New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Magnolia Heaney


Magnolia Heaney
GPA 3.68

B. Martin

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

B. Martin
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in History

This 100 page Class Notes was uploaded by Magnolia Heaney on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 4022 at Louisiana State University taught by B. Martin in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see /class/222457/hist-4022-louisiana-state-university in History at Louisiana State University.


Reviews for FRANCE SINCE 1770


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/13/15
History 4022 Final Exam 3102009 30600 PM March 5 2009 I January 1871 Third Republic o A provisional government Prussia won the war National Assembly February 8 1871 Create a legal government Met in Bordeaux 4 years earlier 630 Members 400 Monarchist of all 3 stripes legitimist orleanists bonapartist 200 In Favor of a Republic disappointing for Gambetta who declared a Republic Moved to Versailles 1St time since 1789 Government in Versailles bad sign for Republic much resenment During siege of Paris Mormentorium impossible to do business during the German take over no one pays bills until things back up and running Adolf Their become leader of the National Assembly Journalist helped overthrow the Bourbons in 1830 partican of Louis Philippe and served as a Prime Minister identified as Constitutional Monarchist Orleanist aware that Emperor s foreign policy was a disaster II Germany pressure now Germany with the exception of Austria King of Germany now Emperor Emperor Wilhelm I Bismarck Chancelor France lost Lorraine and Straussburg France 5B debt to Germany paid off in 15 yrs and German troops left Lorrain 5400 sq miles 16 million people transformed to Germans III March 18 During the war people of Paris raised money themselves and bout 200 cannon to be placed along city walls of Paris to help with the defense of the city bought by the people soldiers went to seize them soldiers met by a mb shots were fired Some soldiers deserted to the mob rest were shot and paris was clearly in Rebellion against its own National Government Many people in Paris who cheered this Proposed Paris separate itself become its own city state and become Paris Commune Music to Thiers ears Wanted to find out who is and not is for revoltion said everyone to wear colors and kill everyone not on your side Now Their in charge of the government May 21 Next couple of weeks anyone who wanted to leave the Paris commune did and anyone who wanted to stay were those who wanted to separate from france and it became clear it was a showdown between the forces of the National assembly and Their who was conservative Many ways was a civil war no way Paris could win May 21St government troops fough their waiy into city bitter street fighting communare knew going to lose and massacred the arch bishop of Paris and a number of nuns because they said the church was on the side of conservtatives Burned down Tuilleries Paris House to House fighting lasted almost a week 20000 people killed most communare 13000 sent to prison abroad deported Paris would never again sponsor a revolution till 1968 1872 Orleanist and the Legitimist came to a deal The Miracle Child Henry Count of Chambourg only surviving member of the Bourbon family who if he became king would be Henry V wife wanted to be a nun the royal line ends with him Chambourg seemd determined to prove he was the dumbest Bourbon when offered the right to become king he replied I can only become king ifI come back under the Bourbon lilly flag gone away 1830 replaced by tri color His supporters recognized French people would not put up and any chance of a restoration went out the window Their monarchist pushed him out of power knew was not going to be a monarchist restoration we will have ot have a republic and said 1 The reason we don t have a king there was not room on the room for 3 fat asses 2why do we have a republic because it is the government that divides us a l least Their was convinced that all legitist had supporters but not enough The Third Republic The Constitutional laws of 1875 establish the 3rd Republic Head President 2 House Legislature Senate Upper House Chamber of Deputies Lower House President Napoleon only President Elected by Senate and Chamber of Deputies elected as a single body President just like a constitutional monarch but not hereditary The two houses of the legislature the much very big Upper House 300 members each department would elect 1 or more senators by the elected officials of the department coming together Senate term 9 years elected in staggered terms 13 elected every 3 years cannot be transformed Rapidly waves of popular opinion cannot influence the Senate Elected by office holders who are elected by USM President elected by office holders elected by UMS Chamber of Deputies Elected by UMS each department is divided up into districts a district is called arron desment each district gets one deputy for ever 1000 in population no district has more than 1000000 people voting in it adult males 15 of population no deputy faces more than 20000 voters deputies running for election were running in voting numbers that are county districts you can get to know every voters Elections were cheapinexpensive to a campaign did not have ot campaign in front of very many voters and people could finance their own elections Did not have to be rich to run for office which meant that France wa slow to develop political paritesin the way they are though of in Germany USA GB Power of political party comes from the ability to had out money to election members Instead of having political parties had Factions tend to be shifting all the time President a figurehead the hea of the government is the Prime Minister Prime Minister Premier Someone who can maintain a majority is the Senate and the Chamber 1St in French Government GB only other country who had it PM can govern as long as he canmantain a majority in the Senate and chamber of Deputies and as soon as loses he must step down Chooses for his cabinet people popular among the various factions chooses the most important figure in each faction able torally that factio to the camp Key Post Foreign Affairs Defense Justice Minister of the Interior Prime Minister always makes himself one of the 4 posts and chooses to be whichever one is more important for the moment Any important issue is described as an issue of Confidnce Meaning when comes to vote the cabinet must win or resing When not as big of a issue anyone can vote how they please and does not effect cabinet Frequently cabinets changed and it gave the impression to people that politics under the 3rd Republic were remarkably unstable no cabinet lasted longer than 3 year and the average was about one year Those who paid attention even though a cabinet might resign many of the same people were turned to the next cabinet and in some case the sam erson would be head of Foreign affaris for years even though the Pm would change Possible that Chamber and Senate in dispute If so President could call for thedesolveof chambers and call for new elections President had the right iwht consent of senate dislve the chamber and hold new elections 1st Crisis of 3rd Republic immediately when constituion in effect Assembly elected Feb 1871 Delayed and talk and in the end they finally passed the 1875 Constitution Waited to dEc 31St to dissolve themselves January 1876 1St Election of chamber Republican majority 340 seats shocked the monarchist Had not realized how much they had turned off their population high hopes they could hold off power Monarchist Senate and Republican chamber Decided theman who replaced Their General Patrice d Mach Mahoun carried over as President Military man as President who preference is monarchist PM either liberal monarchist or conservative Republicans May 1877 Mach Mahoun demanded the resignation of the Prime Minister said would dissolve chamber of deputies and find out how the cuntr felt May 16 1877 Seize May Crisis If the country contines to vote Republica would be slap in face to President Sent back as many republicans as before France Sovereign voice has spoken Mac Mahoun must give in or get out Said ok Tiem for 13 election in theSenate now the Senate went Republican and with the chamber of dputies both Republican MacMahoun decided time to get out an dresigns With MacMahoun gone elect for 1St time a President under the constitution choose as the 1St real Presdient of the 3rd Republic J Grevy J Grevey France clearly a Republic at this point Chamber declares that France needed a National Holiday July 14 1789 becomes National Day Bastille Day The symbol of the breaking of Monarchist Power 2 Major Groups in Chamber of Deputies The Opportunist We want to make reforms don t wa to do too fast want to take time and do things when opportunes J Ferry leader of the opportunist Traditional Politician restrained careful The Radicals Wanted quick change George Clemenceau leader younger Angry fought duals and won not nice people feared him Despied the Church during the 2nd Empire his father had bee arrested for saying things about the church Le Tigre when he becomes Prime minister in 1917 he rallied his country and allies to win the war at 76 yrs old 20 s came to the US learned English taught French stud both agreed that the church supported all the monarchist and the church hd to be cuved Anti Clericalism Both for getting the church out of politics Republicans thought the church should get out of education 1881 and 1882 Ferry laws established a basic patter for pubic primary education that would Be imitated schools become mandatory from 713 No tuition no excuses Secular laic no religious teaching in public schools Seperation in church and state Monks and nuns cannot teach in public schools Jesuits banned Desire to read things A lot of power theu church had was gien the children Rotary Press invented reduced the price of newspapers to something that anyone could afford penny press 1884 waldeck Russeau Law of 1894 Right to organize unions entirely legal Freedom of press religion and assembly Nosiy things grew up because now possible to say or do what you wanted Books balance rarely borrowed money good stewarts Launced the creation of ew conquests for the French Empire Controlled islands in Caribbean and Algeria Morocco French under Ferry especially pushed into China and Friday Rubber Vietnam Micnhelin So far looks like Republicans doing a good job 1873 Economic Crisis in the Western World The Great 19th Century Depression The Great Deflation Deflation prices go down Get the Drafayais Affair Start Reading Republicans of the Third Republic January 1879 gained control of the Chamber of Deputies Senate and Presidency Under Ferrey school laws that create the template for public education o Elementary schools that are free and secular 1884 Law Freedom to Unionize NAP III government agreed to look the other way now complete freedome Ferrey now conquering Empire in N Africa SE Asia Madagascar Economy had no real control over 1873 taken a down turn Great 19th Century Deflation Kondratieff Russian 1St to noticed economy moves in cycles Credit crunch A number of things coming together credit crunch o Banks lost money on loans o People started refusing to spend o Prices went down Prices reached a low point in 1880 and by 1896 stabilized and got back to how they were in 1893 very slow inflation Said these things happen every 75 years Dealt with the maturing of the Industrial Revolution practically everything being made by machine was being made by machine Mood similar to today s economy people who had invested well were especially welloff because those who had a government bond it continued to pay Real income income adjusted for inflation or deflation Real income rose during this time because you had increased buying power People who were Rentiers French people who invested in government bonds rente they were especially welloff during this time because their income from their stocks and bonds bought so much more Because outside income was greater they did not really have to work their investments paid off the bills Period of Experimentation in Art and Literature Beginning of the AvantGarde o Did not have to sell anything so could be more experimental o Henry Rousseau did not paint much but painted a few he was a customs agent and when retired found his pension was worth more than thought and he was unable to take up painting The great bulk of people were in a sour and unhappy mood and looked for someone who might get them out 1887 George Boulangee o Boulangisme The youngest general in the French army by tradition had always been nonpolitical Republican rapidly promoted because he was a Republican Had a charisma blond bearded wore hair a little long good at staging things bought himself a black stallion Tunis Named Minister of War Ordered all guard houses be repainted the colors of the tricolor Ordered official overcoat be slightly altered Chesterfieldovercoat with a velvet color Believed in egalite no special overcoats Torch Light Night Parades Through Paris Streets Lead the parads Talked of the importance to lead war of revenge against Germany General Revanche France was not in a position to go to war with Germany 1888 Boulange was discarded when was a cabinet shuffle and sent to command a garrison in ClermentFrerrand o representatives of the last surviving pretender to the French throne 1883 man who was last hope of the Bourbons had died who had no children end of Bourbons 1878 The Prince Imperial o Killed fin a rad against Zulu s in Africa o Philippe d Orleans title was count of Paris he was the last of the pretenders to the French throne and he thought that the Republic looks like it is getting steady and if we do not try now it will be too late 0 Boulange s Campaign Agents contacted Boulange asked how would you like to be the head of the French army and lead attack of revenge on Germany Many members of the Chamber of Deputies not uncommon to have a bi election as result of a vacant seat Boulange runs for every vacant seat no matter where it is and wins because of his popularity When he wins he immediately resigns and runs for the next one results a snowball plebocite and builds huge national popularity winning election after election o Boulange1St to have movie style posters o Whistle Stop Campaign hire a train and at the end of the cabuse sound whistle at every small town and give a little speech and go to next town O Went teririfically no one had seen before o Scandal Jules Grevy President 0 O Daughter married political Daniel Wllsen because she was the president s daughter Lived with daughter in Elysee Palace which is where the President lives Daniel Wilsen was a bad mananyone who gets in trouble there is a letter of recommendation from Wilsen Decided the way to get was to traffic in the Legion of Honor from Napoleon 5 grades took Presidential stationary and wrote letters to wealthy men and if give bribe will ask President to induct into legion of Honor A few paid the bribe some took letters to the police The prefect of police arrived at a special meeting with Grevy and brought with him letters and said your son in law is dirty I have the proof and take a look Grevy read the evidence and threw it in the fire Tells son inlaw to write new letters the prefect of police not happy and letters written Problemwatermarks the way that people who make paper copywrite their paper and careful note is made when watermarks change letters came from period 9f 1886 and the watermark had changed and it could be proved the paper had been manufactured after the date of the letter Grevy was forced to resign It did not hurt that no regime since 1890 had not lasted more than 18 years c Boulange campaign began to pick up steam o Waiting for bi election in Paris Boulange o Jan 1889 if Boulange can win in Paris than could be enough 0 O 0 Wins and overwhelming victory and his supporters are standing in a mass meeting as election results are announced Last moment says I am going to bed Next morning Repubicans had dodged a cannonball and are not about to let this go Clear to Republicans that Boulange and his people are plotting against the regime 1892 Try him for high crimes and misdemeanors in the Senate In Senate where politicians are trialed Boulange knew if trialed before the Senate would be convicted and then fled to Belgium Boulangism deflated as fast as invlated because he fled bad economic times Grevy scandal but when revelaed to be a coward that was it 2 years later his mistress died of TB Boulangism turned into nothing but would have ramifications the Pope Leo XIII and man who had come out to favor the working class in which he urged countries adopt fair labor standards working Man s Pope 1St Pope to seem a part of the modern world The reason church schools are getting a raw deal in france because we are identified with the wrong side and called upon the French Catholics to rally to the republic Raciment o It depends on the laws that are passed 0 Must rally to the Republic and change the laws that hurts us we should not try to overthrow it Government is not bad Aux Milieu Des Solicitudes issued in French Usually in Latin and issued in French so would not be mistranslated monarchists furious Monarchist created the myth that Pope kidnapped and an imposter and administered the encyclical 0 Some said time to make peace Count Albert de Mun Leader of the Rallites Catholics rallying to the Republicans He came from an old legitimist family Cavalry commander went into social reform his proposals were more advanced than the proposals of even the socialist able to get passed laws that limited the number of works hours for men women and children not a Republican 0 O o Great Orator o Ferdinand de Lesepps 0 now wanted to dig a canal across Panama 0 believed he could do it had a plan eventually became and American plan Raised a lot of money this time want to set price low and the average person can invest and small time people invested and then French engineers went over there and died very rapidly died from yellow fever mosquito s Project was behind and fell through and everyone who invested lost everything Leseps and chief cohorts in panama canal company kept hoping could figure a way out of this and bribed newspaper reporters to write glowing stories about the success of the Panama canal dig and then began bribing legislature o Albert de MUn says going to stick with the Republic can accept most of what the revolution was all about right Gives speech then 9 Clemenceau leader of the leftwing Fights duels born same yr as de Mun Says the Revolution is a block you can t pick and choose you are either for or against the revolution Known as the priest eater Great collision between two great speakers and laid down some markers 1894Greatest Scandal in French History Dreyfus Affair the French Military was aware could not take on German population growing faster than France France cannot take on by itself By 1890 s the lost of assas and Lorraine losss of the iron fields which now could be used to make iron ore which turned Germany into a huge industrial power The only way to defeat Germany is to do it with your head Brake when a large gun is fire recoil is greater than pistol or rifle O O O O o Creation of mechanical brake with