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by: Magnolia Heaney


Magnolia Heaney
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B. Martin

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B. Martin
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This 24 page Class Notes was uploaded by Magnolia Heaney on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1003 at Louisiana State University taught by B. Martin in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/222458/hist-1003-louisiana-state-university in History at Louisiana State University.




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Date Created: 10/13/15
HIST 1003 TEST 2 01d Regime comes from a term coined during the French Revolution which began in 1789 They considered the types of government before the revolution as the old regime They didn t just mean France they meant all of Europe The ideas of the Enlightenment had not affected very many by 1789 Although we had the beginnings of some inventions machine we do not have anything approaching an Industrial Revolution by 1789 The railroad was not invented until the 1820s and it was what brought the industrial revolution In 1789 there was no talk of revolution therefore it was a complete surprise Since these are the things that did not happen what did happen The first thing that happened was that the weather began to change Around 1740 temperatures began getting back closer to normal and would continue until about 1850 They key is that around 1740 harvest began to improve enough so that the population got healthier Because women were healthier they had more children so the population also went up The death rate started to decrease because of the harvest ofa new crop the potato The key thing about the potato is that there is a larger yield from potatoes than any other crop People were starting to quotrub elbows with each other so they created more lands by draining the swamplands This killed the mosquitoes which wiped out malaria People live longer Birthrate is going up and death rate is going down there are more people The population doubled in Europe between 1740 and 1800 The real reason was the weather potatoes and no mosquitoes Between 1740 and 1850 although the weather was better it was still highly unpredictable From 18401850 the entire northern hemisphere was so cold that this decade is known as the quotHungry 40s 1788 is one of the very worst years in terms of harvest The following spring there is real trouble which is not surprising The first reality of the Old Regime was the weather the population and how they acted The second reality was war The 18th century was a time of almost constant war Beginning in 1700 and lasting until 1713 was what was called the War of the Spanish Succession this was deciding who would rule Spain the last of Louis XIV s wars Throughout the 1720 there were several Wars of Polish Succession In 1740 through 1748 was the War of Austrian Succession Then there was a time out and in 175 61763 was the 7 Years War which was like war ofAustrian Succession part two In the 1770s there was the War of the American Colonies War cost a lot of money There was a problem of financing these wars the money has to come from somewhere Government gets the money to do what it wants to do whether to fight wars build schools etc from two main sources taxes or borrowing by selling something that acts as a promise for eventual payback The government does not tax enough money to pay for everything because people resist taxation that s why they have to resort to borrowing Where does this lead us At this time the bulk of society is made up ofpeasants who have no power against government and taxation The nobles have enough money to pay taxes but they have privileges so they are exempt from taxes The people who have the most money pay they least taxes At this time they are going to start trying to tax the nobles and the Church Because there were constant wars there was an enormous amount of political stress because rulers were trying to find ways to finance the wars by tapping the money from the privileged During the 17th century the far most powerful nation in Europe was France under Louis XIV During the 18th century that s going to change slowly but surely The single most powerful country becomes Great Britain The last time we learned about England the Hanoverian family had just taken over the throne George I of Hanover comes over to Great Britain with his Englishspeaking mistresses It was really easy for parliament to get around George the First who did not speak any English George II succeeded him after he died In 1760 upon George II s death it was clear who had the power in Great Britain Parliament George III then becomes king in 1760 until 1820 for 60 years He is unhappy with what his father and grandfather have done and he tries to get more power This combat with Parliament leads to two things the American Revolution and George III s insanity After 107 years of Georges Parliament is running England Nobles and bourgeoisies are willing to tax themselves because they ran the country They were willing to tax themselves because they were represented Britain had more access to money than in other places in Europe Britain is the only country run by a Parliament That s England but what s the deal in France In 1715 Louis XIV finally died Five year old Louis XV takes over as king and is king until 1774 He was never really interested in being a strong ruler and he was remarkably intelligent and liked to party sex addiction He permitted his advisors to involve France in a series of wars By the time these wars were over France had spent a lot of money and lost a lot of colonies When he died he was succeeded by his grandson Louis XVI who came to the throne in 1774 He was not very intelligent He married Marie Antoinette four years earlier at the age of 16 Marie Antoinette s uncle wrote the following statement about Louis XVI after assessing the marriage quotHe is not altogether an idiot Louis XIV led France into disaster because ofa famous decision In 1763 France lost Canada to Britain as a result of the 7 Years War Lafayette brought men and money to help fight in the American Revolution The French government was not going to support the American colonists unless they showed they could win In 1778 the Americans won a critical battle in upstate New York Saratoga His advisors urged Louis XVI to quotscrew the British and in 1783 the British surrendered The French had more to do with winning the American Revolution than the Americans did This cost so much money that the French had no way to pay back all of their war debt The weak kings and the absence ofa Parliament led to disaster in France It is at that moment 1715 that the transfer ofpower took place from France to Britain The great power in northern Germany was Prussia Prussia was ruled by a family Hohenzollerns They brought their Protestant religion Frederick William I became king in 1713 He was known as the sergeant king because he liked to drill his troops He built a massive army and Prussia was one of the most organized countries in Europe He made a deal with the Prussian nobles that allowed them to run the country on the local level He ran the country on the central level The nobles were happy about this and in turn were more willing to pay taxes He died in 1740 and was succeeded by Frederick II or Frederick the Great He was great for a number of reasons Frederick II was very smart and good friends with Voltaire Frederick II was also a master ute player and composer Frederick II was also a fantastic military leader In 1740 he went to war to win Silesia on the basis of the War of the Austrian Succession Now we have to turn to Austria to understand In Austria the Habsburg family is still on the throne The ruler in 1711 was named Charles VI He had a problem reminiscent of Henry VIII he had a daughter not a son No ruler had yet ruled in Austria and he wasn t sure if his daughter Maria Theresa could get away with it When Charles VI died in 1740 Maria Theresa comes to the throne in exactly the same moment as Frederick II He decides to take Silesia at this time because there is a woman on the throne and quotshe can t do anything about it This is the basis of the War of Austrian Succession On one side is Prussia and the other side is Austria The question is quotwho will rule Silesia France took Prussia s side and Britain took Austria s side Frederick II Prussia won Silesia France and Britain did a lot of fighting in their territories and when it was over they gave back all that they had taken form each other It was basically a useless war for them Then they did it all over again In the Seven Years War Austria and France sided together and sealed their alliance with the wedding of Marie Antoinette and Louis XVI They also attracted Russia Prussia and Great Britain sided together In 1763 the winner was once again Prussia and Frederick the Great The biggest loser in all of this was France In this fighting this time the French lost all of their colonies in India Canada and some in the Caribbean to the British So we have set up the fact that the French want revenge and they attempt to get it at an enormous cost in the War of the American Colonies In Russia the ruler was Peter I or Peter the Great He