FRANCE SINCE 1770
FRANCE SINCE 1770 HIST 4022
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Date Created: 10/13/15
012114 Journeymen would go from town to town learning how to make shoes differently When they found a place were they could make their own way they would apply to other masters to open a shoe shop would produce a pair of shoes to show them what they could do would produce a masterpiece and they would let him open the shop so they guild system was rigid but people within it would have to adapt Below them there were the urban workers those who made the unskilled work collect sewer garbage etc the most interesting people were the bourgeoisie are the professional large scale commercial people the bankers etc they are the ones who are most anxious for change They are making money and are usually much smarter than the nobles cause they had to go to school and learn their skills Sometimes they make a lot of money yet they are not privileged and would like to become noble they don t want to destroy the system they want to become part of it The nobles have privilege If you39re convicted of a capital crime you39re beheaded if not noble you39re hanged Nobles are simply different from commoners 23 They originated when there were barbarian invasions they are the one who got privileges because they provided protection Noble shared this privileges with the ruler or the king The ruler was merely the most powerful noble The ruling family was so powerful there was no question about who would rule In some parts women could rule in others they couldn t nobles have more power the weaker the king is What they share is the idea that their power is based on birth the clergy is less than 1 Rule archdiocese etc control a lot of money they39re divided in parishes controlled by priests By tradition the pope bishops and archbishop when the king was super powerful he could force gacclicanism he would not appoint someone who was inappropriate but he would appoint someone who would be of service This does not mean they king rules the church but has power over it the bourgeoisie find themselves in the middle middle class their families were peasants or artisans if they family continues to make good they get to be middle class They39re trying to distinguished themselves from their origin When they make a lot of money they want to progress into nobility Number of ways to do so URADEL 1600s nobles who could not produce a document cause they were so old brief adel those who could produce document showing they were nobles 1700s Nobility matter the most of all How can a middle class family get into nobility The wealthy could buy it from the king Very few families could do so More common middle class bourgeoisie family sold their business and bought land and began living nobly vivre noblement They make money by renting out their land They begin adopting noble airs most common way to become noble is to take advantage of venality Venal office buying the office Related to corruption Venality was common in France Venal office was quite common before the revolution None of these offices carried nobility except certain judicial offices People who had enough money and wanted to appeal a case would appeal it to the parlement each district is called a ressort The biggest was the most important There are 13 of them These positions were all for sale you could only buy them if you had a law degree Way to get nobility cause if you bought one of these positions and you paid a tax on that amount of money your family would be noble so all generations would have to pay the tax the old nobility or the noblesse de sang de l39eper of blood and sword noblesse de robe they discovered the new noblesse de robe were valuable because they had gone to law school and began arguing judicial precedent back in the old day the parlement had the right to register a king39s decree can go into effect it had to be agreed to by the parlement it affects A way to challenge king The parlement began giving king trouble governments spend more than they take in how do you cover the difference Government sale bonds to cover it Bonds didn t have an expiration point like they do now In France a government obligation is a quotrentequot rentier someone who can live entirely enough of dividends and interests quotrente perpetuellequot they pay you a small percentage until they can pay back all your investment Problem if you keep running deficit In an effort to save more money the French started offering an annuity you39re going to bet on you living put down 1000livre you would get 8 so 80livre until you die but they would never pay back your investment They all offer annuity on the same basis If you live for a long time it works out to your benefit Unfortunately life span only went up during the 19th cent so the quottontinequot is a special version of a rente viagere Tontines were the source of great crimes People would get together and would pay it off to the group until the last one died 18th cent was constant warfare1700 War of Spanish succession 1720s then the one of Polish succession 174048 Austrian succession 175663 seven year war etc the basic tax is called the quottaillequot a tax on the person in some part of France in others it was on the land owned There was no consistency Everyone had to pay it except nobility Everyone had to pay the indirect taxes like the tax on salt transportation etc nobles were wealthier and owned most of the land as the clergy so the govt lost out on money because they couldn t tax them and the war was being expensive the Bourbon family Henri IV his son Louis 161043become the king L XI The cousins the Orleans the cadet line which would take over if the direct line died out The head of the Orleans line was the duc d39orleans Richelieu understood there was a lot of danger and had to take the example of Great Britain of their Parliament The french version was the etats generaux estates general Two houses the house of clergy first estate nobles second estate and commons third In 1614 they met only once under the ruling of Louis because Richelieu didn t want them infringing on the power of the king The king had become absolute he had the power to make law and no one had that power r to stop it Louis XIV most famous king completed the process of absolutism One of his ways was to create Versailles It was the center of royal power and culture Louis would give no favor to a family unless the head of the family resided in V for 6 months out of the year which would weaken them since they wouldn t be able to be around their own people Louis mistake was that he thought he could go to war and win them all After the first war which L won other countries began ganging up together against France He lost the last two wars because they came to a draw but he lost lots of money and lots of men When he died in 1715 Louis XV 5yo he was very talented but very lazy He permitted the noblesse de robe to Lit de Justice bed ofjustice permitted the nobility to make in rows to absolutism He blew up and realized his mistake and called in Mapeou who wanted to create a new court staffed with people appointed by the king The Parlement and those who sat on them recognize the Mapeou court was a threat L XV had an attraction to young girls who were brought to Versailles and an underground press began publishing news about this and his reputation plummeted In 1774 he died and he was so hated that it was thought impossible to take his coffin through Paris so they took it through an alternate route and as he was passing by people screamed at him Outlived his son so his grandson becomes king grandson in 1770 when he was 16 he was married to Austrian princess 15 yo Marie Antoinette Louis suffered from something and couldn t have sex You39re supposed to produce an heir It was now possible to say anything now so people started talking about Louis He was well meaning MA was a child People told Louis to bring back the parlement 012314 Louis XVI becomes king in 1774 not very intelligent He might have made a good ruler Salic law denied right of throne to women When he becomes king he wants to be loved A king needs to be feared The best way to be loved is to get rid of Mapeou courts and bring back Versailles Celebrated for a few years He began to have children with M A and all three children seemed well Looming problems intellectual movement end of 1600s into the French revolution the Enlightenment More figures in France than everywhere else like Rousseau Diderot Montesquieu Voltaire D39alembert taken as a whole the enlightenment put all ideas in accepted verities under microscope of reason everything not reasonable was wrong The most important thing under attack was the church It attacked anything that seemed unreasonable religion above all The Encyclopedia was the book most attacked edited by Diderot It was the effort by the people of the Enlightenment or the philosophes How did it affect the average person Hardly at all Social contract a book Couldn t be published in France they worked hard to publish it they could sell it without being seen When Diderot engineered the first set of Encyclopedia he went to Switzerland where he wouldn t have so many problems 789 we still know how many copies were sold during this time population of France varies from 2729 mill by the time of the French Revolution About 15 adult males 15 adult females and rest were children 175089 around 10 000 copies sold Number of people influenced by Enlightenment was small Only influenced some members of nobility and bourgeoisie and a big number of the clergy It would appeal the most to the bourgeoisie because they wanted change but didn t have money to get into the nobility The revolution would open the doors to those people Before the revolution not many have read the Social Contract after the revolution it was being read on the street The key idea in the Social Contract is the general will society should be governed by the general will Rousseau said the general will is the people would do if they only knew what to do They must then make the rest of society to follow them to the general will Example Adolf Hitler Lenin Temperatures began to improve around 1740 we know because the govt Louis XIV created bureaucracy in the modern form They kept track of the grain trade and the harvest The lack of food generates disorder Another good record is the number of children turned into foundling hospitals abandoned children Because below a certain level of nutrition women have problem conceiving above that level they39re more fertile The increase in grain brought increase in birth after 1740 potentially dangerous situation The weather hasn t gotten better permanently although population has increased The French national debt was manageable when L XV took over But when the American colonists revolt the British French saw a way of getting the British back due to the 7 year war where France lost Canada to G Britain Lafayette urged the king to support American cause and sent a large number of troops and 1783 when the British surrendered it gave Americans their independence And the fleet blockading the