context During this time period people thought that kings were Gods or part Gods Gilgamesh is said to have had a human father and a mother who was a Goddess named Ninsun This story is important in its context because it explains why even someone with such power like Gilgamesh is still mortal This could have been used to explain why even Kings can die since he had a father who was human he was not a full God It also shows that no one is above the Gods and that anyone who angers them will be punished Gilgamesh was known as a warrior therefore this source tells us that there was probably war between different people in the reglon Birth ofthe Roman Republic 1 Italian Geography 0 Starts out as a tiny village on a hill next to a river 0 Sits on a peninsula that has a protective wall The French Alps that black the land part of the peninsula from the rest of the land in Europe 0 Also a central spine of mountains Apennine which makes it difficult to cross Italy 0 Important rivers Difficult to navigate Poe River I Fed from Alps 0 Tiger River 0 Not impressive like the Nile of Tigris 0 South much drier but have rainfall and agriculture 0 More temperate climate 0 South of Italy is more like Greece 0 Dominate civilizations of Italy are Greeks living in South of Italy Syracuse 0 Grew grapes and olives o Other dominant culture was Etruscans 0 Don t know if they are IndoEuropean or Sementlc Q N Era of the Seven Kings 753509 BC 0 Completely false and fake date 0 This is what the Romans wanted to believe when their culture started 0 509 beginning of Roman Republic All of the klngsI names were Etruscans o Tarquln the Proud o SExtus Tarquinlus o Lucretia 0 Since romans don t want a king they slowly devise a republic 3 The Republic 50927 BC The Roman Republic 0 Not a democracy 0 Hatred of kings 0 Power should be with the people 0 Some oeiple should have more power than others 0 Major conflicts of power 0 Res publlca o Consuls a Senate a Cura o Censors o Tnbune o Dictators o Cursus honorum Assembly of people o Mos maiorum O o 3 main stages of Roman Expansion 0 Rome as a village to city with government I As romans conquered people they invite conquered to become romans I Romans reward soldiers I Give soldiers newly conquered land to reward them 0 Good for soldiers and rome because Rome has veterans in newly conquered area if ever there is a problem I Soldiers also have a chance to start a new life I Roman colonies are set up all over Italy I By 220 BC all of Italy is now Rome I When soldiers have their land they build little cities that are modeled off of Rome o Conquering the Carthaginians I Originally a Phoenician settlement I Also expanding their own power at the same time rome is expanding I First Punic War occurs on Sicily which is where the first problem occurs btw Carthage and Romans 0 Imperial Expansion Roman Culture and Society A The Farmersoldier 0 Believe themselves to be warriors and farmers 0 Say that they are primarily farmers but if they need to fight they will become warriors B Roman Religion 0 Believed their religion was Roman Religion 0 Part of being loyal to rome is being loyal to Roman gods 0 Polytheistic o Influenced by Greek religion 0 3 main gods I Jupiter main male god I Minerva I Juno 0 Gained characteristics of Zeus and Athena o No division btw church and state 0 Pontifex Maximus o Vestal Virgins o Lupercalia o Lares C The Roman Family 0 Paterfamilas o Opian Law 0 Women 0 Didn t have political voice Did go out in public 0 Led lives outside of homes Main room in Roman house dining room 0 0 Men and women dine together 0 Slavery 0 During 1Sl punic war about 10 of population of Italy is servile o Responsible for household duties 0 Worked in agribultureal farms 0 Worked in roman mines I Mined for gold silver salt and many more useful things The Decline of the Republic o Salamis says that rome fell because of greed laziness and riches 0 Turning point 339d punic war A The Gracchi Brothers B The Power of Roman Generals 0 Begin to see generals who are drawing massive amounts of poor by saying quotif you come and fight in my army we will share the loot that we plunder 0 Forms a more personal loyalty btw soldiers and generals 0 Before this farmerwarriors had an idea of being loyal to Rome 0 Now there is more loyalty to certain generals C First Triumvirate 60 BC D Pax Romana o Judea General pompey conquered Judea Population was very Jewish and had a long tradition of selfrule and having Jersualem as a political and religious center Jews were given a special religious status by the Romans as long as they didn t try to spread it around 0 Romans thought they should have a Jewish King ruling over the Jews in Judea Q 0 Changes in Late Roman Religion A New cults o Paganisms o Mithras 0 Imperial Cult 0 lsis B Changes in Judaism o Disapora o Religio Litica o Synagogues o Rabbis C Beginnings of Christianity 0 Christianity movement centered around Jesus of Nazareth o Originated within the Jewish religion Since jesus wrote nothing we rely on what was written down by followers Apocalyptic movement Jesus spoke Aramic yet language of the educated elites was Greek 0 Earliest writings about jesus are written in Greek Don t have any documents left in Aramaic but all documents that are left are in Greek Main evidence of person of Jesus is in the gospels o Goepels don t get written down until a generation or two after the death ofJesus a Mark Luke and Matther are very similar I Probably written from some original text that is now lost 0 John s text is really telling a different story than that of the other gospels Messiah Persecutions End ofthe Pax Romana 0 Economy was mostly built on the wealth of conquered people 0 Conquest economy 0 Taxes trading and other means of making money weren t as important as conquest 0 Rome cant conquer any further south bc of Sahara Desert 0 Cant conquer any further east because of the Persians o Cant go north or west because of Germans and Celts 0 North is cold thickly forested and populated by Germans 0 After the romans max out the areas that they want to control and conquer problems ensue 0 Rome now has to pay for the military that is now used as defense army instead of conquering army 0 Roman government decides they should increase the taxes to pay for the armies Government couldn t even collect enough taxes to pay for all of the warriors so now the troops just decide to raid neighboring towns and farmers 0 These things all lead to the end of the pax romana which is also caused by a succession of bad emporers 0 Last good emperor was Marcus Aurelius I Son Commodus takes over and he is the first of the bad emporers I Commodus o Spent tons of money on the shows and military 0 Engaged in the raiding and pillaging of roman towns and cities 0 When he dies there are 3 different men claiming to be emperor 0 There is a civil war and if you can keep the military happy and fed then you are emperor o 3quotJ century crisis is economic political and military 0 Everytime and emperor dies or is murdered there is chaos and a civil war Early Christianity 0 Popular because 0 There is an idea of afterlife I You could join a community that was a support group that was open to anyone I Many poor people like the idea because they aren t promised riches after death a Christianity has this notion of full body resurrection o Christians made massive catacombs so that they could house all of the full bodies because Christians had to have full body burials 0 Full body burials 0 New religion with deep traditional background a No gender restrictions 0 Has mysteries but all written in Bible Alexamenos Graffito 0 Guy with a horse head being crucified with another man next to him 0 Inscription was written in greek o Antichristian graffiti 0 Many criticism explained through this graffiti I Criticizing idea that your god is killed by crucifixion demeaning I Saying that what do people do of mixed social status and gender do behind closed doors I Idea of transubstantiation people also say Christians are cannibals 0 BC eating flesh and drinking wine First depiction of Crucifixion is the door panel from Santa Sabina Rome Have a bearded Christ 0 Shows that the idea ofJesus appearance changes over time Cities are truly areas of high concentrations of Christianity 0 Country people are usually untouched by Christianity Many of their rules were part of the appeal to people 0 No sex but you could get married so you can have sex and only to have kids 0 No killing so you cant be a soldier judge o No sacrifice If these commuties decide to accept you there is a ritual you must perform baptism Early church had 2 sacraments 0 Celebration of Eucharist o Baptism I Notion of after baptism any sins you commit stick on you Reign of Constantine TERMS Tiber 0 River where small village is located Small village became great power Etruscans Northern