was the czar or tsar from 16821725 Peter recognized that Russia was hopelessly backwards and that if they did not catch up then they would get taken over by Europe He attempted to modernize Russia He relocated the capital much closer to Europe and called it St Petersburg He brought in experts from Europe to help transform the Russian military and the Russian government He basically caught Russia up by about 200 years Finally in 1762 a woman gained control of the throne named Catherine II She had legendary love affairs She provided a certain amount of stability until 1796 when she died She was a tsarina The mot important thing she did was that she provided stabilization for what Peter had done Between the Germany s and Russia there was a big hunk of Eastern Europe Poland Poland had a bizarre governmental structure In Poland kingship was elected by the nobles They would not elect anyone who was going to powerful because they did not want to limit their own power The nobles had a medieval version of Parliament called the Sejm To pass anything in the Sejm required unanimity The Polish nobles were the envy ofnobles all over Europe This also meant though that Poland was terribly weak and was surrounded by hungry enemies Prussia Austria Russia In 1772 the rulers of these three countries came together Frederick II the Great of Poland Maria Theresa ofAustria and Catherine II of Russia They met over a map of Poland They all decided that they all wanted a slice The Poles had no way to stop them In 1792 the rulers came back Frederick and Maria were dead and they all took another slice ofPoland In 1795 they came back and finished off Poland When they were done Poland was no more We call these three meeting the Three Partitions of Poland The Polish people Catholic did not disappear however and they did not enjoy any of this The Polish people were only treated well by the Austrians who shared their religion The Prussians were Protestant and the Russians were Eastern Orthodox In 1786 Calonne advisor comes to Louis XVI He tells Louis XVI that there was a problem There were 4 choices They could either cut back on expenditures but they still owed a huge amount of interest The second choice was stimulating the economy but this would take a long time and they didn t have time The third choice was simply declaring bankruptcy which would end in chaos and no one would ever loan to the French again The fourth choice was taxing the privileged THE FRENCH REVOLUTION The ideals of the French Revolution that were on every French coin were Liberty Equality and Fraternity These were the slogans of the revolution Liberty stood for two things The first was for liberties that meant people aught to have simple freedoms such as freedom of speech assembly The second meant that liberty meant freedom from oppression France was the first large European country to experiment with the Republic France gave every man the right to vote also called Universal Male Suffrage France was the first country to do this in 1792 no other country gave this large of a vote One in Eight Englishmen could vote Less than 13ml ofadult males in the US could vote Equality was the belief that all adult men were equal before the law This was definitely a revolutionary idea Fraternity implies popular sovereignty This meant that people are going to rule themselves because they believe that they have bonds that tie the people together This brings out the term Nationalism There can be no going back to the old ways In 1789 Louis the 16th confronted a triple crisis The three crises were fiscal problems because of the spending on wars political problems because the king taxed the privileged and the church for the first time and led to a call of the Estates General and an economic crisis generated by the disastrous harvest of 1788 The rapid increase in population amplified the hunger problem In July 12 in Paris people could not find bread and began revolting In July 14 people began looking for weapons and storm the Bastille After this it was clear that the king had lost all of his power France celebrates the 14th of July as a holiday The ideas of the enlightenment began to be put to action This meant the simple ideals of the revolution liberty equality and fraternity The specific target of the enlightenment was the church The church got caught up in the revolution because they had a lot of money In July of 1790 it was decided that the church should give up its property to repay the national debt The argument was that since Iesus didn t have a lot ofmoney the church shouldn t have a lot of money The revolutionaries stated that the church should be happy to give up their money The state decided that they will support the church financially but after their properties were sold off to help pay of the debt However the state went too far and the people decided that they were to elect church leaders also and that the clergy would have to swear an oath to the state After July 1790 things began to break down The two groups were called the Revolutionaries and the Counterrevolutionaries In August of 1792 the monarchy is overthrown and Louis the 16th and his wife will be beheaded 6 months and 8 months later respectively The guillotine was the French method of execution until capital punishment was outlawed in 1981 Problems that France faced were a Civil War within the country and invasion from outward countries while they were experimenting with republic 12 men were assigned to the Committee of Public Safety and the leader was Maximilien Robespierre These men believed in the overthrow of the monarchy and that civil war would ruin the revolutionary goals The ends of saving the revolution justified any means The committee of public safety created Government of Terror In the Fall of 1793 there is a desperate situation in France The committee decreed The National Draft that affected all young males people that owned horses gave horses If someone was against this the guillotine was waiting The law of Suspects said that anyone who was suspected as counterrevolutionary was arrested There was no habeas corpus The Revolutionary Tribunal tried people who were accused of counter revolutionary They had two verdicts innocent or death The Law of the Maximum placed wage and price controls Summer 1794 40000 French men and women were executed or died in prison waiting to be executed In Sept of 1793 a French general lost a battle he should have won He was called back and guillotined to encourage the others Generals who were bad immediately resigned On general who was successful and worked his way up was named Napoleon Bonaparte In 1794 the invasions and civil war was stopped Napoleon was born on an island off ofItaly called Corsica In 1768 the Genoas sold Corsica to the French king Louis the 15th He gave all of the wealthy families a gift and the Bonaparte family received the gift of going to the military academy for free Napoleon was born in 1769 He goes to the military academy and is immediately unhappy because he is a scholarship kid and spoke French with an accent Also the farthest a common man could go is captain so no matter how good he was he could not go far He went into artillery and when he was 15 he was commissioned an officer in 1784 The revolution began when he is 20 years old He was part of the revolutionary called the Iacobins They were the most advanced revolutionaries By 1796 Napoleon became a general He ran the army of Italy and conquered Italy In November of 1799 he becomes the most person in the French Revolution He calls himself consul Napoleon understood that you can only govern through terror for a while and you need to find someway for people to obey willingly He thought of two ways to make counterrevolutionaries happy In 1801 Napoleon settles with Pope Pius the 6th in an agreement with the Vatican also known as a Concordat The church does not get its property back the state supports the church and the people do not elect the bishops The bishops would be selected by a list proposed by Napoleon This ended the battle between the church and the revolution In 1802 the Bank of France is created Its function was to regulate the amount of money in circulation and guarantee the stability in the new money called the Franc For the next 110 years the Franc is the most stable currency in the world In 1804 The Civil Code or Napoleonic Code wrote into law the ideals of equality All people are equal in their rights and privileges He imposed civil code everywhere that he conquered He also created Lycees which are the first state run secondary schools anywhere They were considered the next generation ofleaders in France There was a tuition charge but also a lot of scholarships Entry into the Lycees was an intense competition The Legion of Honor was a type of knight hood for those who distinguished themselves in service to the state This all led to the idea of careers open to talent We call this a meritocracy meaning people gained power through merit The greatest of Napoleons general was named Ney He worked himself up from a private and was a son ofa poor butcher The experience of Ney is the very definition ofwhat the revolution is all about Napoleon held the executive power and became Emperor in 1804 Beneath him were two elected bodies called the Tribunate and the Legislature