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US TO 1865

by: Edna Boyle

US TO 1865 HIST 2055

Edna Boyle
GPA 3.86

Robert Outland

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Robert Outland
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This 24 page Class Notes was uploaded by Edna Boyle on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2055 at Louisiana State University taught by Robert Outland in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see /class/222461/hist-2055-louisiana-state-university in History at Louisiana State University.


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Date Created: 10/13/15
1 Massachusetts a 57 9 9 e Puritanism i Wanted a perfect society They wanted England to look upon them and model their society after the Puritans Puritans believed that everyone was destined to go to hell except the visible saints Visible saints were those who had repented and converted and could prove it to satisfaction in order to become full church members Type s of settlers Puritan society Much different than Virginia There was a religious experiment going on Believed that God had a calling for everyone It was almost like a form of worship to do the job God intended them to do Plantations did not work out in Mass They grew mostly just their own food They experimented with other types of business Some of their economic successes involve lumber Some lumber was traded on the Atlantic market some was used in their shipbuilding industry They tried a wool industry which England didn t like There was a fishing industry off the coast of Mass They would fish load the fish up in wooden ships salt the fish down heavily and trade it on the Atlantic market Lots of the fish sold were consumed by slave labor in the Caribbean iv Their government is interesting Virginia started as a company Massachusetts was technically a company as well There were town meetings In order to be able to vote or hold office you had to be a man and a full church member It was very democratic by the standards of the day It was not a theocracy Puritan ministers were forbidden from holding office The government backed Puritanism By law people had to attend church The only church available was the Puritan church There was no religious tolerance whatsoever If you weren t an Orthodox Puritanism the people of Massachusetts would not tolerate you Dissenters i Roger Williams 1 For the Puritan experiment to work everyone had to be on the same page Obviously this didn t happen Roger Williams was a minister who had different ideas than the other Puritan ministers He believed that the government should be completely separated from the church HE believed that governments were by nature corrupt He believed that the corruption of the government would creep into the church The hierarchy knew that this wouldn t work if their experiment was to succeed He also believed that England was super corrupt He believed that the land grant that allowed Massachusetts to exist was not legit and the land still belonged to the Indians He was banished ii Anne Hutchinson f g 1 Her first mistake being an outspoken woman She as well as Williams believed themselves to be devout Puritans Anne Hutchinson eagerly went to church on Sundays Services would be all day long listening to a Puritan minister to basically lecture them She was so into that scene that she began to hold meetings in her home similar to a modern day bible study A woman leading a group was a nono In her group discussions she began to talk about divine inspiration and knowledge she believed was coming from God that was independent from both the bible and the clergy The ministers were supposed to be the only one able to tell you what to understand out of the bible Her ideals were dangerously subjective and in their opinion anarchic She was put on trial and eventually banished which was dangerous She lost the military protection of the colony and was killed in an Indian attack Comparison with Virginia lt Factors Virginia was very spread out There were people living all over There weren t many communities In Massachusetts the opposite was true Their sole purpose was to create a perfect community They also were close together because they had to be near a church Virginia was all about commercial agriculture tobacco Massachusetts did everything but commercial agriculture The church is very different between the two In Virginia the official church was The Church of England but it wasn t all that important to them In Massachusetts their entire community is completely devoted to Puritanism They re reacting against the Anglican Church Church is completely central to them In Virginia there s not much stability The population in the early 17 h century was overwhelmingly male There were high death rates Children were typically orphans Very unstable Massachusetts settlers came as family units There was a broad spectrum of ages The health was pretty good The climate was bad for the spread of diseases Massachusetts was mostly selfgoverned Virginia became a royal colony early in the 17 h century Massachusetts does become a colony but not until the late 17 h century leading to change Not everyone was on the same page theologically Puritans come to Massachusetts in the 1630s They were all obviously Puritan They bring and have children in Massachusetts As these children grow up they view the world differently than their parents do Some of them were all into Puritanism but a lot could care less The zeal just wasn t there