Italy Highly sophisticated culture Mysterious civilization Don t know much Most of the information we have about them comes from ruinsartifacts Greeks in south were trading with them and wrote about them Mostly built their temples houses out of wood I Problem bc it deteriorates with time I Did build on thing out of stone and that is their tombs o Tombs o Buried stuff with dead 0 Made out of stone Dome shaped Men and women were buried together I Shows women had a more equal role 0 Etruscan sarcophagus lid I Shows us they believe in afterlife I Love their wives I Don t see gender division as in Greek society I Wear their hair long with beard Bronze Etruscan Warrior I Great bronze workers I Have a sword helmet and armor I Bronze chariots were found I Shows that fighting is impt in their culture 0 Wine and oil vats have been discovered in tombs I Know that they are trading with Greeks in the south 0 Romans hate Etruscans bc Etruscans were such a dominant military power 0 Society family oriented polytheistic o Lived in city states with one ruler o Romans wrote nasty things about them but now we believe they were a lot a like 0 Early roman religions have the same sorts of gods that the Greeks have but with roman names 0 Because Romans were influenced by the Etruscans who were influenced by the Greeks OO O Palatine Hill amp Capitoline Hill 0 Two of the 7 hills of Rome 0 Palatine 0 Original hill of the Roman tribe 0 THE place to live later in roman civilizations 0 Evidence of the earliest Roman inhabitants o Capitoline 0 Not a place where you will live 0 Built a temple to Jupiter here 0 Jupiter is called Capitoline Jupiter Romans later drained the swamp that was btw the hills 0 Fill it with dirt from other hills that they lowered o This area becomes forum similar to agora Romulus and Remus 0 Creation story of the Romans 0 King in the north Etruscan who received prophecy saying llyour wife will give birth to two sons however they will overtake your kingdom destroy your kingdom and create a new kingdom once they grow up 0 Decides to expose them a puts them in little raft and floats them down the river Tiber 0 get suck in some reeds btw 2 hills Palatine and Capitol Hill 0 shewolf that has lost her cubs rescues them and rasies them as her own 0 story says that the romans are very tough selfmade people 0 Romulus kills Remus o Romulus is founder of rome 0 Story made Romans feel they were genetically superior to other races because they were raised by a wolf Forum Judiciary part of Rome back in the day 0 Treasures acquired from victories were placed here 0 Center of rome s great ruins Tarquin the Proud 0 Last of all the 7 kings 0 Son Sextus Lucretia o Visted by sextus o Assaults her and attempts to rape her 0 She says she would rather die than be with him 0 Sextus says he will kill her and a slave and put them in bed together to make it look like she was sleeping with a slave o Allows sextus to rape her 0 She calls her father and tells him the story then kills herself Father kills sextus and goes crazy 3 o All of these romans revolt 0 Story shows how important loyalty even from women is in the roman culture Res publica 0 Res thing publica public of the people 0 A thing of the people 0 The power the thing the core is that the power lies with the people 0 There is no written constitution 0 Oral tradition that is passed down I Continues out of a sense of duty and tradition Consuls O 0 Senate Curia Top of power 2 counsels Romans hate single man rule Only be a consuls for one year and after that term you cant be reappointed after that term Later you can be reelected O 3 Supreme military leaders 0 Serving in military goes hand in hand with being a Roman Head of military and political systems Rule with advice from senate No consecutive terms Consuls rule with advise from senate Comes from senex senileold Original senate had 300 members and you were a senator for life 0 Had discussion 0 Like town councils a You advised the counsils You could get kicked out for doing something scandalous If you have an affair with someone else s wife If you were involved with political scandal or moral scandal Corruption will get you kicked out for sure 0 O 3 Got to wear special togas Togas were only worn by roman citizens Sign of being an adult I 18 and older and male If you were a senator your toga had a purple stripe and you wore purple shoes 0 O 0 Elite prestigious position Life tenure Consuls really listened to them because one day the counsuls aspired to be senators Senators really held the power Senate house 0 Where Senators met In the heart and center of rome in the forum Censors O O Tnbune O O 2 people chosen from the Senate Served 1 year Controlled everthing 2 duties u Censure a senator I Could kick you out of Senate 0 When a senator died it was up to them to start finding a replacement Control roles of who is a citizen of rome Helps with taxation Were a senator before they were a censure and after their term they went back into the senate 3 Representative of the people to the senate Assembly representative Needs and desires of people would be expressed to them and they would express them to the senate Could only be a tribune for one year All positions were unpaid people Only wealthy and rich people were in these positions System aimed at the elites more than the common man Normal citizens had to work to put food on the table so they cant be involved in government One way to show you love rome and move up the senate is to pay for things like roads Dictators On top of whole system Total control over everything if there was a crisis Because in times of extreme crisis the political system might not run fast enough Only have a dictator in times of extreme emergency 0 Was a system that might not work quickly in a crisis so there is a dictator Only in position for however long the crisis lasts but no longer than 6 months cursus honorum mos ma 0 o Ranking of the officers Trying to work your way up to becoming a senate Running of rome Many public offices and had to start at the bottom before you could work your way up Iorum Mos custom or way of doing something maiororum ancestors or old ppl Custom of my ancestors way of old people Romans did things the way their parents did it Big into tradition Republic last because of this idea People want to be traditional and govern the way ancestors did Carthage 0 Had very stable government 0 Was a stable monarchy 0 Only nonGreek government Aristotle praises 0 Expanding o Nota greek city 0 Phenoucians 0 North Africa is very fertile o Superpower 0 Powerful on water 0 Go head to head with rome First Punic war 264241 BC 0 Btw Carthage and Rome 0 Main cause clash of interests btw existing Carthaginian Empire and expanding Roman republic o Begins in Sicily which was populated by Greek cities 0 Difficult war for both sides 0 Sicily becomes battlefield 0 Last 23 years 0 Lasts so long because power are very evenly matched 0 Carthage had a stable monarchy government 0 Aristotle thought Carthage was a great style of government 0 Finally carthage surrenders but only surrender Sicily 0 First time the romans have a territory outside of Italy 0 ln sicily the romans use different style than before Romanization 0 Make sicily a roman province 0 Ruled by a roman government who is also a senator o Idea of provincial governments take hold and this is what Romans use for all the rest of the lands they conquer o Carthage had hard feelings against rome afte the war o Continued expanding and eventually planned to attack rome Second Punic war 218201 BC 0 Plan was hatched to attack rome by Carthaginians o Retaliation against rome o Hannibal plans to attack Rome by land a Says Romans wont expect this attack so it is best surprise attack 0 Romans used to fighting battles by sea and didn t think people could get past the Alps o Carthaginians launch attack with war elephants o Rode though alps and attacked rome by land I Risky but fantastic attack because Rome is shocked 0 First battle was the Battle at Tresemeny o Hannibal conquers all of the Italian countryside before attacking Rome o Hoping that newly Romanized ppl of the countryside will convert and help him attack rome 0 Doesn t have much success converting these people a Receives help from Macedonians o Romans one plan of fighting back is they say they are going to attack Carthage o Scipio Africanus I Roman general who leads this force o Hoping that Hannibal will take this bait and will travel back to carthage and protect his people a Hannibal takes the bait 0 Battle at Zama o Hannibal s firstdefeat I So used to be on the offensive and didn t know how to defend himself 0 Romans gain all of the land of the Carthaginians except Carthage o Carthage is never allowed to have a military or navy after this 0 Macedonian king that was helping Hannibal is now hunted by