Males elected them both The members of the Tribunate could discuss any laws Napoleon made but couldn t vote on it and the Legislature could vote but not discuss it Napoleon understood that people really wanted to vote but that their votes really did not mean much Napoleon vs Metternich What were the ideals of the revolution Liberty equality and fraternity No other country at the time had this It is also very hard to defend these things No kings thought that the French Revolution was a good idea The man that saved the Revolution Maximilian Robespierre goes down in history as the man who got fair government by terror The man who stabilized the Revolution was Napoleon Bonaparte But really how good was he He did pretty well to defend the qualities of the Revolution He always remembered where he came from and was one of the hardest working people who ever lived He surrounded himself with hardworking people quotWe have to earn the salaries the French people they pay us How well did Napoleon fulfill the idea oflibertynot very well On the other hand in a period of 14 years only one person died of execution for political reasons Why in the end was he forced out Once again France had become the most powerful country in Europe by itself Opposing France was the quadruple alliance Russia Great Britain Austria and Prussia It took all four of the other great powers to defeat Napoleon When they did in April of 1814 they insisted that he had to go Why did they do this Napoleon was the essence of the word usurper person who stole the throne He really had no right to the throne of France he had just taken it Now every other ruler in Europe understood that if Napoleon got away with it that other people would want to try They didn t want others to be inspired to just steal their thrones So he was exiled to the little island of Elba They have him the title of Emperor of Elba He had been ruling most of Europe and now all he has is a little island He is still very young so in March of 1815 he and some other followers slipped off the island and landed in the south of France and said quotlets give it one more go Not only the quadruple alliance but also the royal family of France now back on the throne Bourbon is waiting for him The brother of Louis XVI Louis XVIII was now king had tried to get along with the changes and now he appointed as his military leader Ney Napoleon s butcher general He asked Ney to stop Napoleon and bring him back in an iron cage Napoleon walked alone across the field that separated the armies He stood there and threw open his coat and screamed quotShoot your emperor if you will Ney then rushed forward and knelt before Napoleon and said quotmy army is yours They all headed north and in June of 1815 there is a pivotal battle of modern history in Waterloo Belgium It lasted two days and Napoleon lost He wanted to be taken to Louisiana but the British took him to a little island called Saint Helena which is very hard to even find on a map He died on that island C Von Metternich became prime minister in Austria in 1809 He will hold that position or a similar one for 39 years He is a contemporary of Napoleon but is the embodiment of the old ideas He argued that liberty equality and fraternity will inevitably lead to disaster Liberty is false if you let people print whatever they want then they will spread lies All people should not be able to vote because they don t have experience and knowledge of the nobles He casted down fraternity because he felt no connection with people who were dirty dumb and stupid He wanted to go back to the Old Regime He called the Congress of Vienna in 1815 which included the great and small powers It will be one of the more important congresses of diplomacy that we will talk about Metternich understood that the most important thing he could do was to create a minimum of two powers in Europe out of five who were determined to change nothing His reasoning was that if there was going to be change in Europe there was going to have to be at least two great powers determined to change things He said as long as Austria and Russia hang together they would be able to keep Europe from changing To restore order they needed to increase Austria s reach into central and Western Europe Lombardi Milan and Venetia Venice were both given to Austria to rule Now if there is trouble in Italy the Austrians are already there Since France seems like a permanent problem Russia was given territory separate from its center a territory along the border of France This prevented the expansion of France Furthermore Austria agreed with Russia ab out something called the Holy Alliance which was drawn up by the tsar of Russia Alexander I This argument said that all rulers were brothers so they owed each other a family responsibility to prevent things like the French revolution from occurring In 1820 there would be attempted revolutions in the Italian peninsula and some in parts of Germany and they were absolutely crushed In 1830 there were more and two of them were successful which created the country of Belgium Why were France and Belgium able to have successful revolutions in 1830 They were as far as possible from Russia and AustriaDISTANCE By 183 0 the ruler of Russia was now Nicholas I who wanted to go all the way there and stop the revolution but it was too far In 1848 there would be even more revolutions except in Russia and Great Britain Metternich will last until 1848 Between 1814 and 1848 there is a competition between old and new ideals personified by these two men Napoleon and Metternich People often ask quotGiven the way that Metternich was trying to crush Napoleon s thinking and Napoleon s exile why didn t Metternich win Why didn t the old ways triumph the answer is that the Industrial Revolution came along Industrial Revolution What does it take to have an industrial revolution m human and animal energy is replaced by machine energy Second production begins to take place according to the factory simply a building with a machine inside method In the beginning the machines were small but then they got larger Finally after we get factories we begin to get urbanization around the factories So we begin to get the first cities milltowns factory towns and company towns Watt invents the first modern steam engine which turns the machine The good thing about the steam engine is that you don t need a river in order to have power m It was hard to move things along the land but things could be moved across water easily England not only was an island but it was also very at and had lots of rivers Because of this people could make barges to ship and move heavy things easier and cheaper Second since transporting iron ore and coal ingredients in iron is hard and expensive it was better for Britain because both iron ore and coal were placed closely together and were close to the surface This made it so much cheaper for them So far there are two lucky geographical reasons that gave Great Britain an advantage Third parliament understood the economic attitude of its people Every year the people got together for Partnership annually Partnership law made many people weary of investing because they were more afraid that they might lose everything than they were willing to put themselves out there to gain something The big deal is that Parliament created something called Limited Liability Law ifyou set up your business as a corporation investors are liable only for the amount ofmoney that they invested The British were first to develop this There was one university in Europe that taught engineering Edinborough in Scotland Almost every important English inventor went to this university So machines got their start in England The textiles created a small thing which changed a lot The invention of cheap cotton underwear made people smell less have less diseases happier etc Textiles and Metallurgy simply the process of making iron were becoming popular Eventually they developed a better iron Caste iron None of this changed the world until about 1827 Then in 1827 came the invention ofa railroad It took a while for the building of the railroad because you had to do a lot of things and it was expensive buy the land or get rights to it prepare the land build the rails and the cars and install it It took lot ofinvestors because no one person could afford this alone They did it as a corporation or limited liability In the 1830s and 1840s the railroads started to be built and this caused many changes both social and economic transportation communication Before the railroads peasants farmed things they needed only for subsistence and after the railroad they started farming for marketing reasons This turned their world upside down Now they needed a way to get their crops to the railroad station so they made roads now they can go places they couldn t before They then learned how to read because they had to read the signs to ship their stuff Then in order to pay for the shipping they had to learn how to count Now there is a new necessity to go to school They needed to know these things or they would get cheated and ripped off With the advent of the market the peasants not only owed time to the Village but also to the bigger world The railroad led to ridiculous amounts of changes This increased the middle class who were