THE US 1865 TO PRES
THE US 1865 TO PRES HIST 2057
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This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Edna Boyle on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2057 at Louisiana State University taught by Robert Outland in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see /class/222460/hist-2057-louisiana-state-university in History at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Reconstruction 8262009 43900 PM In 1865 the Civil War ended 2 questions that the Constitution left unanswered o Can a state secede Or is the union perpetual o Is slavery allowed or forbidden Purposefully went around the issue When the North won we got the North s answers but had problems with o Terms by which the south can come back into the Union o Status of African Americans in the US Major players White southerners o A number of white southerners had remained loyal to the Union but most went along with their states into the Confederacy o They recognized the reality that they had lost the war were part of the Union slavery was over and for the next few years they won t fight about that o They want to determine how they come back into the Union 0 Back into the Union no questions asked or harassments 0 Want to be the ones to decide what labor system would replace slavery involves pay but great control Blacks o Enslaved or free were not citizens by rule of the Supreme Court o Great majority of blacks in the south were former slaves but about 250000 were free people of color Still smaller percent were the northern blacks o Fairly alike in what they want full citizenship which meant 0 Political rights for black men voting office holding etc 0 Access to education 0 Land ownership White northerners o Aren t really sure what they want o In 1850 the political party system in the US gets made over o The Whig party goes away and the Republican party comes in o 18652 political parties in the North Democratic partyvery limited expectations for reconstruction o Looked back at 1861 when Lincoln called up troops 0 War was about preserving the union and constitution and then later was about ending slavery o In the minority Republican partynewer but more powerful Most northerners were a supporter 0 Wanted something out of the south in regards to reconstruction but they were unsure of what 0 Agreed that slavery should end 13th amendment in 1865 and it ends slavery in the US The power that the south had in national politics before the war needs to diminish 1850slaveholder conspiracy 0 Large slave holding southerners were power crazy and they ran everything on their plantations counties and states and were trying to take over the national government 0 If you end slavery you end the power source among the slave holders and reduce the power the south had in national politics 0 They advocated that a free labor economy should be introduced in the south o 1850The north had a free labor economy the south had a slave labor economy 0 The north was vibrant because of the free labor economy A free labor economy was not that great but was better than the slave labor economy Presidential Reconstruction Lincoln s plan o Parts of LA came under union occupation during the war o Easy reconstruction south can come back into the Union provided that 10 of the population support the union and that slavery ends c He was probably trying to appeal to the white southerners who might agree to give up the whole succession thing o 1860South Carolina only state to leave the Union with ease Lincoln was assassinated in 1865 and didn39t have a plan for Reconstruction but we can extrapolate from what he was doing in LA Northern Republican He was having a hard time getting reelected so he chose a southern Democrat It was a smart move Looking to the future that when the civil war would conclude everyone knew that the south would loose he could go to the south and say lookI have a southerner so support me Johnson s plan Southern Democrat a Senator from Tennessee Originally born in S Carolina Born into poverty and could not afford an education for him It wasn39t until he was married that he became literate He starts out as a tailor Always resentful of wealthy educated people and educational institutions Stubborn He was savvy enough to get elected senator but couldn39t get anything passed because he wouldn39t compromise The civil war is winding down when he becomes president He was so stubborn that he refused to leave his senate seat even though Tennessee succeeded from the Unionthat39s why he was available to Lincoln for VP Southern response He said he wanted to start over and have newly created state governments Had to abide by the 13 amendment The confederate states sold bonds to fund the war Johnson said that the government would not repay this Excluded confederate leadership that was running the war when making these decisionscalled for a new power structure People with more than 20000 in taxable wealth couldn39t participate either in state government plantation owners He pardoned just about everyone who wanted to go back and be in government He delights in forcing the wealthy people to come crawling to him asking for a pardon O O O O o Voting was limited to those that could vote before the civil war white men o The same people that were elected to local state and congress were elected back in o The VP of the Confederacy was elected into Congress and this didn39t sit well with the northerners o No political rights were given to black men Black codes were adopted across the south that limited the freedoms of blacks o Could not serve on juries o Could not testify against whites o Had to sign labor contracts not slavery but not free labor o Obligating yourself to