roamans 0 Time after the war romans move out and set up colonies in Asia Minor Greece and all those areas 0 After this war we see Rome in control of vast amounts of land After the 2nd punic war carthage was no longer a threat Third Punic war 149146 BC 0 Campaign by certain senators who claimed that rome didn t do enough against Carthage 0 Say the Romans should go after Carthage again 0 Descendant of Scipio is sent as general to carthage with the order of burning the city to the ground 0 Turning point in Roman history Hannibal 0 Father attacked much of Spain 0 Going to attack Rome thru Alps 0 General like his father was Uses African elephants 0 Wins lots of battles Scipio Africanus o Launched a surprise attack against Hannibal in North Africa Hannibal took the bait and lost the battle Battle of Zama 202 BC 0 Hannibal s first defeat o Romans gain all of the land of the Carthaginians except Carthage o Carthage isn t allowed to have military or navy Vestal Virgins 0 They were housed in temple to the goddess Vesta goddess of home fire 0 Important because fire is used to cook warm 0 One of the only temples that was found in the forum 0 Temple had an eternal flame Romans believed that this fire was the fire of rome o If flame went out then Rome died too 0 Fire becomes a powerful symbol in Roman family and life giving 0 Group of presistesses who had most prominent religious position in Rome 0 6 of them that served for 30 years 0 Chosen at young age 610 0 Chosen from most prominent families and had tons of perks in society 0 Couldn t be touched or harmed 0 Had to remain chaste during their term a After their term they could choose husbands 0 Usually rich because they received a salary after o If she broke her vows she was locked in a room until she died since she could not be touched Lupercalia o Springtime fertile festival Normal things in roman society were turned upside down 0 Young men would run around naked and touch young women with whops 0 Meaning these women would be very fertile Pontifex Maximus 0 Big preist o Rotating position in the roman republic 0 Among prominent Roman men 0 Honor position 0 Person was head of all roman religion 0 Ancestral spirit 0 Household gods ancestors o Hoped these gods would bless house with food 0 Huge emphasis on remembering your ancestors 0 Expected to light incenses o Whoever was in charge of keeping the lares was in charge of the family paterfamilias 0 Family was important in roman society 0 Father legal controller of family 0 Property and kids are under legal control of father 0 Father had full control over life and death issues among his family 0 Could kill his sons and not be considered a murderer Only when father dies can the sons start their own household 0 Was a way if a woman could marry and still stay under control of their father to protect assets 0 Father s duty to keep the Lare shrines 0 When the father dies roman inheritance laws worked like primogeniture o Oldest son gets everything 0 Family so important Oppian I O O Romans have adult adoption If a family s children die family can adopt an older family member and keep you line together Household slaves were property and legaly did not have a mother or father 0 Law An emergency law passed directly at women when Hannibal is running around the countryside Austerity law Says women should stay indoors Werent allowed to have any big displays of emotions and couldn t wear makeup orjewelry After Hannibal leaves rome this law is still on the books so theres a discussion about keeping or getting rid of it Women have a massive movement saying the law was only done as an emergency measure and the mas morian way of ancestors says Roman women can be in public manumission Freeing of the slaves freedmen Not a citizen but no longer a slave People would take on names of the paterfamiliar that freed them Usually exhousehold slaves Aren t the slaves that work farms or mines Evidence that the freedmen later would own their own slaves Tiberius Gracchus Trying to work his way up the political hierarchy Elected tribune 133 BC Grandson of Scipio Africanus a From very famous family Took his position as tribune very seriously Problem of wealthy senators who were buying up huge amounts of farmland and importing slaves 0 Small time farmers were being kicked off their farms Massive influx of country people Tries to create a land reform for these people 0 Speech is so convincing so the land reform passes Everything is good until his term runs up Wants to go for reelection Cant because that isn t tradition People love him so they want to reelect him Walking home one day a group of young senators brutally murder him Major supporters are in the senate family members and prominent people are all murdered At daybreak all of their bodies bloody the river Starts a tradition of killing off people in politics 3 O Gaius Gracchus o Elected Tribune 0 Day after about 3000 people are killed including Gaius and his supporters Sulla 0 One of the generals who used these promises of riches to create a huge army 0 Very loyal army 0 Members of senate were scared at how loyal his soldiers were 0 Councils decide to recall him to Rome and want him to switch armies with another general 0 Refuses to give up his arm 0 So angry that he decides to take army and march against city of rome a Top generals refuse to do this but common foot soldiers follow him because they are loyal to Sulla not the other generals o Marches against Rome and immediately goes for senate and kills 200 of them and200 people that support them I Declares an emergeny bc there is an army marching against Rome 0 Elects himselfdictator 0 First action get rid of Tribune position 0 Expands senator count to 600 0 Later retires to private life after putting all of his people in the senate o Dies peacefully in retirement Spartacus o The largest slave revolt in Roman history 0 Thracian slave who leads a gladiator slave revolt 0 Break out of their cells get hold of weapons and revolt 0 Fight last 2 years 0 Arm defeats a roman army 0 Takes 2 roman generals combining their armies to defeat Spartacus army gladiator o Romans loved going to see shows and the main shows were animal and fighting shows 0 Group of slaves who are trained to fight for the entertainment of the public 0 Every roman city has a coliseum and racetrack Coliseum is where gladiators fought 0 There were regulations in types of fighting and different types of gladiators 0 Way to get rid of convicted criminals 0 These criminals were also used in plays because in a play if someone was killed there was actually a killing Pompey 0 Combines his army with Crassus to defeat Spartacus o Cleared Med Of Pirates 0 Spending lots of time in RomeItaly o Fights with Ceaser 0 Causes civil war and fights o Escapes to spain o Eventually goes to Egypt Crassus o Combines his army with Pompey to defeat Spartacus 0 Anyone in Spartacus army that wasn t killed was crucified because crucifixion was a common way to kill nonroman people Died in battle 0 Killed by Persians Julius Caesar o Conquered almost all of Gaul Comes back to rome and put his people in the senate expanding it to 900 people 0 Actually extends roman citizen rights to some of the people he conquered in Gaul o Puts those people in Senate 0 Uses a lot of his money to clean up Rome and start building projects 0 Gives land to many of his followers 0 Very popular among Roman people 0 Not popular among the senators even though he pardons them for following Pompey 0 Senators say Caesar is trying to be king and killing the republic o Revise roman calendar 0 Fixes waterworks 0 Makes him dictator for life when comes back to rome First Triumvirate o Pompey Crassus and Ceaser rule over Rome 0 Btw themselves they rotate the consulships 0 Someone was having consecutive consulships 0 Senate is in fear of these guys so no one questions their way to rule 0 Divided their empire to decide where to keep their armies o Ceasar Gaul o Crassus Asia Minor 0 Ceaser has a daughter who is named Julia that he allowed Pompey to marry 0 Way to solidify the triumvirate o Crassus dies while fighting one of the provinces o Tensions arise btw Pompey and Ceasar 0 Julia dies in childbirth and so now their bond is broken which allows their tensions to rise even greater 0 Ceasar is in Gaul and Pompey forces the senate to only appoint him as Council 0 Ceaser is faced with a tough decision o If he goes against Pompey he must march against Rome 0 Decides to march into Rome and creates lots of chaos Pompey fleas Rome and a cat and mouse chase ensues o Ceasar follows him and chases him down 0 Pompey finally goes to Egypt which is the only place that has not fallen under Roman control 0 King kills him Cleopatra o Ceaser is mad because Ptolemy kills a roman consul 0 To be a good roman Caesar must go after the murderer o Goes to egpyt