making their money buying and selling things This middle class did not believe in the rights of nobles Do you see now why Metternich and his best efforts will fail because of the industrial revolution Now there is a huge amount of what can be called Social thought In 1776 a British man named Adam Smith wrote quotWealth of Nations Adam Smith wrote this book as a specific attack on Mercantilism In fact he will argue that the best economy is one in which the government has no power whatsoever laissez Faire He argues that the economy would function better without the government because it is ruled by the Invisible Hand law of supply and demand The law of supply and demand will also govern labor Adam Smith said that quotsomeone s loss is also someone s gain INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONSOCIAL THOUGHT CLASS TITLE Adam Smith was the first thinker of the Industrial Revolution was talked about above and wrote quotWealth of Nations He attacked mercantilism and preached the law of supply and demand All of this was a real insistence on something new individualism This was the idea that idea that individuals could change their lives The opposite of individualism is socialism this meant that thinking of solutions that weren t individual but helped society as a whole Socialists wanted to put the emphasis back on society The workers had to work at the pace of the machine in the times of the early factories and it was about 1416 hours a day Sabot is the word for wooden shoe and some people would purposely break the machines with their shoe sabotage Thomas Malthus and David Ricardo were economists Malthus was not really an economist he was the first demographer He was the first person to study population and he discovered the great increase in population during the 18th century He issued a warning sign that said quotif we keep increasing the population at the rate we are doing and the agricultural output at the rate we are doing we are going to starve He was the first person to advocate population control Those people who wanted population control called themselves Malthusians David Ricardo WAS an economist He took Adam s teaching about laws of supply and demand and combined it with Malthus s ideas and created something called quotthe iron law ofwages This may be the most individualistic approach that the world has ever seen It is as follows a factory owner who pays his workers more than the minimum they need to stay alive is doing them a disservice Why Ifyou pay them more they will eat better and have more children which will push wages down when they enter the labor market Ifyou pay them more wages will pushed down anyway in the long run There is no aw in his argument This is why some socialists emerged who said there has to be a different solution The first of the greatest of these men was Henri of Saint Simon who posed the rhetorical question to European society quotIf all the kings and all the nobles and all the great landlords were suddenly carried away by some disease would that change our lives No But if all the inventors and economists and factory owners and machinery builders died would that change our world Absolutely He decided that the first thing they needed to do was make the opening of business easier He decided that they needed to create credit banks Despite what Adam Smith said government must intervene to prop up some companies quotToo big to fail Saint Simon also believed in free trade At this time the only country that believed in free trade was Great Britain Did mercantilism believe in big tariffs Yes Saint Simon said the more trade the better It will force people to get good at business and be competitive because they will be competing internationally Adam Smith believed in laissez faire Saint Simon thought that if the banks could not loan the money the government would have to Another of the socialists was a factory owner named Robert Owen He grew up in England He set up a model town in New Lanarck Scotland Every working family had a nice home and a small plot of land They were paid according to their productivity and were encouraged to work more than before This led to an increase to a demand in goods which improved the economy People began making money because they were productive The third Socialist Louis Blanc was concerned with economic cycles He said that during the down cycle there was going to be lots of unemployment Cycles would tend to keep going down because no one had the money to get out of them He wrote quotThe National Workshop which said that unemployment was not just an individual problem but also a social problem that needed to be solved through a social solution This social solution was to create national public works which were governmentsupported jobs that would put people back to work This will give them dignity and a little bit ofmoney which will help to get the economy going again This was considered a revolutionary idea and was never really tried until the 1930s under FDR Karl Marx was probably the most famous socialist although he was mostly wrong He was born in 1818 but no one heard anything about until 1848 30 years old With his close associate F Engels he wrote a 100page pamphlet called quotThe Communist Manifesto However the most important of Marx s writings was a 3volume set called quotDas Kapital The 1St volume appeared in 1867 Marx died in 1883 before he finished the rest ofit Engels published the 2nd volume in 1885 It was almost finished when Marx died and all Engels had to do was tidy it up a little The last volume was published in 1894 11 years after death and was based on notes Marx left behind This last 2 are kind of fuzzy Marx s teaching is incredibly complicated but cane be broken down easily into 2 parts He called his ideas dialectical materialism The first thing is that every society has an economy and for Marx that economy equals the material base of that society That is the base on which the rest of society is built He calls everything else superstructure which means what is built on top The things that are built on top include law social relations culture religion culture etc Ifyou change a society s material base how different will a society become Entirely different A society is a product ofits economic system The dialectic says that you can take a thesis and antithesis and let them collide with each other The outcome of this collision is something new called the synthesis The synthesis becomes the next thesis Marx said quotHistory is the story of economic systems passing through the dialectic There are examples of thesis antithesis and synthesis T primitive man had an economy of communism because they had to work together A the day that one caveman claimed the mammoth as his own private property S the societies of Greece and Rome slavery few winners and many losers The process continues until you get to capitalism and modern ideas In the 1700s and 1800s the thesis is no capitalism The idea was that capitalism generates too many losers Marx creates the word Proletariat to be used as the antithesis of capitalism He defined proletariat as the unskilled working class The synthesis of capitalism and proletariat according to Marx is perfect communism This is where everyone shares according to his ability to each according to his need Marx was not right but the socialists that he criticized were the ones who were correct WHERE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION LEAD COUNTRIES SPECIFICALLY Great Britain The last time that there had been any reform of Parliament was 1689 when the Glorious Revolution occurred Now this is more than 125 years later and nothing has changed Roughly 1 out of 8 adult males in Britain have the right to vote which is generous for Europe However it did not take into account the Britain had a middle class that wanted to vote but couldn t This is the basis for the argument that in 183 2 brings about the 1st reform of Parliament since 1689 which is called the First Reform bill This bill stated that a substantial number of the middle class gets the right to vote for the first time and there is a redistricting of the voting districts The man who headed up this first reform bill was a British aristocrat named Earl Grey He was the prime minister who led the 183 2 reform bill The next important change in Great Britain is going to happen in 1846 when something happens to the Corn Law which actually concerns wheat The Corn Law is a special law that had been passed in Great Britain to defend the interest of the landlords It guaranteed they would always make a profit on their wheat crop in the following way there was always a tax on foreign wheat to make local wheat cheaper This affected factory workers in the 1840s who had to pay their workers more because what became too expensive for workers to afford it so they could not eat The Corn Law was repealed by the new factory owners which allowed foreign wheat to be sold at a cheap er price This shows that the new factory owners are now more powerful than the old aristocracy Robert Peel in the 1820s before he became a national figure he established the first police force in London He later was the prime minister during the time that the Corn Law was repealed The policemen in London were called Peelers and then Bobbies Now the reason