The Puritans fled England because they believed England to be evil and that God will strike England down This didn t happen Many Puritans actually stayed in England to fight for their cause In the 1640s there is a civil war The king of 2 lt England is executed and the English Puritans took over for a while leaving the experiment sort of high and dry There is some social tension that begins to build Although the experiment fails the colony itself begins to prosper There were a lot of trade opportunities between Massachusetts between England and its colonies Mercantile Houses handled the trade system The Londonbases merchants began to send its representatives to Massachusetts The representatives were not Puritans which meant they couldn t participate politically but they represented a powerful group that did not appreciate it The monarchy in England is restored The representatives complain back to the monarchy in England The Massachusetts Company dissolved and Massachusetts was declared a royal colony The King sent governors and changed the official church to the Anglican Church England did practice religious tolerance There was not really any way for England to demand that everyone be the same religion Thus in Massachusetts religious tolerance was allowed In the 1690s the people in Salem Mass freak out and begin to accuse each other of being witches What s unique about the Salem Witch Trials is that it s so prolific The timing is probably due to the epic failure of the colony at this time There is a divide between people which makes people suspicious of each other Middle Colonieslatter half of the 17 h century These colonies are geographically located between Massachusetts and Virginia and share qualities with both of these colonies a New York iii iv Restoration Colony The king granted massive land grants New York Pennsylvania and Carolina to the people who helped to restore the monarchy New York was granted to the Duke of York the king s brother However the Dutch had already claimed this land under the name of New Amsterdam As a colony New Amsterdam wasn t doing very well It was originally set up as a trading post The population was small and very diverse There were the Dutch Swiss Germans Fins England and Free Blacks living there There was so little enthusiasm for maintaining the colony for the Dutch that when the Duke of York sails in and demands control of New Amsterdam they don t really fight it at all and immediately give in Religious toleration exists here There is a mixed economy There s ship building timbering fishing agriculture and more There are towns and people living in the countryside b Pennsylvania Restoration Colony William Penn was given the land grant for Pennsylvania Pennsylvania becomes a very successful William Penn was a Quaker and since he was establishing the policies of Pennsylvania the policies were based upon Penn s Quaker beliefs iv Quakerism was a protestant movement that was in many ways the opposite of the Puritans They believed that within every human was an inner light which was the spirit of Jesus Christ A religious process should be a process of self discovery Everyone could be saved Everyone was naturally good There isn t really original sin or predestination All people were equal They didn t believe in material trappings of society or putting on airs They didn t believe in using titles England was very much into using titles Duke Sir Lady etc Old English used thee and thou to refer to one s betters The Quakers used these pronouns to refer to everyone Women had influence in the Quaker community They were suspicious of authority and government They were pacifists Opposite of what England is v Pennsylvania was seen as a haven for Quakers who had trouble in England Because of the Quakers belief in treating everyone equally it becomes a haven for everyone ts population swells and begins to do extremely well vi Philadelphia is the capital ts population also swells By the mid 18 h century Philadelphia became the 2nd largest city in the Englishspeaking world It was the largest city in the colonies vii It was a mix of people cultures religions and economies William Penn s control over Pennsylvania begins to deteriorate after a while His sons converted to the Anglican Church which made the Quaker Influence begin to subside c Characteristics of middle colonies i A mix of people cultures religions and economies 3 Southern Colonies a Carolina i Initially no distinction between South and North A restoration colony It s not a land grant made to a single man but to 8 men Carolina struggled for a while In the end only the Southern part of Carolina begins to grow and prosper ii The men who received Carolina much like Lord Baltimore envisioned Carolina as a massive estate of theirs They wanted people to come and live and pay rent to live in Carolina This plan was not very popular iii In the very late 17 h century a group of English settlers from Barbados flee to Carolina Barbados was England s most prosperous colony England began to cultivate sugar cane in almost all of Barbados It used an African slave force It was a very violent place There was an enslaved majority who surrounded the white minority The job of the white minority was to keep the slave force in check Even by slavery standards Barbados was brutal Not many enslaved children were born and survived iv Since slavery was prominent in Barbados these white settlers brought their slaves with them to Carolina Thus very early on Carolina has slavery The majority