springs springs would slow the recoil and bring it back close to where it had been artillery suffered from two things and keep readjusting o French created a hydraulic brake able to adjust barrel back almost perfectly and able to fire and reload more rapidly o Knew Germany trying to infiltrate French secrets Counter Intelligence French developed turn someone get someone to be a traitor The military adache the French were able to recruit a woman middleage o Marie Bastian Was to get a job in the Germany embassy as cleaning lady smart but dressed as poor lowerclass woman and got the job Everyone evening reported her work and would tidy up o Paid special attention to the trash cans and she would rake up the ashes occasionally pieces of paper not fully burned o September 1894 she meets her handler who is an officer in French counter intelligence and meet in church One goes in kneels and prays the other one comes n in later begins to pray and hands over o They discover the pieces of a letter written on blue paper Bordereau not signed but it lists set of secrets that someone who is very clearly a French Officer is willing to sell to the Germans and one has to do with the artillery brake not singed but in person s handwriting o Have a clue that have a spy and preson is highly placed because big secrets and clear have been doing business with Germans already Late 1980 s March 12 2009 Public education why became Dreyfus affair because people were now reading the newspaper Never know how people were going to divide up depended what they believed about the army state individual rights Maurice Bare s written a number of nuvles that celebrated the cult of one s self and individualism justice to a single individual is more important thatn disgracing the high ranking people o Walking down the street doen da walking with Doppee both antidrefysard c As they walk further all the idiot are on our side o Never know how people are going to turn out George Picuart least likely to be hero o Catholic antisemite taught Dreyfus at Military Academy and given him his only bad grade because was Jew c When head of counterintelligence becomes for dreyfus because he is doing his job G Clemenceau head of the radicals Tiger ran a newspaper L Aurore the dawn was for L Auror that Zola wrote J Acuse o Clemenceau had idea as running it as the front page of paper and printed extra copies o People could not believe this was being published J Jaure s leader of France s socialist party late comer to the dreyfusard cause when Dreyfus was convicted in and sentenced to Devils s Islnd jaure s protested only allowed to live because is a rich middle class person o Jaure s comes around to the other side In the 2nd Court Marshall when found guility o The vote was 5 to 2 o Rules that officers vote for guilt or innoscene beginning with the lowest ranking officers 0 Lowers ranking felt believed had to believe in the rights of generals over the rights of man 0 2 most senior men voted innocent o Lease senior men voted guilty Fausse Henri document that proves a forgery had the top of letter with tin gray lines same on bottom but the middle part lines were grey blue Missed class march 17 March 19 2009 Phylloxeravine stocks received from the US grafted French vines on to them so French wines actually come from vines that are Franco American but it saved them in the end By 1914 the total number of mile of railroad reached 31000 miles and is double what the number had been in 1870 The Third Republic doubled the number of rail lines Freight traffic increased four fold and passenger traffic incread by 500 and it is easy to say that the railraods and the improved road knit the country economically culturally politically that had not been before Automobiles inventors were German Daimler and Benz A Peugeotwas one of the inventors of the automoviles 1914 100000 automobiles in France more than in the US REAL WAGES INCREASED 4050 PEOPLE WORE more attractive clothing ate more meat less bread Had more leisure The English Week o The standard 12 hours work day was relaxed to 5 days a week 10 hours and 1 day 5 hours work week was 5 hours o Under 2nd Empire was 6 days a week 72 hours o Mining had been reduced to 8 hours the miners work week was 4 hours 0 The Effects of Primary Education o Rapid drop of illiteracy o 1903 1St time the number of illiterates among men dropped below 5 as a result of the military was required and had to be literate o 1914 with the dying off of those people who were old nad had not been to school and the increase of the number born and going to school the effective literacy rate throughough Europe was around 98 o After WWI problems o 1914 all time high of literacy in the Western World Virtually everyone could now read French language and magazines newspapers book o Rotary press cheap to produce o Railroads cheap to distribute o People had a chance to read and did Universal Military Transcription 21 years old Very few people went to university which could reduce service Few exceptions Practically 1St 3 yrs inc olors stationed away from home and worlds would change New Postision for People to take Needed many more new school teachers After 1904 church schools being closed Instituteur institutrice t well prepared young men and women who were the bringers of culture and knowledge to the rest of the country teachers More New Civil Service Post When People finished Primary school were able to read write and do their sums very good only a small went on to secondary school and those were primarily the children of the wealthy and the most gifted students of the poor but had to be very good to get the schoalrships result of Napoleon Women 1913 The approved role of a French women minimally educated as a house wife btu tin fact in 1914 37 of adult women were full time employeed higher percentage than any other European country Many held routine and inferiorjobs but not all professions were open to them Could be doctors lawyers anything they wanted Lawyers typically last to Admit women Avocat Avocate to distinguish difference 15 of secondary students were women not fully represented University Students 0 Few people went to at this point anywhere o In all of Franc ein 1913 were total of 42000 people who were going to something called a university of that totally 4250 were women Most French women not interested in the vote but were gaining interst in voting rights First Four Decades of the Third Republic up to 1914 Period of extrodinary advances in literature arts and sciences and one of the rason was the 19th century deflation which permitted people who had independent wealth to do things they may not have oridnarially have done They could paint or sculpt or write weather or not anyone bought it and were able to experiment Ex A Rimbaud P Verlane S Mallarme All highly inventive and their poetry was inaccessible to the average Frenchman or Woman it was art of arts sake but they did not have to sell it and oculd write what they wanted Novelist o E Zola founder of naturalism in literature tended ot portray things in its most exact and natural way 0 Novel about coal mining spend time in coal mining country to understand what it was like G De Maupaessant short stories A France R Rolland M Proust known for In search of Forgotten Time 0 R Martin de Gard won nobel prize French pioneers in literary Criticism H Taine E and J De Goncourt found out everything about everybody and wrote it down A Rodin E Manet C Monet Degas Renoir Cezanne Pablo Picasso George Bradue H Marisse L Pasteur germs Pierre and Marie Cure Physicist 1St truly great female physicist Establishing overseas Empire Held posessions in many places Jules Ferrey conquest of southeast asia and education reforms 1881 Tunisia Tunis French West Africa French Equatorial Africa Morocco Larges Island in the World Madagascar off the SE coast of Africa 1870 s the French began to penetrate Madagascar and eventually completed 1914 the French overseas Empire included 38 million square miles Included 50 million subjects not citizens the number of people being ruled in the Empire is significantly larger than the number of French subjects 40million Unlike Empire Building in GB where there were rally groups the creation of an Empire was not very popular among the average French citizen way of demonstrating a revival after the defeat in 1871 Oppostion to Empire 0 P Deroulede o J Ferrey 0 We have not gotten back Alsace and Lorrain and are offering this stuff around the world typical of the avg French citizen if though about the Empire Late 189039s Africa 0 British gaining control heading south to South Africa abot to run into the Bores and Bore war The French establshingin and controlling East and west aglergia making way to Morocco Great empty spot where Sudan is today where origin of Nile River is o In 1897 A French camptain Jeanne Baptise Marshand o Took band of men up river heading up to point where Nile begins Steam Boat had to stick to river and would put into shore disassemble the boat hike it above the water falsl and then reassemble the boat and continue to move forward 0 1898 Reach Fashoda Marhsand planted tricolor flag Newspapers have been following 0 British heard and sent much larger expedition headed for there under general Kitchner arrived 2 weeks later and claimed land for GB 0 Kitcher and Marsand were professional soldiers and knew nothing they would do would change anything and new all decisions would be made in Paris and London 0 In the end both the British and the French decided it is not worth it and not going to go to war about it Foreign Policy Europe in the last part of 19th century Europe of the 6 Great Powers France GB Italy Germany Austria AustriaHungary and Russia As long as Bismarc was alive and power he wanted to avoid a war on two fronts and knew that as a result of taking Alsace and Lorrain that france would never be reconciled permanent enemy on Germany s west and had to prvent Germany from having an enemy on the east Had to maintain good relations with Austria Hungry from which took not territory and Russia and had to make sure there was not war between Russia and Austria Hungry because would have to choose Almost immediately after crating Geramny began workin how to deal with threat Kaiser empereor of Germany Kaiser emperor Austria Hungry and czar Russia able to get them together to sign the Three Emperor s League promised that if there were a crisis before acting each of the 3 eastern powers would consult and Bismarc said this was a good 1St step Crisis in Turkey result Russia and Austria at heads Bismarc made choice in 1879 Dual Alliance with Austria Hungary Germany Austria Hungary o If either country is attacked by Russia both will fight Russia o If AustriaHungary attacks Russia have no allegiance to Austria o Suspected Austria would not want go to war with Russia alone o Dual alliance was to make Austra understand that a war with Russia would be disastrous o Russia would also want peace because if attacked Austria would have to face Germany as well o Told Austrian nothing in the Balkans worth anything another territory Austria was after and Russia o You go to Balkans and get yourself in a war with Russia you are on your own another way trying ot maintain stability 1882 bismarc added Italy to this Triple Alliance o Italy hoped to take over Tusnia France grabbed underneath and were disappointed and unhappy and sought help for Germany and Austria o Worded in way that nobody had a motive to go to war o Particulary the Italians were told that you get no help if you are involved in war with france even if France attacked you if you have provoked it o If France attacked unprovoked we will support o All is aimed at trying to maintain peace 1887Bismarc also added The Reinsurance Treaty o Between Germany and Russia trying to lock up Russia so that it could not find anything elseno in confclit with either dualor triple alliance o In any war in Europe it says Germany and Russia will remain neutral unless Russia attacks AustriaHungary or Germany attacks France o Bismarc had no intention to go to war and did not think it was possible for Britain and France to come together because they were in confclit in many parts of the world 1890 Bismarc was dismissed by new emperor who was 30 years old was 75 at time o Wilhelm 11 did not trust the Russians and did not want to renew the reinsurance treaty every treaty up every 3 years and the triple and dual alliance was resigned up till 1914 o Wilhelm refused to renew Reinsurance treaty o WilhelmII stupid o Convinced because Russia was the most reactionary of great powers it o uld never come to an agreement with the only republic in Europe French 0 The French began to court the Russians under the idea that my enemy s enemy is my friend did first with money Russians were desperately trying to modernize and they had been selling their state bonds on the German stock exchange and because they offered good interest rates 45500 at time when most government bonds paid 3 sucking up a lot of German investment When reinsurance treaty not renewed told you cannot resell your bonds on German stock exchange and French said you could sell them in Paris Russia getting money and slowly being drawn toward the French 1891 to celebrate this new friendships the French navy dispatched its Atlantic fleet to visit Russians and Kruntazt port that serves St Petersburg o Czar Alexander III deeply conservative liked crushing anyone that caused trouble Czar waiting there with his advisors and court and with officla Russian march band and as ships became close to the dock and the Russian band struck up La Marsiands As the band began to play France s national anthem since 1880 Czar took off his hat ironic knew something big had happened and knew Russians wanted an alliance Took a while to negotiate wanted to know what Russians would do in each situation 0 January 1894 FrancoRussian Alliance goes into Effect Carefully drawn and says if Germany attacks Russia France will support Russia if Germany attacks FranceRussia will attack France aimed directly at Germany and entirely defensive Neither wants to start a war and if there is a war wants to make sure Germany faces it on 2 fronts 1898 Fachota crisis British Bore war every country demonstrated for Bore s except France When Bore war was done and British victorious realized that isolation was not so splendid Germany began building high seas fleet until late 1890 s France had a coast guard had ships able to defend coastline but did not have a fleet that could leave Germany and as industrial power they began building and surpassed France and getting close to British and British though this new Germany fleet could only be aimed at us British alliance with Japan only country in Pacific Britain worried about 1St peace time treaty GB ever signed in History 2 countries agreed that any war in the pacific they would remain neutral unless a second power attacked one of them 1904 The Entente Cordial The Friendly Understanding France and British alliance Settle Empirial disputes 0 End all of such conflicts in one swoop you take this we ll take that 10 yrs from 19041914 Moved to create a military convention Turned into a defensive alliance Naval aspect easiest to deal withboth and navys for atlantic and mediterranian two different fleets operating at sames waters decision made to divide up responsibilities If there is a war France would move ships to Mediterranian and GB would move all ships to North Atlantic and be responsible for territories Solve problem of communications by not having to worry about it Worried about Germany GB promised British Edpedtioary Force would leave GB and enter France to aid in 2 weeks or less 1907 Gb and France rubbing up in today s Iran and Asia never firm alliance between Russia and GB 2 block in Europe o Tripple Entente france GB and Russia o Triple Alliance Germany Austria Russia o Bismarc worse fear came true if war would be war on two fronts Germany began working o General Avon Schilleffen o Schilleffen Plan 0 O O O O O O 0 19051914 Believed if Germany had to fight a war on 2 fronts best could do is fight to a draw Determine to find a way in which they could win a war in 2 fronts Felt answer was in Russians backwardness This time armies large but not large enough to fight modern war Mobilize Every man in Europe who was of military age and under carried in wallet a mobilization card identified day they would report 123 what they have to do is to get people to train to a depot where they pick up equptment then to whwere they get weapon they to point where stationed Knew have to do day by day Germany felt could mobilize fully in 2 weeks because rail network was so dense Estimate Russia would not be a threat for a minimum of 6 weeks window of opportunity Said what Geramny must do is put almost its entire army on the border with france especially heavily in the North because is wehre th flattest land is and france must be invaded from the otset have to go through Belgium Despite the fact that Prussia which guaranteed perpetual Belgium neutrality and that way could knock French out of war in 6 weeks and in 6 weeks put back on train and troops to Russia all be home by Christmas fight war on one front at a time o 5 separate crisis 2 in Morocco and 3 in Balkans o Balkans Assisnation to assisnation of Franz Ferdinan heir to AustrianHugnary throne Bosnians Serbia hoped to create empire in Balkans and by losing Bosnia were losign this opportunity The Black Hand organization run by Draguten Demitriavhich with the knowledge of the Serbian government was training Bosnian terrorists 28th one shot both of them dead clear that Serbia was guilty Austria Hungarians issued threats Problem Russia and serbs were close and made it clear that if Serbia was attacked by AustriaHungaria Russia would attack RussiaHungary and if Russia attack Austria Germany would attack Germany Asked if Germans would support them in at tiem of grave European complications and the German Keiser Wilhelm made clear that he would and though the Austria Hungarians would act quickly did not want to suh because were convinced would be a big war Wanted to get the harvest in before went to war but there was a long schedule meeting between French and Russiand leaders that was to take place and end ofJuly in 1914 If France and Russia were to meet and talk strategy be problem be an advantage if waited to France was sailing home after meeting between French and Russian leaders Czar realized had to mobilize again Austria Hungary border and Germany border Every day that Russia is beinning to mbilitze is one day Germany has les to defeat France If german stry to wait for a diplomatic solution Russia is mobilizing all along and everyday mobilizing is costing calendar Crisis becomes greater and now all eyes are MARCH 24 2009 European War WWI Some view as sencond 30 years war 1St truly indistrial war no one had any idea the death totals that would result 11 million people died in WWI July 31 1914 Germany recognizing that Russian mobilization meant had to begin operations against France Under Sheflian plan only had 6 weeks to defeat France The Germans sent an ultamitum to the Russian Czar demanding end of mobilization and sent demand to French government asking if France would remain neutral if war would break between Russian and German France would have to prove by turning over 3 of its more important fortress citites