why this is important is because these are enormous political changes which are the benefit of the middle class France Louis XVIII brother of Louis XVI had the throne He tried to make at least some sort of accommodation for the revolution during his rule 181424 He made a lot of mistakes When he died and left behind no kids the last of the three brothers Charles X becomes king in 1824 They are all in the Bourbon family He thought he could turn the clock back and undo the things that the Revolution had accomplished in 1830 The French then had another Revolution called the Revolution of1830 It kicks the Bourbon family off the throne and a cousin named Louis Philippe D 0rleans He will be king from 18301848 He was unlike any king in France before He had not expected to be king because he was a cousin so he became a businessman before he was king He believed in change and employed Francois Guizot as his advisor Guizot was well versed in history and was a protestant In 1833 the two issued the Guizot Law that made every town build a primary school for boys and pay a teacher In 1842 they passed the Railroad Law that created a partnership between the government and the companies The government would get the land and prepare it in exchange for low prices on transportation and freight The French economy improved significantly because everyone was working However one problem existed the right to vote People wanted to vote and Guizot said that ifyou want to vote get rich Revolutions of 1848 were European wide except for Great Britain and Russia All of the German French Belgian and Italian countries all were in revolution The aftermath of these revolutions led to a whole different attitude on life There was a much more realistic approach to life and life after 1848 became tougher The most important scientific book of the 19th century was published in 1859 by Charles Darwin called The Origin of Species This led to the idea of survival of the fittest This kind of thinking associated with humans was later to be known as Social Darwinism Herbert Spencer is the most famous advanced the argument that Darwinism does not only apply to nature but also to people and countries The competition between states is called war and the winner is the fittest or better Racial theories come out of social Darwinism In the 1870s and 1880s two scientists named Robert Koch and Louis Pasteur came up with the idea that bacteria and viruses cause diseases This changed the whole approach to medicine Until the 20th century most people did not die from heart disease of cancer because they did not live long enough to get them Tuberculosis was the number one cause of death Pasteur created a way for people to drink milk through pasteurization Children became healthier from calcium Pasteur thought he had found a way to cure rabies and a young boy was bit by a rabid dog Pasteur gave a series of shots and the boy was able to live The German scientist Roentgen creates the Xray Pavlov begins experimenting with animals and proved social theories Sigmund Freud began to take these experiments much further He wanted to know how the mind works and about internal struggles He talked about the ego ID and the superego Some people slip into psychosis because ofa tragic event This changed the way people viewed the human mind The Xray machine relied on radiation Marie Curie and her husband Pierre began to investigate this whole process of radiation Albert Einstein studied the theory of relativity and mass Pope Pius the 9th was pope from 18461878 and the longest serving pope He called the first Vatican Counsel in 1870 and its result was the declaration of papal infallibility In 1864 he issued the Syllabus ofErrors that was the list of errors that began quotit is an error to believe in liberal ideas or all revolutionary ideas were condemned The last one is that the Pope and the Church should not accommodate themselves to the modern world Otto Von Bismarck was the man who unifies Germany He was serving as Prussia s ambassador to France when he was called home to be Prime Minister in 1862 The king was William the 1st of Prussia William was having a dispute with Prussia s parliament over the budget He said the great questions are not settled by speeches but by blood and iron Frederick Nietzsche was an in uential philosopher who wrote stories that people would be able to read and understand A book he wrote was called the Mad Men The point he makes it that if you believe in science then you don t believe in god and vice versa It is the IudeoChristian ethics that govern mans society and morals The question Nietzsche is asking can both of them exist If god was dead could you hold onto the same ideas brought by religion The Enlightenment left out the question of what is right The idea of what is right is left up to the people to decide In the 19th century there was a looming question pressing the Europe s great powers All of the Balkan territories and the Middle East were controlled by the Ottoman Empire The empire was becoming weaker and Greece won its independence in 1829 Other countries under the Turks attempted to do the same thing In the foreign ministries they knew the Ottoman Empire was going to collapse and what were they going to do about it They wanted to figure out how to slowly pick off pieces of the Ottomans In 1854 a war broke out between the Turks and Russia over the control of the Black Sea and the Straits that led into the Mediterranean This war changed a lot The first battle was a sea battle in 1854 and the Russians sank all the Turk vessels in the Black Sea If Russia controlled the Eastern Mediterranean then Great Britain s trade from India would be threatened When it was clear the Ottoman s were in trouble the French and the British join with the Turks The Russians knew since the other countries were industrialized they were going to lose Russia expects one country to side with them because they have been with them in other wars Austria Austria takes a look at the map and realizes that the war would be fought in Austria because it is in the middle LYNSEY S ITALY 1854 Crimean War Turkey Ottoman Empire vs Russia Started with a naval battle 0 Great Britain sided with Turkey so they could trade with India 0 French sided with Turkey because they had a lust for power 0 Austria decided to stay neutral the single greatest diplomatic mistake ofthe 19th century Louis Napoleon Bonaparte 0 Emperor calling himself Napoleon III French and British were so industrialized they could move troops and supplies faster 0 Russia had yet to build a railroad March 1856 war was OFFICIALLY over Russians said to the Austrians quotwe hope you get screwed over in every possible way and we will watch it happenquot everything bad WILL happen to Austria and Russia will sit back and clap Camilio Di Cavour Prime Minister of Piedmont Otto Von Bismarck Prime Minister of Prussia 0 Both understood what the Crimean War meant Austria is all alone and will no longer have help in preventing change in central Europe Napoleon III didn t grasp that France would not be able dictate the change In 1856 Camilio Di Cavour was already Prime Minister of Piedmont 0 Short near sighted but very smart Victor Emmanuel and Cavour had a great ambition to unify Italy 0 Briefly Italy was under the reign of Napoleon but he did not give it an independent status only ruled under the French empire Challenges Austria controlled part of Northern Italy Lombardy capital at Milan and Venetia capital at Venice 0 Cavour realizes he needs a great power to help Cavour secretly meets with Napoleon III at a French mineral spa in July 1858 0 France will help Piedmont conquer northern Italy from Austria and after that Piedmont will control all of northern Italy and be grateful to France Southern part of Italy called Kingdom of Naples will remain unchanged and so will the Papal states controlled by pope little countries in between them Parma Romania Tuscany etc 0 Join federation and be controlled by pope Napoleon thinks it s a good idea because he will get the credit glory 0 Pope power will be increased 0 Enlarged Piedmont will be grateful to France him In Italy there had been festering ideas about unification for a long time o More popular idea of unifying Italy 0 G Mazzini romantic dark charismatic figure quotItalians can rule the worldquot I Preached about unification 0 V Gioberti the world would be best off ifthe pope ruled the whole world papal state takes control I Was inspired by the pope o G Garibaldi long blonde hair saw himself as the next Caesar revolutionary Austrians send an army into Piedmont spring may of 1859 French blast the Austrian army June Lombardy is captured from the Austrians Looks like Austria is defeated all the little states want to join Piedmont and unify Italy In a years time Italy is created 1860 deal is done 0 Only thing that changed was Austria was all alone 6 great powers Great Britain France Austria Prussia Russia and now Italy In 1922 62 years after the unification Benito Mussolini comes into power 0 First ofthe Fascist things go bad from here 1861 Cavour comes down with the influenza doctors were not familiar with germs or diseases at this time o Called in 3 doctors each doctor quotbled him died due to the aide of his doctors o If he would not have died some mistakes would