population is enslaved especially in what later becomes South Carolina That pattern continues up into the 1860s when slavery ends lt b Georgia lt S Uses plantations and slaves The northern part of the colony did not do well The outer banks of Northern Carolina hurt the colony because oceangoing ships could not reach the mainland The only people who were settling in Northern Carolina settled in Northeast Carolina and were problem people from Virginia In the 18 h century the colonies split South Carolina was reliant on agriculture North Carolina just hobbled along Georgia s weird Georgia is by far the last English colony to be founded Not founded until the 1730s In the end Georgia looks nothing like it was intended to be The original intentions for Georgia were for the country to be a buffer between Spanish Florida and English South Carolina The plan was that people who had debt problems in England would go to Georgia and become good hardworking yeomen farmers farmers who do their own work When given a choice between being imprisoned and moving to Georgia and becoming a farmer people chose going to jail Georgia was considered a dangerous backwater place South Carolina had a booming plantation thing going on by the 1730s but people from South Carolina were not going to Georgia People couldn t own slaves in Georgia you couldn t drink in Georgia and you were limited to how many acres you could own The colony floundered for a while In the end it becomes a success In the early 1750s the law against owning slaves was lifted Before this the limit on acreage amount was lifted When these things happen planters from South Carolina begin to pour across the border into Georgia Very quickly Georgia began to look like South Carolina 1 Enslaved labor force 2 Plantations 3 Informal Aristocracy The American population between 1820 and 1840 was migrating westward The rise of New York City in the first half of the nineteenth century was the result of all of the following except an absence of quotnativistquot sentiment The following that did help the rise of New York a superior natural harbor liberal state laws that made the city attractive for both foreign and domestic commerce unrivaled access to the interior At the time it was completed the Erie Canal was the greatest construction project Americans had ever undertaken Immigrants from Europe the growth of the population as a whole and Northeast farmers helped enlarge the urban population in this era The nativist movement wanted to enact more restrictive naturalization laws Nativists were concerned about the increased tide ofimmigration into the US and they wanted stricter laws to reduce the number ofimmigrants One of the immediate results of the new transportation routes constructed during the quotcanal agequot was an increased white settlement in the Northwest Ohio Indiana Illinois Michigan Efforts to change the ow ofwater helped to reduce cholera epidemics in the United States Water power could not function during the winter when rivers froze with ice During the 1820s and 1830s railroads played only a secondary role in the nation39s transportation system Railroads did not begin to supplant other modes of transport in the US until the 1840s The most profound economic development in midnineteenthcentury America was the rise of the factory Samuel FB Morse first successfully used the telegraph to transmit the news of Polk39s victory from Baltimore to Washington DC The great technological advances of the era in American industry owed much to American inventors The beginnings of an industrial labor supply can be traced to a dramatic increase in food production The Lowell or Waltham system relied almost exclusively on young unmarried women from farm families for its labor supply The paternalistic labor system of Lowell or Waltham did not last long because the competitiveness of the teXtile industry made employers eager to cut costs Most of the industrial growth during this era 180401860 occurred in New England and the midAtlantic states The artisan workers found themselves in direct opposition to the new class of capitalist entrepreneurs to they created the nation s earliest trade unions Better machine tools interchangeable tools and new steam engines sped the growth ofindustry during this period not improved waterpower generators The major railroad lines that developed during this era linked the Northeast and the Northwest The telegraph was crucial for facilitating communication along railroad lines Ethnic divisions between and natives and immigrants the availability of cheap lab or and the strength of the industrial capitalists inhibited the growth of effective labor resistance Because the early labor unions developed primarily in the North slavery was the only one of these factors not to inhibit the growth of the movement The primary reason the unequal distribution ofwealth did not create more resentment was that the actual standard ofliving for the workers was improving The role of middleclass women during this era shifted from income producer to income consumer Shakespeare39s plays were popular with all classes in the United States Shakespeare s plays led to a riot at the Astor Place Opera House The rise of northwestern agriculture created a closer alliance between Northeast and Northwest as food and natural resources owed east and finished products west The changes that were taking place within the nation in terms ofpopulation growth population movement urbanization and the impact of immigration The importance