and kills Ptolemy o Caesar doesn t declare Egypt as a Roman province 0 Gives control to her who is sister of Ptolemy Ides of March 44 BC 0 March 15 h o Ceaser is walking to the senate when he is surrounded by senators o Publicly stabbed by many senators and killed 0 Senator actually mint a coin symbolizing the ides of march and what they did 0 Some senators immediately speak out against what they did Body talken to middle and funeral shrine built 0 Turmoil after Caesars murder because the people and military really liked Caesar 0 Senate makes proclamations praising the murders o Caesar trying to be a tyrant in their eyes 0 Created coins propaganda 0 Senate underestimates love for Caesar 0 Massive problems over who to replace him 0 Died without surviving heirs Cicero 0 Senator o Acts like a friend of Octavian Mark Antony I Caesars right hand man 0 Bans with Octavian o Begins to question the senate o Stops in egypt to get help 0 MA and Cleopatra have an affair o Sends pregnant wife back home Caesarion o Cleopatra s son who she calimed was Caesars son 0 When Caesar s will is read there is a startling discovery 0 Proclamation made by Mark Anthony that he is true son of Caesar o Octavian strikes back and says the MA is a drunk man and not true roman 0 Battle erupts MA and Cleopatra commit suicide 0 Takes over Egypt as Roman province and became only ruler Octavian Lepidus 18 year old king Adopted by Caesar 0 becomes heir of Caesar because Caesar doesn t have a legit son Great nephew of Caesar Senators hope that they can control this guy and use him to control Mark Anthony Cicero writes quotwe will praise the young boy and get rid of him Takes his position very seriously Suprises many people and joins with Mark Anthony 0 Says we must punish the murders of my father Cicero is the first to be killed Control of the veterans General under Casear Alliance with MA Second Triumvirate Caesar Octavian Lepidus Mark Anthony First action is to go after the senators who have murdered Caesar Mark Anthony is in control of army Lepidus is in control of veterans Octavian is going after the senators Triumvirs eventually force the senate to yield all power to them Cear that power reigned mostly with Mark Anthony and Octavian Ledipus feels left out and wants more power 0 When he talks to other 2 about this they refuse to yield any power Ledipus tries to march against Octavian but his men which were Caesar s old army men refused to march against Caesar s son Lepidus is allowed to go into exile by Mark Anthony and Octavian In Asia Minor and Syria there are revolts against the Romans because these colonies are seeing that there is fighting amongst the romans Mark decides he needs the help of a rich nation to crush revolts 0 Picks Cleopatra and Egypt to get help from 0 Mark falls under the spell of Cleopatra and starts relationship with her 0 Octavia accompanied mark on trip to Egypt pregnant 0 Sent home so mark can have an affair Octavian wants to march against Anthony but fears army won t march against him because of loyalty Octavian issues a propaganda war a Creates stories about why would a good roman hang out with a queen 0 Does he want to be a king of another country Antony starts propaganda war 0 Says Octavian isn t really caesars son but caesarian really is ceasers son 0 Coins get issued in Egypt showing Anthony and Cleopatra talking about rome and Egyptian greatness Cleopatra also has kids by Anthony 0 Explodes and there is a war a Main battle was in Greece the Battle of Actium I Naval battle and Octavian successful 0 Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide and Octavian takes over Egypt and makes it a Roman province 0 All the resources and wealth of Egypt are now flowing through the Roman economy 0 Only Octavian left to lead the Romans 0 Not traidion to solidify Octavian s rule all by himself 0 Issues massive proclamation o Says he is restoring the Republic and making it stronger and better than before Octavia 0 Sister of Octavian o Octavian wants to marry her off to Mark Anthony 0 Problem Mark is already happily married 0 Divorces his wife and marries her Augustus 31 BC14AD 0 One of Octavian s first changes is the change of his name 0 Changes his name to Augustus o Adjective in the Roman language which meant someone who is respectable and revered 0 One things that comes from his rule is peace 0 Past couple of decades people have been fighting and killing each other 0 Once he comes into power he reestablishes order and peace 0 Sends statues all over the empire depicting himself in different ways Princeps 0 Another change llAugustus makesquot 0 Power over the senate o Takes title of Princeps which as a title usually bestowed upon oldest senator 0 Means first citizen 0 Honorary title When he changes this title to really mean he rules over the senate lmperator o Augustus takes on the title of lmperator 0 Military honorary title 0 Power over military 0 Given to an old general who had proven himself in the military 0 When he takes on this title it really means that he has control over all military Pontifex Maximus o Augustus takes on this title 0 High preist o Priest for life 0 Used to mean that you oversaw all religious practices Augustus changes the new title to mean that he has complete control over Roman religion and Roman morals Pater Patriae o Augustus takes on this title 0 Means he is father of the fatherland Rome 0 Father of the country 0 Saying he is the father of all roman citizens o Saying as a father he is in control of all Rome Praetorian guard 0 Elite Roman soldiers 0 One responsibility to guard Augustus Pax Romana 0 Period of peace in Roman Empire 0 See augustus as successful because he brings peace and people are getting rich because of all the Egyptian wealth circulating through Roman economy 0 Peace last 200 years 0 Military victories and expansion 0 Constant danger of revolt so there is much tensions among Roman solders and colonies Romanization 0 Ideas of making colonies more Rome like 0 Period where roman rule taking place everywhere 0 Turmoil and rebellion occurs Herod the Great 0 King that ruled over Judea 0 Not very popular among Jews ofJudea 0 Saw him as too close to romans and he practices Roman ways too closely 0 Has very long reign 0 Time when augustus is emporer o Augustus decides the Jews need direct roman rule 0 Means that Judea will have a roman governor o Rumblings of a revolt in Judea because Jews don t want roman rule Revolt breaks out and lasts 4 years 0 Such a universal occurrence that Jews mint their own coins Masada o Titus goes and takes Jerusalem and burns the temple 0 Temple religious and political center 0 Enslaves thousands of people from Judea 0 Some of the Jews escape here 0 Hilltop fortress where Jews escape to 0 After a 6 month siege the Romans are finally able to take the city c When the Romans finally break the defenses they are shocked to see that everyone committed suicide 0 Marks a turning point in Jewish history Paganism 0 Word that is invited by Christians that describes Roman religion 0 Roman practice roman religion polytheisticpublic o A derogative term meaning peasant 0 Calling the roman religion the religion of peasants 0 Changes in roman religion emphasized more personal relationship btw follower and god 0 Influx of foreign religions Imperial cult Augustus changes roman religion 0 Estalblishes this 0 Augustus defies Caesar o Sees that there are revolts in provinces but says that we want th people in provinces to love us 0 Wants to make the people of provinces worship him 0 Worships the living emperor as a living god but it only exists outside of Italy 0 Way to have personal relationship with emperor o Romans not thrilled because pushing with traditions o Rotating priesthood attached to temples prestigious o Alters on outside make sacrafices 0 Jews were given a special situation 0 Had to pray to their god for the emporer Temples are built to the emperor gods 0 Coins are minted depicted the emperor god Mithras o Persian god 0 Persians were bitter hated enemies of rome o Mithras is always depicted the same a Wears Persian clothes sacrificing a bull with a dog and a serpent lapping up the bulls blood o Scorpion biting the bulls testicles 0 Male only cultand very popular in military 0 7 steps to initiation 0 Created a sense of unity of loyalty and brotherhood o Secretive 0 Met in caves and had secret rituals o No work survives o Creates special bond with Mithras o Becomes a protector god of you 0 Traditional romans thought that this was very bad because he is a foreign god and people are very secretive about this Isis 0 Egyptian Goddess o Wifesister Orsis 0 Mother of Horas o Became popular when Egypt became a province 0 Created community of followers that also met together in communities but were gendered separate 0 Becomes influential in Rome