US TO 1865
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This 38 page Class Notes was uploaded by Edna Boyle on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2055 at Louisiana State University taught by M. Thompson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/222464/hist-2055-louisiana-state-university in History at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Continental Contacts amp Collisions 8252009 120600 PM Italian States 1450 o Birthplace of modern accounting and corporate capitalism o Genoa Venice and Florence o The big power traders Trade in medieval Europe African trade networks o Gold and slaves o Mideast The Black Death World Tour 134551 Consolidation European States 1360 Iberian consolidation Spain amp Portugal The Moors Al Andalus o Alhambra o Cordoba Ceuta modern Spanish map Portuguese discoveries o West Africa Madeira Islands o Unoccupied o Agriculture o Sugarcane o By the 15005 they were producing 1500 tons of sugar Canary Islands o Had been isolated for many centuries Cape Verde Islands o Unoccupied o Turn Islands into sugar producing Sao Tome Guinea Kingdom of Kongo o King Afonso is converted to Christianity West African languages African states From Contact to Collision American History 8252009 120600 PM Right Under Our Feet o LSU founding fathers o The first superintendent eader William Tecumseh Sherman General in the Civil War Joined the Union and fought against Confederate 0 Samuel Lockett Engineer served as military advisor in Egypt o Oldest construction at LSU 0 Journalism Building took it apart and rebuilt it oncampus 0 Indian Mounds built by Indians 5000 years old pyramids in Egypt o Oldest town in America 0 St Augustine Florida founded in 15605 Europeans o Oraibi Arizona Archaeology says over 1000 years old Indians Ancient Americans From Beringia to Cahokia o Not being tested on o Cahokia an ancient city 0 Near presentday St Louis Missouri 0 Biggest community north of Mexico 0 Cahokia was a city 8252009 120600 PM Columbus and the Colombian Expedition o Who is Columbus 0 A Man of Mystery Careful to conceal his own origins Many names in many places a Genoa Christoforo Colombo n Spain Cristobal Colon o Genoa 1493 0 Northern Italy 0 Born and raise o Spent youth there with his father Father was a successful wool weaver by trade Columbus received almost no schooling By his early 20s went on early voyagers in the East Mediterranean o Colunbus in Portugal 1476 0 About the age of 25 experience in Mediterranean ampAtlantic with brother Lisbon Where he takes the next step into to the Atlantic Maintains connections with home Genoa Marries a Portuguese woman with connections to the Madera Islands o Columbus Chart Genoa 1490 0 They had a relatively accurate sense of how big the world was o Columbus travels 0 Atlantic islands Madeira connection 0 West Africa Including Elmina o Columbus amp the Enterprse of the Indies o Westward to Asia Already proposed in Portugal in 1474 by Toscanelli 0 Portuguese had already attempted to find othGer Atlantic islands and failed o Columbus in Spain 14851492 0 O O O O O o Ferdinand of Aragon ampisabela of Castile 1469 Involved in siege of Granada at the time odCC s visits o Getting started 0 23 of funding from monarchs 0 13 as loan from Italian merchants 0 Nina Pinta Santa Maria Leave August 3 1492 Palos Spain o First Encounters 0 October 12 San Salvador Our Savior o The natives that they meet call the island Guanahani o Tainos Arawak speakers Columbus Indios aka Indians 0 Gift exchange gold Wealthy populous cities Doesn t find it o Captives interpreters o Espanola Hispaniola 0 CC Indians as laborers o Wreck of Santa Maria 40 or so people 39 men stay 0 Caribs As the vessels are leaving they encounter hostile Indians not like the friendly Indios 0 Return to Spain March 1493 o Portugal 0 Early rivalries between Portugal and Spain 0 147980 Portugal and Spain negotiated northsouth line for discoveries 0 Pope says okay 0 CC returns Spain turnd to Pope Alexander VI From city of Valencia in Aragon Bulls support Spain 0 Treaty of Tordesillas c European discoveries ca1500 o Second voyage 0 Much larger scale and expectations 1200 men 17 ships 0 Caribs bad Indians Cannibalism Capture some Caribs 0 Return to Hispaniola November 1493 Bearded corpse a They find that none of the men that they left behind aren t alive Collateral damage o Perambulations o Santo Domingo