WORLD SINCE 1960
WORLD SINCE 1960 HIST 2023
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This 73 page Class Notes was uploaded by Edna Boyle on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2023 at Louisiana State University taught by B. Martin in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/222459/hist-2023-louisiana-state-university in History at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Precipitating Events JFK 8232011 60000 PM World War II Germany had to lose while fighting two greatest industrial powers By 1943 evident that Germany was going to lose the war War could not end until Germany surrendered unconditionally Elbe River real demarcation line of the Cold War Russian soldiers penetrated deeply into Eastern Europe 0 More so than at any time since defeat of Napoleon Essence of Cold War was the conversion of Eastern and Central European states into Soviet Satellite states 0 If Germany surrendered earlier Russian forces would not have penetrated as far Could not forcefully remove Russians o Telling Statistic Only casualty ratio that was even with Nazi Germany was the Soviet Union 0 Result was the creation of this Soviet Empire Soviet Controlled States 0 Poland Czechoslovakia Hungary Romania Bulgaria 0 Took Estonia Latvia and Lithuania earlier What to do with Germany Four victorious power occupy a quarter of Germany Soviet Union got East Germany GB got Northern Germany French got Central Americans got Bavaria Capital also occupied by four powers while still in Soviet controlled territory Austria also divided into four zones of occupation Stalin upset with the Allied occupation of Berlin 0 Berlin Lockdown Roads in Soviet Zone could not be used for transport of Allied goods Three possible decisions 0 Back down to Stalin s Demands 0 Fight a war over Berlin 0 Call Stalin s Bluff and keep the zones occupied Berlin Airlift o Dumped all supplies to West Berliners o Stalin backed down and opened up transport railways 1949 NATO 12 Powers signed longest lasting peacetime alliances in history North Atlantic Treaty Organization o Iceland critical for long haul airplanes o USA Canada Iceland GB France Italy Denmark Benelux o Cornerstone of American foreign policy o One of the simplest treaties ever written 0 One political provision an attack upon one is considered an attack upon all o How to fight a war if it came to it o All countries that wish to do so join NATO military command structure 0 Everyone who join commits their military submits ultimate command to America Nikita Khrushchev Weaponry o Soviet Union matched atomic bomb 0 Differed in delivery mechanism o US developed Strategic Air Command Bombers that Soviets did not have 0 Could inflict unacceptable casualties on the Soviet Union o Soviets could not reach US with bomb until 1958 0 Finally developed an ICBM 0 2427 minutes from Siberia to Washington DC Global Balance of Terror o Disaster was inevitable Election of 1960 o Richard Millhouse Nixon o Lyndon Baines Johnson o Hubert Humprey senator Minnesota o Symington Missouri JFK Received nomination for 1960 During nomination speech called his campaign the New Fronteir Televised Debates new 0 From well known Irish Catholic families Joseph Kennedy stock broker and probable bootlegger 0 Attached himself to FDR 0 Appointed to several posts under Roosevelt 0 19371940 ambassador to Great Britain One of nine kids John Jr 0 Send to study at the London School of Economic 0 Early signs of Addison s disease came home from London 0 Enrolled at Princeton again sick 0 Enrolled at Harvard indifferent Military Service 0 Rejected by the army because of health reasons 0 Exercised profusely and enlisted in the Navy 0 Commanded PT Boat 109 o Ran into a Japanese destroyer Saved most of his shipmate s life Rescued by a coconut Filed for House of Representatives seat 0 19471953 served in the House 0 Liberal on social issues conservative on economic issues 1952 Ran for Senate 0 Elected despite indifference to McCarthy Back problems married and honeymoon o 1954 Senate formally censured Joseph McCarthy 0 Wrote a book about representatives who risked or ruined their careers for standing up for the right thing 0 Profiles in Courage won Pulitzer prize Roman Catholic Faith 0 John McCarthy Senator from Minnesota Communist hunter Never fought in WWII but claimed to be a tail gunner Only found one communist party member Hateful untruthful rumors Very low approval ratings Robert Kennedy worked as a lawyer under McCarthy 0 Joe Kennedy funded McCarthy Inauguration o Speech partly Kennedy s own writing Three foreign policy problems 0 Cuba o Vietnam o Laos Meeting in Vienna between Kennedy and Khrushchev Thinks don t go well for Kennedy for his first two years Players in the Kennedy Administration o LBJ Vice President 0 Wanted to keep his enemies closer Dean Rusk Secretary of State 0 Head of the Rockefeller Foundations 0 Rhodes Scholars o 8 years as Secretary of State 0 Star Basketball player Robert McNamara 0 Head of Ford Motor Company McGeorge Bundy Head of National Security Advisory 0 Harvard grad Adelaide Stevenson UN Ambassador 0 Wanted to be Secretary of State Southeast Asia o Laos 0 US wanted a neutral government o Sending Vice President Johnson to Vietnam to survey the situation Cuba o 1959 Batista overthrown by Fidel Castro o Castro hated the way America treated Cuba 0 American Embassy recruited people to overthrow Castro o Moved coup to Bay of Pigs instead of Trinidad o Castro arrested thousands of suspicious Cubans o For the first time Castro used Marxist in relation to the Cuban Revolution o Only took two days to kill or capture invading forces o Kennedy took full responsibility for the Bay of Pigs Fiasco 0 Never had a higher approval rating 0 Khrushchev also watched this address May of 1959 o Summit meeting scheduled between Khrushchev and Eisenhower 0 Both had become almost friends 0 Meet in Paris and sign a number of agreements o Blew up after U2 plane was shot down o U2 pilot Francis Gary Powers shot down and did not commit suicide Vienna Conference o Aftermath of the Bay of Pigs fiasco o Still had great back pains unprepared for Khrushchev s brutality JFK continued 8232011 60000 PM Gap in the Iron Curtain o Travel to West Berlin and then into Western Europe o 2500 immigrants a minute Soviet intelligista o 13 August 1961 decision to build a wall dividing East Berlin from West Berlin 0 Building begins 18 August 1961 Berlin Wall o Subway system blocked o Originally just a line of concrete stones o Berlin not worth a potential nuclear war o Khrushchev would not have built the wall had he not felt that Kennedy was a pushover o 1 September Soviets begin atmospheric nuclear tests 0 exposes radiation to a worldwide populace 2228 October 1961 o Soviets brought troops and tanks up to the wall o West countered with more troops o Worst happened at Checkpoint Charlie o Soviets test megaton nuclear weapons 0 Megaton equivalent of 1 million tons of TNT exploded in a single second 30 October 1961 o Soviets tested 60 megaton explosion o Largest nuclear test in human history o People began building underground nuclear shelters o Became a cottage industry Khrushchev s last dare to Kennedy was installing missiles in Cuba o US installed missiles in NATO member Turkey o Declared that Castro and Khrushchev were friends and Soviets were sending defense materials so that the Cubans could defend themselves against another potential invasion o Plan to install 40 missile launch pads o 24 of them medium with range of 1000 miles 0 16 of them intermediate with range of 200 miles o Began in the summer of 1962 13 September 1962 o JFK holds a press conference 0 Announce that US will do what it takes to defend national and NATO security o Dictators should not be coddled o Soviet IRBM arrive in Cuba 19 September 1962 o CIA says that Soviets would not dare put missiles in Cuba o Kennedy wants expanded air surveillance of Cuba 21 September 1962 o CIA Cuban operative reports that he has seen Russian missiles entering Cuba o CIA do not trust their own source 15 October 1962 o CIA returns with photo from U2 recon plan showing preparations for launch sites 18 October 1962 o US waits for three days for Soviet Foreign Minister meeting o Asks Andrei Gramyko if they are doing anything in Cuba 0 He denies said allegations o Kennedy asks for a press conference 22 October 1962 o All ships entering Cuba will be stopped 0 Any carrying weapons will be turned away o Cuba will be under increased surveillance 0 Admitting spying o If a missile is launched from Cuba our missiles are going to the Soviet Union o Immediately Organization of the American States all Western Hemisphere states would be called to condemn Cuba o Calls out Leader of Soviet Union 23 October 1962 o OAS voted unanimously to condemn Cuba for accepting missiles 25 October 1962 o Stevenson addresses the country and later the world 0 Displays recon pictures of Cuban launch pads o Demanded that Zorin reply tot U2 plane shot down over Cuba and Soviet Union o Khrushchev given power to launch missiles to Soviet officers in Cuba 28 October 1962 o Soviets would remove missiles from Cuba o US would not invade Cuba o US would not replace missiles in Turkey o Agreement about Turkey done in Washington parking lot between RFK and Zorin Install a direct line from Washington to Moscow Ban of testing nuclear weapons in the atmosphere o No more nuclear tests in the atmosphere Nuclear Weapons 8232011 60000 PM Demonstrated Power of new offensive weapon o Greater power than all others combined o Nobody understood what it all meant Deterrence o Threat of mutually assured destruction Four Basic Rules Governing the Understanding of nuclear weapons o Power of nukes so great that any city in the world can be destroyed by one or more nuclear weapons 0 1 megaton bomb on Baton Rouge would destroy most of New Orleans o No capable defense of nuclear weapons does not exist 0 Everybody that has nuclear weapons has the power to