to Germans as proof would not go to war French replied France will look to its own interest August 1 Franced moved to mobilization Day 1 men were to beging to reporting Germany declared war on Russia August 2 Hoping france would initate hostilities against Germany but in order to make certain that France could not be blamed for beginning war they withdrew their soldiers 10 KM back from the border so there could be no accidental exchange of fire August 3 Germans dressed up some soldiers to French army opened fire and claimed that French Started the war Formally declared war on France August 4 French replied with their own declaration of war Unanimity among Chamber of Deputies o Men on Far right and Far left of chamber of deputies those that regarded one another as political enemies got up and moved toward one another and came to be called Sacred Union July 31 Gunmen shot dead Jaures leader of Soscialst party shot by a white wing fanatic In 1870 France faced the North German Confederation all alone In 1914 faced Germany with GB and Russia by its side triumph of diplomacy Third Republic did everything possible to ensure its survival French Forces o General J Jeffre o War plan to attack into Alsace and Lorraine o Germans planned to attack through Belgium the Schleifan plan Took a couple of weeks to realized what the Germans were doing but when did Jeffre began disengaging from attacks small Britiish forces arrived near Belgium promised and arrive By end of August o Looked like Schlieffen plan was going to work but there were those that were determined on the French side to make sure it would not o Waiting for the moment to counter attack and was urged by c General Gallieni o two men saw tactical mistake by Germans near Sept as they approached Paris On Marne River beginning of Sept 5th 1914 the French counter attacked with everything o Battled lasted till Sept 12thstopped Germans cold o With Victory at Marne The Miracle of Marne o 5th12th of Sept Schilieffen plan dead Warfare A line of Battle grew that stretched from Switzerland all the way to the North Sea official distance 434 miles The Western Front Artillery massive and more accurate than had ever been Machine gun very deadly perfected By 1914 All major powers had accurate durable machine guns Avg life span of 2nd lieutenant was two weeks on Western front BECAUSE new warfare created Trench War Fare only trenches were in the West no man s land o Front trenches linked other by other trenches above ground too dangerous Holes for collecting water rats lice disease trench foot impossible to be clean French troops prided polous the dirty hair ones If only could mount successful attacked could create a fluid war that was happening in ease kept ranging attacks across no man s land hundreds of thousands dying George Clemenceau Began a new newspaper L homme Libre war is too important to be left to the generals because are idiots o Changed the title to L homme Enchaine Jeffreenormous credit for victory at Marne o Launching gnibbling attacks gnibble at them caused by the end of 1915 French loses had risen to 15 million men dead and more too wounded to continue 1916 The Germans decided that if they traded man for man with the French in the end they would win the war because there were more German s than French February Germans attacked fortress city at Verdon could be attacked from the sides The General high commander consciously understood was going to take enormous losses but believed could because could lose more men than the French February June 1916 Fighting at Verdon Total number killed wounded missing both sides over 1 million men Germans losing slightly more than the French They will not get through make them hold on Germans did not break through at Verdon Some River July 1916 65 British 35 French attack along Somme River Britsh soldiers who had not yet faced anything like Verdon and did not know how awful it could be were told it would be so easy all you have to do is crawl out of your trenches On 1St day 60 thousand wounded killed or missing British Great majority of dead The War No one thought war could be this long and drawn out Most of where the war took place in German hands Skilled workers had to be pulled out fighting troops and sent home to make suppHes Majority of those fighting and dying were peasants For a while there was great trust placed in the Generals New General R Nivel Believed that he could break through Just give me the chance Prepared for the Nivel Offensive to take place in the Spring US enter war as associated power not ally not what everyone hoped March 1917 REVOLUTION IN Russia Czar overthrown Some who said if Americans are coming we should wait for the Americans and we should not attempt and offensive not if Russia Collapsing 12 april 1917 Launched Nivel Offensive it failed more than 1million dead and injured if Nivel sacked immediately Tatan abe to calm things down When US ended war in April 1917 Had a small army navy ranked below Argentina Russian front became essentially nothing In beginning of November Bolshevicks seized power with Lenin Desperate situation time to make some serious decisions J CallauxDefatiste Simply wanted to end the war Food prices high and rising inflation out of control not clear what was going to happen November 1917 Puincare Had to call in Prime Minister if called Clomenceau might not end war and fighting to the finish November 20 Clomenceau Stood before chamber of deputies at the worst moment of the war defeatism rampant gave a speech pacing back and forth without any notes and barking out his words always everywhere I rage war Russia has betrayed us Winston Churchill o Direct steal from this speech in 1944 Less than a year later the war was one Clomenceau said we will fight to the death war to the knife we are not goin to lose we are going to fight put on a trench coat and went to front and stomped through the front line trenches and embraced the poullot and said hold on we will win 76 years old in trenches being shot at talking to solders very powerful demanded and secured dictatorial powers from Chamber of Deputiees if you give me power I will rule by decree and when it is over you can take it back Chose his cabinet ministers without regard to party felt could trust them and knew that he could win withthem Charged Cayo with treason knew didn t but put behind bars to set an example Spring 1918 Most severe test of all French and British 172 Divisin Frnech and British 172 divisions including Americans not ready to fight Russians 192 MarchJuly hit French and GB as hard has good That summer thought might get to Paris French forces stopped them on the Marne River on the 2nd time o Saved France o Clemenceau visited men on the front line all had to give was some flowers that were growing they had nothing left o took them half on casket half in his office Ferdinand Foch Supreme Catholic General Clemenceau only cared what you did 25 March 1918 turning point of the war when the Germans were pushed back and back and within a week every square inch of land that had been lost since March was regained August and September Germans were in retreat Septermber increasingly clear it would be won by good guys not sure how long Wilson Clemeaceau read his speech and said God hismef only had ten End of War Negotations began agreed that the fighting would stop November 11 11AM the War would end Lasted 4 years 4 months and one week Total dead almost 14 milion men great bulk young men 2030 huge number more men than US had lost in all wars put together Germans lost 16 million Beginning of 1919 Victorious Powers came together to make Peace The Paris Peace Conferencequot o French and suffered most o Versailles Treaty o W Wilson o David Lloyd GeorgerepresentedBritish PM 1916 Knew British suffered a great deal Lost 750000 men Wanted Germany s colonies Has to be something for GB o Clemenceau 0 Friend with Wilson 0 France needed Security France invaded twice during his adulthood o Knew Germans would come again 0 Wanted a permanent renewal of a war time alliance with the Democracies Gb and US onlythose that had been democratic for a long belived if could stand together would not fail 0 Need reparation Germans destroyed a lot they had to pay in 1871 Get Alsace and Lorraine back Rhineland argued it should be attached from Germany and turned into an independent buffer state so there is a buffer zone between the Germans and the French called Germans Le Boche Wilson and Lloyd George said no and will only create a new Alsace Lorraine from the opposite side Supposed to be permanentaly demilitarizedoccupied by French British and American troops each 510 yrs Strip of land on far side of Rhine River would be demilitarized by not occupied DemiltarizedGermans could have no armorment in there except small arms o Establish League of Nations way of keeping Peace Wilson 0 Above all the result of this war to make the world safe for Democracy War antiDarwinian those fittest and most athletic ones killedwar best and brightest killed o German Army down to 10000 men and denied all offensive weapons tanks battleships o Clemenceau 0 Germany was to pay large some in reparations no clear what the sum was agreement not till 1921 March 26 2009 THE MISERY OF THE VICTORY O O The Paris Peace Conference o Things that happened in the West 0 Compromise between Wilson Lloyd George and Clemenceau O O The Rhineland was permanently demilitarized strip of land east on the Rhieriver was to be demilitarized and occupied and switched every 515 yrs by British American and French troops War Time alliance was to be renewed Germany was to be denied all offenseive weapons and its army was to be limited to 100000 men huge reduction standing army had been 1million previously Reparations from Germany Hardly any fighting on German soil war fought almost entirely in West on Belgium and French soil Wilson believed every ethnic group deserved its own nation but the trouble was in the West territories are largely of a single Ethnic group but in the East ethnic groups are scattered amongst each other Estonia Lativia Lithuania the old AustriaHungary broken up into successor states Austria made up of the Austrian Germans stripped aay from Hungarian rule is Romania were under AustroHungarian rule South Serbs rewarded Yugoslavia made up of a variety of grups Czechs Slovaks got their own Country Czechoslovakia In order to get defensible boundaries in the West Given mountains Sudeten Mountains Sudetenland had a majority of Germans in them abt 60 German meant Germans being placed under Czech rule Poland disapped and divided among Russia Germany was recreated gien strip of land polish Corridor and at the end the sea port sea Danzig Polish area about 80 German but if wanted to give them access to the sea had to give them an area that was German Danzig 90 German and it was an International City 0 Estonia Lativia Lithuania idea to create these countires and keep the Bolshevicks from having access to the Baltic sea Bolshevick rule Russia 0 Great fear communism would spread and these successor states were to be an early warning system that before communism got to the good part of Europe it would show up and be stopped o Germans very upset by this and believed that Wilson defying belief in Nationalism because taking Germans and putting them under other rule Possible Germany could have lived with treaty in the West but not the East New eventually would get back the Rhineland because the occupation would last only 15 years Knew would have to pay some money but did not know how much The only way which Germany who nearly won the war could be kept down was if the 3 democracies worked closely together Wilson took treaty to US democrat was democrat need 23rds to vote on treat the US never signed the treaty and never even became member of the Leage of Nations Because US did not sign the treaty the Americans did not agree to renew the wartime alliance which Clemenceau had been promised Left France alone trying to impose treaty on Germany If GB were to recover from war had to resell a lot and its best customer had been Germany before the war GB more interested in Germany buying British goods than pay reparations 2 ways to make peace make friends secondly being so brutal that the country could never recover The Paris Peace Conference and the Versailles Treat o 28 June 1919 5 yrs after assassination o Harsh enough to make the Germans angry and want to recover but it was not touch enough tot keep them from doing son disastrous treaty o Plenty who encouraged that kind of thinkng Focit read the treaty and saye this is not peace it is a truce for 20 years not a treaty WWI Perak victory for the French Roughly 14 men killed More than 11 million permanently disabled Reverse Darwinism men most mentally fit ones that killed o Birth rate soldier o Les Annes Creuses the hollow years they were missing their people War had a terrific effect on mentalities F Scott Fitzgerald in France wrote Tender is the Night characters go to Verdon and looking at the miles of grave markers and the buildings and Le Boche Palera Legislative Elections Overwhelming victory for war veterans Elected to a majority and showed up on the 1St day of the in their uniform in November The Horizon Blue Chamber of Deputies Had already seen how the treaty ahd come out and were unhappy and blamed it all on Clemenceau Feb 1920 time to elect President of the Republic R Puincare Clemenceau let it be known that he wanted to be elected as President but there were those that blamed him for not negotiating a better peace and those who were Catholic and remembered him as being the priest eater and he was old and France would have a civil funeral not a religious one c He did not win o Some rushed up to him o Retired from Public life lived till 1929 c When died he was facing up right Facing Germany With Clemenceau gone 2 men R Puincare A Briand Facing difficult problems o 1 Inflation o XR RPI Aug 1914 20 100 5francs to dollar Feb 1919 17 279 Nov 1919 09 302 Nov 1920 06 452 Nov 1924 045 428 Many factories in france destroyed exports down imports way up you fall in the exchanged rate and your inflation rages goeso up No way to build devastated area faster rebuilding 11000 sqare miles of territory Emergence on the political sceneof a dangerous Antagonist Bolshevic party in Russia 1St time Socialst had taken power From one end of Europe to another and the US socialist parties were faced by choice do we follow Moscow or not Socialst parties split Communist those that wanted to follow Moscow those that wanted to follow their own thing Socialist Socialist o Failry tamed Communist o Deicated to overthrow governments and establish Bolshevic governments everywhere 0 Not tame and wanted to overthrow the state Dec 1920 Socialist parties split 60 communist 40 socialist Briand 19211922 Convinced France cannot survive unless create something like the diplomatic arrangement of 1914 France must win friendship of GB must restore the Entente Cordial No dealing with the Soviet Union Netogiated Bilateral treaties with Czech and Poland 2 countires that feared Germany the most if Germany went to war would have to face Czech ahd Poland and France Problem in order to get British support you have to give the British something negotiating down the reparations wanted the buying of British goods Briand negotiated with Lloyd George for yr at series of conferences Lloyd George wanted to get the most out of an arrangment 0 Met in Cannes David Lloyd George suggested continue discussions among game of golf Briand did not know how to play Pictures ran of George showing Briand how to play Briand went back threated voite of no confidence and resigned Puincare 1922 became Prime Minister Hates Germans determined to make them pay Would hold German territory of Germans did not pay reparation January 1923 sent French soldiers into the Ruhr Valley Germany s most industrial region and Puincare said will hold territory till pay once pay leave will take all production on Ruhr and take it toward reparations Germans thought could beat French at own game German government told workers don t work and close down factores if French want it will have to run things themselves and that is what they did by Sept they were making a profit Germany promised if don t worked we will still pay salaries and the result was the greatest inflation that anyone had ever witnessed January 1923 if went to germany to dollar and turned into German money marks mark worth about 22 cents in 1923 1 dollar would get you 42 trillion Middle Class destroyed in Germany 1St to turn to Hitler o Germans did this to themselves Clemenceau went to America amongst all this 82 years old Spoke in major cities America played a great part in the war but if we would have known that the promises made would be unfulfilled we would have thought all the way to Berlin You have left us as well you do not have the right to leave us this way without trying to helpno doubt Germany preparing a new war we paid not attention Admired for what he had done but papers said he was a relic of the past November 1923 French turning provite in Ruhr French had to agree when british and Americans insisted had to come up with a new plan Dawes Plan Proposed French going to withdraw from Rurh and Germans pay reparations American banks are going to loan money to the Germans and the Germans would use that money put it into the economy and will use that money to pay reparations to the British and the French not as much as initially promised British and French would inject money into their economies and they will pay back to the US the war debts they incurred during the war Americans bankers would make money on interested Germans pay to them Depression came Germans unable to pay American banks went bankrupt and whole scheme plummets The French were alone The French paid for rebuilding devastated region The French paid for pensions of disabled soldiers and those to families that lost all Germans did not pay for much of it at all 1924 o France able to recvoer economic levels above 1913 level o French felt they had been screwed not just by the Germans Social History Something lost in the dignity of work Women role in new France o During war so many had to run businesses and farms because husbands and men were away o 1921 women made up 40 of the work force higher figure than anywhere else in modern economic world o 42 of women were gainfully employeed o unusual at time More women went into professions by 1939 13 university student was a woman Women rebelled against social conventions cut their hair short short skirts flapppers smoked in public but were still not permitted to vote o Senate voted it down Chamber of Deputies voted for believed women were more conservative and relgious o Unsettling to people women doing these things also in terms of culture Culture o Stroust o Martin du gard pre war people continuing what they did New people strange o Convinced war proved that engaging in rational thought was wrong best and brightest lead countires to war and result so many dead 0 Decided to speak gibberish o DADA Movement o Wrote nonsense poems and drama c we can t do any worse than those that lead them to war o Painters attracted most attention 0 F Picabia Picture of monkey in cage selfportriat of Cezanne Mona lisa with mustache and beard Briand and Puincare Not able to solve problems individually 1926 Briand Foreign Minister