of the Erie Canal for the development of the West and of New York City The changes that were taking place in transportation business industry labor and commerce as the full impact of the industrial revolution was felt in the United States The reasons why the Northeast and Northwest tended to become more dependent on each other while the South became isolated from the rest of the nation in the 1840s and 1850s The vast changes taking place in the Northeast as agriculture declined while urbanization and industrialization progressed at a rapid rate The characteristics of the greatly increased immigration of the 1840s and 1850s and the immigrants39 effects on the development of the free states The reasons for the appearance of the nativist movement in the 185 0s The living and working conditions ofboth men and women in the northern factory towns and on the northwestern farms October 12 2009 The Constitution 1 II III II Constitutional convention Constitutions a Power of the new government b Structure of the new government c Reason it satisfies republicanism Ratification a Opponents b Supporters Problems with the constitution Consti conven meets to craft government away from too much liberty Philadelphia States send own reps gt not craft new blueprnt of gov niptuckjob on art of confed gt so country survives under articles a They scrap it 55 delegates gt came and went through summer some stayed 9999 we wv young in age about 42 old school deferential background gt elite wealth families of states great deal of leadership experience they knew frist hand the problems many of them worked on constitutions before repspective state constitutions older ones had experience with revolution i Washington Articlces technically not ratified while rev was going on Washing knew struggle i Presideded serves like gen commander of contitnenal army ii Doen t contribute that much to constiution Ben frank was there i Old intelle gt didn t contritutbue that muc to constitution ii Like 81 past prime Alex Hamilton was there James Madison was there Very important Principle architect of constutition He arrived with alteredamended articles Didn t know if he liked the final rpoduct gt so much different than what he started out with People not there opposed i Sam Adams Boston 1 Active in boston gt leader of rev in boston 2 Energy for gt boston tea party 3 Gov more powerful than he liked ii39 iv ii Patrick Henry iii Thomas Payne m They came up with what the opponents feared IV Constitution a Power and complexity i Sev Areaslayers ofpower specific enumerated 1 Powers to taX 2 Regulate trade 3 Military force to put down domestic revolt ii Elastic clausenecessary and proper clause the nat l governement can do what it needs to get the job done gt potential power 1 States it is the supreme law of the land gt above state constitutions iii Power taken from the states art of confed gt states could do what they wanted to do 1 States cannot print their own money 2 States cannot interfere with interstate trade 3 Couldn t declare a contract to be null and void b Structure of government i Legislative branch 1 A congress two house gt compromise on makeup a HOR gt based on population with reps ower house Sen gt equal reps gt each state with 2 reps c Memebers of each house were to beselected i HOR gt people vote directly for these members 1 Men would answer directly to the voters ii Sen gt more elite members ofsociety gt in Philadelphia decisions too important for the people gt state legilatures would select senators not until 1913 17th amendment gt people vote directly for senators 9 ii Executive Branch 1 Huge departure from articles 2 Pres had lots ofpotential power a Veto legislation b Commander in chief of army forces 3 Build in 2 levels between people and president a State legislatures vote for senator b People gt state legislure gt electoral college gt president never been altered i Process changes at state level ii State legislatures gt let ind voters vote forst part of 19th century iii Judicial Branch 1 Constitution not clear on purpose or size 2 Judges added to bench are to sit for life 3 And howjudges are appointed and approved a Pres gt nominees b Sen gt approves 4 Size of SupC based on by senate 9 justices now 5 Removed from direct control from people c Republican political policy satisfaction i Justification 1 Preamble gt constitution about people ofUS 2 Checks and balances a Nat l and state governments i States had great amount of say in nat l government 3 branches would check and balance each other senate would watch house house would watch senate iv Madison size of republic would serve as a check and balance gt impossible for one interest group to take charge bc oflarge geographic area ii39 October 28 2008 1 Notes in email 11 War of 1812 a Madison tries for neutral rights b Reasons for war c Problems during the war d Consequences III Nationalism a Judicial nationalism b Foreign affairs IV New Problems a Panic of 1819 b Missouri Compromise a 1812 surge of national identity i the parties gt federalists go away didn t support war pol Unpopular as a faction 1 more complicated ii LON 4 their policies triumphant republicans learn hard way that bank of us was good thinggt recharter bank of US tariff on manufacture goodgt help facilitate industrialization law and form policy gt US comes together 18teens early 1820s iii John Adams gt John Marshall chiefjustice FWN 5 Marshall court gt shapes US law Latter half of 1790s gt C for 34 years diu Powerful in uence on Supreme Court SC gt review