destroy anyone else o Mutually Assured Destruction 0 Everyone is dead o Technology can be matched Henry A Kissinger 1945 o US detonates first atomic bomb 0 Only time used in warfare against Japan c 1949 Soviets tested atomic weapon o Soviets develop thermonuclear bomb 0 HBomb much more powerful o Soviets first to test ICBM Nuclear war an impossibility unless it happens by accident Three reasons for hope o Both countries followed nonproliferation 0 Did not share nuclear secrets 0 Having more countries with nukes is a bad idea o WWIIEnd of Eisenhower Administration 0 Small agreements made 0 No nukes on Antarctica o Kennedy and Khrushchev hoped to make a change 0 First use of the term d tente o TestBan Treaty 0 Outlawed atmospheric tests 0 Made world safer o Represented one more step towards coming to an arrangement that will make things work better 0 Slowed the pace of the arms race Kennedy assassinated in 1963 Khrushchev removed in 1964 January 1967 o USA and USSR signed treaty to not put nuclear weapons in space o Significant agreement 1 July 1968 o US and Soviet Union signed Nonproliferation Treaty 0 Promised nontransfer of nuclear weapons to other countries o France China United Kingdom USA and USSR in nuclear club o Establish international safeguards to prevent nonweapon nuclear power into nuclear weapons 0 Things went bad o Limitation of nuclear arms discussed with Soviets SALT o 20 August 1968 made it impossible o Czechoslovakia engaged in freedom movement 0 Soviets crushed it with their tanks o Lyndon Johnson did not seek reelection Hubert Humphrey George Wallace segregation Nelson Rockefeller o Liberal Republican o Recommended Kissinger to Nixon Richard Nixon o Lost gubernatorial race to Pat Brown o You won t have Dick Nixon to kick around anymore o Slowly became clear that Nixon was going to be the nominee Henry A Kissinger o Carefully kept his German accent In 1968 Nixon promised to US public c To Restore clear cut military superiority over the USSR o Tan rested and ready National Security Advisor o Job given to Kissinger o 1973 Secretary of State 0 Headed up preparation for SALT talks First SALT in 1969 o Completely changed superiority into Nuclear paritysufficiencyquot 1964 ICBM USA 285 USSR 35 SLBM USA 112 USSR 0 MB USA 639 USSR 100 Launchers USA 1036 USSR 135 1969 ICBM USA 1054 USSR 1510 SLBM USA 656 USSR 440 MB USA 520 USSR 2090 22302090 Strategic Arms are egregiously complex o Erroneous belief that we had the capacity to knock down an ICBM o ABM defense system could destabilize entire system 0 Fear that with one MAD was compromised Circle Error Probability o 50 probability that you could destroy a target o US missiles had better targeting Soviets much less accurate Throw Weight o Actual power of the warhead o Our average size 12 megaton better accuracy Multiple Reentry Vehicle MIRV o Referred to fact that we were experimenting with mounting multiple warheads on a single missile o I refers to independently At its peak USSR had 18th of the world s land surface Carter Ford Nixon 8232011 60000 PM Kissinger and Dobrynin began talks o Pushed through simultaneous two treaties SALTI o First Agreement 0 USA and USSR could have 2 ABM 0 One at capital and one at least 800 miles away 0 Could have 200 separated interceptor missiles o Second Agreement 0 Both sides can build unlimited numbers of manned bombers 0 Agreement on the number of ICBMs USA will not have more than 1054 USSR allowed to build 16181CBM because of fewer SLBM o Treaty becomes a law with 23 of the Senate 0 Many senators concerned that the Soviets would have more weapons Neverland o Jackson Zumwalt and Nitze argued that o Soviet missiles have greater throw weight that o More warheads could be aimed o Soviet Union might be tempted into First Strike Capability o Low digits of false alarms for nuclear missile launch detection o Willing to agree to this treaty 0 But in further treaties US could not be limited to a number below that of the Soviet Union 0 Passed 5635 0 Either believed Jackson or for political Eventually passed 882 1972 o Nixon won 49 of 50 states o Nixon won more votes than any other president in history o Watergate o Misprision of a felony a felony for a civil servant to not report a felony o Nixon impeached by the House 0 Republican Senators told him the vote would be 882 0 Resigned in 1974 o Spiro Agnew o Resigned because of fraud while Governor of Maryland o Gerald Ford chosen to be Vice President 0 At the time the House minority leader 0 Considered genial and dumb 0 Appointed because Nixon believed that he wouldn t be impeached for fear of Gerald Ford being president Gerald Ford o Our long national nightmare is over o Kept all of Nixon s cabinet including Kissinger 0 Sent Kissinger to Moscow to negotiate a new SALT treaty 19741977 November 1974 o Ford travels to Vladivostok to meet with Leonid Brezhnev o Ford discusses cruise missiles Cruise Missiles o Much smaller and easier to store o Hovers above the ground o Fairly cheap in terms of missiles o Ground Launched Cruise Missiles o Air Launched Cruise Missiles Jimmy Carter o Elected because Ford gave Nixon a pardon o Also because of the massive inflation caused by the inflation in the price of oil o Ford came up with the ridiculous Whip Inflation Now o Brought in a new team of foreign policy advisors o Cyrus Vance became the new Secretary of State 0 Brzezinski became NSA advisor o Firm believer in human rights o Particularly those in the Soviet Union praised those protestors Handwrote a letter to Andrei Sakharov physicist who created the HBomb o Carter argued that treaty should be signed 0 Declared that each country could only have 2400 launchers 0 Could only have 1320 MIRFs o Treaty further stipulated that each side could only deploy one new kind of missile during the course of the treaty USA had ability using National Technical Means that they could cheat the treaty a little bit but not a lot Against Carter o Senator H Jackson o Senator John Glenn December of 1979 o Things getting worse for Carter o Soviet invasion of Afghanistan o First time since 1945 Soviet troops enter a country not a part of their empire o Client state subservient to the USSR o UN official said You walk outside of Kabul and you re in the Old Testament December 1980 o Soviets declare Martial Law in Poland o Reagan Light a candle for the Polish suffering under martial lawquot o Korean Airlines flight 007 lost flying from USA to Korea shot down while flying over Soviet airspace 0 One US congressman died o Two Marxist uprisings in Nicaragua and El Salvador Soviets began deploying about 400 ss20 missiles in satellite European states o Regarded this as intentional provocation o Strenuous recommendations to Soviets was to not do this o Plans to put 464 GLCM weapons in West Germany Italy Belgium and the Netherlands o Mitterrand urges West Germans to take French nuclear weapons Reagan o Strategic Defense Initiative o STAR Wars by its detractors Leonid Brezhnev Yuri Andropov Konstantin Cherenkov all died within a year of each other Soviets then went with the younger Mikhail Gorbachev o Glasnost openness for Russia o Perestroika reorganization of the Russian system c Chernobyl explosion 20 April 1986 near Kiev Destroy all nukes and make the world safe for conventional war May of 1988 Meeting on Governor s Island in New York Discuss the SS20 GLCM and Pershing missiles deployed in Europe previously Get rid of half and we ll each watch as we destroy each weapon The Zero Option meeting Not a reduction but an elimination treaty 0 Agree on verification procedures In aftermath both sides talk over Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty Soviet Union collapsing around Gorbachev People ceased to believe in the Soviet government Wall went down in 11 November 1989 Soviet Satellites began to gain freedom and Soviet troops begin to leave Attempt by military and hardliners to keep Soviets together Early 1990s Russia needed democratic help o Explain the role of banks o Brief access to Soviet era archives o Embarked upon an effort to reduce both countries strategic arms o START goal of reducing 50 of warheads and missiles o Reached 1960s levels of arms reductions o Power to destroy the world six times over for each country 0 Safer because of this Friendliness declined upon Vladimir Putin s presidency o Putin once important head of the KGB o Emphasized Russian nationalism o Made Russia a powerhouse based on Russian natural resources Robert Gates former Secretary of Defense o 1992 only analyst to be head of the CIA o One Cold War was enough o Strategic partners rather than friendly allies How did we win the Cold War 8232011 60000 PM Case for our victory 1 We outspent the Russians o PreReagan we were a creditor country people owed us o PostReagan became a debtor country from defense bonds o Accelerated after Reagan but happened during Reagan regime o Even today SDI measures cannot be reliably proven 0 Can shoot down an aimed measure with prior knowledge 0 Shoot down 50 or more missiles 2 Soviets shot themselves in the foot o Invasion of Afghanistan was a economically crippling farce 0 US supplied rebels with heat seeking missiles o Russia s Vietnam 0 Played a significant role in undermining communist regime o Chernobyl disaster 0 Eastern Europeans blamed Soviets for irradiation from meltdown 3 Organized the rest of the world against the Soviets o Started with Truman and did not pull back with isolation 4 Ideals of the West o Proved that freedom works better than tyranny o Openness with computers could not happen in tyranny o Don t maintain status quo go FFW o Reagan did not win Cold War but did greatly influence its outcome Tear down this Wa o Represented everything the Cold War stood for c We won but it was costly Intelligence 8232011 60000 PM Disinformation o False information trying to get other side to act on it CounterIntelligence o Attempting to retrieve lost information o Attempts to weed out traitors o Trust noone basis of