after Egypt becomes province in Rome 0 Many romans are choosing to join these cults so they can have more personal relationships with these gods religio licita 0 Legal cult of the Christians as long as it didn t get spread to others 0 Romans respect the Jewish religion because it is tradition and been around for so long 0 Not allowed to try and convert Romans I Must pray for emperor synagogue o Vast majority ofJews live in the Diaspora meaning a traveling group 0 Community centers or houses of prayer 0 Jews living in Diaspora came here to pray and read scripture o Decorated with floor mosaics Largest foundin Sardia 0 Covered in wall paintings 0 Special place for torah scrolls Rabbis Jews led by him 0 Elders educated in scriptures 0 Old and wise leader of little communities of prayer 0 After the jewis temple was destroyed there is a shift from temple worship to worship in synagogues that were led by Rabbis Messiah 0 Jesus is preaching about the end of time o Messiah is the idea that at the end of time an anointed king will come and end the earth 0 Jesus preaches going beyond the old rules and tradition Hebrew word for llAnointed One Jesus of Nazareth o Portrayed as a healer exorcist preacher wonderworker miracle worker 0 Spoke Aramaic Didn t write anything down disciples did 0 As he travels around he is gather more and more followers and crowds o 2 groups of people are threatened by Jesus o Romans and the temple Jews 0 Called messiah king that would be there at the end of time Jesus movement 0 Primarily a Jewish movement 0 Vast majority of his followers are fellow Jews 0 Really concentrated in the roman province of Judea 0 see Jesus as a preacher o appealing to primarily a rural population 0 2 groups of ppl who found Jesus and his growing popularity threatening a Romans 0 Jewish leaders Pharisees Pontius Pilate 0 Roman ruler ofJudea o romans are upset by this movement because they know that Judea is an area that is under great stress and about to explode 0 jesus is okay until he moves into Judea because he finally enters an urban city crucifixion 0 Jesus is arrested and crucified because this is a normal roman way to kill nonRomans 0 Way noncitizen is put to death Paul 0 From Tarsus but also a Roman Citizen 0 Jewish 0 Follows Jesus after he is dead 0 Well educated in Greek 0 Not an original disciple I Diaspora Jew 0 Has a conversation experience and emphasizes Jesus as the Messiah o Says jesus is the son of god 0 He writes all of this in greek ChristosChrist o Shift from a Jesus movement Aramaic speaking to a Greek speaking movement 0 Paul emphasizes this word resurrection travels to Mediterranean 0 Paul travels from city to city and goes to local synagogue to tell ofJesus story and gets some followers 0 Also preaches to nonJews o Unclear whether someone can be nonJewish and a follower ofJesus o The chiro becomes a symbol ofJesus and Chirsitanity 0 Because these are the first letters of Christos Christians 0 Finally a new religion 0 Paul says if you want to follow jesus you don t have to convert to Judaism and follow the Jewish laws circumcision dietary laws 0 Buried the poor 0 Important to people 0 Built into this religion is the idea that if you don t follow these rule of the religion you will go to hell when the end of the world comes 0 lmpetuous to convert because you want your family to be saved and your friends to be saved 0 Christinanity spreads quickly in cities 0 Period where we have lots of cities 0 In early Christianity jesus is depicted as the good Sheppard clean shaven persecutions o Christians get in trouble for refusing to sacrifice to the Roman emperor I Christians are put in the arena to animals 0 Huge impact on people because they were dying o All they had to do was burn incense in a pagan temple Perpetua o Built into Christianity is this notion of spreading the word 0 At this point we see the traditional romans having a problem with Christianity 0 Christians really get in trouble for not sacrificing to Roman gods 0 They don39t sacrifice to the emperor because of the imperia cult 0 Roman woman from an uppermiddle class family in North Africa 0 Gets arrested with a group of slaves in north Africa 0 Put in jail and refuses her father39s wishes to burn the incense o If she burns incense she would be let go o Educated 0 Writers her accounts 0 Taken with her slaves to the arena in Cartage and used in animal shows 0 Cant commit suicide and dies in the arena for all to see 0 Account she wrote in jail is smuggled out and finished by a local bishop o If you are in the arena for a good show then you would expect to see liars cheats slaves but you see Perpetua a quotsemielite 0 Some ppl see thing and are impressed by how courageous Christians are to face gladiator shows 0 More persecutions occur the more quickly Christianity spreads 0 Journal helped make Christianity more popular martyrs 0 Greek word for a witness in court 0 Someone who is testifying in a court hearing 0 Status is given to people who die for the faith 0 Bodies ofthese get collected and buried with great reverence o Notion ofa quotspecialquot dead body 0 Bodies of the martyrs are later brought into churches and buried under the altars domus ecclesia 0 Early churches were homes that were converted into a place for the use of community prayer 0 Resembled the Jewish temples much more closely sacraments eucharist 0 One ofthe first 2 sacraments of early church baptism 0 One ofthe first 2 sacraments of early church tetrarchy o Diocletian39s solution to problem of civil war 0 Divided empirer into the rule 0 Augustus of the east and Augustus ofthe west 0 Rule empire as friends 0 Each emporer would have a sub ruler 0 Usually the sons of Augustus 0 Sub rulers called ceaser 0 Each of the men would have their own army and rule communally and as friends 0 By creating this he solved the problems of easy succession o If you had 4 guys ruling together as buddies they could be at more places at one time o If there was an uprising you would have some emporer close by to crush the revolt o This propaganda helped a lot 0 It worked Diocletian 284305 0 Worked his way up the military ladder o Became an important general and then became emperor o Knew that there were big problems in roman empire 0 Set about reforming roman empire to fix these problems 0 Instigator of the first centralized persecutions of Christians 0 Only did this to fix troubles of the roman empire 0 First problem he wanted to fix 0 Everytime emperor died a civil war broke out because so many people vied for the position to become emporer o Other problem Before all revenues came from conquered lands but now the Romans aren t conquering so what to do to make money 0 Fixes this problem by dividing the empire into smaller counties and collects taxes from everyone 0 Tax rate goes down and the collection rate goes way up because now he is taxing everyone instead of certain groups of people 0 Problem with Christians is that they have this quotthou shall not fightquot code 0 o Believes that not fighting in the military takes away from the tradition of the romans a At first he takes away from Christians pocket book by taking away land or taxing them more than others Constantine 306337 0 Father was the augustus of the west during reign of Diocletian 0 One ofthe buddy tetrarchs and part of mass persecutions 0 Traditional roman o Becomes Caesar under his dad o Becomes augustus when dad reitres 0 Pretty smooth transition 0 Few years into his rule faces a revolt o Marches troops to the city of Rome and plans to crush revolt o Camps out new MILIVIAN BRIDGE 0 Night before the battle his troops are sacrificing to the roman gods but he has a vision I See the CHI RHO and hears the words quotwith this sign you will conquer I Orders his troops to paint this sign on their shields and make flags of the sign 0 Makes Christianity legal 0 All Christians stopped being persecuted o Declares Christian god the new official favorite of Constantine 0 Uses own money to build churches o On his deathbed he gets baptized which was common practice because of the Christian ideal that once you were baptized every sin committed after would stick permanently o Kept the title of Pontifex Maximus 0 Still goes to the games 0 Still keeps the temples of lmerial Cult Milvian Bridge 0 Where Constantine camps out 0 Battle of milivian bridge happens on the bridge 0 Constantine wins 0 Where Maxentius is killed Maxentius o Leads revolt against Constantine o Troops in Rome and claims to be the Augustus of the west 0 In the city of rome Maxentius has made alters of rom run red with blood from sacrifice because he wants gods on his side 0 Killed on Milvian Bridge 0 He and all his followers are thrown into river chi rho Edict of Milan 313 o Says the following o lam ending the great persecutions I From now on every religion will be