labor for a year c If they didn39t sign they could be charged with vagrancy and then be arrested and be forced to work for gang labor o MS said you could not buy or rent land they went the farthest o Northern counter response 0 They didn39t know what they wanted but they knew they wanted more than this Patterns were reemerging that looked very similar Radical Reconstruction o In the fall of 1866 northern voters were hopping mad and went to the polls and they put a lot more Republicans into congress o The radical republicans wanted full citizenship for blacks etc even though they weren t in the majority They do have a ton of influence o Easily overrode vetoes from Johnson s office Congress plan o Tell the southern states to start over again in 1867 o South was divided into 5 military districts to be under military rule o Not only have to have 13th amendment that ended slavery but also 14th amendment where blacks became citizens o The new state governmentsconstitutions would have to provide for black voting rights o Former Confederate leadership is excluded from participating in politics Republican Party in the south o Republican party begins to take control in the South when it hadn t even existed in the South up until this point o In 1860 when Lincoln ran he wasn t even on the ballot in the south c There are 3 major groups who support the republican party 0 Carpetbaggers men who came down from the north after the Civil War to take advantage of what they saw as financial and political opportunity 0 Scalawags white southerners who supported the Republican party somewhere between 2530 voted this way 0 African Americans the largest group of Republican supporters in the south by far Probems o Northerners wanted the south to become something new with schools asylums etc o The south was in economic collapse and had no money to make these new improvements 0 Taxes were imposed on the region The former Confederate states had a ton of debt from the war and early Reconstruction borrowed money to pay for taxes Corruption was a widespread problem across state and national forums The president has basically been rendered unnecessary because of the ability to override his veto and the congress becomes tired of him 0 Congress moves to impeach Johnson Reconstruction is hurt the most by violence 0 KKK emerges during 1868 not right after the Civil War because the southern population thought that they would have a word in Reconstruction Violence is very prominent and very effective but dies down by 1872 The targets were supporters of the Republican Party KKK was very difficult for the Union troops to keep under control because they used small cells that worked together and were highly secretive O Changes in African American Life The end of slavery meant a lot even though the South begins toying with they idea of a new race based labor system They were no longer forced to break up families Being able to travel as they wished Being able to change jobs even if it was difficult Black churches began to pop up Ideas about the new labor institution that replaces slavery clash between the races 0 In the end neither group gets what they want and compromises in sharecropping Blacks need land and whites need labor Blacks go to work as small farmers working for white land owners Sharecropping becomes a disaster when cotton prices go down and never come back up after the Civil War due to international competition 0 Every year the sharecroppers would carry over debt 0 By the 19005 and into the 405 there were more white sharecroppers than black 0 0 Reconstruction Ends In 1876 Rutherford B Hayes wins the presidential election for the Republicans o It was clear that the Democratic candidate won the election by the popular vote by a landslide and the electoral vote by a bit 0 If the votes of SC LA and FL were contested and those states electoral votes could be thrown to Hayes the Republicans would win There is a deal made the Compromise of 1877 a deal was brokered that Hayes won the election and in return they promised that they would no longer use military force to enforce reconstruction Outcome o It wasn t until around 1890 that the Jim Crow laws were enacted and the blacks lost their power they had gained o The more things change the more they stay the same STORY LINES FOR THE COURSE o Foreign policy 0 Had no power on the world stage o Power of the national government 0 Culture 0 Was a producer culture that moved into a consumer culture o Race relations Changes in American Society and Economy8262oo9 43900 PM Rise of a national business and industrial system Contributing factors The north wasn t exactly industrialized even though it had much more industry than the south Britain France and Germany were By 1900 the US out produces B F and G combined and it happened very rapidly The US was huge and had plenty of natural resources for industry 0 Timber iron ore steel Lots of potential workers 0 In the early 19005 people from Southern and Eastern Europe poured in the states with no education or farm skills Rapidly growing market because cities were growing and city people can t grow their own supplies they buy Motive for large scale operations The US had a butt load of rail line at just over 250000 miles and could transport things anywhere very efficiently Steel is introduced in the late 18905 and is thought of as refined iron steel is lighter than iron but could hold 20x s the weight Electricity allowed factories to stay open later and open earlier Government assistance begins and was very easy for big business owners to operate in because the tariffs were high on imported goods Benefit of large companies was increased efficiency and took over different levels of production 0 US steel owned companies that