the central 0 La Isabela establishment 0 People start dying off 0 Great navigator but not a great town leader o Columbus new plans 0 Not much trade to be had 0 lots of people to support The Columbian Exchange Don t need to write down c European diet 0 Grains root vegs greens trees fruits 0 Meat fish dairy o Spices flavor preservation o Disease 0 Smallpox 1518 o Syphilis After Columbus 8252009 120600 PM After Columbus Spain in the Americas Discovery amp Disaster o Governor of the Indies o Hispaniola Capital of New Spain 0 Deadly for Spaniards ampTainos alike 0 23 colonists died between 14931504 0 Worse for Taino 1492 ca 300000 people 1510 33000 1548 500 0 Disease but also forced labor enslavement dislocation o Further discovery 0 Puerto Rico Jamaica Cuba Bigger populationmore workers More land to find riches 0 North America Juan Ponce de Leon pasqua florida 1513 o Yucatan Maya 0 Difficult to penetrate the mainland o Hernan Cortes ampMalinaliMalinche 0 Born in an upper class society 0 Studied to born a lawyer then decided to become a conquistador o Helps conquer Cuba 0 1519 o A native womanMalinali Was not apart of the Aztecs o AztecMexica o Tenochtitlan City in the Lake 0 Capital city 200000300000 people in 1519 ie postK New Orleans Compare Seville in Spain ca 70000 people a ie Lake Charles 0 Largest pyramid 200 ft high God of war Huitzilopochtli God of rain Tlatloc o Post Conquest O O 0 New Spain Encomienda system labor amp tribute Cortes 23000 families working for him in Oaxaca Valley o Conversion 0 Tonantzin Corn Mother 0 Santa Maria de Guadalupe o Cabeza de Vaca o Hernando de Soto o Coronado 0 Southwest The Challengers o Giovanni Cabato aka John Cabot O O O O O From Genoa English monarch Henry VII First attempt 1496 weather conditions unfavorable X Second 1497 Reaches mainland of North America Northeast Asia Third 1498 Disaster o Giovanni Verrazzano O O O Florentine merchant in French city of Rouen Francis I is eager to challenge Spain Northwestern passage Friendly Indians amp mala gente Virginia 8252009 120600 PM The beginning of English colonization in North America o Protestantism amp the English Challenge 0 Martin Luther A German Monk 1517 95 theses reformation 0 Jean Calvin Reformed Church Geneva o Henry VIII Defender of the Faith 0 MaritalTroubles Henry VIII s wife Catherine of Aragon n Daughter of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile a Powerful connections a No male heir a Divorce Church of England 1529 n Henry VIII is head of church ie the pope 0 After Henry Edward VI 154753 a Yipes Mary Tudor 155358 a Restores Catholicism a bloody Mary Elizabeth I 15581603 a Restores Protestantism n Marry Phillip II of Spain o Former brotherinlaw o No thanks a Excommunicatedany person could kill her without being persecuted Mary Queen of Scots n Contacts with Spain a Executed by Elizabeth 0 England vs Spain Privateering n Sir Francis Drake 1570s1580s a War with Spain 1585 a Spanish Armada 1588 0 Map of Virginia 1580s Roanoke 0 Town of Pomeiooc DeBry 1590 o Raleigh s Virginia Roanoke Virginia a Block and raid Spanish n Employment a Trade a Protestantism The Lost Colony n Unprepared colonists n Violence vs Indians n CROATOAN o The Virginia Company of London Events in Europe a 1603 death of Elizabeth D James Stuart James VI of Scotland become James I a Peace with Spain 1604 a No more piracy allowed Two Virginia Companies n 1606 charter o London amp Plymouth a Virginia Co of London a 1607 Jamestown 0 Changes in English society amp economy The collapse of English wages 0 English colony Spanish model Opposition to Spain yet modeled after its colonies o Chesapeake ca 1600 English settlements n Jamestown o Center of English settlement Powhatan Empire a Goal was to copy Spanish and beat them at their own game Powhatan Powhatanname of town group chief individual About 14000 people a maybe closer to 25000 Powhatan s Mantle n A map of empire PowhatanWahunsaunacock Around 60 years old when English arrive Inherited power over six tribes expanded to 30 Marriage amp conquest 40 bodyguards 100 wives Tribute Trade goods copper dye and beads Tsenacommacah Powhatan Virginia Important center for trade from different regions a Copper from the west a Shell beads from the east a Sacred red dye from the south Even Spanish goods from the southern Atlantic coast The Powhatansamp their ways Spring fishing Summer Villages Farming n Villages 