British from resupplying etc were under the command of admiral De grasse It cost a lot of money Taxes didn t bring a lot of money for both countries but for France it was bad Roughly a third of tax revenue was going to pay the debt service interest of debt The figures of the national debt were huge L is told that he is facing bankruptcy They must begin rapid economy says reduce expenditure in Versailles which only amount 6 of the budget Spending 13 in interest 13 in navy In a time of peace We could try to develop the economy beginnings of industrial revolution in France In 1789 there were no watts style steam engines Another possibility declare bankruptcy if done people would buy bonds again Only one thing to do tax the privileged the taille Calonne 1786 said that they should gather those clergy people who wanted change call them assembly of nobles and ask them to make sacrifice for the good of the state The assembly met in feb 1787 and were sympathetic to the idea of paying the direct tax but they have also been influenced by American R so they wanted no taxation without representation So the assembly comes to nothing So now he39s going to impose the taxes by decree So the parlement the courts said no they would be the ones to register the decree and wouldn t do it he has entered a political crisis because something else came first the fiscal crisis The king is looking for a way out he is reduced to he calls a meeting of the estates general which hadn39t been done in 175 years Anyone who was literate realized the debt was a political crisis No king would call it if the situation was bad The three estates clergy nobility and commons had met separately with about 300 members for each with one vote for each house How many votes 3 less than 3 has to outvoted 98 of population Pamphlet writing period began People who wanted change settled upon two demands of the king 1 there be a doubling of the third commons and 2 vote by head and not state So there would be only 1 house and not3 change for L XVI to take control if he had been smart he would have emerged as the leader of reform movement which would make him a national leader he only had to endorse this He said double the third but not vote by head Apart from this there was an economy crisis going on as well harvest of 1788 was one of the worst Rain wouldn t let the harvest grow and was so small it guaranteed starvation scal crisis Political crisis Economic crisis To make it even worse the winter was the worst 1789 everyone knew a crisis was building and it reached its peak late spring early summer because that s when the food ran out The elder son of L and MA dies How can it get any worse How were the threes chosen clergy told to pick 300 representatives the chose all the bishops and archbishops the other half was parish priests who were different men from worldly former men latter were more open to change nobility told to choose 300 and met by provinces and practically every member chosen were deeply conservative men and the exception were told if they didn t vote like the majority they would recall their position and put someone else in their place commons every household had a vote and if there weren39t men left the woman had a vote Those elected at the lowest level of society the great bulk they would go to the nearest meeting medium size town and would gather to choose someone to go to the larger towns and there the actual representatives 600 would be chosen So they had indirect elections Who got elected Anybody at the village level some at medium size town who gets elected at the highest level The person who speaks Lawyers are the ones who get chosen because they speak well The B class lawyers How representative of the commons are the 600 who go to Versailles Not in any way There were no peasants or artisans Those who went were unrepresentative of those they represented At each stage of election of the third They had to write a quotcailler de doceancesquot The representative of the commons were overwhelming the few people exposed to enlightenment Sense of foreboding as everyone knew the economy was in shambles For the outset leader of the commons made trouble They refused to identify themselves and work from around the countryside alarming reports of riots and people are beginning to use the term La grande peur The great fear People are moving to other villages looking for food those in those villages are terrified of incoming There39s chaos and no one knows how to end it king told by advisors he had to stop all this and when the representatives go to their meeting doors are locked ts close to 600 people trying to meet near Versailles Found an indoor tennis court And they all get in there wet and angry and propose a motion of writing the constitution and not disband until done so Everyone but one votes for it King calls a meeting in the largest meeting hall in Versailles told they had to go to their separate halls and one member of the third estate says they won39t unless under threat of cannon King says he would let them stay since he was so weak A clear majority is for change And first thing they do is change their name from etats generaux now they are the assemblee nationale national assembly In Paris by the july 12 no bread was found anywhere Crowds began to gather day and half of bread lack and by the end of second day people began to ask what39s going to happen to them They thought they would send an army to them so they needed to get weapons which they could do in Bastille They sieged it as there were not many soldiers When the crowd was able to storm the Bastille they took the commander and others and killed them And distributed the arms and ammunition Power of king was broken One of the people witnessing this was LaRouche asked to see the king and told him about the Bastille 14 of july is 39 39 39 as an 39 39 day in France The fall of bastille didn t mean the revolution won but it was underway Aug 4 majority privileges disappeared special rights disappeared Every tradition went down the drain And sat down to write the beginning of the constitution and called them of declaration of the rights of men and citizens He tells all the privileges or rights AND duties You re a citizen you39re not a sujet but a citoyen 040214 1789 year of violence crisis L XVI converted into constitutional monarch without constitution National assembly wants to get its way It abolishes all privileges Third state and some of the lesser clargy outvote them and begin to write constitution which reads like the bill of rights but also includes duties The national assembly makes people citoyen they participate a sujet merely obeys No one knew where this would go until october heavy rains prevented food deliveries to paris Women are the ones to go to the bread shops and there was no bread emotion boiled over and the women decided to tell the king how they felt They marched 18 miles to Versailles 1520 thousand people showed up There is a river between Paris and Versailles and there39s only one bridge made of wood so it could be destroyed if mob came they couldn t even destroy it showing how inept L was Lafayette intervened hid royal family until the worst of demonstration was over Royal family had to make concession for opinion which sealed their fate The October days brought the king and national assembly where it took 6 hrs for mob to gather And so the October goes down as how the king was weak Those who paid more attention to it where the ones out for change Those from Breton gather around of advanced opinion where they thought changes had to take place After they moved to Paris they met up at old abandoned monastery and renamed themselves the society of the friend of the French revolution They shortened name to Jacobins like the monastery where they met They would insist upon changes and pushed the national assembly a little further In 179091 national assembly was trying to write constitution First french const issued in dec of 91 it went into effect piece meal What it did was accomplish a lot of things kings failed to do in the past as no more internal terrorism Standardized weight and measures that didn t mean everybody did it but in practice they were supposed to be standardized It changed the pieces of lands divided the country in more or less equal departments as administrative units which were supposed to be somewhat small around 80 of them The capital of each should be no more than days ride from everywhere Each dept is also divided into cantons further divided into districts And those into townships commune at each one of these levels elections were prescribed Elections there was to be a single house legislation called unicameral made up of 750 members lots so they39d be closer to the electors a king L XVI elections would need the approval of both The procedures women not considered capable of voting men were to be divided in active citizens right to vote and passive had the right to rights Roughly 23 of all adults male would be able to vote which was revolutionary It doesn t solve the problem of the debt though Here is where it goes wrong The problem of the debt ran into the problem of the enlightenment and those elected the property of the church was to be put at the disposal to pay the debt Good idea cause the estimate of the church land was close to the amount of the debt How would the church survive The govt would take up the responsibility of paying clergy and the upkeep Although the church could have lived with it The national assembly because priests were now employees of the state had to take an oath bishops and priest had an oath to god though and they should be elected Priest and bishops to be elected it would mean that those believers and others could have the the right to vote if they were active citizens The church couldn t live with this And this act passed in 1790 civil constitution of the clergy passed by a small majority Those priests who swore oath to constitutions removed from parishes and would be nonjurying priests This cuts france in 2 almost right away people began to divide in revolutionaries and counterrevolutionaries Revolutionaries happy about what39s happening Counter not happy The more the govt does the more it changes It creates polarization and the middle which is vital for peace gets smaller and smaller The number of counters was small after july 1790 it increased civil constitution The govt also created a new paper money assignat polarization will drive the revolution and in June of 1790 before the new constitution goes into effect L and family attempt to escape In the end the only lover who MA had the ambassador of Sweden arranged an escape They got almost to the border when the royal family was brought back it calls for a republic govt without hereditary ruler The Jacobins began to have more followers and polarization increased even more and in spring of 1792 ruling families around Europe were afraid that what was happening it France would happen to them Austria and Prussia were the most threaten and said if the family was not treated better they would invade France The French wanted the revolution so they