Puincare Prime minister o One of those few people in politics who really understood money c He in 1926 was able to stabilize the Franc which had dropped o The new Franc which went into effect in 1928 at 04 cents to the dollar better than 02 cents to the dollar Briand and Foreign Policy c Convinced the most important thing was to try and make Germany behave o Began to set up negotiations that brought in france germany GB Belgium and Italy o Thought the germans would be willing to accept the resolution of the war in the west and hoped would get British on board o Loncarno Pact o Signed in Loncarno Switzerland All mutually guaranteed all the borders of western Europe guaranteed nothing would change in Germany s borders Germany is indicated we accept the resolution of the war in the West an Possible signed in 1925 because fo the Dawes plan which has taken repratiosn on the table for discussion Since we know what is going to happen with reprations lets all agree we will get along We will let Germany sign the League of Nations o Next year Germany permitted to join the league o If problems in E countries were on their own but already bilateral treaties with Czech and Poland o The Era of good Feelings o The Loncarno Pact o Dawes Plan o Germany entry in Leage of Nations 1926 Only thing left in US Briand tried to interest US in something but refused to have anything do with anyting because wanted isolationsism Until US are idealist and so Briand proposed an agreement which would be a gernal annuncation of war The KelloggBriand Pact o 1928 Paris Pact of Peace o terms France and GB and anyone else who wanted renounced war as an instrument of National Policy c 15 Powers signed it o Briand knew was meaningless but what he wanted to do was to try to draw the Americans out of their shell 1929 All the countires in the Loncarno Pact came together and slighty altered the terms of the Dawes Plan The Young Plan To celebrate this area of good feelings it was agreed that the occupation of the Rhineland would be terminated 5 years early Shortly after conference stock market crash in US end of area og dood feelings 0 March 31 2009 Germany had not paid reparation French all by themselves Tried to force reparation with Rurh incursion but lead to the highest inflation in history in Germany Dawes plan put into place If germany were to be contained something had to also be done in the East and so the French simply strengthened their own bilateral two country alliance with Czech and Poland which had to make due with a large rush over there The Franc was finally stabilized which was a result of the work of pre war igute Poincare and Briand The Depression July 1932 Conferences in Lausonne Switzerland Germany freed from all of its obligations US crawled into more isolatioinism 25 unemployeement All around Western World people began looking for someone who promised to save them and the result was the formation of Facism o Facism Born out of the experience of WWI The experience of the fighting had marked an entire generation and they had come back from the worse kind of warfare that anyone had ever seen They no longer trusted government and during the 1920 s government did not seem to solve much Came back with a heightened sense of Nationalism and with the feeling that the economy had to be from everyone because had to share everything while in the trenches Talked about National Socialism in which the economy would be made to work for the nation as a whole Because bourgeoise parliamentary government had gotten them into a war and kept them into a long war and not solve the problems of the 20 s there was a great mistrust in Parliamentry govt much were denounced as war sugers Temptation to find someone who claimed them understood 1St manifestation o Benito Mussulini 1922 Country in chaose from corruption and war Called himself IL Duce the leader Adolf Hitler Der Fuheer The Leader Everywhere theleaders who emereged were viewed as embodying all the needs and desire of the nation The Leadership Principle People seemd willing to hand themselves over to anyone who promised to save them After WWI straight line of Right and Left left and right close together in attitudes in people in the middle were a long way from right or left not a linear line Fascist Movement 0 Nazism Germany 0 Italy 0 Austria more top Nazi that came from Austria then Germany Hungary Arrow Cross openly fascist Belgium Rexist GB Openly fascist party British Union of Fascist Won a number of seats in Parliament 0 Minor facsist groups in Francs o 3 Western democracies the only countries that resisted O O O O O 0 People were desperate and accepted thing they might otherwise not have done Depression came after a terrible war and a failure of leaders from solving the problems beginning in 1914 11 million people dead and governments could not get the war to end All of this was personified A Maginot Minister of War in France Lost and eye and a leg Proposed and the French adopted a tactic for dealing with the world let s wall ourselves off Maginot Line a set of fortresses built which ran from the border with Belgium and run to the border of Switzerland enormous guns embedded underground all the fortresses connecting underground soldiers would be able to survive anything that hit them Not completed cause ran out of money but completed from Switzerland to 13rd way to cost another 13rd border with Belgium Thought they would be alright when ran out of money to complete fortress in area of the Ardennes mountainsthought was if there is a new war it would be fought on Belgium border and thought with help of Belgiums and British would be able to stop the Germans there The Maginot line and Maginot thinking The Maginot Mentality O O O O O Comprehensible for the French in the aftermath of the war felt deserted by GB and Americans Let s just wall ourselves off from the rest of the world no one is going ot help us Problem if builg Maginot wall you are not going to come to the aid of allies Czech and Poland and if they think that it means they are not going to come to your aid Although have not done formally essentially writing off Eastern Europe Unconscious unspoken attitude we are going to let Eastern Europe go to hell Increasingly politics in France were getting violent Demonstrations by the communist Demonstrations by Veterans groups most famous the Croix De Feu Cross of Fire Lead by F De La Roque O O A Lieutenant Colonel in the Army Believed Government not living up to its responsibilities Grand Scandal Occurred Stavisky Grown up as a confidence man all did was learn to be a better con man was in prison previously Gets out of prison and puts lessons he learned in prison to work made friends with journalist and the wealthy and the police No one looking too closely at him and able to develop a number of frauds Disappeared after a great fraud On the run and newspapers began publishing details about him knew a lot of politicians and some of those politicians had recommended some of his investments Newspapers hit upon the fact tha the had been arrested and charged with a con scheme evicted b the lower caught and lawyers appealed During appeal process permitted to be free and the appeal hearing had been postponed over and overmore than a dozen times Created more confidence schemes Brother in law of Prime Minister had recommended Stafinsky was head of department in charge of appealsdbl check Police becamed interested and tracked him to a ski lodge on the border of Switzerland in Chamonix 0 They had not been eager to track him down before knew things would get worse as police burst into lodge they heard a pistol shot and Stavinsky and attempted to kill himself 0 They sat and drank gave him no medical care and Stavisky had died Paris newspapers quickly learned newspapers and quickly learned suicide someone whose suicide is not quite a suicide Lead to Demonstrations Feb 6 1934 demonstrators from all different political affiliations thought would make attempt to overthrow government was proof ofjust how bad the situation had gotten even in a country with deep democratic roots and even them things seemd to get worse A Prince Assistant prosecutor identified as man who signed froms over and over again postponing Stavisky appeal hearing and declared that he would reveal all when would speak in front of special Parliamentary hearing Night before testify got call from home in Paris saying mother was about to die I nursing home and deeds to come o Left took his papers because he feared that if he did not keep them they might disappear took train to Leon and he was seen in the restaurant and the train station talking to someone last time anyone saw him alive o Body discovered on tracks arms legs tied to track police declared he died from suicide 0 This was the proof for many people that government could not be trusted and everything was rotten The Stavisky Affair Added corruption on top of incompetence Germany 1933 Hitler came to power and he was never shy in saying what he wanted to and thus the 30 s began in earnest 193039s time of horror and terror 1934 Hitler born an Austrian gone to Germany to avoid serving in the Austrian army and ended up serving in German army one of most decorated Tried to seize control of Austria and did not work did not build up army sufficiently Hitler was not allied ot Mussolini at this point and Mussolini had no desire to see Austria in the hands of someone like Hitler who he did not trust and He rushed troops to the border of Italy and Austria and made ti clear if Hitler entered Austria he would enter Austria Ought to have been a warning how dangerous he really was The French were encouraged by Mussolini s stand against Hitler Thought maybe could do a deal with him but my enemy s enemy is my friend Mussolini difficult to make friends with Mussolini decided it was time to flex muscles in Africa o Back in 1896 the Italians had tried to take over Ethiopia The Italians sent troops to attack Ethiopia and the Ethiopians responded and drove the Italians off with spears and was the only victory by colonial people o The Italians were deeply humiliated and decided now as the time to get back o 1934 attack on Ethiopia using tanks air craft poison gas o Ethiopia now had WWI weapons and took 15 yr to beat them o The King of Ethiopia at the time went before the League of Nations saying we are a member and we have just been invaded what is the League of nations gong to do You either stand for something or you don t British and French forced to make a decisions did something in between imposed economic sanction on Mussolini but no oil that might make him mad sooth conscious saying we stood up for Ethiopia Mussolini ticked off and began signing agreements with Hitler lost for GB and France Hitler had stayed busy but remained quiet 19341935 Built weapons and increased the size of his army direct violations of Versailles treaty March on a Saturday Saturday Surprise Knew anyone in democratic state would not do anything about it to Mnday In defiance of the Versailles treaty he built a large air force Germany had been forbidden to create an air force by Versailles treaty o Was a direct threat to GB because the channel meant nothing to an airplane o Could not fly bombs to GB Following Saturday announced created a new large army many hundred thousand in a totalitarian country Threat to France next Saturday Designed to cow GB and France who were trying to deal with the effects of the depression And make them less anxious to get in Hitler s ways as he began to accomplish things Agreement with Mussolini Rome Berlin Axis Now the world will turn on a new axis it will rotate around Rome and Berlin Raised the question whether anyone should intervene problem Why did people not try to stop Hitler o 1 Against International Law both France and Germany signatories to the treaty that guaranteed each others borders o if either France oR GB would have invaded be a direct in fact of Locarno treaty and other countries would have to go to war to stop a the invaders o 2 The War and all the men 0 Hitler had not taken a step outside Germany 0 Were not willing to stop him to create an army and air force because France and GB also had an army and air force o 3 Money 0 no on has the money 0 France now in the mist of the Hollow years Yrs in which the number of men 21 and entering the army as recruits is half of normal because they were never born in 19141516 March 1936 Hitler send troops into the Rhineland specifically not to do against Versailles treaty Had been given to France as buffer country Attack to West Was on a Saturday and this time when the French sent urgent telegrams and telephone French said to British now is the moment and the British response was Has Hitler left Germany yet o If you do it you will do it on your own o International Law may require us to side with Germany against you based on the Locarno treaty o Rhineland preoccupied and Hitler has gotten away with murder o Belgium not terrified wanted to be neutral again Now the French plans to link up with Belgium army now down hill Domestic Politics Shift Joseph Stalin o Stalin so worried what was going in germany he authorized communist parties in one end of Europe to another to make an alliance with noncommunist o Stage set up for Left wing alliance in france made up of Far left communist and socialist and the centrist or left centrist radical party these three groups The Popular Front 0 Declared they would the Popular Front against FAscism O 1938 0 Parties agreed whichever one of them got the most number of seats in the 1936 election would be Prime Minister if won a majority o The radicals thought they would be the leading party and they were most disappointed when they did not Socialist got the most seats L Blum L Blum Prime Minister Blum was man of real principle but should not have been PM Did not present a strong impression and was a Jew at a time when Jews were the object of attack by so many fascist groups The Popular Front watned social change within France quickly had to negotiate all sorts of social change increase in wages reduction in hours paid vacations workers got 40 hour week but during a timewhen war is looming you want to put people to work as long as possible This domestic reform would actually weaken France and blum never seemed to understand 0 Blum unwilling to intervene in Spain 0 Spain Civil war going on Old fashion dictator Franco seemed willing to accept support from anyone a Italians and Germans u Had a playground where to try out weapony and solidify their alliance n France and gb sould have supported no fascits in Spain but afraid would turn into a full blown war a USSR supported price was to assassinate anyone not in favor of communist party a Nasty and terrible war fought on the border of France and they did nothing a Implied a weakness among British and French 0 If Italy and Germany were now tied by their Pact of Steal what was going to become of Austria Italy no longer going to defend Austria March Hitler seizes control of Austria Anschluss o Specifically forbidden by Versailles treaty British and French did nothing because did not care about Austrians o Meant next target is Czechoslovakia o Czech given the Sudetenland to give them defensible boundary majority ethnically Germany and Hitler demanded it be turned over to Germany Austria meant nothing to France Czech allies to France since early 20 s if Czech is willing to fight France is legally obligated to come to Czech s aid and if Germany attacks France in return GB would have to come to France aid and we have a new general war in Europe The idea was literally terrifying to GB and France Summer 1938 Effort that Hitler could be pacified appeased and that if Hitler could be appeased if we can give him something and it will be enough it will be worth it and we can convince Czech s to turn over some territory and it would be better than a war in which millions would be killed o E Benes President of Czech 0 Model of democracy o A Hitler 0 Putting pressure o B Mussolini o Hitler s ally o E Daladier 0 Prime Minister of France 0 New about war was an historian spent much of the War in the trenches 0 Had to order men to undertake missions in which died and knew what it was all about and did not want to see it happen gain o N Chamberlain 0 GB Had not fought in previous war Pacifist British Pressured Frnech who pressured to czechs to give in to Germans Tensions rose by beginning of Sept convinced war was almost inevitable and Mid Sept Chamberlain s nerve broke Got on airplane for 2nd time in life and flew to Germany did not ask to Deladier to come with him and enrolled map in front of Hitler and said what do you have to have to have peace Hitler took out pen and said give me the Sudetenland and it is my last territorial ambition in Europe Tell French here is our chance Hitler will keep word and make czech s accept Deladiers puts pressure on Benes if there is a war Czech will be destroyed if give Sudetenland you will lose territory and some of your people but it is better than a war and agrees Chamberlain goes to Hitler again and tells him we agree and all we need to do is formazlie and Hitler says it is not enough Clear to Chamberlain not fair and flies back to Gb and France and GB realize what is coming and begin to mobilize armies Chamberlain goes on Nationa radio in GB and gives famous speech how horrible fantastic and incredible that we are digging trenches here for a quarrel for people we know thing 0 O 0 At last moment Hitler figured that he could get what he wanted wout a war asked Mussolini for a conference Munich Hitler Mussolini Deladier Chamberlain Hitler demanded everything asked for with 2nd meeting and Chamberlain and Dealdier agreed he could have it Chamberlain flew back to London when he got off plane held above head the agreement Declaring it is peace Roosevelt sent telegram to Chamberlain said good man Deladier knew what he had done and knew the British were going to abandon French if he did not go along with them o Told aids they will mob me o Deladiers insisted being the 1St out o Threw roses at him and proclaimed peace and he looked at the plane and said the fools The French papers played Munich as something good soon began to realize and wrote Chamberlains name as J aime Berlin one British Humorist wrote March 1939 Hitler took over the rest of Czechoslovakia Became clear that the next target was Poland Britsh and French understood if they did not stop Hitler somewhere he was not going to be stopped at all Renews guarantee to Poland problem was how where they going to do anything or Poland if attacked by Germany French would have to fight way across all Germany to give any military aid British did not have a single airplane that could fly to Poland to give support wout refueling o Only way to defend Poland was to add USSR to alliance o What to Deladier and Chamberlain have to offer to Stalin o Hitler could over stalin half of Poland and that is what he did Stalin negotiated with both sides and singed agreement with Hitler to share Poland September 1 1939 Germany launched an attack upon Poland France and GB gave 48 hrs to cease and on 3rd declared war on Germany Aelxander soljaneski The Russian Novelist persecuted by soviet union April 2 2009 Would it have been better to go to war in 38 or 39 o If france had and GB had been willing to go war in Czech instead of waiting for Poland it might