100200 people a 2030 houses a no furniture really Fall amp winter foraging and hunting English interpretation a No permanent occupation of land 0 Captain John Smith and Pocahontas O O O O Life Death and Tobacco 8252009 120600 PM The development of seventeenthcentury Virginia o The Powhatan amp the English 0 Antagonism to 1613 0 Captain Samuel Argall captures Pocahontas with help of Patowomeck chief Peaceful period follows 16131622 Pocahontas marries John Rolfe and they go to England Son Thomas Rolfe o EnglishChristian name Rebecca o The Destruction of Tsenacommacah o Massacre of 1622 Led by Opechancanough o 1644 another attack 400 colonists killed Opechancanough captured amp killed 1646 o 1669 2000 Virginia Algonquians reservations almost no land o Death in Jamestown 0 Mortality amp its social effects Live amp die young Effects on institutions 0 O a Marriage a Property n Orphans o 40 of AngloVirginian children 0 Political disorder 0 Starvation Winter 1609 starving time powdered wife o Growth in the midst of death 0 Largescale immigration 1630s40s 8000decade 1650s60s18000decade 0 Population growth despite death rate 14 die every year 1616350 settlers 165013000 1670 ca 41000 o Why did they come 0 They were seeking opportunity 0 Tobacco Native use of Tobacco n Tobacco as sacred a Used throughout the Americas for centuries o Smoked snuffed chewed n Columbus notes Taino smoking herbs during first voyage Tobacco goes global a From Americas to Europe o 1501 Inquisition vs Rodrigo de Xeres o 1530s plantations in Caribbean o late 1500s common in Europe a Around the world o Southeast Asia and East Asia 0 Spanish Philippines 1575 0 Portuguese Macao gt1600 0 China Java etc 1600s o Africa 0 Beginning in 1500s 0 Trade middle passage ceremonies Tobacco as medicinal a Possible cure for o Worries o Head cold o Tetanus o Toothaches o Asthma 0 Arthritis o Flatulence o Venereal disease o Cancer Opposition to tobacco n Banned England 1604 Japan 1607 China 1612 Mogul Empire 1617 Russia 1634 a King James VII writes an essay against its use o Virginia No gold Now what 0 First products are a bust o Reforms Private vs company property Headrights Elected assembly a House of Burgesses 1619 0 16105 Tobacco from Caribbean John Rolfe later married Pocahontas First shipment 1617 o Tobacco rush o 1624 Crown takes over colony from Company 200000 pounds of tobaccoyear o 1638 300000 pounds 0 High prices 16205 510 times the cost 0 Strong demand for labor o Indentured servitude 0 Mostly young men 0 Serve 47 years Room board clothing Negotiable 0 Population rises rapidly 1616 350 people 1650 13000 0 Land pressure Crops Animals o Political development in Virginia o Mid16005 Still deadly disorderly o Gov William Berkeley Fought Opechancanough Tried to keep tobacco trade with Netherlands open during English Civil War o Berkeley s plans for Virginia 0 Mike it look like England New towns New industries Diversification 0 Problems Low prices for tobacco Corruption his amp others o Classes in Virginia 0 Wealthy planters 0 Regular planters o Indentured servants c From servants to slaves 0 Late 16005 fewer indentured servants Rapid turn to African slavery o Africans in Virginia 1619 servants not slaves Midcentury slaves for life a Fewer than 500 in colony in 16505 0 Why so few Cost Mortality New England 8252009 120600 PM From Sagadoc to Massachusetts Bay England s Early Northern Colonies o English as Latecomers 0 English came after The Spanishe Who established conquest from Mexico to the Southern tip of South America a Very Proficient and knowledgeable in 1600s Atlantic fishermen n Active in NW Atlantic since early 1500s a Portuguese fishing colony at Newfoundland in mid15005 The French a Jacques Cartier 15305 405 o Penetrated all the way down to Quebec and Montreal o Popham Colony Sagadahoc 0 Two Virginia Companies London Co Jamestown Plymouth Co Sagadahoc 0 Summer 1607 Spring 1608 Kennebec River a Southern Maine Jamestownlike problems Call it quits 0 Site rediscovered in 1994 o New France 0 Samuel de Champlain Quebec St Lawrence River Huron Confederacy 0 Goals Fur trade Conversion 0 Small size 1663 3000 French settlers 1700 15000 0 Neighbor amp rival to New England o English Reformation 0 English Reformation When is it complete 0 Church of England resembled Roman Catholic Church in certain respects Emphasis on liturgy Hierarchical structure Conservative o The Church of England