counterintelligence Robert Gates o CIA Director during latter stages of HW Bush Aldrich Ames o Decided to spy for the USSR Terrible spy bought Jaguar sedan despite his midlevel CIA position Bought a house in Arlington VA in cash money Nobody from the CIA investigated never polygraphed In God we trust all other we polygraph 10 years as a spy for 10 years Average spy last only 5 years Never caught until Soviet defector revealed his name Robert Hanssen o Names of Top 15 US spies in Soviet Union were revealed and those spies were all executed o FBI head of counterintelligence o Centered search on one or two CIA officers 0 Completely innocent of thei o Soviet Defector o Fingerprints on a garbage bag ultimately led to his demise Neither agent is put to death o Termination of Extreme Prejudice execution not used c Neither put to death Reason for hiring spies o Frequently claims of ideologically motivations denied o Greedy people are the most trustworthy CIA o Better at Signet KGB o Better at human intelligence HUMINT Mossad ISI Pakistan not really M16 Stasi East Germany c Head of Stasi specialized in Moles o Moles recruited young want nothing from you don t want any information rises slowly through the ranks of government Then at a position of trust they are asked for government information Chief of Staff was once an East German mole 0 Heads of West German Intelligence and Counterintelligence were East German moles Marcus greatest spymaster of ALL TIME Stassi left books more organized KGB wanted you to know that you had been searched Direction de Survaiance de Terre DST o Very assimilated Muslim population that works for DST o Best at counterintelligence James Jesus Angleton o CIA operative in the 1950s1960s o Close to the 2 man in M16 who was a Soviet mole o Convinced of Soviet moles in the American system c Marked cards led us to wild good chase Intelligence o Most agents learn to trust no people Super Computers o Search for keyword search Types of Questions from the book o Foundations and broad entities of the intelligence community o How did intelligence affect the Cold War 0 Pick the specific example you know o How does intelligence affect national policy 0 Historical relationship between the two 0 Fit intelligence to influence policy 0 If you want it real bad you can get it real bad o How does technology change the methods we gather intelligence o What are the problems we have encountered while gathering intelligence Our successes in the intelligence At least 4 three page length essay question The War in amp Vietnam 8232011 60000 PM Background o Deeply unpopular war o Most young Americans never got close to Vietnam 0 Most Americans got out of service 0 Dick Cheney got 6 deferments o Many came home with PTSD o Most American could not find Vietnam on a map at the onset of the war Parris Island o Training for the Marine Corps French began to establish a colonial empire in Southeast Asia o Produces more rice per km than any part of the world o Also several rubber trees in the area o Rubber plantations in South Vietnam belonged to Michelin company o Never a large population of the French in the Vietnamese highlands 0 Also in Saigon and Hu in the midlands o Never treated natives poorly however did not treat them well 0 Offered them indoctrination into French culture 0 Those who did not want French influence were not accepted 1920519305 0 Nationalist movements throughout Southeast Asia Leaders similar to Gandhi o Japanese easily took control of French Indochina 0 Japanese treated the natives far worse than the French 0 Nationalist movements took enormous steps forward under Japanese authority Ho Chi Minh o Born in 1890 to ambitious family o Attended French schools o Left Southeast Asia for 30 years c Began as a sailor visiting all of the continents o Trained to be a pastry chef in London o Moved to France after World War I to work in photo retouching Trained as a Communist leader in the Soviet Union Worked as a Communist leader in China Thailand Hong Kong 1941 Eventually goes home to organize resistance to the Japanese VietMinh movement Socialism in Europe Socialists following Soviet dictates became communists Socialist remained VietMinh Primarily a nationalist movement aimed at expelling the Japanese Leaders primarily Communist Belief that if nationalist movement with Communist background would lead to a communist Vietnam VietMinh occupied the Northern city of Hanoi Ho Chi Minh declared the existence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam Return of the French BaoDai 1954 French Foreign Legion of mainly foreign soldiers Only voluntary draftees went to fight in Vietnam Fighting continued until 1954 Shipments to Vietnam took very long time French never sent more thank 48k troops we sent over 1 million Native Vietnamese educated at French universities Agreed to be a French puppet ruler in Vietnam Allowed the French to claim a turnover to Vietnamese control Battle of Dien Bien Phu 0 Last from March to May Great victory for the VietMinh Have not lost the war but we cannot win it Pierre MendezFrance 0 Turn the problem of Vietnam to the Geneva Conference o Geneva Conference made up of countries that fought against North Korea during the Korean War 0 Vietnam should be temporarily divided at a line North of Hu o Ventually a general election combining the whole country 0 Laos and Cambodia became independent neutral states Eisenhower Administration o Looked for an ally decided on Ngo Dinh Diem o Buddhist majority Roman Catholic Minority o Important friends in the US influential Catholics o Eased Bao Dai out and inserted in Ngo Dinh Diem o Diem did not want the all country elections North Vietnam o Persecution against the rich o Many uses of selective terror United States would not commit soldiers in Southeast Asia o Refused to commit American soldiers did use money and CIA o Proudest boast that during 8 years as president did not lose an inch of American territory or a single American military life JFK o War beginning to get more dangerous did not mean the imminent fall of South Vietnam o Beginning of trouble in Laos o Decided that he had to support Diem 0 Because in Washington the domino theory began to emerge o LBJ sent to Vietnam to have personal meetings with Diem 0 Agreement that US would give military aid to prevent the fall of South Vietnam Laos o SouvannaPhouma o Neutral still extraordinarily rural and primitive o Souphaouvong younger brother 0 Enamored with communism out ofjealousy of his older brother o Pathet Lao 0 Active in Northeastern Laos near North Vietnam in an area know as the Plain of Jars o JFK s easy solution in Laos 0 Push for neutrality in Laos 0 Nice balance of power 0 No neutral solution for Vietnam o Government forces opened fire on 9 Buddhist demonstrator o 8 May 1963 o Marshall law declared in Saigon occupied many Buddhist temples killed monks o Tran Pan Chuong resigned rather than defend his government s actions 24 April 0 Top South Vietnamese Army officials inquire about a potential coup of Diem o October 0 Robert McNamara sent to Vietnam and General Taylor 0 Instead of viewing countryside they were just briefed by advisors o Advisors just reiterated that Vietnam was under control involvement could in end in 1965 o November 1963 0 South Vietnamese generals carried out their seizure of power 0 Arrested Diem and Nhu and then executed 0 General Duong Van Minh General Big Minh LBJ 1964 0 United States now supporting a military dictatorship 0 Kennedy assassinated o Madame Nhu Kennedy deserved to be assassinated for letting her brother and brotherinlaw be killed Postassassination 0 General Nguyen Khanh asserts control over South Vietnam and announced that he wanted to prosecute the war more aggressively 0 Johnson wanted to do the same but faced an election year Johnson began to supply military support including naval vessels in the Gulf of Tonkin Johnson took a greater interested in Laos and the Pah Thet Lao in the Plain of Jars Johnson ordered American pilots to carry out airstrikes against the Pah Thet Lao 0 Flight plans falsified by the pilots Engaged in a war not open to scrutiny by the American people General Taylor arrived in Saigon to negotiate with General Khanh o Naval destroyers in Tonkin worked as intelligence ships 0 Maddox and the Turner Joy WWII era destroyers refitted as intelligence ships Flirted with the 12 mile water zones 0 Wanted to stimulate the North into acting in order to get radio feeds August 0 Maddox intentionally entered the 12 mile limit 0 Torpedo boats chased the Maddox and reentered international waters Evening of 4 August 1964 both ships may or may not crossed it Sonar detects that torpedoes had been fired air support called in O O o No visual sightings suggest any further actions by the Maddox o Johnson addresses American public 0 American planes ordered to destroy North Vietnamese targets as retaliation o Destroyers find no battle debris from dubious attack o Tonkin Gulf Resolution 7 August 1964 0 Because of North Vietnamese attacks on US ships in international waters the United States is prepared as the president determines to take all necessary steps including the use of armed force 0 4160 in the House 0 882 in the Senate Two nays were subjected to immense criticism o Barry Goldwater o Came off as scary and super conservative o Knew he was going to lose so made a fun election 0 Honest if too conservative o LBJ Daisies commercial 0 Mushroom cloud kills girl in the daisy field o LBJ sends 36 large bomber and escalates the number of troops to 20k Johnson runs as the antiwar candidate o Before and after elections North Vietnamese forces invade South Vietnam 1965 o 7 February North Vietnamese attack South Vietnam city of Plei Ku o 8 Americans killed 100 injured 0 LBJ orders 49 American planes carry out airstrike o 160 planes carry out retaliatory airstrikes after attack on American staging area o 27 February White Paper sent out o No mention to All country elections or