welcomed war The national assembly had to deal with more polarization and of course L and MA wanted the invaders to win In july a document appears the document claimed the heir of the royal families were damaged written by the king and queen Aust 10 1792 a new revolt overthrew the king and queen and overthrows constitution and they have to start all over again They have to revolutionize the revolution During the next 6 three things happen that change course of history 1 in Paris itself with threat of invasion everyone was paranoid and there were a series of massacres sept massacres those who were assumed to be against revolution Around 1500 people killed Those who were still in favor of revolution turned their backs to revolution 2 the Austrians and Prussians got started late and rain was dropping and it began more difficult to move their artillery etc when they reached the village of Valmy the revolutionary govt in Paris had sent an army to confront the invading revolutionaries Most of the soldiers who volunteer were die hard Jacobin types and came from Marseille And brought with them a song written by Rouget de Li something a blood thirsty national anthem What happened at Valmy shows how difficult war is The Austrians and Prussians come and the french its foggy and pass each other The are on the opposite sides The invaders realized they need to fight so they can go to paris after battle the invaders leave saying they would be back in spring The battle of Valmy saved the French revolution Meanwhile there had been elections to write another constitution for a republic Revolutionary suffrage Every adult male 25 and over has the right to vote How many people voted About 10 Its in the midst of harvest and those who voted were in favor of republic Most of peasants had become counter revolutionaries Highly unrepresentative group of men are the ones who make the decisions 3 groups all of them pretty radical Theyre still in favor of republic but don t want too much violence They are the brisseatin the mountain montagneares their leader Maximillian roreaecre Asked for the royal family to be executed the ones in the middle against it because it would make them martyr By accident a group of workers found a secret wall safe and found correspondence between king and queen who had told the Prussians and Austrians things about the French So they were convicted for treason Jan 21 1793 the king is executed The king is guillotined It was the only noble act of his life That fall MA would also go to guillotine a convention was elected to write constitution and to govern in the meantime A constituent assembly group of people to write constitution and to govern In this convention power shifted to the mountain but they were aware of the situation of France In spring Austrian and Prussian were planning a bigger invasion At the same time people in the country turned against revolution The only thing that kept revolution in business was the army The revolution and mountain are facing war in the border and civil war inside After wrestling with problem convention came up with executive committee of public safety Made up of 12 members reelected every month But from aug of 93 to july of 94 they had the same members Given the task of solving the problem of civil war and war Prussian and Austria How do you deal with this problem M Robespierre understood to solve the crises he had to adopt ideas that revolution could never live with Saving the revolution justifies doing anything even if it means breaking every value they stood for Revolution liberte egalite fraternite Stood for important values Liberty rights freedom of press assembly etc you39re not governed by a single individual but by someone who was elected to prevent tyranny Equality every man is equal in the eye of the law Fraternite hardest of them popular sovereignty nationalism because you have rights and duties the success of France means your success Many people were unhappy and there was war on outside so the 12 would create the first totalitarian government First thing they did is declare mass rising levee en masse All unmarried young men to be inducted in army Gave France the largest army in Europe Farmers had to give animals to army Women had to make garments old people told patriotic stories Everyone did what they had to do because of the law of suspects anyone thought of being counter could be arrested Revolutionary tribunals there is no trial by jury 2 verdicts innocent or death To make sure prices don t go out of hand law of the maximum wage and price controls How quickly did the civil war disappear Right away 40000 died through execution or awaiting to be killed in prison Another 150200000 died engaged in fighting in civil war During aug 1794 july 1795 people stopped opposing the revolution The civil war came to an end It had nothing to do with revolutionary values but saving the revolution Sept 1793 Robespierre guillotined To encourage the others Officers who were incompetent began resigning eager young men took their places and France began winning by july 1794 France was gaining territory the committee of public safety had won Robespierre and the rest guillotined because they were too successful Next 5 years Effort by revolution to find stability but could not because they had executed the leader of each spectrum L and Robespierre The revolution has to find space in between those to deaths Referred as the politics of the see saw Somebody needs to come later 020614 Between jul 1789 until nov 1799 France went through a time of chaos they went to constitutional monarchy through republic through execution of king a totalitarian govt with no solution to the economic problem country in pieces Revolution killed both sides of the spectrum since the killed L on the conservative side and killed Robespierre on the radical side Sept 1792 constitution this date is when we started using the terms left and right The most radicals were on the left and the others on the right Where did things stand in 1789 a kind of uneasy peace inside the country with people for the revolution those against had been shut off and afraid to speak up On the borders generals were winning the war including Bonaparte Bonaparte was born on aug 1769 on the island of Corsica which had been in the possession of Genoa which had difficulty governing Corsica and in 1768 Genoa sold Corsica to France L XV was king of France til 1774 his government in an effort to pacify Corsica offered royal family favor the Bonaparte family got one of his sons to be educated in military academy so they sent him to France to do so He had a hard time he had a Corsican accent and frequently kept his mouth shut excelled in courses where he didn t have to speak and concentrated in artillery The other problem he had was that almost everyone at the academy was that the others were sons of nobles He wasn t he knew the most he could hope for was to be promoted twice from second to first lieutenant and then general no matter how accomplish he was He was looked down upon He graduated at 15 in 1784 he is small He was 5 2 and most men were 5 4 5 years later the revolution comes He signed up right away He was considered a Jacobin a radical but dialed that back because he thought they were going too far and didn t want to be caught in that reaction In 1796 he was offered command of the army of Italy made up to conquer Italy and they conquered most of Italy He revealed himself as great leader and strategists and tactician Arguably the greatest tactician who ever lived After that he had a misguided idea of becoming the new Alexander which didn t work out so well but he got home in time to assume command and institute order in France he married Josephine de Beauharnais who had two children Eugene and hortense Hortense married Napoleon39s brother Louis and Eugene was liked by Napoleon They were never faithful to each other but adored each other and even after he got rid of her because she was too old and couldn t give him an heir he would never forget her When napoleon took over in nov of 1799 the govt was still in name a republic but for all practical purposes was all on Bonaparte shoulders He would experiment with different govt structures but usually ended up with him on top with a senate appointed by him then a two house bicameral legislation elected by revolutionary suffrage every adult male has the right to vote One house would be the tribunate and the other legislature Whether his titles was counsel or emperor he always proposed legislation based on advised of senate Legislature had the right to vote on it but not discuss it there is a pretention that every male had a role in government but those representative didn t have real power Bonaparte understood authority from above confidence from below Once people were given the right to vote they would resent losing it his biographer G Lefebvre he said napoleon was great as a man can be without virtue Napoleon knew how to tame the problem of the revolution 1801 concordat treaty with Vatican signed between N and pope Pius VI neither were happy with the state of crisis they agreed about no more electing priests and bishops taking oath to the government The church39s land is gone so they have to accept it they39ll keep paying for their expenses and they wanted a partnership between state and church They would a list of 5 or 6 candidates to be a bishop or archbishop had to be qualified and the pope with get to choose the best Who chooses the bishops and archbishops they are picked by both but French state has more input Part of the revolution was religious freedom so the concordat didn t agree to religious unity The church didn t want to spend time fighting and living in a kind of limbo this would offer a solution that was acceptable at the end the pope chooses the bishops and the church is paid and no longer persecuted From Bonaparte39s view now this sore is off the table Second problem was the fiscal issue In 1802 the Banque de France was an early version of the federal reserve here in the US they regulate the amount of money and manipulate interest rates and see how much currency its circulating during a period of time the banque was in charge of regulating the new money the franc their currency Til 1914 the franc was the most stable currency in the world and the banque was the reason It worked like this public private enterprise combination The banque is made up of a number of chairs which were expensive and sold in fractions the wealthy family knew they had to run the currency and the 200 most important families bought the shares and are now the ones to regulate the amount of currency until 1914 WWI since these people had money they worked tirelessly to keep stability of the monetary system One way ofjudging N as a leader in France is to compare him to liberte egalite fraternite Liberty You were free to write everything you wanted without criticizing N there is no absolute freedom of speech but Only one person was executed for their political opinion during N39s time With equality all men not women or children are equal in the eyes of the law In 1804 the civil