amp Its Critics o Puritans to purify the church 0 The Stuarts James VII n Gunpowder Plot 1604 Charles I n Henrietta Maria o Frenchcatholic princess o Mary land 0 Archbishop of Canterbury William Laud o Separatists aka Pilgrims o No use trying to reform the Church of England Split off instead Set up own congregations 0 Problem King is head of the church Might split heads from necks Local harassment o Congregation of Scrooby Located in Northern England Decide to establish own church o Separatists in the Netherlands 0 United Provinces of the Netherlands aka Holland Calvinism amp the state Freedom of religion a Not technically o 1609 Amsterdam then Leiden a University town 0 Problem Children are going Dutch o Henry Hudson amp the Dutch East India Company 0 Hudson s early English voyages Muscovy Company o 1609 Dutch East India Company Northeast Passage Northwest Passage 0 New Netherland Separatists go Dutch a No o Separatists to America 0 Fall of 1620 Make deal with London merchants 0 Religious amp economic motivations See Rev Run o Mayflower only 13 are from Leiden o Voyage and Arrival 0 Virginia No Cape Cod November 1620 0 Authority Mayflower Compact n Gave a structure to the community a The beginnings of democracy 0 Eh o New PlymouthPawtuxet o Pawtuxet town Epidemic o Squanto offered his help to the Plymouth colony o PokanoketWampanoag Massasoit Vs Narragansett o New Plymouth Small Success 0 From communal to private landholding o Alliances with natives 0 Population growth 1630 300 people 1640 3000 o Massachusetts Bay 0 Puritans vs Separatists 0 Opposition to Charles I 29 Church policies Political struggles n Taxation 0 Massachusetts Bay Co Charter March 16 o City on a hill 0 1629 Early settlers o 1630 First major expedition ca 2000 people 0 John Winthrop o Great Migration 0 Ca 16301643 200 ships 20000 people 0 Population 1640 ca 40000 0 Profile Families Mixed backgrounds Low mortality Highly organized Insiders and Outsiders 91709 o Puritians called themselves Physical Saints 0 Good side The chosen ones 0 Bad side If failures do occur they are failures in God s eyes Some of the way in which the inside is constructed and who is outside and excluded o Internal Order Mass Bay 0 Leadership Bigger endeavor n 2000 come over the first year Corporate structure n Was a company run by businessmen and merchants Stable and orderly Winthrop 0 Followers They had a sense of leadership within Religious but also interested in the society Whole congregations coming over from England 0 Institutions Theocracy The church run government by priests and religious leaders Both separation of church and state what did they mean by it n The king and the church of England Kinghead of the church a They kept lines between church and institutions They do not want moral corruption or sinfulness in there community a More than have of the offenses were moral crimes Think like Harry Potter the ministry of magic and Dumbledore Think Twilight the Volturri and Dr Cullen ish No such thing as freewill o Institutions of the town The people have a voice in the very beginning The people who ran the meetings who decided everything the townfathers and then there were the other ones Freemen full members of the church and had to be one of the original founders or were invited specially to be in the colony n Left out people who didn t own property a Left out people who weren t there when the colony was founded o In each of those areas we see order there is disorder The sources of order and there flip order Sources of disorder 0 A community that is trying to be perfect all the time but 0 actually failing Morality a No one is perfect everyone has sinful thoughts Mobility a You can t have a stable community if people are moving around a lot Religious disputes Roger Williams a Minister from an elite background became minister in the town of Salem a second big town Outsider ideas o 1 More in line with the separatists argument ignore church of England o 2 Indians are the proper owners of America argues that English cannot take over land without permission from Indian Essentially banished from colony and takes followers Founded other small community Allows any form of religion in Rhode Island Baptist Jewish Truly separated church and state tolerance become the main structure Anne Hutchinson Came to Mass in 1634 A prayer leader and started group meetings after church o Which started