support Diem and Nhu no mention of unelected military leaders o Viet Cong mentioned as Southern North Vietnamese conspirators o 28 February Continuous Air Bombardment o 7 April LBJ addresses Congress about Vietnam Spring of 1965 0 Johnson administration involves Cambodia in the war o General Khanh displaced by Nguyen Van Thieu and Ngyune Cao Ky o LBJ increases the number of troops in Vietnam to 150k idea of advisors long disappeared 0 American troops conducting operations on their own 0 South Koreans sent 15k troops to South Vietnam 0 Draft initiated o Lieutenants with an average age of 21 o UK government disassociates themselves with an American action in Vietnam o LBJ tells De Gaulle that he could win a war with draftees because they re American 0 Only three long term democratic countries USA France UK McNamara o Commissions 47 independent experts to analyze Vietnam situation o Analyze progress made in Vietnam o American airstrikes had not noticeably affected the warmaking ability of North Vietnam o LBJ sided with North Vietnamese Cambodia o N Sihanouk o Disputed princely title 0 Slippery character committed to Cambodia 0 Afraid of embroilment in larger SE Asian conflict o Viet Cong troops operating in the South Vietnam crossed border in Vietnam 0 USA follows Viet Cong in Hot Pursuit principle o Cambodia broke all diplomatic relations with America 1966 1967 1968 By the end of 1966 380k troops in Vietnam Agent Orange used to destroy foliage in jungles Thailand New Zealand Australia Philippines South Korea troops brought troop total to over 400k Johnson administration thought they had begun to stabilize the situation reliable allies Thieu and Ky Growing discourse against involvement and support of military dictatorship o LBJ wanted a constitution and free elections 1 April 1968 Election of congress and president 0 Thieu run as president Ky run as vicepresident 0 General Duong Van Big Minh most popular man in Vietnam Anyone who left Vietnam since 1960 could not run Troung Dinh Dzu ran on a platform of peace proposals 3 September 1967 Election held 0 ThieuKy ticket won 348 of the vote plurality o Dzu 178 of the vote 0 Plurality elected because of stipulation in the constitution o Dzu arrested 31 October 1967 0 New government sworn in on Halloween 470k troops 50k from allies Friday evening news carried body count totals for USA South Vietnam and North Vietnam 0 Under the impression that the united states was winning the war 0 Many of these enemy body count numbers were inflated my platoon leaders 0 NVA and VC would have been wiped out by these figures 0 0 Third week of January Kahe Sanh Marine Military base 23rd January Destroyer Pueblo operating off of North Korea taken hostage 30 January Tet Lunar New Year Offensive O O O O 0 Every American installation attacked 31St American Embassy in Saigon under attack City of Hue taken by the North Vietnamese Complete failure in the end Proved that they could launch a country wide assault of South Vietnam Walter Cronkite Notable hawk for the war By JanuaryFebruary of 1968 asked to investigate the status of the war Created a documentary 0 This war could not be won not that we were going to lose LBJ Walter Cronkite is against me I ve lost the American people II 1968 Political Climate LBJ challenged from within his own party by Eugene McCarthey to get us out of Vietnam Gene McCarthey got 42 of first primary s vote 16 March RFK announced he would challenge LBJ for president No longer bomb in North Vietnam also did not seek office of president Nixon won the election against Humphrey against Humphrey and Wallace Nixon s Vietnamization 1969 Turning the war over to the Vietnamese Troops in Vietnam reached its height at 540k by 1969 Draft ended Nixon called for an all volunteer service College protests went down quickly 0 No fear of drafting o 3 September 1969 Ho Chi Minh died 0 Certain that he had won the war Ho Chi Minh Trails o Americans begin bombing Cambodian supply lines May 1970 o Destroy supply lines and then get out disrupt logistics and communications of North Vietnamese Laos and Thailand could not have American troops N Sihanouk of Laos sides with the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia American involvement in Cambodia made it more likely for the Khmer Rouge to take power John McCain taken prisoner 1975 city of Saigon renamed Ho Chi Minh City Kissinger s Visit to Vietnam o Visited museum Less than any involvement Really obvious broad questions on the test o Need themes and detail 1 Year tours of Vietnam Book Details o Vietnam experience qualitatively different o Why Vietnam was a complete disaster for the American military How could we have won the war o Couldn t have won it with a million man invasion force o Invade part of the North near dividing line and along the coast o Because we would have been in NV territory NV would not have the time or resources to invade the South Counter Culture 8232011 60000 PM 1950s Life o IBM does not fire people o 1 out of every 4 men is unemployed o no unemployment insurance 0 Pay cuts o Uncles and relatives whose companies and who will never work again o The Organizational Man and William H White 0 Businessmen would take an old coat if you offered it to them 0 Many believed that companies were out to help them 0 IBM I ve been moved 0 Big Business was deified 0 People afraid and afraid that nothing would get fixed again o Authors worried that Americans were becoming too homogenized 0 White ties and reading their kids the golden books 0 Tootle the Tank Engine o Eisenhower met Billy Graham in New York 0 America has to have a religious revival Les Paul song Via con Dios 1 song Under God added to the Pledge of Allegiance 1954 1955 In God We Trust added to all currency The family that prays together stays together The Power of Prayer on Plants The Ideal Toy company offered a doll that genuflected when you stroked its head o Entrepreneurship foreign idea 0 President of Yale I observe that you share the prevailing idea of the hour that bargaining on fate s power o Social Ideals 0 Seniors in high school Wanted to be in guided missiles Wanted Grace Kelly wife bring culture into the home 0 Time No campus is without its atrocity story of intellectual deadness 0 Animal House ideals O O O O O O Everything Changed o Civil Rights Movement First Transformative Power 0 Early 19605 racial prejudice entered the catalogue of unquestioned evils o Whites extremely patronizing Godfried Cambridge RentANegro Program 0 Most compelling program in producing change was the Cold War and consumer culture JFK and civil rights 0 June 1963 address to Congress When Americans are sent to West Berlin or Vietnam we do not ask for Whites Only Blacks discovered the power of store boycotts 0 Money proved to be more important than prejudice 0 Motel 19505 invention Motels strictly segregated swimming pools integrated motels o RFK opened civil rights legislation to Danville Virginia o JFK and LBJ s Civil Rights Acts 0 Immediately challenged in court 0 Heart of Atlanta Motel vs USA 0 If JFK pushed civil rights Congress would turn on JFK o ML King Jr 0 Won sympathetic response with the motel sympathy for blacks 0 Spring of 1968 MLK shot dead in a motel on Motel Mountain JFK and Civil Rights 0 Congress firmly in the hands of Southern Segregationists o All would accept white man with a dog no blacks under any circumstance o Industries with government contracts would not be renewed if they practice employment segregation 0 Nicholas Katzenabach and Barry White named to high government offices o Blacks head of Housing and Home Finance Ambassador to Finland Justice Thurgood Marshall to Appeals Court later Supreme Court 0 Jim Crow laws initiated to prevent blacks from votes Literacy tests Enraged Southern Segregationists 0 Suit against Sunflower County Mississippi Home of James Eastland Chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee mighty segregationist James Meredith grandson of a slave attempted to enroll at the University of Mississippi Governor of Mississippi defied an order from the Supreme Court and turned away Meredith 30k troops sent to Oxford Mississippi who were attacked by mobs of Mississippians 2 Killed and 175 injured 29 with gunshot wounds James Meredith eventually enrolled at Ole Miss April 1963 Birmingham Protests 0 Led by MLK Jr 0 Police Chief Gene Bull Connor attacked protestors with hoses dogs and cattle prods June 1963 Alabama 0 George Wallace attempted to prevent any nonwhites from enrolling at Alabama 0 Kennedy stared him down Wallace gave in to the pressure 0 Kennedy gave a speech First comprehensive Civil Rights legislation sent to Congress 0 Special spot in hell for those who sent on the fence 0 Congress refused even to act on o A huge demonstration on Washington 28 August 1963 March on Washington 0 100k people peacefully met in front of the Washington Monument Music by Joan Baez Peter Paul and Mary Bob Dylan Speech by MLK almost not given because he had prepared remarks 0 O Civil Rights Act of 1964 o Outlawed discrimination in places of public accommodations o Equal access to swimming pools stadiums etc o If it is a public entity there can be no discrimination o Withholding of public support to any institution that participates in racial discrimination o 6th Grade education presumption of literacy to prevent literacy tests Voting Rights Act of August 1965 o Federal registrars went into discriminatory states to prevent voting fraunt Riots and Black Power o 1965 in Los Angeles o 1966 in Chicago o 1967 in Newark and Detroit 0 Newark 26 people dead and 1200 wounded 0 Detroit by far the worst 48 dead and 2000 wounded 0 National guard went into Detroit in tanks o Riots raised fundamental problems with black and whites together value 0 Black Power newsletter issued o Stokely Carmichael head of Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee 0 Carmichael invited on Late Night with Johnny Carson o Carmichael most admired Hitler o H Rap Brown 0 