have been better o The war would have been longer and one of the things Hitler was weak on Sea Power would have played an important role o The US may have actually come in in the end seeing that its security was at stake o By 1939 Hitler had controlled the East ans USSR sided with Hitler which was a disaster for the rest September 1 1939 Blitzkrieglightning warfare Hitler based upon several technological innovations which occurred uring late 20 s into 30 s o 1 Perfecting the tank introduced in WWI and was the answer to the machine gun o once you were in a tank it could roll right up to the machine guns and could being the process of war of movement o 1St tanks broke down very easily End of 20 s tanks much faster and more dependable and brought a speed to the battlefield which had not been seen before o 2The creation of the Dive Bomber early planes that were used in WWI by the 30 s planes looked identifiably like Modern Planes o French Colonel C DeGaulle born in 1890 saw possibility of combining gun and plane De Gaulle o Almost 6 6 very tall o Very brave o At the end of the war because he was brilliant in strategic thinking he was appointed to the war college and was able to argue against what everyone was the lesson of WWI which was that the defense can beat the offense o What to do spare your men what you want to do is hunker down build defenses and let the opposing army wear itself out and you will win the war o Thinkig of the Magineaux line let the German s attack they will die trying o Believed the new technologies emerging would dictate w war of movement battle field in which rather using tanks as moveable artillery pieces tanks should be grouped with other tanks as used as a shock element and attack and great speed 2030 mph in large masses and break through and when they had broke through combined with dive bombers and the infantry could come mop up and take control of the territory that was created by such shock groups o Wrote such an army would require a professionalized soldier need more of a professional army than a draft army o In France he was called Colonel Motor and was regarded as a nut in the US and GB in Germany he thought he was a genius o And the Germans planned for Blitzkrieg warfare the same kind De Gaulle proposed Normally Generals prepare for the last war they prepare for the war that they knew War is too important to be left to the gernals they will et in wrong Clemenceau when a new method of warfare comes along initially if it s a successful strategy it will be difficult to adjust to it took a long time before other countires could catch on By the end of WWII all of the countries at war would be adept to Blitzcrieg Russians Zuchov greatest tank commander of all time No one could deny that the Pols were brave durig the 6 weeks of warfare The world s last cavalry charge Polish When clear Germans were gong to blast Pols the Russians move din and took the other half of the country Russia took 3 Baltic countries and a little less of Poland in the end Germans invented a new seipheir machine The Enigma Machine o An advance of several magnituedes over any incription device that had ever been devised o The Pols had learned of the machine and were able to get their hands on one and began to understand how the machine worked o Clear Poland was going to fall both the British and the French sent teams into Poland from the East and they got out the principle investigators that Poland had doing this and got out a couple of enigma machines which turned out to be a very important moment in the war no one knew at time o French came close to breaking Enigma o Final steps in GB Enigma machine deciphered intercepted radio messages and able to decode them wthin 24 hours trouble they could not let the Germans know they could do this if they did they would try to improve the enigma machine because thought it was unbreakable o No one could do anything they knew in advance had to be careful with information were moments in the war Germans were going to mount an attack and they could not preposition fighter planes more people would have died if knew that Germans had to re confginure their machine October 6 1939 Hitler made an offer of a peace based on the accomplished factslt I now control Easter Europe lets make peace and Wester Deladier turned that down o Was already planning his assault on the West the very moment he was planning for peace o Would have launched in fall if the weather was better Sitzkrieg sitting war 6 months of inactivity corroded moral in the west o Gave an unfortunate opportunity to the communist party in france and Gb to spread defeatism because the USSR is on Hitlers s side and the communist are on the side of the Soviet Union o If happened earlier morale would have been higher Spring beginning of April Hitler invaded Denmark and Norway needed Denmark to get to Norway and needed iron supplies out of Norway to get iron o Another reason why war in 38 would have been better May 10 o Massive attack on Belgium and Holland Belgium had reverted to neutrality now want help Magineaux Line never penetrated Along border with Belgium French and British decided where were will make our stand o M Gamelin top commander for France Hitler and his army faked their attack in direction but in fact they had retained a larger force behind the lines and it was aimed at the weak point The Ardennes Mountains 0 Believed the terrain in Ardennes would make it difficult to break through 0 May 15 broke threw and a small forced headed to the south to attack the Magineaux line from the year guns dug in the ground and the Magineaux line was taken from the year the great bulk of froces that broek through Ardennes headed to West and North and caught between the German forces coming thorugh belgiumand Holland and those coming thorugh Ardennes they trapped the large bulk of British and French forces 650000 British and French troops 45 divisions now trapped between 2 opposing German armies and about to be massacred Dunkirk Finally Germans made a mistake The German air forceasked for the chance to finish the job and Hitler called a hault to the army and let air force come in and wipe them out A lot of fog and fog gave British and French a chance to congregate at seaport of Dunkirk and from there everything that could float was brought to Dunkirk to try to save as many people as possible Half of soldiers were saved 330000 every piece of their heavy equipment was left behind because there was of getting it out Gamelin replaced by M Weygand o 73 years old to try to bolster morale brought back man held at Verdonne Petain he was 84 which reminded everyone Weygandestablished a new defensive line about half way across France but now he had 60 divisions against 138 from Germans Mussolini invaded from the south only after clear France was beaten June 10 After 2 weeks of hard fighting the Italians gained 100 yards and they outnumbered the French Was impossible to hold Paris government fled to Bordeaux June 16 1940 o Petain asked to head the government and make peace on whatever terms he could with the Germans o Were those who thought this was not the right thing to do G Mandel was Clemencau s double scared people and was Jewish Spring of 1940Madel was given the office of Minister of the Interior o in charge of Domestic Order c He would have been a new Robbespierre and would have rallied the country but by then it was way too late June 15 1940 the night before Petain was aked to make peace with Germany Mandel was sitting with a rep from Churchill General Spears begged Mandel to fly with him and Charles de Gaulle and said their must be an authorize dFrench voice o he did not survive war Hostilties did not completely end till the 25th France was divided into Pieces Small sliver given to Mussolini by Hitler Alsace and Lorraine annexed by Germany The entire Atlantic coast and all of the North were to be occupied by German forces and this included Paris Bordeaux the remainder southern part which bordered on Mediterranean left in hands of French to govern as a puppet state to the Germans French army to reduced to 100000 men French POW were not to be relased till the war came to an end the only trump card had was the French Navy which was on eof the largest and had not yet been used in any fashion o Based on south at Toulen and Algeria and Merselkebir o Hitler promised that if the navy were disarmed he would not touch it o Vichy this unoccupied zone came to be called Vichy France 0 July 10 1940 o The reminance of the French government gathered to decide what to do about the Future 0 56980 for following proposal to grant full power to Patain to propagate new constitution for the French state 0 Etat Francais o Many of the French were grateful that Petain was able to save part of France for the French a cult grew around him c He claimed that he would be the shield against the worse of the German oppression o The behavior of the Germans in Poland began to leak out terrible how Polish civilians treated o Collaboration Collabos o if you collaborated with the Germans the French might win a seat at the high table of a Nazi dominated Europe it looked as if Germans were going to win war everywhere During summer of 1940 Battle of Britain Launched Outnumbered British but British had RADAR and had broken the German Enigma code permitted them to survive by the smallest margin to survive the summer of 1940 Churchill They never gained air superiority over the channel never able to knock out British air force were saved never had so many owed so much to so few did not mean that Hitler was not going to win the war because they survived the summer Churchill faced with many decisions very pro French o By the beginning ofJuly 1940 had to consider something terrible o What if Germans get hands on French fleet o Decision was made that the Britishhad to do something 0 July 3 1940 c As part of the armistice arrangement made on 22 June the French fleet was to be decommissioned and disarmed on its Mediterranean parts the French admiralty decided to put great bulk of fleet in Algeria far from Germans so if they broke their word would have a harder time doing it o British position on Mers El Kebir without warning attacked and sank all the ships sitting at anchor at Mers el kebir British ships blew up a great bulk of the French navy and killed 1300 sailors to make sure that fleet did not fall into the hands of the Germans difficult for French to forgive and understand this o The attacked strengthen the and of Pertain in saying we need to work with the Germans Regime based on 3 words Work Family and Country in France The new French state of Vichy Regime looked more old right wing authoritarian regime In the occupied zone the Nazi s immediately began violating terms of the armistice said would not force young men to army but they did and forced them to join the German army Immediate Germanization of property German political figures toured the museums and galleirs and pointed what they wanted and took them Over 100000 art works were seized by Germans French officials either had to obey or they became suspect and may get arrested Paris was governed by O ABetz ambassador for Germany to france c He was the man Hitler had in charge running the occupied zone 50 of National income going to Germans 50 anything being produced going to Germansl France only getting half In north became familiar with rationing cold and fear Germans brought to Paris the GESTAPOthe security police c To hunt down anyone who disobeyed in any way o The problem how do you deal with such a word the answer is that you have to decide what you are willing to risk o Reistance Maquis 15 went to country people who went to blow up bridges and assistance Germans and do what they could o Collabos the collaborations Laval working with Germans and do what they want believe Germans will reward them if do what they want o Passive Resistance ex Clermont Ferrand in Vichy zone o Passive Collaborator someone who does what the German say does not question orders o Great Bulk those that just trying to get by and doing what they can if hear something don t tell don t do something if don t have to o Germans famous for their retaliations against resistance Oradur Sur Grande women and children hearded into a a church church set on fire with people in it to make sure no one got away machine guns outside 0 April 14 2009 Final o Two Questions May 6 2009 o Choose one book and have to write an answer about one particular book and have choice on 2 d essay 2 questions on the other books must show knowledge from the book o Michael Burns know the documents o Sarkozy pay attention to analysis of what is right and wrong abt France 0 What he thought he would be able to do about it France after the defeat in 1940 People passive collaborators or passive resistors o Dangerous to be a reistor certain death if Germans or Vichy militia caught you c The beginning of the resistance can be dated with the speech on the BBC by Charles degaulle DeGaulle o Went on radio with the permission of the British said France has lost a battle it has not lost the war o Encouranged anyone who could to get out of france crossthe English Channel and join the Free French government in exile that would keep the flame of hope alive o For those unable he asked them to organize themselves in resistance groups the British began airdrops to these people with ammunition and radios and slowly leanred how to cause trouble to the Germans The Resistance gained far more recruits after 2 events o 1 The decision by Hitler to invade Soviet Union o Operation Barbarosa 0 June 1941 0 End August 1930 famous Hilter Stalin nonaggression pact When the attack came in 1940 French communist did what they could to undermine war effort but once French Communist that the homeland of communism had been attacked Communist immediately joined the resistance 0 Communist good at it used to carrying activities below the radar irony the French Resistance was probably a majority Communist movement o 2The 2nd thing the decision by the Germans to order young French men to Service de Travial Obligatoire 0 young French males required to leave work in German factoreis so that Germans could be free to fight against the Soviet Union as war in East turned against Germany 0 STO was riguous and dangerous and took you away from france wanted to avoid this and in order to avoid left France and joined the resistance The Resistance increasingly a chaotic disorganized bunch of people was not well coordinated From London DeGaulle sensed an opportunity and took Jeane Moulin J Moulin a lot of leadership on of the youngest prefects in the 1930 s was rapidly rising in the political bureaucracy and when the war came he immediately told the Germans I will not work with you De Gaulle told Moulin I have a dangerous task for you to take and was named in 1942 De Gaulle s representative of the Resistance 1943 assignment to gather together the resistance groups to make them work together and coordinate so that they were more effective o Was able to do so o May 1943 able to get representatives of all the various groups together to create national Council of the R sistance o June 1943 went to Leon had become the most important city involved in the resistance and because it was the Germans had put on of their best in charge of the Gestapo there Claus Barbie and was Moulin was tracked down by his people interrogated by Barbie over a period of days and after the torture Barbie demanded he write down a list of resistance leaders in France and by this time he had been tortured with knives had been burned with Fire scalding water pored limbs broke teeth knocked out drew caricature of Germans with left hands as response Moulin died as a result and the work he had done was invaluable Bloch wrote a dissertation become grated midevilist of the 20th century founded ne way of thinking about history and an international renowned scholar mid 50 s when war broke out when the war was lost he took off his uniform he went and worked for the Resistance was also Jewish Rapidly rose in the ranks of the resistance 8 March 1944 Germans tracked him down in Leon and fell into the hands of Barbie o they did not treat him as badly as Moulin they only broke his wrist most his ribs and nearly drowned him gave up nothing they did not know who hw as was identified as ml Blaunchard Eisenhower in his memoirs said we could never had succeeded 16 June 1944 Resistance played an enormous role in the DDay Invasion Barbie decided was time to clear things up and took 27 prisoners he had left loaded them on a truck headed into a rural area young boy in teens on truck and one person survived The boy became hysterical Block said to the boy they are going to shoot us don t be afraid and is what happened o One person survived the story leaked out the body was identified and M Blanchard was revealed to be M Bloch June 1944 West coast ofg France Everyone knew there would be an attempt of a cross channel invasion The Germans did not know and because of the trouble in the east did not have enough forces to be ready everywhere on the w coast idea to have 3 reserves in the back where they could rush to any area DDay Invasion Knew had 5050 chances of succeeding 5 June night before Eisenhower had press release ready the night before if the invasion failed o took responsibility for himself if things were to fail o if any fault it is mine a lone Once the invasion succeded American British Canadian Australian and free French troops began the process of liberating France De Gaulle had not had an easy war o acted like a king in exile o prickly not always easy to deal with o symbol was the cross of Lorraine o Roosevelt did not like him referred to him as joan of Ark o Did not like being shoved into the background o The success of the Resistance when it became clear that the freeFrench were holding up their end and free French holding up their end it was decided to have Free French troops detached from the rest of the forces and head directly to paris underj Le Clerc Jeanne Le Clerc Lead troops to Paris 24 August 1944 Following day it liberated the city 25 August 1944 o The German commander signed a surrender and Paris liberated o De Gaulle arrived on 25 o 26 August parade down chance de Elysse Free French troops important in operation from South invading from Mediterranain fihting way into Germany and up Austria in Fall of 1944 o It was possible for De Gaulle to say that the French had managed to erase the stain of 1940 His reward would be France s participation in the peace as a full partners so that when Germany and Austria were divided into zones of occupation the Soviets got where their troops had gotten to in the East included the city of Berlin Americans from South received S Zone French middle Zone Briths NOrth and Austria was likewise divided Vienna and Berlin divided into zones of occupation Loss of Life in France after WWII 600000 men women and children only about 80000 were soldiers loss of civilians much greater Americans losses 450000 In combination with WWI and WWI France lost roughly 2 million What is going to happen next Everyone thought would involved De Gaulle Fall 1944 o France largely liberated September 1944 De Gaulle permitted to organize a provisional government He had givenproof of his vision and strength of character The French people acclaimed him and he was convinced he has been called