not have been made 1St mistake Piedmont so impressed of unifying Italy they imposed their political system on the rest of Italy 0 Italy was governed by people of Piedmont 2nd mistake all though the Italians thought to think themselves as a great sixth power they shouldn t have lacked natural resources iron from iron ore and coal 0 Iron had to be imported Italy produces olives grapes and cheese but not a lot of grain 0 Italy really couldn t feed itself had to import basic food Italy did not have enough people to be considered a great power 3rd mistake Italians felt they should require quotItalia Irrendentaquot did this to keep the peoples minds off of certain things in Italy 0 Italy built little schools etc so they turned their attention to other things war 1880 s and 1890 s troubles came Italians immigrated to the United States 0 Felt there was nothing for them in Italy so they moved After Cavour died poor leadership came about in Italy 0 Rulers made bribery a fine art G Giolitti embodied his corruptness not smart o Revered to as the quotBologni Sausag quot made up of half pork and donkey meat In the creation of Italy many countries disappeared from Italy Pius IX pope when Italy was created 0 Upset when he lost the Papal states and the city of Rome Issued a papal letter bull 1874 Expedit o If you have anything to do with this new Italian government you may go to hell talking to Catholics o Longest reining pope 1846 78 Pius was succeeded by Leo XIII 1878 1903 In 1886 issued his own papal letter called Non Licet o Went further than Expedit not you may go to hell but you WILL go to hell if you have anything to do with the new Italian government Dilemmas for Catholics do we follow the pope or the government 1929 popes make peace with Italian government Government acted just as harshly Built a statue that the pope could see outside of his window 0 G Bruno burned at stake thought there were other worlds outside of space Italians looked for something else some immigrated to the United States the other option was to find quot 39 U in Italy Italian Socialist Party 0 Claimed it could make Italy better Leader of the Italian Socialist Party A Labriola 0 Smart dull 0 Had a newspaper Avanti meant forward 0 Charismatic young editor ofthe newspaper Mussolini 1914 Mussolini was perhaps the most popular man in Italy Germany Never unified Romans tried but failed Germany is a geographic expression part of Europe where people speak German 1815 39 countries in Germany 0 2 major ones Austria Habsburgs and Prussia Hohenzollern 0 Medium Saxony and Bavaria In Prussia ruler is William 39 Prime Minister is Otto Von Bismarck 0 To unify Germany they must first defeat Austria problem they would also have to defeat Russia 0 Bismarck has 2 problems Austria and France 0 Number of advantages Bismarck was tallheavy viewed as a giant Gloried in physical activity Fluent in different languages 0 Was an ambassador where he made friends with the Russians transferred to Paris learned about Napoleon I Learned a secret Napoleon had a terrible illness kidneybladder stones 0 No treatment had to live off of drugs I Bismarck knows that Napoleon will only act on things unless he HAS to Telegram to Bismarck when he s in Paris written in French and Latin Periculum Latin DANGER in Mora moratorium means to delay danger in delay Depeschez vous French hurry up 1862 Bismarck becomes Prime Minister of Prussia o Goes before the parliament budget committee and says quotthe great questions of the day are not settled by speeches or majority resolutions they are settled by blood and ironquot 1871 shows this GERMANY Lecture from March 18 2010 The unification of Italy excited similar hopes in quotGermanyquot However Germany had different problems than Italy had Italy was one religion while Germany was almost evenly divided between Catholics in the south and Protestants in the north Southern Germany was dominated by Austria and Northern Germany was ruled by Prussia There were not a lot of things to pull Germany together For trade southern Germany used the Danube River while northern Germany used different rivers There were also still 39 German states Austrians wanted to keep things the way they were because they didn t want to lose any power The ruler in Austria was Franz Josef Habsburg The ruler in Prussia was Wilhelm von Hohenzollern 1861 He immediately got into an argument with parliament about taxes In 186 2 in an effort to overcome resistance against him he called Otto van Bismarck This man was very smart and forceful and was the Prussian ambassador to France and later the Prussian Prime Minister The Prussian Parliament was bypassed by Bismarck s rule The Prussians obeyed and started to pay the taxes Bismarck believed that he could go to war and win wars and therefore persuade the population that what he had done was alright It was justified by his winning of wars In other words this is a remarkable example of force rather than law and a perfect example of the very different attitude that comes after the publication ofa very important book by Charles Darwin entitled quotOn the Origin of the Species Bismarck began fighting a war against Denmark in the 1864 Danish War He noticed that he was already much more popular than he had been before the war In 1866 Bismarck decided it was time to take on Austria in the Austro Prussian War People had long expected this war but it had not taken place for many reasons One reason was the Crimean war in 1854 in which they would have had to fight Russia as well The second reason was France because they didn t want a strong power along their borders so they would have put up a huge fight Bismarck knew that the current ruler of France Napoleon III was sick and wouldn t go to war He knew this was a window to accomplish his goals because he thought he could attack Austria without interference from Russia and France He wanted to take the chance So in 1866 Bismarck went to war against Austria From the outside the predictions by almost everyone were that this war would be long and that it would result in both Austria and Prussia being exhausted These predictions were extremely wrong The key battle was the Battle of Sadowa The war only lasted six weeks and Prussia won an overwhelming victory Austria did not embrace the Industrial Revolution and build railroads you need these for war to move troops and supplies When the war was over one thing happened to Bismarck and one thing was done by Bismarck and they are both really important When the news about the Prussian victory got back to Berlin the Prussian Parliament was in session and they passed the Indemnity bill in July of 1866 This bill made Bismarck whole and it said quotwe know you broke the law collecting taxes and that you have insulted us but you just won 2 wars and we forgive you This moment in July of 1866 is exactly where the Germans went off track and they decided that the only thing that mattered was victory He won over his critics not by doing what was right but by bringing home victory The thing that Bismarck did was thinking that he may need Austria in the future He took nothing from Austria He simply took all of the rest of Germany and created a country called the North German Confederation Everyone knew that this name didn t actually mean this it simply meant Prussia HE didn t take anything from Austria because he wanted to keep them as potential friends As of 1866 there are only 5 German countries Austria Baden Bavaria Wiirttemberg and Prussia but Bismarck won t be happy until he has all of them If he wants the countries to join with him he had to make the other countries feel that they are fighting for something bigger than themselves He realizes that France would not support this unification He wants to figure out how to fight against France In Spain in 1868 the Spanish overthrew Isabella the II They went looking for someone to replace her and found Leopold von HohenzollernSigmaringen He is a relative of the King of Prussia and is a catholic Wilhelm was the leader of the Hohenzollern family and Bismarck said that they wanted Leopold to become king of Spain so that France would be caught in the middle of the Hohenzollern Wilhelm replied to Bismarck that Leopold was an idiot Leopold ends up accepting the Spanish Candidacy At this moment Napoleon III knew that he had to act He decided to work on William about Leopold not being the smartest and all of this begins to play out at a Prussian mineral water resort called Ems in July 1870 Napoleon sent Benedetti to convince William that Leopold isn t fit for a ruler William withdrew his permission for Leopold to become King The French then thought that they could get more than they could and this was a mistake The French sent Benedetti back a second time It wasn t about Leopold this time but they wanted William to promise that no Hohenzollern would ever seek the throne of Spain William says no and each go back to file a report William s report is called the Ems Dispatch Bismarck reads it and changes the wording and makes it seem like it ended badly The effect of this was the Franco Prussian War in July of 1870 In will end in a victory for Prussia and Bismarck will add Bavaria Baden and Wiirttemberg to what he has already won and he will call this Germany in January of 1871 In less than 9 years Bismarck has