Widely regarded as a criminal until he was convicted of murder 0 Next head of SNCC o Black Nationalism 0 Under the leadership of Elijah Muhammed nee Poole o Malcom X nee Little a follower 0 Movement beset with violence o Malcom X laughed at the assassination of JFK o Assassinated in February of 1965 by then the violence was beginning to spread o Black Panther Party in Oakland California 0 Headed by Huey P Newton their Secretary of Defense Native Americans o Seized Alcatraz Island o Offered to sell it to US for 24 in red beads and cloth price of Manhattan Assassinations o MLK and RFK both assassinated in the same years c Riots afterwards in many places including DC 0 One point over 700 fires burning in Washington DC 0 More fires than when the British burned the capital Felonies against property and against persons c 19601968 felonies against persons more than doubled in the USA c People in large and small cities began arming and equipping security measures o Gun Homicide rate of kills by guns 40x that of any Western European country or Japan 0 Celebrated in our movies and television shows 0 Bonnie and Clyde a box office smash but troubling by turning movie characters into folk revolutionaries Slow motion ballet of death at the end of movie Hitchcock s put things into perspective Television violence has brought murder into the homes where it belongs O 0 By 1968 war in SE Asia the longest in our history o Bloodier war than Korea o Least popular war ever fought by the United States 0 Supporting a military dictatorship 0 Using Agent Orange and napalm on the jungles o Crispy Critters o Adopted approach of recon by fire o Apocalypse Now I love the smell of napalm in the morning it smells like victory o War started by Kennedy escalated by Johnson both liberal presidents Draft turned the most people against the war o Hershey Those who demonstrated against the war to be drafted o Critics of the war according to LBJ Nervous Nelly o Students for a Democratic Society 0 Carried out bombings ins o 1967 March on the Pentagon 0 Sign that read Where is Oswald when we need him nowquot o 1968 Terrible Violence on college campuses 0 Year of the Tet Offensive o Assassinations of RFK and MLK 0 Violence at Columbia initiated by SDS Took hostages and buildings The worst Baby Boomers o Young people needed to change the world 0 Born in the Baby Boom generation o More access to anything than any previous American generation 0 Into a prolonged adolescence o Younger people who are responsible for themselves o Reacted against the standard culture the establishment o Counterculture o New attitudes towards rules 0 Walked into the building got high Don t trust anyone over 30 Communal toilets Casual sex Rebellion against grades could be traced to the draft 0 College professor felt bad and grad inflation occurred o Draft Statuses 0 1A Could be drafted at any time 0 ZS Full time college student ineligible for the draft passed 15 hours of work a semester o 90 of all draftees went to Vietnam o Duke 0 Average grade given at Duke A Counter Culture o Rejection of idea instant affluence o Rejected Western though as being too systematic o New exploration of ancient mysteries 0 Study of tarot cards 0 Astrology charts o Churches attempted to use guitars and banjos DRUGS o Timothy Leary Harvard Professor 0 Great proponent of LSD Tune in turn on drop out 0 Johnny Appleseed of LSD barnstormer of LSD o Associated with listening and performing rock music o Common place in high school less so in college o Drugs about clashing lifestyles I know this is wrong but I love doing it c To know oneself meant leaving the straight life behind Generation Gap o Middle of the 19605 more people under the age of 30 than over the age of 30 o Sense among people that they were creating a new culture 0 Took pride in causing discomfort in people over the age of 30 particularly parental authority c We are the people our parents warned us about o Old people did not understand 0 Norman Mailer We re in a time that is divorced from the past There is utterly no tradition anymore 0 No relation to the past all traditional beliefs up for grabs o Large families had become the norm 0 Counter Culture wore buttons Stop at 2 children 0 Mother of the year one who used birth control and adopted a child Woodstock o August of 1969 at Max Yasgur s farm upstate New York o Woodstock Music and Art Fair o Attracted between 300400k o Joan Baez Jimi Hendrix Crosby Still Nash and Young o Most people came for the drugs and the sex 0 Extraordinary promiscuity and drug overdoses o All peaceful Before Woodstock and even before the 1960s o 1966 Who s Afraid of Virginia Wolfe 0 Elizabeth Taylor s masterpiece 0 Lots of profanity o 1959 Lady Chadwick publication 0 First amendment protects language just as it protects political speech 0 Occurred under Eisenhower 1960s things began to change o Hair invited people to strip on stage o Janis Joplin and rock stars sing with raw sexual inflection o Jim Morrison made the crowd happy in Miami by removing his clothes 1970 Nixon s supported Federal Commission on Obscenity and Pornography o Argued for legislation that made legal for the acquisition for all hard core pornography except for children o Dr William H Mastors and Dr Virginia E Johnson first people to conduct scientific activity 0 Began work in 1956 lasted 11 years because of renewed grants Rapid Change in the attitude towards gender roles c 19605 more women went to college c 19705 onward more women in college than men c 19505 rare to have women doctors lawyers accountants 0 Nearly as many female as male lawyers 0 Soon larger because of more female law students 0 Doctors 0 Significant majority of accountants are in a majority o Women in college forbidden to wear pants outside the dorms Women s Liberation Movement o Women should be treated the same as men o Lib movements wanted more o Women not sexual objects 0 Women dismayed by fellow radicals 0 SDS Make sandwiches for him o Ch Guevara o In his manual Women could be useful to guerilla movements as cooks o Stokely Carmichael 0 Women in his movement The position of women in our movement should be prone 0 Foot in mouth disease o Sovereignty of their own bodies 0 Rape committed as a political act 0 Took courses in karate o Regulate childbearing birth control o The Pill widely available after 1964 0 Number of children dropped precipitously o Control over abortion the next step 0 Number of states legalized abortion 0 1973 Roe v Wade decision All states must allow abortion before third trimester o 1972 majority of states had antiabortion laws Majority of American population lived in states that did allow abortion 0 Women s liberation continues to this day The Downfall Militant SDS movement 0 Weathermen blew up a Greenwich Village townhouse 0 Making bombs in the basement tip of woman s little finger the largest part that had survived Nixon reduced the number of troops in Vietnam 0 In order to reduce the political turmoil Economy began to turn sour terrible by 1972 o Hippies could not get job 0 Began cleaning themselves up for materialistic means Hard rockers of the 1960s replaced by softer melodious rock 0 James Taylor and Carly Simon 0 Credence Clearwater Revival o The Eagles Eric Segal wrote sappiest piece of fiction ever Love Story 0 Sold millions Bob Dylan 0 Turned 30 0 Accepted an honorary degree from Princeton Janis Joplin and Jim Morrison both died at 27 later Jim Morrison died in Paris 0 Does not read The Door just Jim Morrison Easy Rider 0 Essential counter culture film 0 Peter Fonda gives voice to the epitaph of counter culture We blew it Altamont Speedway 0 Hells Angels security team stomped a man to death after being paid 500 and all you can drink 0 Rolling Stones played 0 Man attempted to practice flying over an interstate Virginia Slims marketed to women Pepsi Generation Youngsmobile J Edgar Hoover 0 FBI could now grow beards and mustaches wear nonwhite shirts 0 Would recruit women and minorities Dirty Little Secret o Want to take hardest courses with the hardest graders Red Thunder Tropic Lightning 8232011 60000 PM Climate 0 Hot o Monsoons 0 Dust o Smell o Thickjungles Weapons M16 o Automatic rifle with semiautomatic function o Often jammed in poor weather condition o 20 round magazine later 30 rounds o Two seconds to empty magazine o Trained to fire on burst o Lighter and made of plastic stock made by Mattel o Smaller and had more damage o Early versions often jammed o Easily disassemble Grenade Launcher o Built into the M16 Mortar o 3 piece tube base plate tripod o High trajectory 81 mm round o 82 mm round used by NVA M60 Machine Gun AK47 Enemy o Could not tell who exactly the enemy was Army Basic Training o 6 weeks of basic training o 3 Months average training for soldiers in Vietnam Basic Combat Problems o Rotated individuals rather than platoons o Constantly changing servicemen lack of working relationships and bonds 0 Wanted a battle hardened army rather than fresh platoons o Guerrilla Warfare 0 New term of Counter Insurgency 0 Enemy never known 0 Hit and run tactics used 0 Never a marked front o Booby Traps and Mines 0 Mines create a fear in troops Mines designed to maim as well as kill o Never proper support from home nor military 0 Never enough rest intel support supplies etc 0 Vietnam veterans have highest levels of mental disorders than any other group in the country 23 examples for each main point o Must have concrete examples o Support generalization with specific facts Middle East 8232011 60000 PM Sinai Peninsula o Mediterranean connected to Red Sea Golan Heights o Hilly area between Lebanon Syria and Palestine o High ground of the Middle East o Important military advantage West Bank o Jordan River o Holy City of Jerusalem Gaza Strip o Proposal to combine Gaza Strip and West Bank into a Palestinian state o Not connected First Peace Treaty between Israel and Arab State o Jimmy Carter negotiated at Camp David o Most important document during negotiation was