for this mission Provisional Government o Representatives of both the internal and external resistance 0 Were a number of communists in this provisional government o Had to restore the power of the central government over the concept of Justice o Countryside frequent executions of those collaborating with Germans minimum number of people shot and killed by neighbors 10000 o Philippe Petain now traitor of Vichy and Pierre Laval 0 Both convicted and sentenced to death 0 Laval execute an dDe Gauleld personally ordered sentenced Petain life in prison was a hero of WWI o The New provisional government purged civil service workers who had gone along with the Germans and replaced them with men who had gone to the country side and fought with the resistance o Similar actions taken against business men who had collaborated most prominent L Renault 0 Turned over factories to Germans to build fighter aircrafts o Factories nationalized by French Government o Le Temps newspaper o Prominent collaborator and presses seized by the government and named changed to Le Monde In all enterprises where there were 100 or more workers establishment of an industrial committee and management lost osme power of the running of companies Most importantly the creation of an extra political entity to guide reconstruction Le Plan It was placed under the direction of Jean Monnet One of the smartest things de Gaulle did by taking the reconstruction away from politicians and putting it in the hand of true experts would create an incredible boom in France Would have never been able to accomplish as much if had to deal with politcians Now had to come up with a government De Gaulle said what we need in France is a Presidential System our government needs to be like that of the United States and he believed he should be the head of it Many said fascism and WWII taught us the danger of a great man and we need a legislative government very similar to that of the 3rd Republic To answer what ought to happen French voters went to the polls October 1945 to elect a constituent assembly 1944 1945 goes into effect women get the right to vote The communist got the most votes were not necessarily good patriotic French People wanted France to turn into Soviet Republic 20 January 1946 De Gaulle said I am going home when you need me call 0 thought it would not take longbut it turned out it would take 12 yrs in the meantime the communist who wanted to create the weakest possible government easier to overthrow helped engineer a constitution The Fourth Republic The Fourth Republic This fourth Republic had a two House Chamber legislature a weak President but it did not operate as efficiently as the 3rd Republic became consistently in all the election sof the 12 yrs the 4th Republic would exist the communist never failed to get less than 20 of the seats Always able to make a lot of trouble The Rallying of the French People RPF 20 want everything to fail 20 communist who want to fail o how do you get a majority o The 4th republic never functioned The 4th Republic never figured out how to reign in J Monnet and Le Plan who had been given their independence in 1944 by De Gaulle and were ot about to give it up and began to fix France o Aided by the Fact that in the aftermath of WWII The Bebe Boum o The Baby Boom O O O O O O O Servicemen went home produced the largest bull in the population 1946 French birth 840000 194675 the boom would continue and would not drop below 800000 for 30 yrs Death rate dropped per 1000 people the death rate had been 156 1930 s Infant mortality plummeted Demographis revolution death rate falling birth rate rising J Monets task was much easier and for every child born need more schools hospitals doctors more things need to be created and the increase in the birth rate was a huge accelerator to the economy and was the ultimate economic stimulus along with that came Marshall Plan Groge Marshall was the Greatest Public Servant the US had in the 10th century Was chief of staf for the US durng WWII and is the one who won the war wanted ot lead the invasion DDay but sFDR said needed him to runt eh war as whole Became Sec of State he urged argument on Truman Communist can never succeed when people are happy and can only succeed when there is misery and so we need W Europe to prosper Under Marshall the US would create 1NATO the longest lasting peace time alliance in history 2the Marshall Plan the US gave loans and gifts to W European countries with the hope they would use the money to recover as fast as the could because US knew was nothing compared if had to go back to war against Communist that was spreading across Europe Monnet really understood the concept of infrastructure instead of spending money broadly you do not spend money anywhere until build roads railroads telephones after that has been done we can let industry sprout up because they will be able to do it efficiently and cheaply and through the channeling the Monnet system produced an extraordinary growth He was able to bring the index of Industrial Production back to the pre war level in only 3 years 1948 0 Growth of 7 a year Rural Areas 0 We are going to give everyone a tractor and increase farm output astonishingly 1958 500000 tractors in rural France 0 Grain yield doubledhow much crop you get from the same piece of land 0 Index of production was 61 in 46 by 61 it was up to 130 Purchasing power in 58 was 50 higher than it has been in 48 Monnet believed in education 0 1950 13 million in least schools more than half were women said would not get anywhere unless we educate women and educate more men 0 O O Crate broader arrangment to fit France saw the division of world into two Super Power blocks US and Soviet Union and the world divided between Soviet Union dangers and aggressive in 1940 s April 1949 NATO signed 12 countries came together to sign Pleven The United States Canada GB France Iceland Italy Belgium Luxembourg the Netherlands Norway Portugal and Denmark Provisions of alliance simple an attack upon one is an attack upon al Military end more complicated there is a command structure for NATOcommanding officer always an American and he is in command of all the armed forces of all the member nations as long as they are part of this command structure could be a member of the political structure but not a member of the command structure The requirement is to commit forces to whatever NATO wants to due As soon as NATO WAS founded began talk among Europeans of the creation of a greater political unity Some though of a United Staes of Europe propsed creation of European Army Plevn Plan Three western zones of Germany pput together in 1949 had been called West Germany Lets create European army instead of german armysoveregnity got in the way Ecnomic Community J Monnet had no political standing Schuman carries out plam Tariff union among w European cuntires British said not ready for this European Coal and Steal Community Belgium Nethelrands Luxembourg April 16 2009 LA Quatrieme The Fourht republic created in 1946 in afermath of the war Under the administration of J Monnet Le Plan had in fact restored the French economy dn brought France back The bebe boum gave promise of population and economic growth Monnet and others nad encourage a Europeanism Best characterized by The European Coal and Steal Community ECSc Formed under the Shuman plan French Foreign minister 1950 o Eliminated tariffs of heavy industry France Italy W Germany Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg o 1957 at Rome Same countries came together and formulated o The European Economic Community o The Common Market expand greatly beyond these six and be a true additional engine of economic growth and the French sponsored this o most important component effectively end the enmity between the French and the Germans and the area in eastern France and western west Germany came to become one of the greatest economic regions of the world and the definition of the new Europe a Europe of a common economic policy very successful o France again became one of the leaders in world in terms of culture Satre and Camus philosophy for the modern world Existentialism many who followed argued that we live in an absurd world life does not make any sense but we make sense of it thorugh our choices it is thorugh our choices which have to be important moral choices we are not defined by God or any other underlying morlas we are defined by the choices we make if we let others make choices for us guilty of bad faith we are compelled to make our own choices and be responsible for them none of this I was just following orers Camus taken from Sishyphys defied the Gods and because so he was compelled to roll a large rock up the hill only have to roll it up again after getting to top we have no end solutions but we have to keep pushing that rock and we cannot abdicate our responsibilities Fourht Replubic o Did not solve political problems o Communist got majority o Gaullest group The RPF founded by de Gaulled cause did not like the 4th republic and thought there should be something different and something should be done c There was not the political will in France to oslve the most important political question which was Colonialism o Colonialism France 2 d Large holding in Africa Pacific S E Asia Empires in trouble after WWII France GB and Netherlands no longer had money to maintain them 0 As the British Empire slipped away it as the decision of the French what are we going to do 0 1St Crisis in SE Asia during the 2nd WW the Japanese had moved the S to those areas Lao Cambodia Vietnam Japanese treated them far more harshly then French Japanese were harsh rules Excited late nationalism the Vietnamese s hated the way the Japanese trated them and had an effectivenationalist leader who had been trained in French schools and left Vietnam and travled and convertd to Communism and trained as organizer in Soviet Union a Ho Chi Men n Liberated abt Half Vietnam from Japanese D The Vietmen guerilla force in aftermath of war question what was to happen to these territories in Lao and Cambodia where French and few interest it was easier to say let them do what they want to do and exercise minimal control However in Vietnam where the French had large cities Saigon where a significant number 0 fRench people had settled and had large economic interst especially the large rubber plantations of the Michelin company and the French did not want to give it iup Hoped for an arrangement Ho I Chi Meng did seem interested in negotiating something because he was afraid of the Chinese 3 separate ocassions in preceeding 3000 yrs Chinese had move S into indoChina and tried to impose their rule and lost each of the 3 times but had always been a great struggle IndoChineese had prevailed each time 0 O O Men believed an arrangment with the French would be betterthan trying to launch a Vietnam on its own with the danger in its weak state the Chinese would move in but each side wanted tooo much By end of 1946 clear war was going to break out in IndoChina and it would last from Dec 1946 till May 1954 n Sent French Foreign Legion happy to go to Vietnam because it was better than N Africa Fighting the war in Vietnam at this time was much more difficult than the war Americans would fight Vietnamese was forever from France very far away from France and impossible to win this ear For a long time the war was fought more or less evenly and neither side could win 1954 Victory and Guan Guan Fu by n Vietnamese forces in the North the French PM Pierre Mendez France threw up his hands and said we can t win this war they can t win this war and all it is doing is sucking out money and blood May 1954 the French turned the situation to the Geneva Conference and in the end the French left and Americans eventually took over The war in Vietnam involved French solder and civilians and the total dead was 92000 ppl in 6 yrs of fighting cost 3 trillion Francs New Crisis North African 3 Colonies from middle of N African cost to Atlantic Morocco Algeria Tunisia Algeria Oldest Move France to one of the colonies treated as if it was an extension of France only colony treated this way Out of the 1011 million inhabitants 1 million were Europeans Gave Algeria its own legislature and gave representation and right to vote to al men and women half seats went to those of European n n n n n n n decent other half native Algerian decent many native people not given representation during this time natives wanted everything In fall of 1954 began tax on the government in Algeria a kind of guerilla war and dangerous because the Algerian Nationalist pioneered the use of terror in many ways they were the original modern day terrorist planted bombs wherever o Rationale to make everyone terrified French official reaction was to crack down and to crack down hard 0 If they captured reasonably high ranking officials in this movement they tortured them to make them reveal what they knew and did everything they could from preventing this fact from becoming known and eventually everything gets out and it does not matter One reason French having trouble was it was secretly receiving arms and ammunition being smuggled in from Egypt where a man named Nasser had seized power in 1954 he managed to infuriate French British and Israelis simultaneous o Nationalized the Suez Canal which belong to GB and kicked out British Supplied arms and ammunitions to Algerian rebels French British and Israelis said had to do something about him The Suez Affair 1956 Leaders of France at the time PM G Mollet GB Pm Anthony Eden and Israel President den Burion met secretly in the Fall of 56 and decided would solve their collective problem with an invasion of Egypt and the overthrow and assassination of Nasser 0 British and French parachute men into area near Suez Canal and the combination of our forces and Israeli forces will rapidly overthrow Nasser which will end this support for terrorism 31 October 1956 Israeli attack began and very rapidly on 5 Nov British and French Paratroopers landed near Suez canal except the US was going through an anticolonial episode Americans under Eisenhower declared that the US under any circumstances would 0 O not support the actions of its allies and the Soviet Union had a clear path to jump in o Gave USSR chance to flex muscles 6 November the Soviet Union delivered diplomatic notes to capitals of franc GB and Israel and said would start warfare if they did not stop the operation against Egypt US continued to say you are on your own Nasser continued to do bad things 0 One of the gravest American foreign policy blunders bcuz may have stopped terrorism right there o Although Algerian rebels on their own could not win but the French could not defeat them and back in France there was the sense of what are we doing here Crisis of 1958 o The end of the Fourth Republic o By the beginning of 1958 the Europeans in Algeria who were known as Colon and also knows as Pieds Noirs Black Feet 0 Feared they were going to be left in the lurch and we are going to get out of here 0 In Vietnam there had not been many French left after 6 yrs of fighting 0 Were abt a million Pieds Noirs and knew what would happen to them if the French pulled out and in many cases ppl who had been there for generations o 13 May Crisis bubbled over completely and in Algiers the capita government officials literally rebelled against Paris and declared a Committee of Public Safety and the army in Algeria under General Raul Salon declared it would not do anything to stop them 0 an open rebellion against the Central Government in Paris by government officials and the army 0 When Salon declared the French army in Algeria which he was the commander was gong to support the Political of Public Safety and issued an appeal to the man that could save Algeria and called upon General De Gaulle to come and save us 0 2 days later de Gaulle issued a one word press release I am ready to assume the powers of the republic O O O O O 0 Left Paris and went to home in Lorraine and awaited the collapse of the 4th Republic which he had waited for for 12 yrs mid 20 s of May Situation worsened fear that the army could not be counted on 27 May de Gaulle issues his 2nd statement carefully written I have begun the regular process necessary for the establishment of a republic government capable of insuring the unity and independence of the country Implied to Algerians I will hold on to Algeria 29 May the President of the 4th Republic a very weak office announced that he had called upon the most illustrious of Frenchmen to form a government and everyone know who that meant 1 June Legislature voted to accept a government and cabinet with de gaulle as prime minister 2nd June agreed at his request for 2 things 1 decree powers for 6 months and at the end of that period you can pass judgment on what I have done 2 I am going to draft a new constitution Legislature voted yest to this Fourth republic handed its fate to De Gaulle De Gaulle Lived simply When he would go to Paris during 12 yrs waited for the collapse stayed at a family run hotel Hotel La Paruse So small that at night they locked the front door made friends with those that worked around him Albert night manager for hotel cam to be friends and on the night of the 1St June after a long meeting the legislature voted to give De Gaulle cabinet approval Born in N Western France 1890 2nd son family bourgeois father modest income head master of boys catholic boarding school fired for declaring Dreyfus was innocent studied at Jesuit academies and read the memoirs of Frances generals nicknamed Sironaux and l deux metre 13th in class and assigned to the infantry regiment by Petain 1914 went to war in WWII 2nd Lieutenant during the rfighting he lead troops heroically wounded twice 1916 picked up half dead by Germans at Verdonne sent to POW camp attempted to escape over and over but very tall married after war Yvonne Vandreu very short and married for 49 yrs and she would jealously preserve his privacy 1St peacetime assignment was Sancere taught began career as a writer of military tactics and came to disagree more and more with tactics of WWI defensive can beat offensive believed in the tank used hand in hand and believed tanks could be used in a different way idea of what Germans called blitz creig warefare Because his superiors believe the opposite de Gaulle was in trouble and because he was unwilling to agree with them because they ranked higher his evaluation Intelligent Officer Cultivated and Serious good deal of worth both spoils with his assurance and intolerance of the opinion of others and attitude of a king in exile o Slowed down career Lieutenant colonel as far he he would get for awhile Relationship with Petain reaches a breaking point only surviving marshall of WWI and even though old his opinion carried an enormous amount of weight When Germans attacked May 1940 and clear would win find in De Gaulles diary ifI live I shall fight whever necessary whenever necessary so long as it I snecessary until the enemy is defeated and national honor washed clean 5 June anamed Sec for Defense in the postion charged for being the liason between the French government and government of PM Churchill in GB unwilling to accept French Surrerender and few to GB and on 18 June at PM issued famous broadcast on BBC 0 I General de Gaulle invite all Frnehc officers and solider to