code was ready and N sat in in the final discussion because he was fascinated by it and imposed his name on it so now it s the code N it wrote in the formal idea of all men are equal in the eyes of the law He imposed this code everywhere he went When people experienced this equality they wouldn39t never forget it when he went through his conquests As much as he accomplish outside of France this was very important He also made it clear that the revolution was about quotcareers open to talentquot he didn t care about where you came from but about what you do His general Ney son of a village butcher Entered the army as a private and won his way through the ladder and he was the best man there war according to N with that France became a meritocracy ruled by merit There were exams for position and the best entered the legion of honor distinguished people for their service to the state To train the next generation he created the lycee for the best of the best Were like boarding schools you had uniforms and march and you enter through competitive examination there were 100 places You learn Latin Greek French history economic anything to be the next outstanding figure in France The brightest people of France come from the lycee today Lycee required tuition but there were many scholarships Fraternity popular sovereignty N generated that to a T N39s military conquests He fought all the time and he had to do so although other European powers would write truces with him they wouldn t write peace because it would legitimize his seizing of power In dec 1804 he had a ceremony to become emperor He crowned himself Not much changed after he was emperor except he was not a hereditary ruler so he would need an heir Where did things go wrong His opponents didn t have to win all the wars but the last one In 1812 hoping he could defeat Russia he invaded it and made 2 mistakes he invaded with the largest army anyone had seen Eastern Europe was really underdeveloped and could not support such a big army Confronted with such an army the zsar Alexander I retreated and he increased N39s supply line and N couldn t find resources eventually a fight in Moscow was indecisive and N stationed himself in Moscow expecting Alex to make peace which he wouldn t do When the Russian winter came in October N began to track back and peasants engaged in war with them and the weather was worse and soldiers were dying off N went ahead of his troops to raise new army because he knew they were in danger M Ney led soldiers out of Russia Everyone knew now N was in jeopardy and the ganged up against him in 1813 in Leipzig they fought him France on one side everyone on the other he lost and retreated back to France During 181314 he fought his most brilliant defense battle but he was very outnumbered In April he was forced to surrender and accepted abdication The Bourbons were brought back with L XVIII as king N was given the little island of Velba He had a tiny island and in 6 months it was the best organized island in the world He was 45 at the time so his spies in France said that people were not happy with Bourbons and one day in March he and his small troop landed in France and everywhere people joined him up in Paris when L is king is trying to make accommodation in the revolution he had taken Ney as his own and the news of N landing in South of France L called Ney to end the troop Ney agreed heading south N heading north when they find each other there39s a confrontation N is outnumbered Ney gave his army to N march 1815 L decided to move to Brussels N and Ney installed themselves in Paris and in Belgium in Waterloo N had to make a decision and he could have won the battle He hesitated and the Prussian arrived and he had to surrender to the English thinking they would take him to America But they took him to the island of St Helena where British had a colony and was sent into exile Died there in May in 1821 The problem of the revolution is that ir had left behind 4 political factions and they will struggle to see who would be dominant The I Legitimist support the legitimate Bourbon monarchy Want to go back to the past Led by old nobility and backward peasants unwilling to accept change There is a group of people who fit the mold I Orleanist Constitutional monarchy What happened between 178992 can be made right Made up by the bourgeoisie Those creating an industrial revolution Want to imitate England Republicans identified with terror and Robespierre Mostly industrial working class and lower middle class in the cities Real radicals I Bonapartism the most radical Represented authority which people thought was necessary authority tempered by careers opened to talent egalite The great majority of peasants made it up as they wanted a chance to prove themselves There is a majority for nothing so you have to find someone to put pieces of all of this together that would make a huge change 021114 L XIII L XIV 1643 Philippe duc d39oleans cadet line L XV 171574 Louis Phillipe egalite Loouis Philippe Louis Le grand dauphin L XVI mapis 1770 and M Antoinette L XVIII 181424 Charles X Son d 1789 L XVII Marie Therese d 1851 m Louis Anthony Charles duc de Berri mMarie aroline These are the 4 political families which France was divided into Legitism like the revolution had never taken place It appealed to those who lost things during the war and backward peassant Orleanism idea of constitutional monarchy Didn t work very well cause L XV didn t want to play Appealed to the rising bougeoisie as the industrial revolution began to spread in France Republicanism associated with terror Appealed to the new working class Bonapartism largest following Ideas of careers open to talents and voting L XVIII takes over after Napoleon Wasn t a bad man Homosexual Didn t have children If he died before the death of the last brother that brother would take his place All 3 of the brothers become king Charles was heterosexual didn t want to make concessions to the revolution Charte constitutionelle LXVIII decree he39d be a constitutional monarch Chamber would be filled with hereditary nobles The lower house would be the chamber of peers and chamber of deputies would be elected election procedures were limited During the revolution the first constitution of 1781 gave the right to vote to 3 out of 5 the next constitutions all had the right to vote Under this constitutional charter in order to vote you had to be 30 yo and had to pay 300 franc in direct taxes To run for the office of deputies you had to be 40 yo and pay 1000 fran in direct taxes Which means that fewer than 90000 males had the right to vote equating to 15 of males L XVII to be fair had a balance and those on his side hate everything that had to do with the revolution he decides to make peace with the revolution but slower to not anger those on his side He appointed Ney and his military commander Appointed Joseph Fouche who was N39s ministry of interior in charge of domestic order and kept there finally Talleyrand was maintained as foreign minister Talleyrand came from noble family who had produced great general He had an injured foot could not ride well so it was decided to go to church which he didn t like but was made a bishop Because he was a bishop he went to the estate general and made his name a leader quotthe more things change the more things remain the samequot He serve every government during the revolution He told the diplomats he had trained You must defend tomorrow a principle you reject today Fouche and Talleyrand were the epitome of what was wrong with the revolution When they were introduced as king39s new advisor Delacroix Talleyrand liked his wife so he appointed him ambassador of Belgium so she could be his new mistress because she stayed in Paris The painter Delacroix was actually his son L XV ideas of making compromises to the revolution blown out of the water when N returned Nevertheless he keeps trying to make compromises However in feb of 1820 a republican assassin kills the duc de Berry because he understand the meaning of the genealogical line If he is dead then there39s no one to have a child Three weeks later his wife Marie Caroline discovered she was pregnant The child has to be a boy She had a son Henri name as the count of Chambord if he were to become king he39d be Henri V everybody called him a miracle child He meant that the Bourbon line could continue The comeback of N and the killing of duc de Berry meant L XV couldn t make concessions to the revolution Succeeded by his brother Charles When Charles becomes king he begins to do things that turned people against him In Rheims he is crowned and anointed a la old fashion In 1825 at enormous expense he was crowned Charles insisted that there be laws to undo things that the revolution had done But he knew that equality was ingrained Passed a law that gave money to the nobles for the money they had lost Became very conservative he wanted to go back to the time before the revolution Those who could vote thought he was dangerous and increasingly men who were moderate were elected to the chamber of deputies Marquis de Lafayette was appointed Charles countered those who opposed him by appointed people who were nuts Duc de Polignac was also appointed and thought the virgin Mary told him in his dreams what policies he should make Charles began making mistakes First one was to try to put an end to piracy He sent his troops to the coast of Algeria in 1830 they were successful and pushed inland and overtime Algeria directly across from France it became the first African French colony It was a dangerous decision because the harvest of 1829 had not been good and by sending his best troops he was depriving his govt of means of defending Why would he choose the summer or the end ofJuly to undo his brother39s constitutional charter is a mystery At the end ofJuly 1830 announced a series of changed to the constitutional charter which would curtail freedom of the press make it more difficult to vote and made it easier for the king to get rid of assemblies Paris erupted in the Revolution He fled to g Britain and advocated in the name of his grandson who was too young and would be advised by people like his granddad crazy There was never a chance and the Bourbons are gone Now what should happen Bonapartism The only one left was his son with his second wife who was 18 but he was sick with tuberculosis Everyone knew the boy was dying but until his death he39s the head of the house of Bonaparte So there isnt a real chance No one wanted republicanism so the only other option left was Orleanism Louis Phillipe egalite His father Philippe the Orleans was one of the most notorious figures of the revolution Although he was L XV39s cousin he was Jacobin and had voted for the execution of his cousin He would go to the guillotine the same year as his cousin His son Louis Philippe had proved himself by being a leader of revolutionary army not very good but competent When his father was arrested he went to G Britain and goes into business and he knew what trends to support and made a fortune He knew that the revolutionaries would confiscated all the family