the Old Testament o Ancient Antagonism First use of Israel o Name of a man Abraham 0 Gold told him to head south to a land of milk and honey o Son Ishmael 0 Traditional progenitor of the Arabs o Son Isaac 0 Traditional progenitor of the Jews o Two Sons of Isaac Jacob and Esau 0 Jacob renamed Israel o 10 of 12 tribes create the Kingdom of Israel 0 Other 2 tribes create smaller Kingdom of Judah o 722 BC conquest of Israel by Babylonians o 586 BC downfall of Judah 0 People ofJudah known as Judah o People continued to believe that Palestine was the homeland of the Jews Islam o Warrior religion conquer in the name of Allah o All of the Middle East North Africa parts of India and Spain o Islamic Arabs ruled with a mild sense of religious freedom 0 Other religions tolerated 0 Jews refused to convert and all over the Mediterranean 0 Jews fared better under Islam more so than Christianity Christians and Jews o Crusaders practiced killing on the Jews o Jews killed Christ o Jews found refuge in Poland and Russia 1790 France o First country to grant Jews full civil rights o Great advances amongst Jews in French Army Converted Jew Benjamin Disraeli o Prime Minister of Great Britain o Great favorite AntiSemitic sentiments in Russia o Jews faced terrible conditions o Pogrom 0 Government sponsored attacks on the Jews o Eastern European Jews fled west to avoid persecution Jews by 1939 o 13 million Jews highest ever population o Half of Jewish population exterminated o 13 million Jews today o Eastern European Jews did not have time to assimilate o Jews became scapegoat for unemployment o Solely because they stood out Zionism o Jews argued for a country of their own 0 Convicted of high treason Possibly convicted because of his Jew status If a Jew cannot be safe in France first country where they attained civil rights Jews cannot be safe anymore 0 Eventually cleared 0 Huge emphasis to the theory of Zionism o Zionist organization bought land openings in Palestine 0 O Palestine occupied by British o 1917 Foreign Secretary Alfred Balfour issued Balfour declaration Great Britain would look with favor towards the establishment of a Jewish homeland Palestine Palestine became a mandate of Great Britain after the war Enormous shift in the population of Palestine 1919 591k Muslims 84k Jews 73K Christians 1939 849k Muslims 424K Jews mainly European 115K Christians Muslims began to complain about the complexion of their country WWII o Around 40 million deaths in the war o Among these were Jews killed in the Holocaust 0 Final Solution to the Jewish Problem 0 Commander of Auschwitz bragged that he was more efficient PostWWII o Fighting began between the Jews and Moslems o Britain did not want to bring in troops to restore order o The United Nations issued declaration Easily done with demographics Jerusalem belongs to no one independent All three entities Jewish state Palestinian State Jerusalem belong to be a part of a tariff union for at least 10 years British happy with UN s resolution 1415 May 1948 o British give up all authority in the region o Jews claimed the Jewish State of Israel on the side of the UN 0 14 May o Same day Arabs claim Palestinian state containing all of UN resolution o USSR and USA claimed the legitimacy of Israel Israel vs Arabs in Palestine Egypt Syria and Lebanon JEWS WIN o Outside money used to buy arms from US and Europe o Won because of a motivation to prevent another genocide Israel becomes a parliamentary democracy o Unicameral legislature with figurehead president 0 Knesset o Labor Party won first elections o David Ben Gurion became first Israeli Prime Minister o Ben Gurion wanted Jews to populate Israel 0 Largest group of Jews now resides in Israel 0 Populations came from 60 different states o Israel became member of UN in May 1949 Palestine o 50 Jewish Israel o 60 different countries represented in Jewish population in Israel Cause of Israel s Status USA formal diplomatic recognition immediately recognized 0 Same in Western Europe and USSR Ara b Wa rs 2nd 1956 Peace not made fighting just stopped 1St 194849 Frequent guerrilla action along the West Bank October Israelis launch troops into the Sinai French and British troops sent to the Suez Canal USA did not support these actions neocolonial Soviet Union saw this as a chance to support Egypt John Foster Dulles SoS under Eisenhower dying of cancer Heightened action after 1954 after Jamar Amd AnNasir Nasser asserted control in Egypt Arab Nationalists in Egypt Advance cause of all Arabs Egypt in particular Commando style Fellahein operated out of the Gaza Strip 0 Could mount more dangerous raids in Israel BenGurion looked to Anthony Eden for support 1956 Nasser took control over the Suez Canal 0 Nationalizing it 0 British very angry Gui Mollet French Prime Minister very angry at Nasser 0 Dealing with FLM rebellion in Algeria 0 Munitions supplied by Nasser s regimes Protection of investments 0 Troops sent to Suez to recapture it and force a regime changes Post1956 o Israel more isolated amongst its neighbors o Palestinian Arabs organized amongst themselves 0 Organized in Syria AlFatah led by Yasser Arafat o 1964 Palestinian Liberation Organization PLO o Eventually both merged keeping PLO as the name 0 3rd Arab War Six Day War 1967 o 7 April 1967 Israeli and Syrian war planes engaged each other over the Golan Heights o 11 May 1967 Levi Eshkol would not wait to be attacked willing to fire the first gun rather than be subject to attack o 15 May Massive Military parade in Cairo o Nasser then sent those troops into the Sinai as a leading element into the Sinai o Egypt attacked Israel s main port 22 May 0 Nasser would use French naval boats to cut off Israeli foreign transport o Israel surrounded by all neighbors o Entire Israeli Air Force attacked Egyptian Air Force 0 TOTAL ANNHILATION o In land warfare Israel had total command of the air o Masterpiece of military doctrine 0 Jews kicked ass The results of the Six Day Serious set of problems o Israelis couldn t deal with increased territories 0 Only nomads live in the Sinai o Gaza Strip West Bank and Jerusalem became the problem 0 Palestine supposed to be the land of Abraham s people o September 1967 0 Meeting of the Arab states 0 Some wanted to just make peace with the Jews 22 September 1967 o UN Resolution Most Important 242 0 Sponsored by Great Britain o For a just and lasting peace there needed to be three things Israel would withdraw from all land conquered in 1967 In return Israel s former enemies would acknowledge the sovereignty and territorial integrity and right to live in peace 0 Land for Peace Just settlement in the refugee problem 0 Still the crux of the issues No Arab government willing to meet with Israel 0 Only negotiate via a third party USA would use its own offices o Kissinger used in Shuttle Diplomacy o Soviet Union decided to rearm Syria and Egypt 0 Reason for shitty flights PLO o Increased terrorist activity after Arab Wars c 19671973 efforts led by US to convince ME countries to negotiate Anwar ElSadat o Nasser in power until his death o Sadat his lieutenant quiet and detail oriented o Regarded as an Arab hero Yom Kippur War 6 October 1973 o Sadat launched an attack on Israeli holdings in the Sinai o Israeli intelligence surprised Egyptian forces liberated the Sinai from Israeli control By middle of November stable line between two combatants First time Arab state had fought Israel to a standstill Truce declared in 1973 West sided with Israel in 1973 war OPEC Oil boycott of Western Europe 0 Lasted a month 0 Proved West s dependency of OPEC US produced 12 of oil it consumed 0 Mile long lines at the gas station 80 of Europe s Oil from OPEC Price of Oil doubled Merits to Palestinian problem M Begin o Leader of radical Jews in Israel o Similar enemy to British as Sadat Sadat addresses Knesset o Peace address o Made him an enemy of the Arab world Camp David Accords o Both Begin and Sadat meet Carter in Camp David o Camp David 0 Maryland mountains o Named for Eisenhower s grandsom o September 1978 0 Peace between Egypt and Israel 0 Disarming of entire Sinai Sadat Assassination o October 1981 o Hosni Mubarak took charge Mubarak 19812011 c In favor of Israel Peace o Understood the danger displayed by assassination of Sadat o Relationship was correct but not warm 0 Not Friendly Begin proposed annexation of Golan Heights o Seized from Syria in 1967 War o Israel does not make peace treaty with Syria o December 1981 official annexation o Syria promoted Lebanese attacks Israel Invasion of Lebanon o Made it all the way to Beirut o US France Italy troops sent to maintain peace o Eventually American troops recalled o 650 dead Israelis 0 Same as 40000 dead Americans 1988 o In six months o Five Arab neighbors 0 19481988 16500 Israeli casualties 0 Same as 1 million Americans o Begin resigned as PM 0 After failure in Lebanon Palestinians begin demonstrations in West BankGaza Strip o Intefadd The Uprising o Israeli government faced difficulties in ending protests 0 Technology created ire against Israelis excessive force o PLO announced for the first time support for UN Resolution 242 Saddam Hussein o August 1990 Iraqi troops sent to Kuwait o Purely for monetary reasons o H Dub Bush began sending troops to Persian Gulf George HW Bush o Intelligent but posed as a redneck o Forced resolutions from Western Europe and large contingents from Arab states o Israel not involved 1991 Operation Iraqi Freedom o Air attacks against Iraqi o Ground troops faced terribly trained Iraqi troops o Troops surrendered to an Italian photographer o Led by Collin Powel and Norman Swarskoff 0 Saved CNN o Coalition troops o Only 140 coalition troops dead 74 Americans o Made American prestige in Middle East at its height 0 WE FUCKING ROCKED CNN 0 About to go bankrupt before Gulf War 0 24 hour news made for Gulf War Israelis secretly meet PLO o In Norway o Progress made o Permit the creation of an independent state in Palestine 0 Israel to provide free