join forces with me no matter what may happen the flame of Rench resistance must not be distinguished we have lost the battle but have not lost te war 28 June recognized as leader of Free French 7 August de Gaulle and Churchill specified the conditions under which a core of French volunteers could be formed and used in GB within France De Gaulle began to raise up what he called the army of the night his term for the resistance and the most important thing was go gain coordination over them J Moulin he trusted most who in Jan 1943 had went to France and during 6 months was able to create that coordination with in Vichy France His relationship with Churchill was prickly FDR thought he was an ego maniac and the resistance proved its worth at DDay the Free French forces proved worth in freeing Paris and de Gaulle marched down camps de Elysee and manged to restore French soereignity Looked like he would dominate France for a while and went home to wait till when France would call again Founded RPF which helped cause trouble for the 4th republic because convinced it would fail on 2 June 1958 had what he wanted 0 2 things new had to do quickly 0 1 Write a new Constitution wanted it to be a Presidental form of government let the wirting of Consitution to M Debre o 2Algeria o flew from Paris to Algiers and on 5 June there he listens to the government officials who have revolved aginst France and listens to the army Salon and they say you have to address the crowd and he walked to balcony and holds up his hands and says I have understood You he meant who you are ou are rebels and had not spent time in military to defend rebels bought him breathing space because he convinced army in Algeria that he was being deceptive but had to be September New Constitution o Careful at making certain that the Constitution works the way it is supposed to 0 April 21 2009 June 1958 Charles de Gaulle given decree powers and powers to right a new consttution by the 54th republic Flies to Algiers to buy time for cris sin Algeria and meanwhile he has aksed his chief lieutenant to write a new constitution according to de Gaulle s idea DeBres Pulled constitution together And made sure not seem he was imposing he solemnly presents the text for the 1St time on the 4th of September the moment when the 3rd Republic reclaimed in 1870 He did so at a mass meeting in Paris in the eastern end at the Place de la Republicue in order to make sure everyone understands him All adult French men and women vote on referendum on this constituion it is up to the nation to decide if they want it 85 of eligible voters went to the polls and voted yes 79 This constitution is opposed to the premises of the 3rd and 4th republic which were parlimanetry governments with a weak head of state who was essentially a figure head all in the hands of a two house assembly and pm in cabinet Got what he had been calling for a Presidential Republic o The President under the terms of this Constitution elected for a term of 7 years and changes at the end of the century 0 The President is to be elected by an electoral college of 80000 office holders elected for local all the way to national level would vote for president 0 Only going to happen once and decided that this was a mistake and after this was a popular vote began at 2nd election of president President has enormous powers 2 office holders in western world that have the most powers are the French and O American President and in some ways the French president has more because he has 3 specific prerogatives 1 Right to Dissolve the Lower House of the Assembly and Legislature and call for new elections if thinks is not representing the will of the people not something want to do very often 2 President has the right to appeal directly to the nation through a referendum if things legislature won t vote for law wants he can appeal to the Nation as a whole to vote on it 3 In the event of a crisis threatens the institutions or security of the nation the President has the right ot assume full powers and rule by decree article XVI Legislature 2 Houses 1Senate upper house and elected by local office holders indirectly 2 National Assembly lower house elected by Universal Adult Suffrage Laws must be passed by both houses and then signed by the President Several New Provisions that had not previously existed cabinet members may not also serve in the legislature Must resign their seat if want to serve in the cabinet The duration for the 2 annual sessions is strictly limited the sessions of the legislature are strictly limited they have to get down to business have to get thigns done The Constituion spells all areas covered by law anything not spelled in consitution the government may act by decree In 1958 no one had any idea there would be a space program and satellites for EU launched from French Guinea because not imagined it is not mentioned in the consitution and anything that deals with space program is by decree 4th Legislature can t bring up things want to discuss government decides O O A vote of centure vote of no confidence can only be adopted by an absolute majority of the house in question for example it took 288 votes may be only 500 show up on a day but always takes an absolute majority 5th republic has complication in theory the 5th republic is a two headed constitution has a president and a PM premier Given France s long tradition the President who names the PM equilivant to chief of staff the PM and his cabinet defense must always maintain a majority in both houses of the legislature President names all of people aslong as president popular will always have a majority but extra complication this cabinet must maintain a majority in the National Assembly and in the Senate Election took place under single member districts each district elects one person small parties always suffer because they can almost never manage to get a majority De Gaulle wanted to make sure small parties not win very much communist almost no where did they get majority support and knew this is one way to ensure it s destruction Formed a party The Gaullist Party This party originally Union for New Republic Won more seats than anybody else smaller parties won few seats and was elected its first president o Problems 0 O O O O 1 Algeria Feb 1960 in 1958 thought someone named de Gaulle would come and save them now knew al on their own Knew de Gaulle had to rally the country behind him one of the 1St television politicians DeGaulle natural on television clear needed to do something dramatic and when picture came up he was not dressed in a suit and was dressed in army uniform of 1940 As if he were able to recapitulate speech and when the camera focused in on him he began and said here we are again in another cross my dear country and I will get you out Following day named Michell DeBres his 1St PM Legislate by decree in Algeria and De Gaulle would assume full powers under the Constitution which he has the right to do Increasing he told the country we have to fine a way out of Algeria there is no way to stay I want to know are you with me Jan 1961 called for a referendum and asked the French people are you in favor in granting Algeria self determination 75 in Jan 1961 vote in favor of Granting Algeria self determination n publically declared should grant Algeria full Independence de Gaulle u would be a great deal more trouble and the people in Algeria who were colonist knew that they now had nothing to lose and began to engage in campaign of terrorism for assassination of de Gaulle The secret army association and came inches of killing de Gaulle and never got it done Proceeded to negotiate with Algerians Spring 1962 presented to France Evian agreement which would grant to Algeria its complete independence o Asked French people to vote for it and 91 vote yes we are in favor of the Evian Agreement 0 July 1962 Native Arab Algerians Held on referendum and 99 voted yes on evian Agreement Some French troops remained to maintain order but the last left in June 1964 0 There was some hope there was a kind of community like British common wealth quickly clear all colonies wanted complete independence 2nd to British disappeared n n Foreign Policy De Gaulle unusually active soon after his election as president in 1958 approached American to talk to NATO Clear the US was favoring the British and clear that the US wanted to maintain NATO as American Reserve de Gaulle suggested was full of many small countries US thought it would be best if it dominated NATO and de Gaulle asked whether the US was interested in sharing its nuclear secrets had shared with GB Franced tested Nuclear Bom The Force de Frappe the striking force 0 Built on supposition that France need not to be able to destroy another enemy would merely have to have enough nuclear power to deter the USSR from attacking De Gaulle less than happy at American response remembered treated with disrespect from Roosevelt in march of 1959 he declared he was withdrawing France s Mediterranean fleet from NATOs command structure and left the rest of the French military structure in command saying we are members and we will fight with you but does not meant we have to do everything you say 0 Cuban Missile Crisis Greater impact on Europe than US Serious possibility for nuclear exchange Krushev in an act of recklessness had turned over the right to launch the missiles in Cuba over to local soviet commanders and if US mounted attack on Cuba would have certainly been launched against US Brought home to Americans that the USSR had nuclear missiles Nobody things were going to be able to do so might get lucky even if we knock down some of them and suddenly Americans were aware that we were threatened with nuclear destruction great promise of NATO brought into question attack upon one is an attack upon all Once the Cuban missile crisis of over decide what it means Europe better be ready to defend itself only way to do so was nuclear weapons De Gaulle raised issues with Kennedy and then Johnson began to withdraw all the rest of the French forces from military structure of NATO 1963 withdrew all French naval forces from command structure 1966 withdrew air force and army units of France from command structure did not mean France withdrawing from NATO meant France was going to command it sown forces link himself with W Germany Conrad Adehauer forged close working relationship with de Gaulle thought way of strengthening W Europe around its core opposed British entrance into the common market when Britain decided that they had made a mistake in 1950 and addressed GB said you are either a European or you are not and British decided they were not in 70 s changed mind and finally get in but de Gaulle forced them to ask that question firm in the W alliance in the building of the Berlin Wall during missile crisis but was man who did thing son own terms attempted to establish trade association with satellite states of USS Romania Poland 0 0 US said dangerous dealing with communist states but said when see what life in west is like they will want to escape and was right Nationalism is stronger force Visited Canada and encouraged Quebec Canada had ought to have been the greatest country in the world French culture British government and American technology Canada backward because has French government British technology and American culture De Gaulle most important foreing policy figure did see how things would turn out In middle of period 7 yr presidential term came to an end 1St Constitutional revision assumed naturally would win in a run away primary opponent member of socialist party Francois Mittrerrand o Forced De Gaulle into a run off close to majority but not quite 0 2nd ballot he ran away with the election De Gaulles 2nd term School 0 0 Because of inflation caused by WWII the franc which had been worth 20 had become worth 01 in terms of US exchange range and his solution was to declare the creation of the new franc Everyone has to turn in their old franc and 1 new franc for everyone 100 old franc knocked 2 00 s off the old prices A mood changer knock the new world off and become just the franc Combination of political stability all benefited French economy and one of the indicators was the increasing purchase of consumer products the French began buying all sorts of things after taken care of everything else and a consumer society develops Enrollment risen By early 70 s close to 5 million enrolled Increasingly children attending school more often Higher education enrollment also increased 1958 enrolled 192 000 1968 478000 Young people defined themselves by dressing in certain ways musical tastes culture and lifestyle Against the establishment part of baby boom generation in France in 1960 s more ppl under 30 then over 30 1960 s turmoil on campuses as young people tested themselves against the rules then war in Vietnam 0 US American men being drafted and dying 0 Vietnam had been a French colony and this crisis reached a boiling point in 1968 sense political leaders out of touch with young people o De Gaulle did not understand or respect young people on the outskirts of Paris W Monterre a suburb O O O O 0 Where you went if you could not go anywhere else but still wanted to be near Paris but also if you wanted to cause trouble Demonstrations at Monterre against America in Vietnam March 1968 as long as they stayed at Monterre no problem and beginning of May violence erupted in downtown Paris Sorbonne tradionally student demonstrations in Latin quarter allowed to go on as they see fit but for the 1St time the police intervened and police made more violent Antigovernment types on 13th May agigation began to spread to the working class something we ough to pick up on De Gaulle was not in the country at the moment negotiation trade treaty and did not think was serious and suddenly came home to discover that things were a mess May 24th addressed to to stop madness and lets get to work and for 1St time speech failed maybe too old 24th may turning point convinced that de Gaulle might be a has been might be able to talk about change in a serious way and in the mist of this there was an announcement from the palace from france s white house that de Gaulles had gone home back to LorraineI came backI saved you and you still don t get it The following day came back to Paris on 30th May goes on TV for 2nd time for 3 minutes and denounced the communist socialist threat to republic sayin these ppl want to overthrow 5th republic and undo everything accomplished and said going to stand at post and save the country calling for disallusion of the lower house and asking ppl to demonstrate their support You are either with me or them April 23 2009 Crisis May 1968 1St time isince 1871 since there has been massive demonstrations in Paris The regime was shaken De Gaulle went on television on the 24th and had not had an effect on the 19th he was going home and no one knew what that mean returned on 30th gave 3 minute address in which he denounced communist threat to the 5th Republic announced decisions to remain at post and to dissolve the National Assembly clearly asking for a vote of confidence from the population Called on his supporters to demonstrate their support in the street it is time for people who are happy who think that things are going right and to follow up next day 500000 frenchmen womena and children marched down champs de elyesse in support for de Gaulle and the situation changed over night Election to National Assembly o 20 23rd ofJune 2 stage elections o 1St stage anyone can run and in 2nd run only the top two finishers run o Eletion on 23rd and 30th there was a massive victory for the Gaullist party had been the union for new republic now The Union for the Defense of the Republic same people name just altered o Massive victory for the de Gaulle regime o People assumed it mean that de Gaulle was there for keeps othe runderstood that de Gaulle could not last forever he was 77 it was 1968 and people do not live that long and they are not in as good health as they would be today He was increasingly creepy and cranky and although he had won it had been close and if he did not play his cards right who knew where things would have wound up People on all sides of spectrum began planning for post de Gaulle Republic 1 George Pompodou man who shared many of his ideas but was very different was a banker and softer highly cultured and thought that he may be the heir apparent and many Gaullist began preparing for a Pompidou regime it came sooner than they though Spring 1969 De Gaulle said was going to call for a referendum that would change certain elemtns of the Senate and regional administration and no one could understand why this had ot happen right away or why in fact the decision had to be placed as a referendum as opposed to going through the normal legislation process De Gaulle insisted he declare dif the country does not pass it I will resignas if he was insisting the June 1968 National Assembly elections which he won massively were not enough need votes of confidence Many Gaullist refused to cmapaing for the referendum and when ti took place near the end of April 1969 the vote when 53 47 against Next morning issued the speech o I am seasiging exerecsie functions as President effective at noon o Back to Lorraine and never made another public appearance or statement interview afterwards o Died November 7 1970 at 79 years old o Funeral Notre Dame broadcast world wide Oddities of 5th Republic no provision for VP If President resigns has to be a special election and when steps down was a secial Election Special Election George Pompidou was easily the victor o Reassuring skillful cultured a little bit jovialand highly accessible and he mmediately declared that what france needed was an infusion of youth o Prime Minister Chaban Delmas o A resistance hero as a young man movie star looks and a lot of people savoir faire and a kind of charisma that French JFK o Talked about creagin a new society based on new social reforms more right to young people changing university system doing some of the things that the yung people in 1968 had asked for 0 Foreign Policy followed Gaullist model Friendly to the US but made clear not a lackey Decision to permit GB to join common market Previously de Gaulle asked do you want to be aEuropean or not during De Gaulle and British had not answer because they anted membership of the EEc and O also to retain their special trade ties with common wealth and the Us 1970 s decided want to be Europeans asked French people what they though and referendumheld and in this case the reply was positive to allow GB join in 1972 n Problems 1973 Yan Kippur War Egypt surprise attack on Israel they fought to a draw The Arab countires decided to punish the west for supporting Israel oil boycott by OPEC terrible thing for the west and that pont US producd 50 of own oil Europeans got most of their oil from the Middle East and were in serious trouble Overnight the price was double created surge of inflation throughout western communities and created a drag on production and for 1St time Economist had to deal with Stagflation inflation was not to take place when country stagnating but when you have inflation suppose to have economy over heated not supposed to have both at the same time End of 70 s double price of oil again now oil 400 what it had been in 1973 and the stagflation