fought 3 wars and turned Germany from 39 countries to 2 Austria still exists Germany was unified in the face of force The first thing he did in the new Germany was creating a new constitution At the head of the new Germany was the office of the emperor or Kaiser Whoever was King of Prussia would be German Kaiser William becomes Kaiser William the 1t Beneath the Kaiser is the office of the chancellor or the prime minister Bismarck becomes the chancellor Under them was the Bundesrat and the Reichstag which were elected by the universal male suffrage for only the second country However this twohouse legislature really did not have much power compared to the chancellor and the Kaiser This system of government will work reasonably well if two things are true first if you have someone with Bismarck s ability of chancellor then the government will work Second the Kaiser and the chancellor will have to work together William becomes Kaiser in 1871 and lives until 1888 When he dies his son Frederick the 3ml come to power he got throat cancer and died only 3 months after his dad This brought to the throne Frederick s son William the 2 who is going to be Kaiser form June 1888 until Germany is defeated in WWI in 1918 He was kind of cocky and thought he knew better than Bismarck The chancellor only answers to the Kaiser and in the early spring of 1890 William dismissed Bismarck Germany was the single most powerful country in the world and had the best army and the second best navy in 1914 This was dangerous because Germany was governed by a lunatic In 1871 Bismarck was pressed by his general to take from France a piece of territory from the border between France and the New German for strategic reasons Those areas were called AlsaceLorraine In 1871 AlsaceLorraine was taken by Germany for strategic purposes In 1870 Germany and Britain were roughly even in terms ofiron production By 1890 Germany was way ahead By 1914 Germany was ahead of any two countries put together They had no idea what they were getting when they took AlsaceLorrain in 1871 This combo ofiron and steel boosted industrialization and encouraged Germans to produce bigger and better weapons The Germans spent more time training their people in science than anyone else They learned this from the British BACK TO BRITAIN lecture from March 23 2010 There was general rejoicing when George IV finally dies He was succeeded by his brother William IV 18307 who was known as the Sailor King He was in many ways a perfect example of a good British king because two years into his reign in 1832 he was confronted with the decision of whether or not to support reform He supported it very strongly He died childless in 1837 and the throne was taken by Victoria 18371901 She ended up having the second longest postrevolution reign She would marry a prince from one of the 39 German states Prince Albert They had lots of children but Albert died of typhoid fever Victoria lives so long that her eldest son Edward VII becomes king when he is 60 years old Later his son George V will become king All of these people reigned but they did not rule Instead al of the action was in parliament which has taken over completely The dominant power was the Prime Minister Lord Palmerston After he dies Gladstone and Disraeli became powerful afterwards Gladstone was said to be a deeply religious liberal who gave extremely long lectures At night he went out in the street to convert prostitutes to Christianity By contrast there was Disraeli who was the son ofa converted Jew and conservative Disraeli was thought ofnot as the son ofa former Iew but as just a good Englishmen Disraeli did not have any money and politics cost a lot so he set about to make a reputation that would make it possible for him to get into politics he wrote novels and he married a much older widow who had a lot of money He dressed outrageously in very bright colors and had a weird goatee To give you an illustration of the difference between the two men lets look at one distinct moment Gladstone was chosen to speak for the liberal party and Disraeli was chosen to speak for the conservative party When Gladstone got up he talked FOREVER Then Disraeli stood up and told a joke When Palmerstone dies in 1865 the way is cleared for those two men to try to make their mark They both agreed what needed to be done They knew that further reform of the political process was needed In 1866 Gladstone offered a reform bill that would give the vote to most of the rest of the middle class and it failed because Disraeli rallied everybody against it that he could Then he turned around and offered a more radical reform bill 1867 Reform Bill Not only did it give the right to vote to all of the rest of the middle class in Britain it also gave the right to vote to the upper levels of the working class Both Disraeli and Gladstone wanted to do things to make Britain better As Prime Minister Gladstone pushed through a lot of changes that will remind you of Napoleon s meritocracy in France There were significant reforms in education military and the process of the courts All of these things made Britain a much more equal and free country Gladstone turned to a troubling issue for Great Britainthe problem ofIreland Ireland the isle off England and Scotland had been treated very badly by the British Ireland was overwhelmingly catholic and in 1689 the year of the Glorious Revolution in Great Britain William and Mary took over the English throne and kicked out the Stuarts Ireland supported the Stuarts for a while and because of this William and Mary treated the Irish very badly The Church of the Irish was a protestant church made up of English and Scottish landlords and no matter if the Irish were Protestant or Catholic they still had to contribute to the Irish Church This wasn t very nice especially for the Catholics in Ireland Gladstone disassembled the Irish Church Disraeli followed him as prime minister and he concentrated on foreign affairs because he though Gladstone had done enough domestically In the 1890s it became Gladstone s most important desire to fiX England s relationship with Ireland and Scotland He wanted to give to Ireland the right to rule themselves The problem was that the northern part of Ireland is where the Protestants lives and the rest of Ireland was 99 Catholic If you gave Ireland the right to rule themselves the Catholics would treat the Protestants badly Power then shifted to Disraeli s successor Robert Cecil Lord Salisbury who created the world s largest empire He created the idea that Great Britain with the power of the empire could stand alone and live in quotsplendid isolation He thought that Britain didn t need to be part of any alliance and didn t even need to know that was going on anywhere else in the world The proof that Salisbury might be wrong came when there was revolt in South Africa It was a war between the British who wanted to control the area and the Dutch settlers This came to be called the Boer war It will last from 1899 until 1902 It was the uprising of the Boers Dutch Settlers against the British in South Africa It turned out to be one of the most ugly wars in the 19th century because of the nasty tactics The Boers engaged I guerilla warfare against the British The British responded by creating the concentration camp They rounded up the wives and children of the Boer settlers until the Boers surrendered It took three years for them to stop What upset the British more than anything else was the fact that almost the entire world was rooting for the Boers The Labour Party 3ml party aimed toward working class was founded in 1893 because there had been a third reform bill 1884 under Gladstone that said that every adult male had the right to vote Now the working class begins to wake up to the fact that they do have rights and they are going to try to exercise them The world is changing and the Boer war made the British wake up in a hurry to recognize these changes and what they meant The British then decided to do something they had never done in all of their history sign a peacetime alliance in 1902 This alliance is with Japan Japan was the new emerging power in Asia and the British were afraid that there might eventually be war By the terms of this alliance each of the two agreed that if the other is engaged in a war with a third country the other will remain neutral If however either of the two countries is involved in a war with two other powers then Britain and Japan would fight together as allies Then two years later in 1904 Britain signed is first European peacetime arrangement The Entente Cordiale In 1904 Britain and France signed this It basically means quotThe Friendly Understanding It began in 1904 as an arrangement of empires Over the neXt ten years it becomes much more a solid military alliance between Britain and France in 1914 It is impossible to say how different Britain s foreign policy was so rapidly Before 1902 it was splendid isolation post 1902 the British were rounding up allies as fast as they could There would also be enormous domestic change which came along with the development of the Labour Party so there are now three parties Can any of these rule alone In 1905 there is an election victory by the liberals and the Labour party standing together They called themselves LibLabs