transit between the two o Two State Solution Bill Clinton o 1993 invited Yasser Arafat and Rabin o Photo handshake staged between Arafat Rabin and Clinton o 13 September 1993 GazaJericho Agreement o PLO and Israel sign it in Cairo o Agreement to create a Palestinian state o Only proposed a two state system 0 Problem in the details 0 Many potential problems o Boundary issues 0 Gaza a clearly defined entity 0 Israel sponsored Jewish settlements in the West Bank 0 Israel suggestion of giving Palestine crappy Israeli land Right of Return o Conquest lands given back to Palestine o No meeting occurred between Israelis and Palestinians o Second assassination Ishaq Rabin assassinated by a radical Jew o Dared to make peace with Palestine o 1999 Arafat and Ehud Barak 0 Only make peace by giving up right of return 0 Arafat would be assassinated o Bebe Netenyahu 0 Time is not on your side 0 Israel would be ended by Arab nuclear weapon 0 o Terrible time since 1948 0 Think hard about how you could make things better China 8232011 60000 PM Population of 15 billion o 3x that of the United States o 20 of the world s population o Largest English speaking population in the world 0 More English speaking people than in US Manchu Dynasty 16811912 c Corrupt Dynasty weak national rule o Warlords controlled most of the local cities Sun YatSen 18661925 c Three Principles 0 China for the Chinese Nationalist principle 0 Genuine Participatory Democracy People should run the government 0 Government should guarantee decent livelihood for the people Civil War emerged after fall of the Manchus o Goumindang Political Party with a military wing o Gained control around Beijing and slowly expanded outward to include most of the major cities o By 1920 Goumindang established a kind of order in much of China c Sun YatSen s political orders bastardized o Chiang KaiShek and Mao Zedong become the later leaders of China Chiang KaiShek o Trained in military academies o Became the favorite successor of Sun YatSen o Widely regarded as the next leader of the Goumindang o Began a process of industrialization in China o Foreigners often forced out of the country 0 Example of China for the Chinese o Resembled a fascist leader 0 Similar to Mussolini advised by Germans o Attacked many communists China looked to help from foreign leaders o Spanish Flu swept across the world killing millions of people 0 3540 million dead o Support lacked o Soviet Union sent advisors to China to assist Chinese 0 Reorganized military agriculture o Chiang KaiShek now in charge Shanghai o Center of communist organization o Chinese communists attempted overthrow 0 April 1928 revolt crushed by Goumindang o 80 of recruited Communist members were massacred Japanese o Invaded Manchuria in 1931 o Chiang KaiShek refused to engaged them 0 Convinced that he could not defeat them 0 Fight against communists greater than the fight against the communists Remarkably dangerous strategy to pursue Killing fellow Chinese more important than preventing Japanese from taking control o Japanese launch victorious invasion of all of China 0 Japan did not have enough military forces to occupy all of China o Rape of Nanking December 1937 0 Warning to Chinese of Japanese brutality o Sacked the city 0 Entire city raped of its resources women and killed thousands 0 Greatest warfare atrocities O O WWII 7 December 1941 o US enters war against Japan c General Joseph Stilwell sent to coordinate activity between US and China 0 Both fighting the same country c Chiang Kaishek refuses fight Japanese 0 Would let US fight its war for him 0 Stilwell claimed that he was making the biggest mistake he could make Mao Zedong o Born into a peasant class family o Education afforded to him in hopes of becoming a Buddhist priest o Joined the struggle against the Manchus then decided to become a preacher o Fascinated by ideas that went beyond traditional Chinese thinking o Became a communist o Organized the peasants rather than the workers c 19281929 Mao led remaining communists south into rural isolated parts of China 0 Jiangxi province in southwest China 0 Referred to this as the Chinese Soviet Republic in 1929 0 First place to establish a peasant based communist state 1933 Long March o Nationalist invaded province o Mao headed west and north on the Long March o Shanxi Province in the northwest 1935 only 10000 left Zhou Enlai o Most cosmopolitan of communist leaders o International education well versed in Marxist theory 0 Not addicted to Marxist theory Deng Xiaoping o Bulldozer figure 0 As long as it gets done Liu Biao o Best Chinese General 0 Disgusted by Chiang KaiShek s distaste for fighting the Japanese o Joined the Communists Liu Shaoqi o Specialized in labor organization o Underground operations behind enemy lines Whoever stands up to the Japanese will become hero to Chinese o Belief of Mao o Times when American planes shot down over communist controlled territory Dixie Committee o Secretive organization to deal with communists American impressed by communists o Seemed less corrupt than Nationalists o More vigorous in the resistance to the Japanese End of War o Shek 450 million controlled Mao 100 million o US and allies UN recognized Chiang KaiShek as legitimate government of China o General George C Marshall sent to negotiate with Chinese 0 Chief of Staff for military during WWII 0 Hand picked Eisenhower to lead Normandy invasion 0 Personal representative of Truman with plenty pretionary powers 0 Wanted strong unitary China Goumindang and Communists meet in January 1946 o Agreed to all country elections in May o Belief that Goumindang would win o Soviets send in troops to Manchuria 0 Would make US invasion much easier CIVIL WAR o Lin Biao key to communist victory 0 Superior to any general of the Goumindang o 1948 Manchuria fell to the Communists o 1949 all of the big cities fell to the communist o Goumindang had 3x as many forces 0 Communists fought much better o Taiwan only remaining stronghold of the Communists o 1949 7 million for Chiang KaiShek 525 million for Mao People s Republic of China proclaimed o United States maintained the legitimacy of Taiwanese government o Not enough communists to run the country 0 Worry about ideological favor later o First agricultural law in summer of 1950 o Redistribution of land but no collectivization o No effort of government management of lands 0 Given to peasants who could get the work done o Widespread changes 0 Childhood marriage banned 0 Women given equal rights mainly labor rights o Education reforms o Brainwashing of youth 0 Those already education sent to Thought Reform camps 1954 Government buys shares of businesses o No right to deny sale to government 5Year Plans in 1950s o First one in 1955 o Industry requirement could not be met with poor Chinese education 0 Establishment of many more schools 0 First government mandated birth control policy in the world 0 One Child Policy Prime Minster Zhou Enlai o Chairmen Mao Zedong 0 Big Idea Man o Enlai o The details man o Mao had a propensity to quarrel 0 Relationships with USSR began to sour by 1956 o Stalin died three years earlier Khrushchev won with speech o Stood before assemble representative gave speech o On the cult of personality and its effect 0 Centered on Stalin s cult figure status 0 Had permitted Stalin to do terrible things 1525 million dead o Chinese were in audience as members of the communist party 0 Horrified by the speech for two reasons 0 Claimed that Chinese should have been consulted prior to the speech 0 Really upset about the similar cult of personality surrounding Mao that the speech indirectly attacked o First signs of bad blood between the two communist powers 0 Two immensely powerful men January 1957 Zhou Enlai travels to Moscow o Issued a formal statement October 1957 USSR committed to sharing nuclear weapons technology with China o November 1957 Mao goes to Moscow o Soviet union high road of all of humanity o USSRChina an equal partnership Mao sponsored The Great Leap Forward o Radical and revolutionary leap forward o Many people in USSR though Mao was literally insane o Your model is not necessarily ours o Told congress that society could not leap from capitalism to communism o People would be put to work industrializing China 0 Growth target of 30 growth a year c Children should kill sparrows by exhausting them o Dams built with wheelbarrows and shovels o By 1959 people dying on the job o 17 of Chinese population dies o Advisor killed by Mao for wanting him to take responsibility Chinese angry at Khrushchev s visit to the United States o 1959 state visit to USA c Met with Eisenhower and both got along quite well o Met in rocking chairs on the front porch of an Iowa farm Chinese meeting o War an inevitable outcome of Western hospitality Khrushchev cancelled all Soviet assistance to China o All Russian help and technology brought back to the Soviet Union Mao believed that it was time to loosen censorship o Hundred Flowers Movement in 1956 o Antirevolutionary bourgeois o Reform the dissident people o Dissenters sent to agriculture camps Mao annoyed with the power of Deng Xiaoping and Liu Shaoqi o Fundamental betrayal of the Communist Revolution o Complained about cities being better than country side 0 Government officials entitled to make decisions for the average citizen 0 All were marks of privilege o Children brought up to revere Chairman Mao o Mao needed exploit his position amongst the youth and the military The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution o Six years of really intense struggle c 19661976 Lasts until Mao dies in 1976 0 Claims that Mao lost touch with reality 0 Sense that he was still following his dream for a communist revolution o One of Worst disasters in 20th Century 0 More deaths than WWI o Referred to as the Ten Year Catastrophe o What Mao wanted 0 Wanted to get China off the capitalist road o Began in May 1966 0 Sponsor Cultural Revolution at Beijing University 0 Organize the