money so he made his own money and made it clear to everyone who would listen that he could take a chance if the Bourbons screwed up Because there wasn t anything else for the French to do they turned to L Philippe who was 56 yo He was shrew good nature and had courage He did not act royally but wore a quotbusiness suitquot of the time Because he was a business man and understood that changes had to be made Right away he announced that he39d be king Louis Phillip a way of breaking away from old traditions He declared that the title of king of France would not be anymore he39d be king of the French During the revolution they had adopted a flag in 1814 when the Bourbon came back they threw t out since he wasn t a Bourbon he said he wanted the revolution flag back Voting was reduced from 30 yo to 25 200 francs now and for the chamber instead of a 1000 franc it was half This doubled the amount of people who were eligible and could vote 3 could now vote Everyone assumed more changes would come There was some fear that people wouldn t accept L P and so in order to created a theatrical appearance that would win the crown he would appear on the balcony of the city hall embraced by the man who represents the revolution Lafayette they did appear together All of this leads to the king of the revolution LP is becoming king because a revolution is taking place in July He is embracing much of the revolution His regime is going to be referred to as the quotjuly monarchy quot referring to the revolution as he was crowned in august Once he becomes king he works easily with the 2 house assemblies and with a series of prime ministers There are no political parties but factions A Thiers historian journalists 183039s revolution leader He want more but he knows he was a constitutional monarchy those who thought that things had gone as they ought to were quotle force de resistancequot led by Francoise Guizot who ended up being LP choice as prime minister He was a protestant He had no nobility in him he was a fine historian All for the idea you should work hard for it Guizot believed in education Early on in 1833 sponsors the Guizot law which requires every township to establish a primary school for boys Some townships didn t do it a lot of times they boys were needed for different things and didn t go to school But this is the first system ofelementary school This law was a good beginning Another thing Guizot and LP did was the 1842 railroad law France had canals but didn t go anywhere The railroads were what unleashed the industrial revolution in France People who had any sense understood that this was the future It was not just the ability to move stuff but encourage industrialization How do you get them built since they are so expensive If you want to invest its going to take a lot of time before there39s a lot of work to do The early French railroad companies wanted to stay small and in the family They found it difficult to build railroad and didn t want to tie up capital for so long G and LP saw this problem and created the law The state would take on the work of the land then railroad companies would come in but in return freight rates and passenger rates had to be cheap so people would use the railroads The law meant there would be enormous leaps in industrialization In 5 years the production of coal rose 40 iron 30 blast furnaces doubled steam engines doubled And the index of industrial production stood 50 higher in 1847 the economy was given a boost They put 2 billion into the industry It was important for it to be a success because of the ice age coming during this time despite all the things being done people wanted to vote And when they asked why G replied that if you want to vote get rich How did regime defend itselfagain others In 1832 2 years after the legitimacy who had congregated in Britain decided to overthrow LP by landing people in Brittany Legitimists landed there and called for the peasant s to revolt and to lead them they sent Marie Caroline in 1832 and said they didn t want anything to do with it Marie was taken captive by LP39s soldiers And to the utter delight of LP he found out she was pregnant She was having an affair with an italian count The legitimists cause never recovered because the mother of the miracle child was a slut Meanwhile in the early 1830s there were disturbances as the industrial revolution began Revival of Bonapartism Louis Philippe 1830 35 made great reforms along with F Guizot The railroad companies revved up the economu Out of the 4 political parties Bonapartism was the largest minority When little eagle died the head of the Bonaparte family was Louis Napoleon Bonaparte He was N39s brothers son who had married Hortense de Beauharnais There was always some question about Louis N being the father as Hortense got around Young LNB had a checkered carrier when his uncle advocated in 1814 he went with his mother to Switzerland where he learned French with a German accent then in Italy he learned Italian with a French and in England he learned English He was briefly in New York his American English was also accented He learned many languages science and economics He never learned anything profoundly He was just broadly educated and began writing He was ambitious in 1836 when he39s 28 he decided because he was a B he had to rule France and left Switzerland and arrived in Strasbourg France and LN announced that he was the head of the house of B and wanted to march and overthrow Louis Philippe LP39s govt asked to send him back to France where he could imprison him but he wasn t seen as a danger In 1840 in Boulogne LN organized a new attempt They announced to the admiral in charge of the port where he asked people to march to overthrow LP He was sent to a nice prison in Paris in Ham while he was there he took advantage of the fact that Bonapartism began to grow in 1840 due to the warming relation between Britain and France In dec Britain allowed Napoleon39s remain to get back to France and his remains where buried With this the govt of Lp was in danger as it was reviving memories of Napoleon At the time the things he had done were increasingly forgotten At Ham LNB he got to read newspapers as he was treated well LN wrote a book quot Napoleonic Ideasquot and he proved himself to be a master of public relations and advertising he imagined that N hadn t be defeated and how France would be now if he had kept ruling and said that all they needed was another Bonaparte In 1846 repairs on the prison LN approached want of the workers and paid him to exchange clothes and walked out of the prison He went back to London and waited for something to happen He was right Society Honore de Balzac Balzac was the creator of realism wrote lots of novels Wrote about cities and rural areas Rural areas the bulk of the population was here France was at least 65 rural One thing had change being population the increase had stopped as the civil code of 1804 which provided that inheritance had to be share equally among children Everywhere else in Europe the eldest son received everything and then made arrangement as he saw fit with siblings Bonaparte insisted on equal division It had the effect of limiting children And since everything was to be divided none of them would be able to survive There were no effective measure of birth control as condoms were for wealthy people There was infanticide There were abortions but in the country side they just killed the children Post French revolution legal system divided all offenses into misdemeanors delit felonies were crime S Delit tried before judge panels and people were usually convicted and with the greatest penalty was 5 years Crimes were tried before a jury and if convicted of a crime the smallest penalty was 5 years If you39re convicted of a serious crime you39d be transported to a prison colony which ended up being settled in French Guyana next to Vzla For most serious crimes they were guillotined except for a 3 or 4 years during the WWI the number of executions in France were 56 a year so not a whole lot The fear came from how public they were Abortion and infanticides were crimes Once a crime occurs is investigated by a judge of instruction refers to instruction or analysis of case juge d39instruction examining magistrate He conducts the case charged with discovering the truth only if he believes that a case is almost certain conviction he39ll present an indictment and send case to trial People were presumed guilty Even with this juries acquitted 30 of the time After about 10 years of this the juge didn t even bring the cases because the jury thought they didn39t want any more children as they could be the ones convicted Limitation of family had enormous repercussions as less children were interchangeable and didn39t mean much This disappears and there39s new emphasis on families valuing children as there are less of them This is the creation of the modern family It fit well in the idea of romanticism which had spread in Europe where emotions was valued over rationality One of the perfect examples of this was the work of Mrs Augustus Craven Her name was Pauline de La Ferronnays from a Breton noble family and married the English guy and wrote a book entitled Recit D39une Soeur Letters to a sister It was a memoir to her family It was very popular It was a time were emotion played heavy It had 16 editions Life is changing in this fashion People were physically weak One of the ways fathers kept sons at home was not allowing them to bite the bullet One third of all young men called for the draft before 1830 are rejected because they are shorter 5 1 12 of all of the people who were above that height people were rejected for deformities weak constitutions TB or ringworms Only 45 of adult males were taller than 5 5 it all had to do with nutrition Urban places Paris was the key spot It began by the right bank which could be told by the way the Seine ran Paris was filthy with narrow streets they were paved with badly joint block of sand stones which meant was that in time of insurrection you could pick up the blocks and turn them into barricades There was no sewage water was unsafe to drink because the water came from the Seine where they threw everything into The lighting were occasionally oil lamps which had to be lighted so it was dark and dangerous Stores were primitive barricaded so people couldn t steal anything and it was understood that you had to buy something The social differentiation in the city was by height yes there was class base Over on the left bank there was the Faubourg neighborhood St Germain were people had their townhouses It was really quiet as you were a little off the street It was for aristocrats On the right bank Chausse d39antin On the other side of the right bank was a much more working class area the faubourg st Antoine But the rest of Paris was largely mix in terms of class and class differentiation was vertical Rich lived downstairs and poor upstairs because there were no elevators They understood each other Increasingly as the 19th cent goes on the poorest are pushed out of Paris into areas around Paris called