tolerated in Roman Empire 0 Any Christian who lost property or their job or got into any trouble during the persecution will be restituted 0 Christian god is now the favored god of the emperor Council of Nicaea 0 First universal church council 0 Questioned what is the relationship of god and jesus 0 Some people believed god was a different substance ofjesus and even though jesus was a divinity there was a difference of power 0 Some ppl believed god and jesus were ofthe same stock 0 Whole point ofthis council was to figure out what are the rules of Christianity and what makes a christian Constantinople o Constantine creates a city named after himself 0 Means polis of Constantine o Callthis the new rome Hagia Sophia 0 Church built by Constantine 0 Located in Constantinople 0 Means Holy Wisdom St Peters 0 Constantine builds this church over the grave of St Peter in Rome 0 Church no longer exists because it was rebuilt by Michelangelo Holy Sepulchre 0 Church Constantine built over the grave of Jesus in Jerusalem 0 Build over the tomb ofjesus and site of Golgotha o Becomes one of the most important churches in Christian religion 0 Becomes a pilgrimage church for christians Enuma Elish Essay gt Level One 0 Who wrote it I Writerwriters are unknown but they were probably Babylonians 0 When was it written I Around 2000 1000 BC 0 What type of document is it I Creation myth 0 Main storyline I A God named Marduk and a Goddess named Tiamat fight and Marduk defeats her Marduk was the patron God ofBabylon and after defeating Marduk he becomes the chief of all of the Gods Marduk uses Tiamat s body to create the sky and the Earth He also creates a quotsavagequot called man so that man can serve the Gods gt Level Two 0 Intended audience I Anyone in Babylon that could read 0 Why was it written I This was probably written to explain how heaven and earth came to be and to give people something to believe in Gods I Helps people to cope with death and when bad things happen to good people 0 Assumptions behind the source I There was likely war and turmoil in the region gt Level Three 0 Can I believe it I This is a story about how the world was created I This could have been made up to explain how people came to live on the Earth I The document may not contain facts but it still teaches us about this society 0 What can I learn about the societyperson who created this document I This society was polytheistic I They believed that people were there to serve the Gods I Battles were probably common because this is a story about a battle between a God and Goddess 0 So it s likely that the people fought too I The person who created this document may have been instructed to do so by a ruler 0 So that people would have some form of religion to follow 0 How does it relate to its context I Marduk became the chief of all Gods around the time that Babylon was starting to gain more power and in uence Test 2 Discovery of New Civilizations A Homer and Schliemann 0 Before the work of Schliemann and Evans it was believed that there was no civilizations in Greece before Homer preHomeric civilizations Now it was proven that there were in fact preHomeric civilizations B Minoan Civilization 0 Geography and Climate O O O O O 00 Strong connection to the sea Rocky hilly deep valleys high hills and mountains Land isn t level so hard for agriculture Depend on rain for source of water Land perfect for growing grapes and olives I Olive oil was great for cooking burning light and health skin hair I Oil kept fora long time I Grapes were used to make wine and that kept for a long time I Both considered liquid gold bc kept for so long and could travel well I Could trade them both anywhere I Evidence of wine and gold kept under king s palace 0 Shows king gained wealth from the trade economy No currency at this time I All trade was barter I Palace community with trade Clay tablets found were grouped into 2 categories Linear A and B Because Linear B replaced Linear A we assume the Minoans were conquered by the Myceneans I Mycenaeans took Linear A and changed it to make Linear B C Mycenaean Civilization 0 Characteristics 0 0 000 00 Gold and treasure Compact cities with high defensive walls Buried dead with weapons Warlike but not always for honorable reasons I Fought over Helen of Troy which lasted 10 years Wealthy from trading bc took over Minoans Plant huge olive and grape trees Slave economy I Get slaves from land they conquer Each city has a king I Not unified under one ruler Biggest buildings walls 0 Didn t build massive temples or palaces 0 Completely disappear because of I Natural disasters 0 Volcanoes massive earthquakes 0 Problem geologists dates from these events don t match up with historians I Durians o Conquers 0 Name given by Homer 0 Kill everything and demolish the culture 0 Problem no evidence of outside intrusion I Civil unrest o Oppressed underclass quotduriansquot o Slaves who revolt o No evidence of religion I Assume they praised greek gods ll Time of Turmoil 1200 1000 BC KNOW DATE 0 Hittites collapse Egyptians collapse Mycenean collapse 0 Mass migration of people 0 Exodus and Moses 0 Think this is when Trojan War happened 0 All of these things are caused by the llsea people 0 Could be Mycenaean people that are on the move since their civilization collapsed Archaic Greece Dark Ages 1000750 BC 0 Writing stopped during this time 0 Knowledge of how to write is lost 0 Trading networks and agriculture grapes and olives are lost 0 People start growing what they need to survive 0 Cities are abandoned 0 Economy turns back to agriculture 0 Population decreases 0 Athens 0 Only city with Mycenaean past that survives o Survives as a small village 0 2 most impt changes 0 Aggregation society 0 Relative isolation ll Archaic Age 750550 BC 0 Olympics 0 Increase in population 0 1st alphabet 0 Slow but steady economic revival 0 Trade increases 0 Wine and oil are transported by sea 0 Beginning of coinage 0 Aids trade 0 Each coin has a mark that distinguishes what city it comes from The Birth of the Polis Geography 0 Citystate is a main urban center with surrounding countryside 0 Economic politically and culturally unique 0 Citystates always found near water bc use sea to trade 0 Mountainous hilly sandy soil ll Characteristics of the Polis o Selfgoverened 0 Each city state is surrounded by mountains 0 Greece isn t easy to conquer 0 Own rules to govern themselves 0 Differ from other citystates 0 Legal equality and access to a court system for all free people 0 Had to be a citizen 0 Citizens were mostly male 0 Leadership aristocratic class 0 As they grew in population started to colonize o Ran on slave economy lll Three examples 1 Sparta 0 Not on coastline so not big traders o Helots 0 Military oligarchy 2 Corinth o Relied on trade 0 2 harbors o Taxed ppl for using them 3 Athens 0 Acropolis is the Athenian religious center 0 Also the parthanon 0 Temple built to Athena Golden Age Greece and the Wars Gre A Pe O O O B Th ek Golden Age 500403 BC rsian Wars 490479 BC Athenians feared the Spartans and their military might Thought Spartans might try to overtake Athens Athenians made an alliance with Persia Sent ambassadors to Persia o Persians told Athenians they must submit to Darius and pay tribute Accept the deal When get back to Athens Athenians are mad and exile the ambassadors and forget the alliance Ionians burned down Sardis Persians decide to kill all the Greeks O o By the time they get there the Athenians were gone and the Ionians were the only one left 0 Suppressed Ionians Persians remembered deal they had with Athens and decided to go out with them Athenians hear about the attack and ask Spartans for help I Turn them down 0 e Athenian Empire Plea to all citystates for help bc think Persia will take over Greece All city states band together and call themselves the Hellenistic League Vote to have Sparta lead them See struggle in leadership btw Athenians and Spartans Athenians sea power Spartans land power Xerses crosses Hellspoint by tying up fishing boats and marching troops over it Meet no opposition and easily take over the lands When they get to Greece experience trouble bc of rocky terrain Spartans decide to take the terrain to their advantage Decide to ambush Persians at Thermophile Goat herder knows the mountains well and tells Xerses how to get out of the trap O O O O O 0 Makes him paya price 0 Sells out the Spartans 0 Destroy the Spartans Many Greeks abandon their cities after hearing of the Spartans loss Now Persians control attic peninsula 0 Trouble sea bc boats are supply boats Athenians have smaller faster boats Battle of Salamis O Athenians finally won a battle bc of disorganized and direst of Persian troops Finally Persians have full retreat bc of no supplies Split btw Athens and Sparta due to power struggle C Peloponnesian War 431404 