produced coal iron ore railroads and steel mills Excess competition was reduced too many little companies running cut throat competition Industrial work Immigrant workers who weren t used to factory work but farm work Worked 1012 hours a day 6 days a week Wages were very low 20 cents an hour 0 Father was expected to be the sole breadwinner and since this wage wouldn t cut it the wife would work too 0 Women got paid far less than their male counterparts so the children had to work o 10 of girls below the age of 14 and 20 of boys worked at factories o Did terrible things to their health o No worker safety or health standards getting sick or dying on the job wasn t uncommon o Farm labor has a great deal of variation and hours were based on weatherdaylight but factory work was monotonous Reason industrialization continues o The United States up to this point had been a land of opportunity and you could choose your living and work hard to prosper 0 Rules were changing and it was hard for the little guy to compete with these large companies in big cities o A depression in 1893 made Americans desperate for a good economy o One word stuff You could get a lot of cool stuff that you didn t have before and it felt you good to buy it o Phonograph washing machine cameras food cereal flour fruits year round o Shopping for pleasure was a new thing o Advertisers got slick and advertising went up because they advertised the lifestyle not the product itself Immigration o Huge surge in immigration at about the same time as Reconstruction ends c From end of reconstruction until beginning of WWI over 20 million people came to the US from Eastern and Southern Europe o Came into large cities in the Northeast and left go to out West where cheap land was available o Large American cities became suddenly ethnically diverse o In the year 1890 about 80 of people in NYC were either immigrants or children of immigrants o Men tended to outnumber women Cities Spoke little English had no education and no job skills culture was very different Jews Orthodox and Catholics There is an effort to assimilate and to fit in Western Europeans thought themselves to be racially superior Protestants had a huge fear of the Catholics and their Pope would take over the states Fear of political radicalism thought that millions of communists and anarchists would get violent and blow up US government New nature of cities Cities themselves are growing rapidly Went up 7x s their population In 1860 about 16 of US population lived in city or large town By 1900 13 of population lives in city by 1920 slightly over 12 lived in city Became an urban nation You could no longer walk where you needed to go No planning lead to bad conditions Specialized business districts and begin building big buildings and skyscrapers Problems Massive corruption problems No sanitation The rich begin to leave and go to suburban areas Young people would leave the farm and go to the city because it s where things were exciting Closing of the Western frontier Initial movement of whites to the West Whites lived to east to west coast and everywhere in between They thought that what manifest destiny was all about and God intended Western European people to move all over the country White settlers moved across the Mississippi stopped then people moved to California no white people in the middle or Great Plains 0 Following the Civil War this begins to change with some non permanent silver mining operations and cattle ranchers Confronting Indians o Plains Indians were migratory due to the movement of the buffalo o The cattle industry was also migratory o This was viewed as a geographical problem by Washington politicians o Beginning reservations were almost the size of present day states o The treaty system was all messed up 0 One tribe would agree but not another one would within a certain Indian nation o Indians didn t know to not follow the buffalo off their reservations o Cattle ranchers didn t stay off the reservations o The US military almost always won when they would hunt down the Indians Civilization of the West o Middle class Western Victorians valued restraint self control and civility o Plains Indians should be saved from themselves and be transformed into Victorians o Set up schools for the young Indians to change them into completely different people o The reservations were broken up into 120 acre farmsteads o Farming was impossible on the Plains o If the Ghost Dance was performed correctly things would be reversed and began to assemble in South Dakota and spooked the military The Battle of Wounded Knee ensued 0 After this whites could go wherever they wanted o In 1893 the World Fair was in Chicago o American Historical Association was a brand new organization at the same time Fredrick Jackson Turner delivered a paper that argued that what made Americans American was the frontier Challenges to religious faith and intellectual confusion o Most Americans had been used to never being challenged o Darwin s beliefs challenged everything about sociology economics law science etc Tensions Responses and Final Decisions262009 43900 PM Tensions o Going from rural countryside to cities o Going from production to consumer o Had a very anxious society Responses Social and cultural o Widespread commercial entertainment with popular variety shows at Vaudeville houses o A music industry comes out o Professional sports ball games became commercialized 0 Baseball was first o The cult of a strenuous life in the late 19th century 0 The cool thing to do is to go outside and get exercise and do something adventurous 0 Before people got their outside time and exercise through their daily chores o More people wanted to go to college including women 0 A new era of