legislation judicial review nat l supremacy I Marshall gt old school federalist aleX Hamilton gt constituion could be loosely interpreted b Foreign policy Monroe 1816 1820 gt administration gt gutsy foreign policy ii Iohn quincy Adams gt Monroe secretary of state i iii V Problems 1 2 3 Figure out n boundary US buys orida from spain Monroe Doctrine gt tell spain to backoff from revolutionaries Spain colonies in revolt against Spanish empire a 1819 gt econ depression began severe Panic of1819 H ii39 V i new pol Divide opening i Bank ofUS recharted in 1816 by repubs tried to regulate the econ gt to straighten out panic 1 Problem was too big Some Americans blame the bank for the problem Econ in Europe started sinking as well took US econ with it Pol Blame gt bank ofUS for depression gt new pol Divide Andrew Jackson gt blamed BankUS hurting the little guy out of control centralized power b Sectional division gt Missouri compromise MO gt come in union as slave state 1 2 3 Slave issue gt pol Issue Number of slave states vs free states After battle in congress gt MO compromise gt 2 states in as once gt Maine Draw dividing line across LA purchase gt MO comp line 1st state come in as LA purchase a In future states above line free states below line slave b Slave expansion issue gt could be pol Wedge issue Andrew Iackson in Office I Election of 1824 and quotcorrupt bargain II Election of 1828 III Profile ofackson a Background b Vision of society and government IV Major policy issues a Indian removal b Government land sales c Internal improvements d Bank of US i Recharter veto ii Attack a election of 1824 a Principle contenders henry clay powerful sen 2 1 gen American politician john Quincy Adams and Andrew Iackson b Electoral college votes get divided got to get more than half 39 Gets divided 3 ways gt Andrew Iackson gets the most but not majority HOR 2 101 time in course election of1800 Iefferson and Aaron Burr gt selects john quincy Adams IQA iii Aack gt corrupt bargain anger at losing gt beind scenes H Clay threw his support to IQA HClay gt sect of state b Election of 1828 a Aack and supporters start to work harder gt preparing for 4 years down the road 28 i Full blown image campaigns no one knew where he stood on issues war hero though hand t taken clear stand tariff bank etc Image gt tough and rugged military record centerpiece Indian fighter occupied FL before US bought FL gt huge mil Mess 1 Emphasized his humility gt parents poor orphaned no formal education carried a bullet around in him b He wins gt eX Of change ofpolitics i Part of new culture ii Campaigned gt just as plain as American voters iii States allowing indv voters to vote c Aack a Quick tempered gt personally and politically b From Tenn former prez s from former colonies c Vision looks like old school Iefferson i Envisioned nation of small independent farmers gt they can make it ii Economy opencompetition ii i National government to back off states do a lot of things d Indian Removal a Ajackwants indians removed from Mississippi b Status of Indian after revolution relatively ii39 White settlers come in to deep south and fill in the area V vii viii H Treated relatively well Land reserved east of Mississippi Huge areas were 100000s of acres for Indians in the south 1 They want the land Southern states sympathetic to white settlers who want the Indian land 1 Problem gt reservations created by treaty Indians and national government Indian removal act gt Indians removed from land that they were granted 1 Ajack support 2 Southern states support 3 Problem gt a Cherokee were known as quotcivilizedquot tribe i Sophisticated ii Wealthy iii Alphabet iv Some gt large plantation owners v Began using US court system to attack the Indian removal act b Supreme court ruled in favor of Cherokee j marshall c Ajack gt quotfinequot He wasn t going to d Indians forcefully removed by US military Ajak wanted as musch land for farmers less national government discourage industry 1 When he took office revenue came from 2 main sources a Tariff manufactured goods b Federal land sales 2 Ajack keeps tariff and reduce cost of federal lands a Cheaper than ever before make easier for the little guy b HOWEVER national government butt out of economy gt what he s doing is directing the economy i He reduces the land to below market value ii Directs economy gt more agrarian Internal improvements 1 Surplus in revenue for national government a Congress decides to use money to fcafilitate economy link the country gt internal improvements b Ajack vetoes legislation uses prez veto power more than his predecessors iX Recharter Recharter the bank of the US for another 20 years in 1816 2 Ajack up for election 1832 3 Ajack doesn t make bank an issue 4 Adversary does gt hclay a 2 1 generation politicians b brilliant politician c make ajack look bad worked until very end i bank shouldn t have been an issue ii hclay forced issue early 1 bank most Americans supported and congress would pass legislation to continue it 2 knew ajack hated the bank iii where trap messes up 1 when ajack vetoed he left a message ofwhy hurt little man unconstitutional bank fails cause ofjackson s veto ajack wins election X ajack v bank 1 stops deposits from going into bank 2 wanted to withdraw the money from the bank of the USgt illegal and unconstitutional Roger Taney gt ajack s 3ml treasure secretary gt agrees to do it Money had to go somewhere Ajack admin gt two dozen state charted banks gt gives US money to these banks These banks had political ties to