with women then popularity attracted men Outsider ideas o 1 Questioned authority of ministers if they were really saved o 2 She claims she heard God speaking directly to her n n n n n n n n o Puritans didn t believe that God was talking to you but that anything like that is satanic n Ended up in a Dutch colony where she and parts of her family were killed in a war with Indian neighbors Quakers a 1700s were a very radical and obnoxious groups n Believed everyone had an inner life kind of like the holy ghost they would quake n Outsider ideas o 1 Believed Puritans had it all wrong a Some are hanged o Halfway Covenant You had to defend yourself as being saved in order to be apart of the elite community The latter day descendents don t feel the same way there parents did o New England in the 1630s 0 Insiders and Outsiders in terms of Indians 0 Contested ground Pequot country Divided into two groups n Mohegan a Controlled fur trade in that region Were a leading Indian tribe Valuable territory Key source for Wampum Beads a From clams and snails a Used as a source of money between Indians and Europeans o Massacre at Mystic River May 1637 a Who is going to control trade a Pequot may have pushed their luck too far n Pequot crimes toward New England 400700 killed a Set the whole town on fire Pequot population a Before the war 3000 a After 12 that o Others 0 Killed 0 Given as captives 0 Sold into slavery Captain John Underhill a Leader of the attack on Pequots at Mystic o 400700 mostly women and children n 1644 Led Dutch forces vs Indians on Long Islands n Later led uprising among the English settlers H Died a Quaker o Minister John Eliot Late 16405 Praying towns towns for converting Indians n Pushed for Indian conversion 1674 1600 Indians in towns Demand changes in native life a Religion a Culture a Work a Gender Bible amp Grammar a First Mass Bible and Indian Bible 0 King Philip Meracomet The son of Massasoit n Grown entire life with English D But represented his people the Wampanoag Blamed for murder a A war breaks out throughout New England 0 William Hubbard s map of the war 1677 Set back English settlement for years Questioned why they were punished for the wars n Ownselfs The Beginnings of Slavery in Colonial NAs252009 120600 PM From the Caribeans to the Continents o Virginia From Servants to Slaves 0 Late 16005 fewer indentured servants Rapid turn to African slavery o Africans in Virginia 1619 Servants no slaves Midcentury slaves for life a Fewer than 500 in colony in 16505 0 Why so few Cost Mortality African slavery in 17th c Chesapeake o What changed Healthier conditions Shrinking supply of English servants Increased supply of slaves from Royal African Company Desire for greater social control Bacon s Rebellion amp Slavery in Virginia Social stratification Political consolidation Growth of slavery Gobbing up of land Violence vs Indians eBacon s Rebellion Tobacco Virginia Slavery amp Racism 0 Laws vs Africans 1662 Children of Africans take on status of mothers a Free father enslaved mother enslaved child 1667 Christianity did not freedom Variety of restrictions follow 1705 First slave code in Virginia 0 Large African population 1710 15 population o Caribbean connection Barbados 0 Founded in 1620 O O O O O 0 Frontier environment 0 Turned from tobacco to sugar 0 Early Barbados Chesapeake sped up a Disease environment a Class stratification U Turn towards slavery Connections to main land a Imported food a Strong commercial ties The great economic engine of the English empire 0 Origins of the English sugar colonies 1624 St Christopher 1627 Barbados 1628 Nevis 1632 Montserrat ampAntigua o Plantation life Was worst than NA Disease was rampant n Overworked workers a West African Men n Replaced when they die 0 Sugar processing Sugar mill Resistance and Revolt Jamaica Much bigger More land Important colony for BA o South Carolina 1725 0 Carolina rice and slavery Majority African population By 1730 twice as many slaves as white 3 times more than Chesapeake 0 Rice cultivation o Indigo O O o Stono Rebellion They heard that in Spanish Florida they would be free Killed whites along the way Were executed o Africans Origins amp Destinations 0 Africans come from 200 different states Only 6 major cultural groups 0 The slave trade numbers 1500s to late 18005 1012 million a More Africans went to Americas than Europeans 910 go to Caribbean and SA esp