professionalism o Earning professional credentials 0 As institutions got big they needed doctors etc who actually knew what they were doing Religious o More people are going to church o Revivals emerge in the late 19th century o Christianizing the law 0 Birth control is viewed as a big nono and laws are passed to begin to stamp it out becomes illegal to spread info about birth control through the US mail though it was a discussion of consequence free sex Social justice o Child labor laws were a problem o Settlement houses were for new immigrants to help them on their feet by very well intentioned people Organization o I Labor Poi tics I O O O 0 Knights of Labor first labor union in the US very unique with its inclusive membership policy anyone who could be considered a producer fought for better wages work conditions child labor laws American Federation of Labor AFL much more mainstream fought for same basic bread and butter issues but they were fine with the existing economic system fine with capitalism Industrial Workers of the World IWW relatively small group but they were well known were more radical workers needed to control production Problems the organized industrial workers faced Americans thought organized laborers were un American The idea to form and join a permanent labor union was uncommon Government was against organized labor Courts ruled against labor unions Farmers O O 0 They felt like they were getting left behind With crop prices dropping because of commodities made through factories Farmers were reliant on railroads to transport their goods Couldn t do anything about set prices of transportation Farmers had to mortgage their farms They had to borrow money to keep up the farm and had to put the farms up as collateral Had to borrow money for equipment so they could have a more profitable operation National Farmers Alliance though that they could improve the situation by forming cooperatives failed in cutting out the middle man Democrats and Republicans O The Democratic and Republican parties remained fairly balanced The policies that they supported were similar The Republican policies tended to favor big businesses O O 0 II 0 O 0 III 0 O O O O The president wasn t a big leader The National Farmers Alliance established a list of policies and went shopping for candidates who agreed with their list Alliance Culture was beginning to look down on farmers Wanted to end the tariff on imported manufactured goods The farmers demand an income tax that was designed to be a soak the rich tax Demanded direct election of Senators like they could vote for the House Farmers wanted free silver They really want the sub treasury there were profits to be made in agriculture but the middle men were reaping those profits They were strapped for cash A sub treasury would give them some flexibility Loan farmers money at low interest rates so that they didn t have to rush their harvest to market They were successful at getting their hand picked politicians elected Populists Farmers created their own party because their politicians weren t doing what they said that they would Not just about farmers also about industrialists Tried to get farmers and industrial workers to join forces Try to get poor white farmers and poor black farmers in the South to work together Free silver goes back to the Civil War when you have paper money circulating without a gold standard to back it up greenbacks this created a problem with inflation Bankers wanted a tighter system and the US did go to a gold standard the silver issue was a way to increase the money supply and keep money based on metal Silver was very plentiful In 1892 the Populists didn t win They did good at the state level but not at the national level Cleveland takes office in 1983 Then the panic of 1893 hits which is the worst depression yet Depression o Unemployment soared to 20 Cotton prices plummeted to all time lows There was a self proclaimed army of the unemployed that marched in 1894 this shocked Americans because this never happened Massive strikes from coal miners and railroad workers 0 The world was fueled by coal not oil Election of 1896 o Populists are gaining more power o William Jennings Bryan ran for the Democrats 0 A bit of a celebrity because he ran many times for president 0 Woodrow Wilson s Secretary of State 0 Very good campaigner got out there and got visible worked with the press and made good speeches o The things he concentrated on rich making out like bandits 0 He evokes class in his campaign He talks about how middle class Americans are being creamed by the super rich 0 He isn t a populist candidate but he does pick up the free silver idea o William McKinley ran for the Republicans 0 Had to acknowledge that there were some problems with the economy 0 These depressions were simply growing pains and that once the US switched from ruralagriculture to urban nation then things would be better 0 They weren t anything about what the populists were supporting o Populists 0 Should they pick their own candidate or sell out 0 They decided to sell out and go with the candidate who supported free silver o Even with the populist support Bryan lost o McKinley promised that the economy would get better 0 He is popular and things work out like they said they would 0 The office of the presidency began to regain some respect with McKinley 0 Worked well with the press c In 1900 he was reelected fairly easily c He was assassinated in 1901 in Buffalo NY when he was shot 0 Prayed that he would survive because the Republicans didn t want Teddy Roosevelt to be president The only reason he was on the VP ticket because they wanted to get him out of the picture 8262009 43900 PM
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