ajack admin Leads to massive problems a Banks leading left and right on speculation a nono b Real estate markey begins to collapse c People owe money they can t pay back d Banks begin to collapse e Falling apart around 1836 Panic of1837 begins worse than panic of 1819 a Economy doesn t recover til 1840s b Cotton prices plummeted 539quot 01 51 9 November 13 2009 Social and Economic Changes and Responses 1 Changes a Westward expansion b Democratization c Transportation Revolution d Growth of Manufacturing e Immigration Response a Republican motherhood b Revivals c Reform d Riots Abolitionism e f Women s Rights g Utopian societies Growth of manufacturing a Embargo Iefferson b 182040 gt real boost of manufacturing i mainly in north some of south c Factors that lead to growth transportation revolution population growth some to do with immigration cities growing larger than rural areas other technology steam engines interchangeable parts i city people need to buy things gt more potential consumers ii steam engines allowed factories to be built in populations near rivers water wheels gt strategically placed in rivers d First easy to recognize factories gt teXtile mills i young unmarried woman work gt saw this as an opportunity 1 dormitories with house mothers gt closely watched and monitored 2 came from farms with parents ii competition with other countries sogt iii wages lowered extended work day 1 women start complaining they leave 2 immigrants take their place e American concern with growth of manufacturing i Used to be agrarian society ii Hard time sustaining government system ifworld is changing iii Cities gt alcoholism becoming a problem Immigrants a Poor uneducated non practical job skills b Permanent industrial labor source c Peaks back up at 19th century d Many ofimmigrants came from desperate circumstances culture important i Many from transatlantic African slave trade 1 US not apart ofit anymore ii European famine and other awful internal con icts 1 Won t understand democratic system 2 Catholics attempting to take over the world iii Surge in number of Catholics in a protestant nation gt hysterical fear 1 Real fear that the Pope was an agent of satan gt out to conquer the world by using democratic system with immigrants 2 Anticatholic riots in US during antebellum years 111 Transportation a Facilitate manufacturing in first half of 19th century IV Response a Republican motherhood 39 First half of 19th century Role ofmothers To a good extent that it was up to women to sustain the republic iv Even though they couldn t vote or hold office v They raise children right 1 No systematic way of educating children 2 Most taught by mothers gt basic education Girls and young women needed to be educated to be good mothers as well vii New emphasis on educating girls and young women b Revivals gt radical change people get a lot more religious i Church attendance rises ii Not jut heightened interest in church and religion gt fairly democratic approach to religion iii Culture and theology is different gt quotsecond great awakening 1 Everyone could be saved c Reformgt a lot of reform i Temperance education and health reform gt try to sustain the republic Temperance movement gt response to binge drinking in the city 1 Backlash of some kind Response to alcohol abuse temperance 1 Mainly men voluntarily stop drinking alcohol a sign pledges never a drink alcohol b huge ceremony in front of family 2 men consumed alcohol outin the open and pulic H i ii39 V ii39 I 3 women stayed at home a stash booze around house b drinking alone November 16 2009 Reform a Education i ii39 In 18th century people not all that educated gt decent level of literacy and basic math In order to sustain republic people need to get educated gt government takes over this job Pattern local property taxes go towards a public school system first in new England states south lags behind in this effort 1 In the name of continuing the republic Reading and writing basics while learning virtue values discipline patriotism Books start being written gt reformers advocating cutting down fat and meat in diet 1 Graham crackers developed in name of improving health 2 Didn t need a medical degree to be a doctor b Riots gt rioting on behalf of the establishment i ii iii Attacking and institutions that seems threatening to old establishment Rioting against actors and the theatre 1 Viewed with great deal of suspicion Anticatholic riots c Abolitionists i ii iii iv viii iX Small minority Seen by most white northerners as a threat gt they advocated equal rights for people ofAfrican descent Headquarters and printing stuff destroyed Some joined and rioted against abolitionists in the name of the republic Advocated 1 Ending slavery 2 Citizenship and full and equal rights Believed that the whites were superior to blacks Began roughly in 1830 gt efforts made by buying slaved people from slave owners Liberia and sending them back on a boat to Liberia mainly Start in 1830s by using moral persuasion ajack president btw 1 Most white americans don t care 2 This appeal to emotion didn t work Congress refuses to take up the issue 1 Ifit becomes a national issue nation might split in two X Finally they get to no one initially takes any notice of this but it s important in 1840s get to savvier approach institution of slavery harms the enslaved AND whites Slave owners in the south were corrupted Majority who didn t own slaves were hurt their interests were being kept down gt plantation aristocracy White northerners were having