banlieue suburbs sort of like ghettos There are dangerous places to live All of this encourages people to write Victor Hugo writes the most famous novel of this period Les Miserables Another all of this led to was prostitution In 1824 there were no fewer than 163 houses of prostitutions in Paris alone Prostitution played an important role in policing Paris was the first city to have a formal police force when London developed his first police force in 182039s they copied what had been done in Paris main task was to maintain order However there was a small number of people who were the detective force police judiciare and their version of the FBI was the police nationale Most police are there to keep order The police are known as the surete The French understood as crime is always with us They pioneered two techniques 1 from the beginning the surete realized they needed the cooperation of minor criminals and would employed them as police spies mouchard and let them keep on with their petty crime they managed to penetrate almost every criminal group and were able to control crime high level criminals were wanted and the low level criminals were allowed to keep their business going 2 prostitutes in Paris prostitutes were required to be examined at least monthly by a police doctor You could be a public woman fille publique and ifarrested you39d be given an examination and put on the list White card healthy red card disease Those who work alone were hassled by the police and often in danger Houses of prostitutions were looked out by the police because they had a deal with them The madam of the house knows if she cooperates with the police they39ll do the same Those who didn t work with the police were arrested and hassled those who did were left alone Societies worked the way they worked In 1846 a group of men decided they wanted to challenge the govt of LP about the voting rights LP and Guizot wanted suffrage held out as an incentive for people to make money so they could vote since if you make more money you39ll have to pay more taxes and then you39ll get the right to vote The problem was they were going against a tradition which people remembered as the revolutionary suffrage which had been in placed 17921814 where they all had been able to vote People wanted to go back to that When LP and Guizot refused to do so people began talking about a change of regime toward a republic They knew it was a scary idea and couldn t talk about it publicly because of restriction of freedom of speech They had to have permission from a prefect to hold a meeting These people most of whom were relatively well off called their movement the banquet campaign They would hold a banquet where they would toast at the end and work in their political sentiments After all the police and the prefects couldn t survey every dinner party One of the people behind them was Alphonse de Lamartine wrote poetry He was popular Contributed his name to the movement Alexandre LebruRollin was an old style politician and a perfect definition ofa politician Louis Blanc intellectual of the movement He had written a book called L39atelier Nationale National workshop Far sided idea of how to deal with economic crises Agriculture is still the dominant part of the economy Louis Blanc proposed that in time of economic hardship people should dig digs because it was a social necessity Idea of give money to unemployed who would buy stuff from others and in turn they would buy other stuff and stimulate the economy This was a far sided idea would it work 021814 Louis Philippe I Guizot Bugeaud Bandhit campaign a De lamartinte b A ledru rollin c L blanc Revolutionary ums fra ncaise National workshops Surtax 2324 elections constituent assembly in april 4 man convene 2326 june days Gen l cavaignac Louis napoleon bonaparte Falloux law in 1850 C de morny coup d39etat Austerlitz when napoleon won a battle Napoleon crowned Eugenie de montijo 18251920 Prince imperial Virginia oldoini countess de castiglione 108 after recording C Garnier son ofa blacksmith became most famous architecture Given by Napoleon III the job to build the opera house why did Garnier get the assigneemnt Competition which he won Got ahead due to Bonaparte regime was designed to reward those with talent couldn t have happened anywhere else one of the ways N wanted this to happen more frequently was to continue the changes of LP N had studied economics and studies H de Saint Simon He was a brilliant man ahead of time as early as 1818 asked if the king and all the nobles died would we be sad Perhaps but would it changed the economy No those who are in charge of the industries were to die it would changed the economy Whos important Those who make the economy work simon first to argue for technocracy those technically qualified given the peaks and valleys of capitalism some businesses should have to be bailed out most famous for writing about credit banks only loan money to those who don t need it some people wont use that money well but some will if banks are not willing to loan govts need to to advance money 117 recording You multiply the amount of money that is in circulation Banks don t want the money back but the interest they get on the money N I saw himself as Simon on horseback He put Simon39s ideas into effect Had no expertise for the details by as minister of finance he appointed M Chevalier who had learned Simon39s idea 022014 It is important to understand that the turmoil of 25 years of napoleon created the 4 political factions Each one of the 4 Legitimism got its chance from 1814 to 30 and they blew it they are overturned in the 1830 revolution Charls X flees People still want the miracle child can someone magically unite France under old values Orleanism made a fair amount of sensed Well liked It has a physical presence in L Philippe 1830 48 the freedoms in France were not like those in G britain because there was a revolutionary tradition in France wehere people don t call for change but revolt Revolution could have been stopped if he had tried He was unwilling to be a king under those circumstances Constitutional monarchy that makes certain peace with revolution Gone in 48 some people want the grandson Philippe V to come back but it could be that France moved on Republicanism never stood a chance 4852 because when they elected a president they elected a Bonaparte who are not good for republics Bonapartism LNB becomes the III in 1852 he hopes he can figure out a way to pull together a majority he does so but fails miserably at foreign policy Everyone knew he39d continue the revolutionary suffrage everyone knew because it was part of Bonaparte tradition People weren39t sure if the vote would mean anything though He understood that what make people happy is economic security One of the smartest in terms of economic knowledge Nicknamed saint Simon on Horseback Which had been done under L Philippe Saint Simon preached the extension of credit If you have credit you can double of triple the amount of money in circulation No matter what the bamk of France was doing credit lines could increase or decrease Michel Chevalier financial person to Bonaparte had been close to Saint Simon under Chevalier the French govt created govt supported credit banks credit Foncier mobilier mobilized agricole lyonnais for the Lyon region societe generale These loaned money at good rates of interests to business farmers etc who had now the chance to do something Another version of carriers open to talent fortunes open to talent t guaranteed a profit for the state Simon was absolutely right Another thing he preached was free trade The french always had the idea of protection against high tariffs Simon said if they could get rid of them they could complete in the world market and win Napoleon gave a time frime and then would get rid of the tariffs First of these was signed in jan 1860 called ChevalierCobden with G Britain Cobden was the trading head of Britain All trade prohibition were ended Most tariffs were reduced almost to nothing and remaining to something moderate Real push to free trade Over the next 10 years Chevalier and associates negotiated similar treaties with 11 major partners The result industrial production expanded dramatically I In iron production trade tripled and quadrupled One of the other reasons why it hapenned was because the two french continued to build the railroads The railroads made possible that stores didn t have to keep a huge inventory Business could now reduce the amount they had tied up to inventory and could now get inventory in a couple of days It revolutionized merchandising O O Merchandising could now move to smaller prices to much larger bodies The first department store Le Bon Marche 1852 would be imitate by other people and not long before many came about Le Bon invented the modern dpt Store with windows displaying the merchandise The prices were also lower Sales people trained to be polite t pioneered the catalog Advertising also was there majority of trade was still carried in small shops but the malls were the modernity Railroads were the most important thing that brought about modernity and industrial revolution N I authorized the building ofas many railroads as possible by 1857 with Paris in the middle it looked a spider web with railroads Now you could get anywhere in France in 2 days travel More than 10000 miles of railroads had been built by the end The govt guaranteed the payment of the interest and dividends even if the govt had to pay to get people to invest in the railroad By the late 19605 100 million people were traveling with the railroad and they were only 30 something mil people in France The cost between 185257 was cut in half By the late 1860s the railroads were carrying more than twice the freight The result of all of this is the creation of national markets Now you could sell your items everywhere instead of in their area Farmers could farm and sell everything I Cash crops is what they were growing now Local costumes disappear 39 Folklore costumes etc increasingly we don t have regions we are creating a nation The govt also sponsored ocean shipping N I and Chevalier encouraged mergers to have 2 big shipping lines messageries maritime and compagnie generale transatlantique going to South and North America iron ships powered by steam engines To the surprise of the British the French began to break British monopoly on ships In 1869 Ferdinand de Lesseps an engineer and entrepreneur completed the Suez canal which cut in half the travel time between The Actual construction work wasn t difficult but getting the money and getting the permission of the ruler of Egypt was Using the diplomatic connections gave Lesseps a leg up I The connection of the Egyptians was great giraffe story He travel saying to people if they bought a share they would make money He made enough money to open the canal And those people made a lot of money I How well did N I in terms of economy You cant do any better I N also spend money on things that would make money for the state Forest cut swamps drained turned into farmlands The most famous thing he did was to redo