became critical o Left Francois Mitterrand o Had run unsuccessfully and forced De Gaulle in run off in 65 election o Started in center and moved left o Determined to unify a left and get a left that was tame and not seem dangerous if it seemed revolutionary they could never win o Beginning of 1970 s pretty much there Election 1973 Gaullist won by a whisker A lot had to do with Mitterrand s ability as an organizer who tamed leftist rhetoric and a lot had to do with stagflation and if you are unhappy you vote against those people in power and a lot had to do with the fact Pompidou was sick and Suddenly in April 1974 he died from cancer Special Election o Because Pompidou died suddenly no one know how sick he was there was not a clear favorite and if there was a favorite it was Chaban Delmas o Everyone knew Mitterrand would be the principle opposition but someone else threw his name in the mix and thought it was out of spot 0 Income tax returns investigated saw less than honest reporting income President notjust a cabinet minister meant suddenly he could not possibly win o V Giscard D Estang 0 Finance minster under De Gaulle and then under Pompidou 0 Well educated and rich 0 Family acquired not noble and was widely disliked o 1St round of voting 0 Mitterrand won 43 of the vote 0 Giscard 335 of the vote and two week period between two ballots o Leaders of the Gaullist party anyone who did not want Mitterrand realized will have to transform this man overnight if we want to stop Mitterrand from winning 0 Top campaign strategist among Gaullist o Went to see Giscard and asked do you want to be President Said yes but you are going to have to do everything we tell you showed videos of Robert Kennedy Said we need slogans and said now going to be knows as VGE Slogan Giscard A LA Barree at the helm Going to have to like people had trouble with Going to shake hands with anyone you see an going to like it went go to Corsica All of a sudden plunging into crowds and the public opinion polls begin to tighten and his rating rises and it is impossible to call the result Bridgit Bardeauwearing a Giscard tshirtbecame French page of newspapers and Giscard won by the narrrowist of margins in that election less than 1 of the vote 0 Giscard Wins President Giscard D39Estaing 1974 o Premiere J Chirac o Named the Bulldozer Giscard laid out a program for the future understood might not happen fast enough for him to be reelected but know things had to be done and was right o France needs to be energy independent and the only way 0 do that build nuclear power plants at a great rate o Today more than 85 electricity in France in Nuclear Power Plant All the same France embarked on high tech science and industry 1 Airbus outs Business of high tech medicine and all of these things are based upon education and technology and are things tha European countries can do but 3rd world countries that are industrializing cannot match yet o 2 d oil shock doubled prices again o too much and Giscard could not get things done fast enough in order to be reelected o began by trying to carry out popular approaches in campaign descend on some French family I am here for dinner o Nickname became Louis XVI because went back to his haughtiness not a compliment o Hoping to change things he got rid of Chirac and replaced him with an economist named R Barre economist professor o Understood the economic situation and what needed to be done and they did not have the time to do it o Chirac finds outlet by finding a mayor for Paris city not had a mayor since 1870 government of Paris 0 Became very popular mayor open and willing to talk to people 1981 Presidential Election Moment in which people had governed France are clearly in trouble 0 O O O The economy is beginning to improve Pasteur Institute identified AIDS virus made great achievements and nuclear energy lead way to energy independence Inflation is high double digits number of births dropped below 800000 1St time since after war divorce rate went up juvinial delinquency up was happening and whoever in power tends to get the blame When it came time to run for reelction Gicard knew he would be up against a vey difficult task Mitterrand wins 517 of vote immediatley called for of National Assembly May 1981 Left gains power in National Assembly Left finally has it s chance Began to put into place some of things talked about doing Nationalized more banks Nationalized a few more industries 5th week to paid vacations Levied a tax on the fortunes of the rich not a hue tax The most revolutionary act was to begin decentralizing since Napoleon France had been divied up into departments by Prefects who reported to Minister of the Interior and reported to top of the government and government was from Paris down Giving local areas greater autonomy and this was done To the real surprise of the US Mitterrand who was prod to say he was man of the left was unusually happy to cooperate with the US on issues of Foreign Policy Afghanistan 0 Soviets moved in and imposed control 0 Carters reaction to boycott the 1980 Olympics in Moscow 0 No impact on the Soviets the French stood very strong with the Reagan administration helped contribute to supples to the mujha Hadeem with Regan which ed helped defeat of Russia Mitterrand pushed for building of Nuclear Power Plants independent nuclear strike force all of this was important o 1991 when Iraq government seized control of of Kuwait and Bush decided that the West needed to intervene and put together a huge coalitio of Western forces and middle east forces ang got syrians and Egyptians to participate but the most important eemtns came fro m the US and France and GB and this was a very interesting performance and it showed who was willing to do what when something important came along 0 French sent 5000 troops Reelected 1988 Serve 2 terms and die in 1995 after term Longest serving Preisdnet of the 5th Republic Beginning of 2002 election term of office reduce to 5 years 1St of the French Presidents to have to suffer through Cohabitation April 28 2009 Final Exam may 6 1012 2 Question 3 books 3 periods since midterms and going to require to write on one book and will have choice on other two prepare all 3 books F Mitterrand 19811988 o 1st President from the left and immediately dissollves the lower house o Left Wing government in France both President and assembly o Good NATO ally and friend of the US o In the immediate aftermath of the 1St Gulf War him and Bush who became good friends engaged in secret negotiations abt France s secret return to the command structure to NATO o WAS THE 1ST President to suffer from a Gap in the 5th Republic s constitution o In 5th Republic Prime Ministers has to maintain a majority in the two houses when he is elected there is a majority for the center right Gaulllist in the National Assembly which is why he call fornew elections which returned a Socialist majority and he was able to appoint a Socialist PM o The policies that Mitterand followed in France domestically did not work especially well so much so that when it became absolutely necessary under the terms of the consitutiont 0 have new election for the National Assembly 5 yrs there is once again a Conservative majority that is elected and it creates and dillema 0 He cannot appoint Socialist as PM because such a person will not get a majority in the lower House nad has to appoint someone from the Gaullist party the situation called 0 Cohabitation you have to live with someone you don t especially like it is a little awkward He decided best way to handle was to name as PM in 86 the leader of the Gaullist Party J Chirac everyone s predicted choice as his most dangerous appointment in the upcoming election Chiraq Mayor of Paris and member of National Assembly a Fell in to the trap he could have asked a lesser figure but he wanted Chiraq n The most responsibility he gave Chiraq the more he would be blamed when things would go wrong and he fell into this trap a He did not realize that he fell into the trap n 2 years later in 88 when there is a Presidential election and Mitterrand declares he wants to run for reelection 3rd time running and he wins in 88 over Chiraq French voters appreciate the fact he outmaneuvered Chiraq 0 He will serve a full2nd term there will not ever be anyone to serve 14 years again o Called for Special Election of National Assembly thought he could get a majority again c He was almost right very divided National Assembly elected in 88 Just enough so that he has to choose as his PM a man who is very much in the center 91 he would name the 1St woman as PM E Cresson widely believed to be one of the hundreds of mistresses of Mitterrand and the opposition referred to her as a modern day Madam Pompadour 0 Would not last long as PM but managed to say that the reason the Japanese were selling so many products is because the Japanese stay up 24 hrs a day to screw Europeans 0 When she paid a state visit to Gb she complained that none of the politicans flirted with her and explained this by saing half of English men are homosexuals In terms of domestic policy there was a lot of problems for Mitterrand It was no one s surprise that in the next election the Gaullist won in the NA 0 once again asked Chiraq to be PM and Chiraq said no and E Balladur would become PM under cohabitacion 1995 Chiraq won President Le bulldozer Mitterand died soon after and at his funeral some of his secrets began to unravel at his funeral a long time mistress showed up who he supported at state expense with teenage daughter Chiraq chose as his PM A Juppe Considered one of the most arrogant politician said I am smarter than anyone Juppe Appointed because Chiraq understood that the way the European countires had conducted themselves with their welare systems ss early retirements this could nto go on forever and changes had to be made He understood that he as going to have to begin asking peoplefor sacrifices You need to work longer harder and pay more taxes it is the way it IS Him and Juppe began to come together to decide difficult legislationthat would ask people to shoulder new burdens and do things they did not want to do knew would not be easy and people would resist Began thinking about the electoral clock he had everything wanted to sid dnot call for a special election knew would need a They put their heads together and said the election is goig to come right as we put up our proposals and they are not going to be elected with the proposals so decided to call elections early clever so ppl would not think they would have to sacrifice Call election early 97 0 Everybody figured out what they were doing and knew what Chirac and Jupe were talking about knew something had to be done about welfare systems and that ppl would have to work longer 0 They are trying to slip things by us by having the elections a yr early so they will have 5 full years after 97 to push for what they wanted and lost the elections in 97 had a majority but lost it Now Chirac forced to live in Cohabitacion o L Jospin new PM 0 Former secondary school teacher and had gone into politics but he knew that he would have to push a reform program and the socialist would get the blame 0 Thus began Chirac does not have votes and Jospin won t push o 7 years went down the drain great wasted opportunity 0 Chirac did not have the votes to push through what he knew he needed to do the new elections mean that the elections and the Presidential election will take place the same year 0 2002 Elections shock on the 1St round Chirac did in fact get the most votes but Jospin did not even make the run off and the man who go the 2nd larges number was the right win Le Penall this raises an issue o demagogue o Le Pen 0 Made name for himself as racist and demagogue o AntiSemite Frances does not keep records of race or religion no longer are there those records since Vichy Estimate France has abt 600000 Jews and the next larges number is 100000 in Germany and GB and Israel and US have the largest in the world about 5 million but France has the 3rd largest number Jews successful well assimilated LE Pen had trouble when he attacked Muslim Residents of France s former N African colonies had been brought over during France economic boom in 60 s and their descendants came Muslim background in France abt 6 million 10 of population 13 rd have assimilated well and as French as everyone else another 13rd not assimilate and cause prblms Naturally it is those who stick out mke easy targets 0 Le Pen finished second which was horrifying menat was in run off 0 Chirac won 8416 and reelected but it was a sign of a number of things was a sign that the socialist party seemed to have lost its way Everyone remember Mitterrand s personal scandals Everyone remembered how Jospin engaged in gridlock in the way socialist had played politics with important matters 2000 decisions to try to prevent cohabitacion in the future because it causes trouble keep elections for President and Legislature in the same year reduce Presidential term to 5 years and would apply to Chirac s 2nd terms serves a 2nd term amounts to 12 yrs Legislative elections which return a majority for the Gaullist everyone hoped that Chirac would take advantage of a huge public mandate of Le Pen s defeat O O As though Chirac ran out of gas and in fact for another period of 5 ear it seemed all the really important issues were put on the backburner and it did not help that this way the world s attention was focused on foreign problems terrorism Decision to go into Afghanistan France and NATO fully endorced Iraq what was going to happen about that During the run up to the 2nd Amercian experience in Iraq question are other countires going to join us o GW did not do a good job in recruiting a serious coalition Called the ppl who supported us the collation of the Willing Made up 0 fmuch weaker countries only major country that supported was GB Critical moments US Justified decisions to go into Iraq by having Powell testify to the UN abt weapons of mass destruction Powell give information which he later discovered was massaged to support the case for him to produce In his presentation before the UN he asserted a number of things which later were proved to be false when Powell finished his presentation the next person to speak before the UN was the French Foreign Minister D De Villepin o Began his presentation from evidence from DST 0 Had a history of getting these things right had large number of ppl from whom to draw 0 According to them what Powell had just said was in fact false American Pressed barely reported anything he had said and said the French were supporting us the French were correct 0 Powell calls this the shame of his life 2007 Clear France needs a new start and the Socialist put up a woman S Royal N Sarkozy new head of Gaullist Party won Won 54 to 47 In preparation for the election he wrote Testimony he believes things have to change Got a lot of flack by his willingness to be friends with Americans Sarko the American met wit Bush officials and shook hand was thought to be something that handicapped him but saw that a President was willing to shake his hand With 3 days the two candidates sit down from one another at a table for 15 and the cameras are just turned on and they ask each other questions And Sarkozy destroyed his opposition He has been doing all the things he has been trying to do reform SS medical system has sent more ppl to Afghanistan soldiers and police had been to US He has been all over the financial crisis marriage fell apart and remarried Italian actress o Juppe convicted of manipulating campaign contributions in illegal way lost political rights for a while and removed from office his father was a refugee from Hungary grew up half an orphan he was more and made his way through scholarships and hard work and is not President of the country no other place but US where that can happen same ideals but go about accomplishing in different ways April 30 2009 Exam may 6 10 am12pm Bring unmarked bluebooks Book Discussions Since Midterm Michael Berns Dreyfus Affair o If answering question interested in talking about the documents the documents are what is important Sarkozy Autobiography written with election in mind to introduce himself to people that did not know him Very Clear Honest Blunt What needs to be done to correct wha ts wrong what does he say that is wrong His overview of France has done well over the last several decades accessing where France is and where it may go Will leave a mark that Chirac or Mitterrand were unable to do Hands on like to go where the problem is confrontational he seems more American than a lot of European politicians Governs by policy it s the way I want it to be Backs up what he believes Grassroots Leader did not graduate from elitist institutions came from almost nothing the political figures who are from the elite resented him for being that kind of person Many President s of the US has come from a kind of elite Father fled Hungary as communist taking over Jewish grandmother background you would think gives problems France 1938 look at situation through eyes of people dealing with where would you be makes it harder to blame them for how things happened Paralyzed him because had seen it all Eisenhower the ppl who least Daladier thoguth was going to be hounded after the Munich Agreement but was praised by the French ppl Leave of dread in the 30 s now that we can appreciate when the world is getting scarier Sense Port of Shadows the shipis the Louisiana Sartre What are the limits of the possible lots of things that would be nice to do but don t have the energy or decide to do it British let everyone down without Britain France could not deal with Germany Geneals fight yesterday in war put blame on French ppl lost 14 million dead equivilant of 910 million American After Vietnam no one wanted any adventures Better off fighting in 38 Czech on your side Soviet Union not on Hiter s side maybe Poland as well Soviet Union would have been out of the battle andGermany would have had to face war in East Because waited USSR now on the side of Germany If Bluff called in 38 might have acted and Hitler may have overthrown 39 better year to fight than 39 wide spread sense that there was no way we could win but we had to fight anyway Americans maybe joined in long war US was completely involved in isolationism and he sent telegram to Chamberlin Good Man French were trying to buy Airplanes from US but could not be delivered Daladier tried to get the work week increased ppl did not want to listen The price you have to pay for your cowardness History is full of hard lessons and it does not point us the way to the future just gives us a content of understanding what is going to come in the future Put ppl in decisions makers shoes What would you do Not an easy decision You want to suspend belief Mandel if he had been leading France things may turn out differently took a long time to become Minister of the Interior meets with Spears and gets De Gaulle to London next day and get seat for Mistress andn Mandel says you fear for me because I am a Jew and because I am jew I will not go it iwill look as if I was afrida he does not survive the ear Lend Lease US all Roosevelt could do and get away with in 1940 could never have violated Neutrality acts 3102009 30600 PM 3102009 30600 PM


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.