some of their liberties taking away a Abolitionists writing being abolished b Congress not taking on the issue gt 35 compromise white south got extra representative 4 Slave holder conspiracy gt slave owners ruling it all 5 1850s white northerners taking this seriously 6 1860s big thing in elections d Women s Rights gt antebellum era i Women couldn t hold leadership roles in abolitionist movement thingy vote hold office men could only divorce had no say over property Decide by 1848 a group of abolitionist women meet in new york state 1 As much of problem as institution of slavery e Utopian societies gt first half of19th century i About 100 organized gt go into forest gt start own communes ii Diverse groups shakers amp onyte 1 Shakers late 18th century grow rapidly in 19th century very pious people simple communal existence problem sexes lived separately strict celibacy gt they died out basically Onayte get it in there heads that Christ had already had 2 1 coming gt scrap traditional marriage free love gt chaos W Slavery 1 Nature of southern slavery II Maturation of antebellum slavery III Demographics and distribution IV Domestic slave trade V Control of slaves VI Lab or VII Material existence VIII Slave family IX Slave response X Slave culture XI Free blacks Nature of southern slavery EXisted in south and north and all over the place In antebellum south embraces institution of slavery Effective system of labor exploitation Profitable on average especially cotton plantations Provided plantation owners cheap reliable labor free labor system oxymoronic Forced labor system Provide a system of racial control i Black population needed to be controlled gt millions of blacks ii System ofpower Takes long time for the institution til it solidifies 1 Questioning of slavery til 1830 i Then south commits itself to it j Some enslaved people being trained to read and write i Personal secretaries ofwealthy slave people ii Darn well dressed and eduated iii Ended up running away successfully Standardized way of handling slave labor force 19th century slaves systematically kept from education majority ofwhite southerners didn t own slaves changes are occurring i slavery becoming increasingly profitable 1 price of enslaved goes up by 1850s ii cotton cultivation kick starts profits iii how the south finds itself 1 late 18th century early 19th century England ends insitution and so do northern states 2 western world turning against slavery 1840s 50s 60s 3 slavery looked typical in the south 4 southerners get on defensive II Demographics and Distribution a 1860 last census i about 4 million enslaved folks in US 1 up tremendously from 1810 just over 1 million 2 increase is natural ii 6 million whites in south b slavery not evenly distributed through the south i where you see the most slave activity ii looking at slave owning families 1 about 13ml of slave owningness iii looking at slave owners 1 number drops significantly under 40000 2 about 12 3 generally a farmer iv looking at plantation ownerplanter class one who owns 20 or more slaves qarh wilon 39 3 bar 1 about 2 III Domestic Slave Trade US uninvolved in Transatlantic slave trade a People being bought and sold in US i Some locally ii Good deal of trading regionally iii Upper south seemed to be selling to lower south 1 Soil fertility in upper south was much lower in 19th century 2 Upper south some moving their whole operation IV Control of slaves a Source i Greatest amount of control from slave owner 1 Slaves were slave owners business b Each state had a slave code i Slave laws weren t directed at slaves ii Slaves not considered citizens iii Slaves not allowed to have horns and drums gt prevent communication c Patrol i Each countyparish had a slave patrol ii Stopped anyone who was black iii Anyone who was white could ask anyone who was black Development of Slavery Origins of racism a Racism alone is not the only reason for slavery b The human mind has two tendencies i Humans want to categorize ii Humans always think they are right 9 9 When English encounter Africans they become extremely suspicious and fearful In European Culture they relied on symbols The color black to them meant danger and evil Therefore darkevil Slavery in Virginia a Gradual shift to slavery Initially there were indentured servants of African descent that were treated as white indentured servants Once they worked off their debt they were freed began to own their own land and in some cases married white women The racial situation was fluid iquot After a while black indentured servants began to be treated differently than white indentured servants In the middle part of the 1650s white female indentured servants were beginning to be treated differently than black female indentured servants Black women who were indentured servants tended to do fieldwork while the white women tended to do more housework iv ndentured servants ran away and were tracked down If they were caught their punishment was an extended period of labor V In the mid 17 h century a group of indentured servants ran away and were caught The white indentured servants among them received the normal punishment The one black man among them was punished by receiving life servitude v Slavery begins to start by 16605 b Reasons for shift i ndentured servants were starting to cause problems l The planter class had begun to take over and began to set policies to fit their interests It became really hard for anyone outside of the planter class to get land and start planting Iquot In 1676 