Paris 39 He wanted to make Paris the symbol of his regime I He found Eugene Haussman prefect of the Seine dept was told to oversee the rebuilding of Paris I 18521870 Everyone understood sanitation was a problem Huge outbreaks of cholera there and Britain Sanitation was critical They tear down the old neighborhoods were sickness abound They had to have a clean water supply brought from the north39 clean spring through pipers and aqueducts For the first time it was possible to drink the water and not get sick No one had really built a modern sewage system Sewage system and all the rain water funnel everything into huge tunnels under the city same as today just modernized Another sanitation effect if you have small markets you have the potential for disease so they were centralized les Halles and they used tall iron spires on the concrete so they roof could be really high and let air circulate I Haussman broaden the streets I Installed gas lamps I Paving stones were taken up and streets covered in asphalt Bus service pulled by horses public transportation I Enormous amount of money of beautification I You never have to walk a long way to find at least one small park Forestry regions set aside on either side of Paris Bois de Boulognis Bois de Vincennes So the wind would blows the trees and good air comes into the city Haussman also had the idea of vistas Place de la Concorde before the revolution it was where the guillotine was now it s a place of peace I Haussmanitation I People were glad because of all the improvements Although some hated it I Just with the economy N I always had the ideas but his people were the ones who carried them out As his closes advisor was his brother Charles de Morny when he dies N I doesn39t do as well In terms of how society was to be structured N I believed strong like L Philippe in education He pushed for the building of school 1866 68 of children between 514 were in school The proportion of illiterates in 1850 35of men drafted couldn t read In 1868 it was 20 The minister of education was Victor Duruy who wanted to improve education would be best known for providing secondary education for girls Under him the first lycee for girl girls Much hostility especially form the church who thought women should be at home and also the public didn t think that women were supposed to be educated They had trouble attracting applicants for the lycee but it was a beginning Fialin de Persigny top Bonapartist in France Enamored with everything Bonaparte he settled on the Daughter of Michel Ney Napoleon39s general He was in charge of domestic order wanted to limit freedom of speech press etc increasingly after 1860 N I thought he should move toward accommodation n jan 1807 the third plebiscite he would become a constitutional emperor Emile ollivier first prime minister of 2nd empire N I went from being a ruler like his uncle to his own person He thought he had to He was sick His heir had been born but had a long way to go before he could rule N I knew he wasn t in good shape to rule til his son could take over so he could only run it as a constitution He had kidney and bladder stones It was a secret That s why he was in a hurry to hand down power to the legislature and prime minister His foreign policy leads him to utter disaster and in 1873 when he is 65 yo he consents to an operation by the man who was widely regarded as greatest surgeon in G Britain he dies on the table He was in exile One could argue that his mistakes were due to bad drugs and pain 022514 Foreign policy simple thing You understand the givens the situation on the ground What39s difficult it what will happen if the situation is disturbed Most people don t see things very clearly Situation on the ground when LN is first president and after 1852 N is emperor 5 great powers france russia austria g britain and prussia The most important thing about the situation this year is that it had not changed a lot since 1815 austria and russia have been allied to prevent change For example unification efforts in Italy and Germany As long as russia and Austria stood together there wouldn t be substantial change in Europe because 2 great powers can prevent Enourmous amount of stasis in the system Most recently during the revolution in 1848 russia had made it clear that it would stand with Austria against change When Prussia try to gain power in Germany the 2 great powers allied against it and slapped it down 2nd given ottoman empire Stretched from Iraq in the east all along north Africa till Morocco included TurkeyEgypt part of the Balkan peninsula The empire had been in decline since the late 1600s when it actually got to putting Vienna under siege When they didn t captyre it they ve been in retreat When in Greece won its independence from it with support of Western powers because they thought they were fighting for ancient Greece They were the first to escape which gave many of those in the Balkan peninsula the idea that it could happen for them as well Egypt had always coveted certain amount of autonomy they became increasingly independent although they kept saying they were still part of the empire The French were to support egyptian ambition why they sent obelisk and giraffe The empire was called the sick man And they talked about what would happen if it got sicker The danger of its collapse lies on how vast it is so everyone would want to grab what they could which could lead to war Much of the diplomacy of the 19th cent was providing help to the sick man so when he died it would already had been parcelled off And its passing could be accomplished without war In the early 1825 zsar of Russia Nicholas I he had a sick mind He was part of the russian tradition that had always war for control of the states and because Russia has a geopolitical problem at its greatest extent the soviet union was 18 of the world39s surface yet had no access to the sea In Europe Russia could not be out of the sea cause the Turks controlled the exit to the mediterranean same way on other sides Russia was depesperate for warm water access The russian orthodox church was the successor of 25 march 1854 sea battle Sinope the entire fleet was sent to bottom of sea by the russians If they could force their way thgourh russia would become a naval power of eastern Mediterranean Important because it would threaten the trading between g britain and India If Russia had warships in the eastern Mediterranean they would interfere with the trading Turks and Brits vs Russia Napoleon III decided to side with Turkey and Britain He saw this as a chance to shake the control of Russia over Europe giving France more freedom The Russians assumed Austria would be on their side but they realized that if war took place it would be in their territory Worst diplomatic mistake of the 500 hundred years Austria declared they would be armed neutral but had no intention of fighting The war was fought in the empire in Crimea crimean war Utter disaster for the Russians Nicholas had prevented changes in Russia modern changes so they couldn t supply their army like the British and the French Industrial revolution also revolutionize warfare By 1855 clear Russia would lose Very few people came out looking good out of the war The British came out looking awful they were overconfident the navy didn t bring charts of the black sea French overall general Patrice de Machmahon Empress gives birth to the prince imperial everybody ashamed of their performance except for France N III never had foreign policy advisors All he understood about the Crimean war is that Russia and g Britain were licking their wounds which meant they would shy away from action for a while The prime minister of Piedmont in Italy Camilo di Cavour and ambassador of Prussia Otto von Bismarck they recognized that if Austria let Russia could go alone the alliance between them would be over and the consequence would never be healed And in 1914 Austria is going to be on one side and Russia on the other In terms ofdiplomatic Austria is all alone in Europe trying to prevent change and they39re too weak to do it so changes come such as by 1860 we get Italy 1871 Germany Cavour and Bismarck what he wanted was to for people to recognize that Piedmont was a coming country and his ruler Victor Emmanuel was smart enough to know he couldn t run his country so he put it in the hands of Cavour Was well respected around Europe He understood if Italy were to be unified Austria would have to be defeated because the other parts of Italy Lombardi and Venetia were part of Austrias as of 1815 as you go further down the country you have Parma Modena Romania Tuscany running across the peninsula the papal state The pope wasn t a spiritual ruler but ruler of territory kingdom of Naples including Sicily It was Cavour39s idea to conquer the Italian possessions on Lombardi and Venetia thus expanding Piedmont He knows if he wants to do this he cant be Austria cause Piedmont is a small country He asks France for help They meet in summer of 1858 at Plombiere a mineral water spa The emperor was there and Cavour makes a secret trip there and they plot if Piedmont convinces Austria to attack them France would come to the rescue In spring 1859 N III moved large numbers of troops down south Meanwhile Cavour was able to pick up war with Austria The French under McMahon in 2 big battles in june of 1859 one in Magenta and other in Solferino the french blew the Austrian apart and Austrian evacuated Lombardi as far as they could Many things went wrong by the retreat from Lombardi they ended up in fortifications thhe duchess in the south revolted against rulers and said they wanted to join Piedmont Prussia began to make noise in the north so N III decided to pull th eplug Made separate peace with Austrians and hope things wouldn t go nay further He was wrong Leaving the western part of Piedmont was a professional revolutionary with a band of followers g Garibaldi They shipped out and landed in Sicly and overthrew the kingdom of Naples meanwhile Cavour moves south to the papal state which ends up being dissolved Piedmont takes over everything but Venetia and Rome over in a year Because N III realizes he has started all this He says he wants something from Cavour and he turns over to N the extreme western part of the coastline of Piedmont which is now the French Riviera The result in foreign policy terms a disaster for France This new country of Italy which should have been on its side was antagonistic towards France because N had demanded something back The Austrians despises Garibaldi The Austrians might be really stupid about this but N III wasn t better because he didn t foresee where everything was going N III decides he had to do something to gain credibility which ended up being bad In 1862 in the middle of the US civil war Mexico had undergone revolution France and g Britain decided to demonstrate to Mexico they couldn t do this and demanded some kind of payment He sends 30000 men into Mexico and suppresses all opposition now who would rule If France dominated Mexico and N stupidly decided he would try to get back in the good graces of Austria