under the prime Ministership of Henry CampbellBannermann H Asquith takes over quickly though and this is the guy that he wants us to remember Asquith was a liberal but he knew that the whole principle behind his entire election victory was the alliance with the Labour party so he had to give the laborers something that they wantedentitlements In 1909 David LloydGeorge who was secretary of treasury or Chancellor of the Exchequer announced that the LibLab Alliance would be creating the People s Budget This would provide the working class was a social security plan sickness and accident insurance TaXing the rich would pay all of this for This creates a serious problem the British Constitution is not written down because it is only a set of traditions The House of Commons had the control of the money bill and the House of Lords had no Right to it In 1910 the rights of the House of Commons and Lords were written on paper The 4th reform bill was passed in 1910 and it said that if the House of Commons passed a budget bill and the Lords had no right to it The second part said that the House of Lords could defeat any bill other than a budget bill twice but ifit is passed a third time by Commons it automatically is instated Lords did not want this reform bill at all but something happened Edward VII was succeeded by George V George V told the House of Lords that if they would not go for the reform bill then he would appoint enough people to that House that he knew would approve the bill They ended up just approving the bill Now that dealt with the laborers Now we have to please Ireland Asquith tries to pass the Home Rule thing that Gladstone tried to do The Protestants and Catholics both started to arm themselves because they thought there would be Civil War in Ireland Then war broke out over the entire war so they decided to postpone all the fighting amongst themselves and stand together FRANCE Lecture from March 25 2010 Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was born in 1808 and was a nephew of the original Napoleon Bonaparte He was not head of the family the head was Napoleon s only legitimate son Born in 1812 who died at the age of 20 of tuberculosis When that boy died Louis Napoleon Bonaparte the eldest of the nephews became head of the family He had spent most of his life in exile and spoke a lot oflanguages In 1840 he was arrested and was confined in a political prison and while he was there he wrote a book called Napoleonic Ideals In that book he wrote all the wonderful things that could have happened if his uncle would have been allowed to remain on the throne in France He continued to write how awesome it would be if he became leader of France In 1848 he was elected president of the revolutionary regime called the 2 1 Republic It wasn t long until he started to call himself an emperor and he changed his name to Napoleon III He would be emperor from 185 2 until 1870 He took part in a lot of foreign policy during his reign He also had kidney and bladder stones and in 1873 he agreed to have an operation to fiX this but he died on the operating table at 65 years old What did he do other than foreign policy He was one of the first rulers that was well read Henri De Saint Simon is long dead but his followers were called SaintSimonians He advocated credit government intervention in the economy how public works can help during bad times and he believed in free trade When Louis quotisquot Napoleon III and he got to do whatever he wanted the first thing he did was appoint Michel Chevalier as the Ministry of Treasury Together the two of them put the ideas of Saint Simon to work and were very successful One of the first things they did was setting up government credit banks because the banks were not willing to lend easily This revved up the economy Later the French and the British would sign the ChevalierCobden agreement that eliminated tariffs with Great Britain Eventually France would sign similar agreement with 11 other countries They were basically just trying to set up free trade which was good because it would allow them to get the best product and would rev up competition The government in order to stimulate trade encouraged all the shipping and railroad companies to cooperate so transportation would be cheaper The French economy between 1852 and 1870 was on a tremendous run Napoleon III was also known for doing things for which he would be remembered Paris was a medieval city with no sewage system poor drinking water and insufficient roads He wanted to completely renovate Paris and turned to E Haussmann and they changed Paris forever The first thing they did was tear down old building and build new ones that would let the light and air in the second thing they did was set up parks through the city On either end of Paris Napoleon had huge forests planted He then connected pipes to wells aqueducts and rivers that allowed Paris to be the first city with clean drinking water He also wanted to find a way to get rd of water and interviewed the pioneers of human hygiene A man came to Napoleon and said quotyou found Paris stinking and left it sweet Paris became the first city in the world with a sewage system The neXt thing he did was adding lights throughout the city and now Paris is called The City of Lights The most famous building was the famous opera building built by C Gardner He was another man who came from nothing to become the most famous architect in Europe Napoleon makes secondary schools open for girls and this is the first time that women have the opportunity for a higher education Napoleon III s regime is called the Second Empire If there had not been a FrancoPrussian war or a Bismarck Napoleon III would go down as one of the greatest emperors of all time Napoleon III is overthrown and that is why he is not considered one of the greatest rulers but he should What happens after he is gone He surrenders on September 2 1870 to the Prussians On the 4th of September France became a Republic forever FRANCE AS A REPUBLIC lecture still on the 25th The New regime is called the 3ml Republic Under Prime Minister I Ferry France was going to do two things under foreign and domestic policy The first was the Ferry Laws that go in effect in 1881 and 1882 will create the pattern of primary education and will be imitated everywhere First every boy and girl would HAVE to go to school and it would be paid for by the government The second thing is that there cannot be any religion in the schools This will become the pattern or template for education in America By 1914 the best estimate for literacy in France GB and Germany was 98 percent The invention of the rotary press is the way books newspapers and magazines are pressed today This invention really made things cheaper People began to read them and they got more interested in politics The French took a lot of territory from Indochina which includes Vietnam Cambodia and Laos primarily for rice and natural rubber Imperialism The type of campaigning done today was started in France Before George Boulanger campaigning was done via posters and he created whistle stop campaigning You get a local motive and a caboose pull into the nearest town and you give a little speech from the train and you do the same in the neXt town The building of more railroads and literacy increases allows for this to happen The Dreyfus Affair In 1790 France was the first country to give universal male suffrage In France Iews had ourished and in 1890 there was about 80000 Jews in France out ofa population of 38 million people In France during the 18th century 10 Iews had made it to the rank of general and there was no Iewish general in the rest of the world Russia was issuing a program which is state taxes on Jews and the Jews started to ee These Iews had no ability to assimilate in Russia so the Hew that had been in France for a long time were undetectable The new Jews that arrived stood out and did not fit in with the new society People used them as a target Even though France was the place where Jews were the freest there was still some antiSemitism It is in this conteXt that we talk about the Dreyfus affair In 1894 French intelligence became aware that someone was passing secrets to France Dreyfus came to the attention of the intelligence agency and they began an investigation of him because his handwriting bore a superficial resemblance The press got leak of the investigation and it made headlines The fact that he was a Jew made it even more sensational They brought him to trial and he was convicted in September of 1894 He is surprised that he is guilty and he is sentenced to Devil s Island The rationale for convicting Dreyfus as far as the army was concerned was that they thought that he was guilty although they couldn t prove it Once Dreyfus was on Devil s Island some people in the army and some of his family worked hard to try to get his name cleared Lt Picquart who was an antisemite himself but cared more about the truth and his own brother Mathieu Dreyfus were eventually able to clear him Is there another country in the world where Dreyfus could have been cleared NO the point is that France was an open and secular society The open society was becoming the norm and other people are going to copy


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