BC I Megara had been a part of Peloponnesian League I Had problems with Delian trade merchants o Merchants put block on Megara Angers Spartans and starts a war I Delian League wins all sea battles I Peloponnesian League wins all land battles I 1st 7 years of the war 0 Sparta attacks the attic peninsula 5 separate times 0 Athens has disease and starvation 0 One Athenian general says enough is enough and comes up with peace treaty o Called Peace of Niceas I Syracuse The Golden Age Golden Age Culture and Society 0 Importance in participating in the community 0 Speeches literature and art 0 Gender segregated society A Men and Women 0 Men go to agora 0 Central square for gatherings or everyday public life 0 Women did not leave the home 0 Slaves did the shopping 0 Women were mothers and took care of the house 0 Women entered through one door of the house and men entered through another 0 3 occassions where women could leave the home 0 Religious festivals 0 Weddings 0 Funerals 0 Women dined separately from men 0 Marriage happens at a young age 0 Arranged 0 Girls 1416 and men 20 0 Women were property of their husband 0 Transfer of rights from father to husband 0 Little female writers in golden age B Religion 0 Many gods 0 To show proper respect must show Eusbitia piety 0 Offer sacrifice and get approval from gods 0 Blood and nonblood sacrafices o Temples were considered houses of god 0 Offerings done outside the temple C Birth of Drama 0 Born in Golden Age 0 Born out of competitions at religious festivals 0 Written for Dyionasus o God of wine and good times 0 All actors are men 0 3 types of plays 0 Tragedies o Comedies o Satires D Greek Philosophy 0 SPA terms Homer M o In the past historians said homer s stories were completely fictional and Troy was seen as a fantasy world 0 since these stories were seen as made up then the two older civilizations were made up and not real 0 Homer s works came from his head and were seen as not real history 0 Trojan War was seen as a myth until Heinrich Schliemann Heinrich Schliemann 0 German historian who set out to see if the Trojan Wars were actually real events 0 Self educated man that was obsessed with Homer s work the Iliad and the Odyssey 0 Travels to CA for the gold rush and sets up a business selling mining supplies then buying the gold people find and selling it for a much higher price Eventually becomes a millionare 0 Now he has resources to see if wars were real and used lliad as his guide to look for the real city 0 Goes to Turkey and actually finds the city of Troy 0 Finds gold there so calls media and tells them he found the Gold of Helen of Troy and the prizes of King Priam 0 Was an amateur digger and actually destroyed the ruins of Troy 0 People still had trouble believing him so he set out to find other cities using the Iliad as his guide 0 Finds Mycenean where Agamemnon is from finds walls gateways and gold 0 Finds 19 graves with people buried in them with their weapons 0 Believes he saw the face of Agamemnon 0 Finally gets credit for finding cities 0 He proved to that much earlier civilizations in Greece existed than even when Homer wrote the Odyssey ll c SIr Arthur Evans 0 British scholar that is receiving artifacts from the island of Crete o Decides to use Homer s stories to go to Crete to discover the Minotaur King Minas the Centaur Bull and the Labyrinth o Discovers city of Knossos 0 Unlike any other city bc large technologically advanced decorated and centered on a building with huge passageways and many stories Paintings on the walls were of bulls and dancers jumping over the bulls Finds clay tablets with weird writings Finds store room under building used to store olive oil and wine OOOO Knossos 0 City discovered by Sir Arthur Evans 0 Used Homer s writings to find it 0 Large technologically advanced decorated and centered on a huge building with huge passageways and many stories 0 Paintings on the walls were bulls and dancers jumping over them 0 Find clay tablets with weird writings nothing we have seen before WIne and Olive Oil 0 Found in a store room under a building 0 Discovered in Knossos by Sir Arthur Evans Crete 0 Where Sir Arthur Evans goes to discover city of Knossos 0 Where olive oil and wine storage is found 0 New city is discovered that is large technologically advanced decorated and centered around a huge palace o Paintings were found of bulls and dancers jumping over them 0 Find clay tablets with new form of writing Linear A 0 Found on the earliest tablets o Hasn t been deciphered 0 Don t know if its Semantic or lndoEuropean Linear B 0 Found on later tablets Related to Linear A Took Linear A s place Discovered outside of Crete Carl Blegen 0 American archeologist o Digging in Palos and found a lot of Linear B writing Michael Ventris 0 Young Englishman o Lived during WWI 0 During this time England developed many theories to break the German secret codes 0 Used code breaking theories to understand Linear B 0 Found Tiripode o Discovered Linear B was the first language tiri pode 0 Word found in Linear B o Clue needed to unlock the secret o Resembles Greek word Tripod 0 Shows Myceneans were actually Greek 0 Speak in ancient form of Greek lndo European 0 Decides that Linear B came before A but died before he could decipher it Dorians 0 Massive warfare btw Mycenaeans and Dorians o Slave and lower class group that went against upper class 0 Distruction was probably done by these bc no evidence of outside invaders 12001000 BC 0 Time of Turmoil when Egypt Hittite and Mycenaen societies collapsed Delphi 0 First evidence of a sanctuary 0 To the god Apollo Oracles 0 Women sit on a tripod and get messages from Apollo 0 Relay them to the citizens 0 Sit near the umbilicous stone and water vapor from crags in the ground created by earthquakes would wrap around her Olympic Games 0 Traditional date 776 BC 0 Sign to historians of revitalization of Greek civilization Phoenic O O In Olympia Honored Zeus bc Olympia had huge temple to him Competition was male only and ppl came from everywhere to see Competed in the nude Individual competitors lf won did bring honor to city but it wasn t a city to city competition Competition where women could compete but it was to honor Hera ian alphabet Sementic people Developed first alphabet Greeks are indoeuropean speakers who adopt the Semantic alphabet Create their own language and writing Combines symbols to make syllabuls 0 Makes things easier Only 2535 letters to learn Literacy rates increase greatly Since more ppl can read and write ppl write quotsillyquot things I Poems letters stories 0 O Sappho Hesiod O Poet of ancient Greece Woman Wrote lyric poetry Recited along with a lyre modern day harp Shorter and had more personal themes I Love and goddess Aphrodite most popular Gathered herself around a community of women to write about passion for men women and children 0 O From island of Lesbo Where lesbian comes from Greek society hasn t defined sexuality so she isn t out of the norm Writes of old times 0 O Theogony Poet of ancient Greece Most known for Theogony Theo gods gony creation Creation stories of gods 0 O Homer Iliad and Odyssey 0 Best known of all greek poets o Wrote Iliad and Odyssey about the Trojan War and Chaos that followed 0 See very important virtue in arete ar te 0 Homer 0 Honor greatness or excellence 0 Male only virtue o Explains Trojan War and the downfall of many great soldiers PreSocratics o Greeks begin to answer the questions 0 Where does this world come from 0 Why am I here Thales ofMiletus 0 Ancient Mesopotamians believed there were 4 elements that made up the world 0 Water air fire and earth Takes idea that water is the main element bc it can be liquid vapor or solid Says earthquakes are caused by water because waves move more with earthquakes All is water Anaximander o Follows Thales but then questions him 0 Thinks there s an Aperion o Primal element before the 4 elements 0 Separate to make opposites hot cold earth water fire air 0 When aperions are separated heaviest sink to bottom 0 Sun and stars are fire vents that burn through the air 0 Earth Water Air Fire Pythagoras 0 First to write down the Pythagorean theory a2 b2 c2 in math form 0 Everything is number 0 Numbers are behind everything and tied to religion 0 Circle perfect shape so universe had to be a circle 0 Wrote about religion music science and math Pythagorean Universe 0 Universe was a sphere bc circle perfect shape 0 Spheres translucent o Spheres rub up against each other and create harmonious music 0 Normal ppl cant hear it bc they are so used to it Polis o Citystate 0 Located by water for trade 0 Main urban center with surrounding countryside colonization 0 Done bc polis were growing in population 0 Colonies on Mediterranian and Black Sea 0 Economy built on trade 0 Once a colony sets up its independent of mother city 