by giving the crown of Mexico to the brother of the ruler of Austria Ruler Franz Josef brother Maximillian who accepts and arrive in 1864 to see civil war to come to an end and Washington decides they don t want a foreign power ruler in mexico invoked the Monroe doctrine which means they would have to fight to keep it and France says he has to pull his troops because he was concerned with Germany Max is overturned by the Mexicans and killed and Austrians hate him even more Since 1500 it had been the most basic policy of France to prevent unification of Germany thus the creation of great power The austrians had tried on at least on 2 major occasions to unify Germany and fail because of France The Hohenroccern and their advisor Bismarck in Prussia Bismarck was from eastern Prussia In 1862 in the middle of crisis at home gets correspondence and decides he39s willing to go to war for Prussia Prussia had modern weapons and were modern and didn t have to worry about anyone else g britain was going to stay on the sideline and the only who would oppose them would be France but the emperor is gravely ill Everything was leaning on this favor In 1866 ready for war In Germany and thus the AustrianPrussian war fought in the summer War lasted 6 weeks Prussian victorious They were now able to force unification of all northern Germany Only parts left out Austria in the south and Bavaria Baden and Wiirttemberg Wilhelm thinks Bismarck is a genius the question is whether he could go further France was shocked by victory but made it clear they couldn t undo what the had done but they would stop them from acquiring more territories They were both the most modern armies in the world It was a toss up But when it comes to leadership N I would lose Bismarck wanted to wait because he didn t want to look greedy but as someone trying to bring all Germans together and in 1870 2 years earlier Isabella of Spain had been overthrown and so they began looking in Germany to see who could rule and Hollenzollern Sigmaringern family were catholic thus proper Spanish ruler the Spanish army leaders decided it be nice to have one of them so offered the throne to Leopold Bismarck tells if he takes it the French would be caught in the middle But Leopold was a little sketchy and the kind of Prussia is afraid if Leo becomes king of Spain he would shame the family July 1870 announcement that he would become king after all N I knew he had to do something so he orders France39s ambassador to Prussia to visit Wilhelm to ask him to reconsider Leopold Wilhelm decides to withdraw permission for Leopold Diplomatic victory for France but then N I is urged to push it further and the French ambassador meets with W a second time to promise no one of the HohenSigma family would take over the throne of Spain W says no They both send telegrams saying what happen And when Bismarck gets his who has no morals scratches all the pleasantries of the telegram between the French ambassador and Wilhelm l and then he sends to press the telegram Everyone thought the ambassador had insulted their ruler With that war between the two countries break out in july Bismarck wanted war He knew Russian Britain would stay out taly wouldn t come to France39s aid and although the armies were even he 02214 Froeschwiller The war that Bismarck contrived He wanted to make it look like a war against hereditary of France The French declared war on july 19 B has been plotting and had his armies close to the border ready to go the French were more disorganized Fighting began immediately and on the aug 6 one of the 2 main French armies this one under Marshall Macmahon was defeated at the battle of Froeschwiller which meant Germans now had control of part of France The other army under A Bazaine was slow and let himself and his army be caught at Metz and besieged and now they were under Prussian army which almost guarantee the war to be lost In oct 2 the news about Froeschwiller and Metz arrived in Paris and N I decided to join the army of Mcmahon so now who is in charge Since he was in pain all the time it would slow everything down 2 sept at Sedan there was another Prussian victory and N I knowing the battle was lost rode to the front hoping to get shot and die On 2 sep presented papers of surrender at Sedan and taken captive by the Prussian and now the Zn republic was over The news arrives in Paris 2 days later the empress fleets assisted by American dentist There is now a power vacuum and a group of republican leaders led by Leon Gambetta at hotel de Ville de declared they had no lost the war but the empire And began to raise new armies out of men who were old and young and declared that he would not give up fighting until they were forced to surrender Him and the other republicans begins the republican rule for keeps sanctified by a street rue du 4 septembre 180 after France would be a republic permanently The new regime is facing a difficult situation The 2 trained armies under Mcmahon and Bazaine Gambetta raised an army of 600000 men out of patriotism They were largely untrained The Prussian pushed into France and surrounded Paris but Gambetta escaped on a hot air balloon During the time the Prussians besieged Paris mail was sent from Parisalthough the 600000 fought bravely there was no chance they would beat a trained army By mid jan 1871 situation in Paris was bad Food supplies were running low On 28 jan they gave up This would mark a dramatic shift in power in Europe and under Napoleon France had been able to command 23 of Europe The emergence of a powerful country of Germany hugely expanded Prussia will upset all the understood the way all powers were suppose to operate it only settles after 1945 the person who is most responsible for this was Bismarck and for letting him get away with it N I He failed to stop the creation of Germany It had been the basic policy of French to prevent any sort of unification of German states Bismarck was unwilling to make peace with what he saw as a provisional govt and Gambetta had not been appointed by anyone They were a de facto govt so he insisted that in order to make peace there had to be elections for a constituency assembly elected to write constitutions and rule in the mean time they had election on the 8th and had everybody together on the 12th Called the national assembly and had a number of curious facts it was large because French always believe the closer the representatives are to the people there were 630 of them elected by universal suffrage majority of them are peasants who are less anxious for radical change Elections turned out about 400 some of them were legitimists orleanist or bonapartist elections were on feb 8 Is there a majority for anything No another fact about this because Paris was messed up because of the siege the assembly was in Versailles and not Paris Another who are they going to choose as leader The 630 agreed to put A Thiers in charge He was a popular historian he was one of the newspaper editors during the 183039s revolution He served under L P he was a constitutional monarch and wanted to go a little further He went into business in the railroad business He didn t like the 2nd republic or the 2nd empire He worried about the 2nd empire foreign policy he gave speeches on N 39s foreign policy If he had had his way there would have been a constitutional monarch First thing to do was to make peace with Bismarck He was 68 yo and when he talked to B France required to give to Germany the eastern areas called Alsace and Lorraine under the treaty of Frankfurt as well as Strasbourg In addition France required to pay an indemnity of 5 billions in 3 years 2 things 1 the national assembly in order to pay the money sold bonds offer to sell bonds and the French were so eager to get Germany out that they ended up paying everything in 15 years The processing of the money took that long 2 everyone understood for the time being Alsace and Lorraine were gone but there would come a time when they would try to get them back Gambetta member of national assembly Revanche against Germany Thiers had to also preside over one of the strangest and tragic events of history of modern France The Paris commune Paris had emerged from the siege in unstable condition people had suffered a lot and one of the things they had done was passed within Paris a law or moratorium delay to get money didn t have to pay bills The national assembly said they couldn t have that The Parisians were not happy 2nd Paris felt It had been insulted because the govt was meeting in Versailles and not Paris and 3rd when the Prussians were marching to Paris Parisians took a collection among themselves and bought 200 cannons to protect the city On march 18 thiers ordered the seizure of the cannons when soldiers when to get the cannons a mob appeared a soldiers decided they didn t want anything to do with it the most radical of Parisian leaders said Paris didn t fit in France anymore so they should be a city state lunacy but they believed it for Thiers it was a good opportunity he had lived through a number of revolution and came to believe that there was a way of dealing with revolutions he told people to stay in Paris or get out The Paris commune became a kind of civil war between Paris and rest of France The army which had been released by Prussians broke into city and began street fighting the communards the paris radicals decided to go down fighting they burned anything they could get their hands on Thiers told the army to kill everyone who was fighting and 20000 people were killed Between 2128may Gaston de Gallifet one of the man in charge of suppressing the commune He was dealing with the communards People were shot and the rest transported to colonies By the time the commune was completely suppressed It was the beginning ofjune 1871 and it was one of the worst years in the history of the country The terrible year And it was difficult for everyone to understand how things had gone so bad BOOK Why did people get married how were ideas communicated how people kept up traditions how they dressed what did they eat friendship relations how they warmed up their house How were there houses how they wash clothes Second set Agencies of change What forces this way of life to be altered and then 2129 what all ofthis means Transportation communication national mark they produce what they39ll sell old way of life can no longer survive Until agencies of change begin to happen what are they life is no longer the way it was No more costumes Before writing answer make outline The most important thing you can learn is not what to put in but what to leave out Agencies of change railroads newspaper mail pamphlet serialized books roads education someone needs to know about arithmetic standardization of measurements late 19th cent military need to speak the same language get real clothes they eat better they get away from home and experience a whole world Kangaroo courts that imparts justice charivaris how they imposed the morals They knew how to live under circumstances that we couldn t imagine how to survive
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