Brazil 120 to NA o Trade Goods 0 Traded with Africans themselves slave traders along the coastline Sold to Europeans who exchanged trade goods like beads and such o Capture and Transport 0 People would be taken as POW and then carried them to the coasts to be sent away 0 They used 45 slave posts o The Middle Passage Average 250 slaves per ship 1020 mortality Discipline and punishment 6 months from beginning to end On the ship Had devices to keep people and feed people 0 Violent uprising O O O O O Peopling British North America 8252009 120600 PM Orientations North America 1585 c European population a few hundred at most 0 Spanish Florida 0 English Virginia Roanoke o Indians 710 million Orientations 1685 c European population about 200000 0 90 English 0 1000 in French Canada 0 Afew hundred in La 0 A few thousand in Spanish Florida amp NM o Indians ca 2 million 0 Slight majority east of Mississippi River Orientations 1785 o Europeans amp EuroAmericans 33 million 0 USA British Canada Spanish Florida Louisiana Texas New Mexico amp California Russians in Alaska o Africans ampAfricanAmericans 750000 o Indians ca 200000 east of the Mississippi o Tipping point mid17005 Population amp Economy Franklin o Observations Concerning the Increase of Mankind 1751 0 Population doubling every 25 years 0 Huge market for British manufactured goods 0 Eventually more people in British America than in Britain itself 0 Key LAND Migration to British colonies 16071700 ca 400000 0 12 to West Indies o 90 English 0 12000 Africans 10000 between 1676 and 1700 c 17005 ca 600000 0 12Africans esp 17201775 c European diversity 0 85000 Germans 66000 Northern Irish 42000 Southern Irish 44000 English 35000 Scots 0 29000 Welsh o Servants felons free people New Netherland amp its neighbors New Amsterdam becomes New York o New Amsterdam 1660 o James Duke of York William Penn o Bought Pennsylvania o Penn was a Quaker o Radical leader 0 Father was an admiral and helped invade Jamaica Early Pennsylvania amp New Jersey o North meets South Philadelphia 0 Grid model o Myth and reality in Pennsylvania 0 Land of peace and enlightenment 0 William Penn was a nice guy European groups o German 0 Redemption 0 Philadelphia as entrepot o Protestant sects then Lutherans Calvinists Moravians 0 Spread through backcountry 0 Newspapers books o ScotchIrish 0 Scottish background 0 Ulster Ireland 0 Presbyterianism 0 17205 onwards to midAtlantic O O O O o Backcountry settlements The Slave Trade Numbers c 15005 to late 1800s 1012 million 0 More Africans went to Americas and European Colonies o Slavery in the north 0 Philadelphia 0 Boston o New York slave conspiracies Colonial Convergence 8252009 120600 PM Diversity amp Convergence o 1760 14 British colonies in North America 0 Including Nova Scotia o Different forms of government economy religion etc o Different beginnings but more alike as they approach the Revolution Forms of convergence o Compare New England vs Chesapeake 0 Health conditions 0 Geography 0 Social amp economic class diversions 0 Family structure 0 Racial unity amp slavery o Overall order amp complexity 0 North 9 southmore order to less order in society Anglicization o Imitation of mother country 0 Institutions values culture o Political amp economic control 0 Limited but often successful o Communication amp culture 0 Frequent amp more intense connection Slavery o Not just in plantation zones 0 Legal amp expanding nearly everywhere o 1770 New York Rhode Island New Jersey and Pennsylvania 0 Higher of slaves than Chesapeake in 1700 Growth of population amp economy o Consistent population growth o Improved health conditions o Large family size o Geographic expansion o Economic growth tied to empire o High standard of living for free people Result Complex society o More developed communities amp cultural institutions o Urbanization amp expansion west 0 big cities Philadelphia Boston NY o Professions o Hierarchy The Great Awakening o Great Awakenings 0 One phenomenon or many Jon Butler an interpretive fiction 0 Northern 1740s 0 Southern 1760s 0 Contemporaries often thought they were linked o Religion in the colonies 0 Official or established churches are the norm 0 Congregational Church New Plymouth Massachusetts Bay Connecticut 0 Church of England Virginia Caribbean colonies Maryland New York South Carolina North Carolina o Problems 0 Costs of establishment 0 Training amp recruiting