there is a revolt Bacon s Rebellion Freed indentured servants got organized under Nathaniel Bacon who was not an indentured class and revolted against the power system They marched on Jamestown The governor had to flee They burned Jamestown Nathaniel Bacon got sick and died and the rebellion fell apart without his leadership It gives the planter class a real reason to be fearful of indentured servants S Planters may have entertained the thought of holding indentured servants for life but as subjects of the king of England they could not be enslaved However people of African descent were not considered be subjects of the King and could theoretically be enslaved ii There is a supply change 1 The number of indentured servants coming from Europe began to go down because conditions in Europe became to improve 2 At the same time the number of enslaved people coming from Africa into the colonies begins to go up England gets involved in the slave trade Thus its colonies began to have more access to enslaved Africans iii Life expectancy began to go up as conditions begin to get better 1 Economically it began to make more sense to invest in slave laborers than indentured servants In the early part of the 17 h century indentured servants were cheaper and since death rates were so low it was unlikely that indentured servants AND slaves would die quickly 2 In the latter half it made more sense to invest in slave labor because life expectancy was longer It cost more to buy a slave than an indentured servant but you would get a slave for life iv Racism 1 Slavery is sometimes referred to as the lpeculiar institute but ironically slavery is pretty common even today The enslavers tend to look down upon the enslaved People of African descent were thought less of providing some of the justification for enslaving them I Slavery in other southern colonies a South Carolina In the very late 17 h century settlers finally come from Barbados an English colony that already had slavery The settlers brought slaves with them and experimented with several different ways of making money They finally settle on agriculture especially rice cultivation Slavery was absolutely essential to rice farming ndentured servants couldn t be convinced to come in b Georgia i Began to look much like South Carolina They farmed rice and also indigo IV Slavery in the middle and northern colonies a Slavery was not as important in these colonies b Middle Colonies i Were a mixed economy There was some plantation agriculture In parts of those colonies you d find no enslaved people and in some parts you d find high concentrations Even Pennsylvania founded as a refuge comes to have slavery Quakers didn t believe in slave ownership However the Quaker grip on Penn began to slip and Penn began to do as some of the southern colonies were doing c North Colonies i Not much plantation farming but they had slaves anyway ii Massachusetts was the first colony to pass a law recognizing the institution of slavery iii About 3 of the population was enslaved The work was not farm labor but domestic work and work at dock yards which was especially difficult V Slave Trade an intercontinental big business for about 300 years a Village raid i Many that came to North America came from the western part of Africa ii Typically the people who came to NA were people who were defeated in wars forcibly marched to the coast and sold to European traders iii Europeans didn t have immunity to diseases that were prevalent in Africa so they set up on the coasts Therefore they re reliant upon wars going on in the interior of Africa b Middle passage i The most brutal part of the forced migration ii The thought was that if you crammed as many people as possible more people would die but it would be more costefficient iii The conditions on the ship were horrible iv The psychological part was possibly the worst The slaves didn t know where they were going and they were stuck with many different cultures that were very different than themselves They may not have even spoken the same language c Arrival i Most of the time ships first stopped in the Caribbean before coming to MA The vast majority of slaves were sold in the Caribbean and the South America and then the ships travelled up to the colonies especially Charlestown and Baltimore ii The slaves would be cleaned up and made to look presentable iii Many times the slaves would have to wait a few days to recuperate from the journey so that they would fetch a higher price iv From the beginning of the 1500s to the 1800s was when most of the slave trafficking was going on In the 1800s western countries began to turn away from the slave trade v About 12 million slaves were forced onto ships in those 300 years About 10 million survived the journey V Slave experience in the colonies a South Carolina Different than the experience in other parts of the colonies The plantations were huge and there was a majority African population Therefore the slaves were living in large groups iquot There was a blending of African cultures Their culture was blended between African and even English b Virginia The plantations were not as large in size which meant that the slave communities were not as large as they were in S Carolina Slaves had much more frequent contact with whites As a result the Africans lost much of their culture as they had to learn much of the cultural ways of Virginia c Middle and Northern Colonies i Very small percentage of slaves


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