youth as Red Guards 0 Youth taught from early age about the truth of Chairman Mao o Bombard the Headquarters o Red Guard asked to get rid of Four Olds 0 Old Ideals 0 Old Culture 0 Old Customs 0 Old Habits o Young people sent out to attack any Western style things 0 Practically everything 0 First instances of people getting beaten o Police and military did not intervene 0 Lin Biao made sure of no interventions against the Red Guard Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping o Liu Shaoqi attacked and killed by Red Guard o Deng Xiaoping sent to a reform labor camp to clean up after pigs Mass rally in Beijing o Millions of Red Guard addressed by Lin Biao o In Mao s name main target of movement individualists in power who were following the capitalist road Rebellion c To rebel is just o Mao grew up as a rebel o Ming Dynasties Goumindeng His own communist party o Refused to admit the existence of a loyal opposition The Little Red Book o A revolution is not a dinner party 0 No direction cannot be contained o War is the highest form of struggle for resolving contradictions c We are advocates of the abolition of war but war can only be abolished through war Maosim o Revolution and enemies of the revolution o An apocalyptic vision of purity o Revolutionaries are pure everyone else is impure o Capitalist rotors are essentially selfish o Selfish for possessions measuring people by their amount of possession 0 Common good gt than the individual freedom 0 Selfish for power to exercise over others o People ought to be personally selfless care only about the group o Believe in the masses 0 Preoccupied with services to society o Zhou Enlai 0 Still one of Mao s followers 0 Gang of Four o Radical followers of Maoism o Most radical of the radicals o Lin Biao and the military still under Mao s influence By summer of 1967 China in state of Civil War o Country in the state of utter breakdown o Zhou Enlai allowed parts of China to stay in order 0 1964 Chinese scientists successfully detonated a nuclear bomb 0 1967 Western practicing scientists successfully detonated a thermonuclear bomb 0 1970 China successfully launched an Earthorbiting satellite o Protected scientists from the cultural revolution o 1967 Soviets crush Czech Revolution o 1969 brief clashes between Chinese and Soviet troops o Belief that Soviets might try to intervene in the power struggle in China o By 1969 Mao allowed the establishment of order 0 Pushed down the Red Guard and the Cultural Revolution 0 Complete by 1971 o Reestablishment of order 0 Direct result of Soviet clashes o Power of Lin Biao began to decline 0 Need for Lin Biao lessened as Cultural Revolution ended 0 Lin Biao attempted to take a flight to Soviet Union 0 Dead 1971 Kissinger meets with Mao and Zhou Enlai o Secretive meeting in Beijing o Asked Mao for his opinion on the French Revolution 0 Mao Too soon to tell o Richard Nixon flew to Beijing February 1972 o Began playing the China card 0 Three corner relationship in world politics 0 Get another semially against the Soviet Union o UN brings in PRC instead of Taiwan to security council o Trade relationships and diplomatic relationships established with China 1973 Changes o Deng Xiaoping rescued and given daytoday control of Chinese communist party o Called for 4 Modernizations 0 Agriculture 0 Industry 0 Science and Technology 0 National Defense Will this last 0 Dependence on who dies first Zhou Enlai or Mao January 1976 Zhou Enlai dies o Mao dies immediately after o Cultural Revolution remembered as tragedy o Deng Xiaoping s pragmatism accepted 1978 Deng Xiaoping clearly running the country on his own o 1980 portraits and statues of Mao taken down o 1980 Gang of Four went on trial 0 All found guilty 0 Following orders defense used c New links to Western and Eastern markets established 0 Full formal relations established with USA in 1978 o 1981 US sells military equipment to China o Chinese economy advances 0 Cultural revolution required a man to have A Bike A Sewing Machine A Watch A Transistor Radio o Industrialization slightly privatized o Urbanization processes began 0 15 of Chinese population is illiterate Chinese Experiment Interesting o Communists want to maintain political control 0 Economic freedom given o US bets that economic freedom will lead to demands for political freedom 19861987 c Prodemocracy demonstrations by students o Zhao Ziyang acting as 2nd in command told students to go back to school o Students learning Western ideas 0 Loaded concepts taught May 1989 o Demonstrations became public again o Carried out in Tiananmen Square in Beijing o Students quoted Thomas Jefferson 0 Declaration of Independence 0 Abraham Lincoln 0 Patrick Henry o Copy of Statue of Liberty given o 1989 significant year 0 200th Anniversary of French Revolution o Quoted French Revolutionaries 0 Liberty Equality Fraternity 19 May 1989 o Zhao Ziyang told students that he was on their side 20 May 1989 o Zhao Ziyang removed from all positions of power 0 Put under house arrest never seen in public again 0 Replaced by Li Peng who declared martial law in Beijing 0 Large collection of military troops around the capital o 34 June 0 Thousands of soldiers and tanks entered Tiananmen Square 0 3000 students killed o 300 soldiers killed 0 Demonstrations ended o Chinese leaders imposed harsh repression on any demonstrations 0 Student leaders sentenced to death or imprisonment 0 Families charged the price of the bullet o Mounted propaganda campaign against the attacking students 0 Number of deaths only a few hundred 0 Film all a Western Conspiracy Xiaoping dead February 1996 o Succeeded by Jian Zemin Current leader Hu Jintao 2002 Amiable relationship with the West o China not really a free country c Collapse has not yet occurred Similar to Fascist Italy in economic and political power The New Europe 8232011 60000 PM Post WWI Politics much more democratic o Women received right to vote in most elections o Lower classes received more representation o Government would take care of you from the womb to the tomb World War II o More civilians died than soldiers o 1945 Dollars Pessimism o Europe did not matter much with the two superpowers 0 Europe just a pawn c Any claim to cultural or moral superiority was now gone o Enormous problems with holding on to empires o No way to repair things after the war Soviet Union vs United States o Helped their allies recover o Marshall Plan If we help Europe rebuild it will be on our side 0 Much cheaper than another war 0 40 Billion 194750 0 Cheapest money ever spent 0 Single most successful policy in the 20th Century 0 No World Wars since WWII Why demographic changes took place Baby Boom o B b boum en France o Vast consumer demand helped restore economic o Great Britain still had a food ration until 1960 o Rationing caused poor British teeth Great Britain o Important commitments around the world 0 India and Pakistan revolutions France 0 In charge of running Palestine Many factories survived 0 Old fashioned technology compared to brand new technology Very socially stratified society 0 Workers committed industrial sabotage Clement Attlee Labour 0 Followed Churchill o A modest man because he has so much to be modest about Two important pieces of legislation 0 National Insurance Act 1946 0 National Heath Services Act 1946 0 Comprehensive social security welfare and insurance Churchill returns in 1951 o Conservatives did not repeal these acts 0 Churchill retired in 1955 Succeeded by Anthony Eden 1955 o No man was more prepared to be Prime Minister than Eden 0 Suez Crisis 0 Survived only a year Harold MacMillan Conservative 0 Super Mac 0 Stabilized things by giving up on Labour and imperial concessions General Charles de Gaulle Established the government of the Free French Built up the French resistance Participated in units during Normandy invasion Monnet In charge of reconstructing France and the economy Le Plan 0 Aid money was channeled into rebuilding the infrastructure Welfare State 0 Family allowances for large families 0 O 0 Je m 1 O O Tractor revolution 0 Free up farm workers who can work in industry De Gaulle left politics after not winning the presidency o Took 12 years for him 0 Created the Fourth Republic 0 Traditional parliamentary government Colonial Difficulties 0 French tried to hold on to their colonies Germany Italy Morganthall planned 0 Advocated the destruction of all German industries 0 Made into a peasant country Zones combined into West Germany Western Germany Politics Christian Democratic Union Americanfavoring 0 Led by Konrad Adenauer o Dramatic antiNazi survivor 0 Perfect figure for postwar Germany 0 Prowest proAmerican o Germany s first postwar Chancellor grandfather of Germany Free Democrats Party 0 Various levels of conservatives Social Democratic Party 0 Attenuated socialists o Believed in welfare state Ludwig Erhard 0 Charged with reforming economy 0 Social Market economics 0 Similar to Jean Mannet o Successor to Adenhaur poor Prime Minister Alsid de Gasperi 0 Most important of postwar Italian figures Imitated French and German policies o More government control 0 FIAT Scandinavia o Finland 0 Invaded by Soviet Union in 1940 0 After war land returned to Finland 0 Baltic states kept by Baltic states 0 Finns terrified of Soviet control o Finlandization o Became a puppet of the Soviet Union 0 But not a communist government o Sweden 0 Untouched by the war as a neutral o Norway and Denmark 0 Occupied by Germany 0 Recovered faster than most Netherlands and Belgium o Belgium suffered from ethnic divide o Flemish majority o Walloon minority Austria o First country taken over by Nazis o Produced more Nazis than any other nation in Europe per capita Soviet Control of Eastern Europe o Pretended to create coalition governments o Communists controlled ministry of foreign affairs defense and the interior Poland Vladislav Gomulka convinced Khrushchev that he could control things
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