ministers 0 Geographic spread Especially in the south 0 Competition More congregations in north and south 0 Membership Full vs Others Men vs Women o Evangelicals vs Rationalists o Evangelicals Spontaneous vs formal Emotional vs rational Critical of conventional church leaders New Lights 0 Rationalists Critical amp empirical interpretation vs revelation amp emotional experience Laws of nature amp God Reason vs enthusiasm Old Lights o Deism amp skepticism 0 Influence of Newton amp Locke Reason amp experience Natural philosophy vs scripture revelation o Anticlericalism Eg Voltaire o Toleration o Deism Benjamin Franklin o Revivals 0 1730s amp 1740s 0 Conversion amp rebirth 0 Still Calvinists Grace vs free will Role of individual 0 Jonathan Edwards Heads vs hearts o George Whitefield s travels o Started in England amp Wales 0 Then to British North America Maine to Georgia 0 Newspapers amp promotion Ben Franklin o Baptists in Virginia 0 Dunking a Baptist minister o Unlawful preaching 1772 o Separation of Church amp State 0 Virginia Act for Establishing Religious Freedom The Seven Years War 8252009 120600 PM The French and Indian War England and France at war 16891748 Salutary Neglect o Edmund Burke The period that allowed the colonies to grow and become prosperous since the British colonies left the colonies alone Prime Ministers 0 Robert Walpole Allowing things to be left alone Was a rep of the dominant party of England First governor minister to have that type of authority in Parliament 17211742 Term o Imperial claims in North America 1750 o The struggle for the backcountry o Backwoods summer 1754 Virginia land speculators French forts Indian HalfKing Belonged to the Iroquois n Allied with England To keep the French out o George Washington Surveyor amp Soldier 0 Assassin 1754 22 ish at the time o Albany Congress 1754 o JuneJuly 1754 o 23 representatives Benjamin Franklin Pa William Johnson NY Thomas Hutchinson Mass 0 150 Iroquois chiefs Neutrality Land deal with Pa 0 Albany Plan of Union 0 O O Offered a plan for a pancolonial government Failed Braddock s Road to disaster 0 Just take from French with mass force 0 Built a long road from WV 0 Over 400 British and Indian soldiers killed 0 French 13 killed 0 Braddock died himself a few days later 1755 War begins in North America 0 Braddock amp Washington vs Fort Duquesne 0 Victory in Acadia But not for the Acadians Le Grand Derangement Indian attacks in Ohio valley o The British Empire strikes back 0 William Pitt Changes in military structure strategy New way of dealing with colonies 0 Focus on the colonies 45000 troops in N Am 12 Brit 12 colonial o Conquest of New France 0 Pitt s reforms work American tactics British navy Indian relations 0 French defeats Ft Louisbourg 1758 Quebec is next 1759 The Montreal 1760 o Death of General James Wolfe 0 Gave up his own life for Britain At the end of the 7 years war o The British and the Americans have won o Sacrificed life Paying the price of war From victory to disunity o Treaty of Paris 1763 0 British get Canada amp title to lands east of Mississippi River Also title to French holdings in India 0 French hand over New Orleans amp claims to Louisiana territory west of Mississippi River to Spain 0 Spanish hand over Florida to Britsh get Manila amp Havana back in return o Cherokee War 17591761 0 Pressure from southern settlers on Cherokee land 0 Sets off vendettas war 0 Cherokees vs SC o Pontiac s Rebellion 0 spring 1763 attacks on British forts around Great Lakes amp Ohio Valley western Pennsylvania 0 Peace established slowly 17641766 0 Result 2000 colonists 2000 Indians dead 0 Pontiac this is our land o Paxton Boys 0 December 1763 o Conestoga village 0 From massacre to march o The two Georges 0 George III 0 George Grenville o Proclamation of 1763 o Orders in Council 1763 amp Sugar Act 1764 Smuggling Stricter enforcement n Patrols amp special courts Lower tariff n Why Currency Act 1764 Stamp Act 1765 0 Parliament March 1765 0 Direct vs indirect taxes 0 Starts November 1 1765 o All kinds of paper items 0 Grenville Virtual representation o Patrick Henry 0 May 1765 Virginia House of Burgesses 0 Seven resolutions 0 Sons of Liberty Midterm 8252009 120600 PM The Great Migration c When the Puritans came over from England o 20 to 30 thousand o Shaped how people thought about each other 8252009 120600 PM
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