0 Still holds strong ties to mother city chattel slavery 0 Wide spread by the golden age 13 of all Greek population were slaves Slave is property of owner and can be bought and traded like any other good Conquered ppl or ppl from another polis Pass on slavehood to kids o If slave became free was a freedperson but not a citizen 0 Can become a slave if you have a kid you don t want exposure 0 Give unwanted child up to the gods 0 Leave child anywhere to fend for themselves 0 Leaves fate up to the gods o If someone finds that child then its their slave oligarchy o Ruled by a few 0 Could be aristocratic family or king Tyranny o Ruled by someone who has taken over by force democracy 0 Run by the citizens 0 13 of Greeks were slaves and not free to vote 0 Who was 0 Male born in Athens parents born in Athens 0 Only about 6000 citizens bc the rule who was free was strict o Elites ran the show and had all the power Sparta 0 Geography 0 Not on the coastline I Aren t big on trade 0 High mountain region cliff rocky I Hard to trade 0 Don t have much land to cultivate so conquer neighbors to enslave population to work in fields for them 0 Slaves are owned by state 0 Helots 0 Have to be good at fighting because only 10 aren t slaves and must control the 90 that are Milatary Oligarchy o Allimportant military 0 Training is the key helots 0 State owned slaves in Sparta o 90 of population in Sparta are helots Lycurgus 0 Father of Sparta s military government system 0 Top of system 2 kings 0 One king ruled over Sparta at home 0 Other conquering citystates 0 Kings were ruled by council of elders 0 Men over 60 o Called Gerousia 0 At age 7 boys were taken off to the military 0 Stayed in camps until they were 30 0 Could get married by 18 and see your wife to have kids in the city 0 At age 30 became citizens and given land and helots 0 Many women in Sparta alone 0 Supposed to be able to fight 0 Seen as the givers of ablebodied men 0 Had higher social status than other women in greek citystates o From outsiders pov seemed to have too much freedom Gerousia 0 Council of elders in Sparta o Ruled kings 0 Men over 60 Corinth 0 Geography 0 Entire city is between Gulf of Corinth and Saranic Gulf I 4 miles across narrowest strip 0 Huge on trade I 2 harbors 0 To avoid attacks traders sail to one harbor in Corinth transport across the 4 miles of land and then sail from the other harbor 0 Huge taxes to go through harbors 0 Control eastwest and northsouth trade 0 In the beginning city and trade acted as oligarchy Cypselus o Corinth Wealthy trader Takes over the government Loved by ppl bc built great buildings and gives back to ppl Once he dies grandson takes over Athens 0 Rapid population growth 0 Rise of democracy 0 Due to rise of immigrants I Immigrants are successful I Elites start to get outnumbered and creates chaos o SOLON set up democracy Had some leaders Archons that were set up by elites o Chosen randomly but only in elite class Beginning of early democracy 0 Can only be citizens 0 Only citystate we have ruins from before Archaic Greece 0 Controls attic peninsula 0 Trade main economic wealth 0 Olive oil main commodity 0 Sets up lots of colonies 0 One colony ships wood to Athens to make ships 0 Athenian elite o Revises the law and codes 0 Biggest problem debt that ppl owe o Ppl owe so much so they can sell themselves or family into slavery o Outlaws ownership of Athenian slaves and cancels all debts 0 Set up democracy in Athens o If you were a male and lived in Athens for more than one generation and owned land became citizens boule 0 Group of 400 citizens chosen randomly o Served a year 0 Decided on various issues in Athens 0 Building a new temple deciding taxes Pisistratus 0 Old angers about the democratic system bc took away from aristocrats o Confiscates aristocrat property and gives in to the poor in Athens to try to win their favor 0 Democracy temporarily breaks down Hippias 0 Faces a revolt led by aristocrats o Escapes and lives on Cleisthenes 0 Leader of the revolting aristocratic families 0 Brings back democracy 0 Changes and reforms it o No longer need property to be a citizen 0 500 ppl can be in BOULE to increase involvement 0 ostracism ostracism 0 broken pieces of pottery 0 all the citizens got together once a year and each person could scratch down a person they didn t like 0 someone they thought would be a tyrant one day 0 if everyone had a vote about who would be a tyrant then one day then that person could be exiled for 10 years 0 way to prevent future tyrants 0 system was eventually abused by dishonesty and corruption Persians o lndo European people 0 Related to Greek language 0 Settle in high plateau mountainous region btw Caspian and Persian 3qu 0 Modern day Iran 0 Zagros mts o Settle in various tribes o Eventually see unification of tribes under 1 leader 0 Capitol Persipolis 0 Complex system of governors so easy to control o Conquered ppl had to obey Cyrus follow governors and pay taxes 0 Didn t push culture or religion on conquered people 0 Built roads to communicate and collect taxes and move troops more quickly 0 Most famous Royal Road 0 Free jews in Babylon and allow them to go back to Jerusalem and build and new temple 0 Autonomous Zagros mountains o Mountains that separate Iran and Iraq Cyrus 560530 BC 0 Father of the kingdom of Persia 0 First Persian empire 0 Stretches from Egypt to Mesopotamia 0 First of the Persian kings to unite everyone under one rule 0 Conquers the Babylonians o Conquers Asia MinorAnatolia 0 Governor stays in Sardis to oversee the people collect taxes and keep order Sardis o Persian capital in Greek area 0 Burnt down by lonians Zoroastrianism 0 Religion of Persia o Named after a prophet o Dualistic religion 0 2 gods who are in conflict with one another 0 Good one creator of light bad one represents darkness and destruction Ahura Mazda 0 Good god 0 Zoroastrianism o Persia 0 Creator and light 0 When the end comes if you follow him you ll be taken care of Darius 522486 BC 0 Cyrus grandson o Converts all to Zoroastrianism o Becomes official state religion 0 Leader of Persian attack on Marathon 0 Doesn t want news to spread of Athenian victory o Might inspire others to revolt as well 0 Starts to plan an attack by land and sea of Greece 0 Dies but son wants to follow out plan Persepolis 0 Capital of the Persian Empire Xerxes 486464 BC 0 Darius son 0 Creates Palace at Persepolis o Wants to follow through on his fathers plans to take over Greece 0 Decides to have hundreds of land forces march from Persia to Greece 0 Also to have naval force sail to Greece 0 Approached by a goat herder who knows they way around the pass 0 Takes this path and engages in Spartans and kills them all Cleisthenes o Brought democracy back to Athens 0 Brought back horrors of tyranny lonians o Tired of being ruled by Persians o Revolt 0 Ask support from Athens and other cities for help 0 Go to Sardis and burn it down Eretria 0 Join lonians to revolt against Persia Marathon 0 Persians land here and overwhelm the attic peninsula o Atehnians realize they are outnumbered but were better armed with better weapons 0 Athenians decide to wait for the boats to land and then conquer them 0 Effective and wipes out the attack 0 Persians realize that Athens is unguarded bc all the ppl are at Marathon 0 Send fastest runner to warn Athens 0 Hard for Persians to get there bc of boats I Big bulky boats o By the time they made it there army made it back 0 Decided to retreat o Athenians believe reason they won the war is bc they were fighting for democracy hoplites 0 Greek soldiers 0 Armed with shield breast plate helmet and leg plates 0 Persian soldiers only had wicker shields to protect them Thermopylae I Long narrow mountain revine I Where Spartans ambush the Persians I Funnel Persian troops to pick them off one by one Salamis I Athenians drew Persians in the straight of Salamis I Triremes were so quick that the Athenians were kill Persian boats and retreat without getting hurt I Since the Persian ships are supply ships the Persians have no more supplies Delian League I All citystates are equal and must pay in triremes I If you cant build a triremes 0 Go to Athens with enough gold so they can build one I Reality everyone is paying athens Triremes I Athenian boats I Smaller faster better I At the bow had a battering ram Peloponnesian League I Sparta and where it spread its military oligarchy Pericles 495429 BC I Major leader that emerges I Serves as the arcon for Athens I Main leader of Athens and a reformer I Responsible for building back up Athens after the Persian war Thucydides I Athenian general I Writes history of Peloponesian war I Exiled from Athens bc he lost battle Peace of Nicias 421415 BC I Peace treaty came up with by Athenian general I Ended Polenseian war


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