HIS WES CIVILIZATION
HIS WES CIVILIZATION HIST 1003
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Magnolia Heaney on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1003 at Louisiana State University taught by P. Hoffman in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/222465/hist-1003-louisiana-state-university in History at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Essay One German essay Start out with a broad statement that introduces the whole essay such as The German state intensely evolved from 18711989 and was marked by various events and changes that allowed Germany to become the Germany we know today and these changes could involve their international relations or internal change Date by Date a Historic events of GermanyEconomic b Neighbor s views 1871 Unification ofGermanies 1890 Bismarck System ends WWI 19141918 WWII 19391941 The Cold War 1871 a Germany came together as one with the proclamation under the German Reich image German Empire was unified under Otto von Bismarck With further industrialization the German economy changed Through this industrialization and various changes Germany became a more powerful European Economystage b Center ofpower displaced FranceFrance searches for allies against Germany AustriaHungary and Russia side with Germany 1890 Bismarck System a Bismarck wanted the Germans to be a quotgood neighbor while promoting their own selfinterest Much like a wolfin sheep s clothing Another aspect was that they wanted to keep France isolated Lastly they wanted to maintain a strong alliance with AustriaHungary and Russia as they felt it was essential to the betterment of Germany Economy wise the growth of industry furthered and the German industry prospered b The tension with France continued to build as Germany continued to prosper and rise in the ranks Germany failed to reach an alliance with Britain and Germany became more hostile towards its neighbors In response Germany s neighbors became more weary of the Germany Empire WWI a During the time in the run up to WI the Germans maintained a firm alliance with AustriaHungary whilst preparing for a two front war which was a consequence of their refusal to renew the alliance with Russia By this time the Bismarck system had been broken up Germany also built up their naval program and kept an assertive international policy After the assassination of the heir the AustrianHungarian throne the Germans prepared for what would be WWI This was the perfect excuse for the Germans to capitalize on their selfinterests while under the cloak of appearing to be loyal to AustriaHungary The Germans expected a short war but that did not happen b Great Britain was alarmed by the Germans build up of their naval forces During this time a colonial rivalry was occurring between France and GB Upon Germany not renewing the alliance with Russia the French seized the opportunity and became allies with Russia forming the Triple Entente in 1907 AustriaHungary felt their alliance with Germany was necessary for safety After the assassination of Franz Ferdinand the French became alarmed and militarized and in response the Germans did as well The war lasted from 19141918 and the Germans lost land and ended up having to pay reparations to their neighbors Interwar bridging WWI and WWI filler info between WWI and WWI Upon the strikes of natural resource in reparations to the French the German currency was rendered worthless People would have wheelbarrows full ofmoney but it held no true value Page 13 The US provided money to the Germans that was paid in reparations to it s affected neighbors which ended up back in the US market The US did this out of selfinterest This economic collapse allowed for Hitler to come in power as he used the economic failure to blame the Jewish scapegoat and to come in to power He used losses from WWI to promote his rise to power The Russian revolution occurred and the Bolsheviks came into power For the Germans legacies of bitterness contributed to Hitler s rise and the build up ofWWII Nationalist dreams were continued in Germany with increased social tension The US became the most important creditor and the Eurocentric World System collapsed Also a league of nations was formed and the US did not join as it followed the policy of isolationism Great Depression occurs in US from 19291940ish The WWII industry helped to pull the economy back up WWII 19391945 a German becomes more aggressive under the regime that included Hitler and fascism The German expansion fantasy was furthered by the ideal of Lebensraum aka quotLiving Space for the German People which stated that the Nazi party was to kill deport or sterilize those ofvarious Eastern European countries to provide proper dwelling space for the superior German race Hitler reopened old wounds from WWI to blame others and promote his belief and policies Jews were outcast and the Germans feared a two front war The war began in September of1939 as the Germans invaded Poland Natural resources played a vital role in the progression of the war effort At this point Germany was known as the supreme aggressor of Europe Their intentions were known and had been known France and Great Britain feared Germany was capable of and prepare for war France fell to Germany and Britain was defending itself The US stayed out ofit until the attack on Pear Harbor on Dec 7th 1941 The US revoked it s policy of isolationism The war ended in 1945 Germany was divided into Eastern and Western Germany US wanted to bring boys home post WWI while Stalin wanted to advance the U quotFruits of Victory Asian Nationalism occurs and various European nations regain their empires The US France and GB would monitor the West Germany and Russia would monitor East Germany Post WWII the international community had relations with West Germany as it was capitalist friendly On the other hand East Germany was communist These two countries were divided by the Berlin Wall Therefore Germany was divided and no longer united This would last from 19451989 The Cold War 19791989 a Germany was split into two countries until the fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9th 1989 The West was capitalist friendly and the East was communist as it was regulated by Russia Upon the fall of the Berlin Wall Germany was reunited b The US GB and France viewed Western Germany as friendly and East Germany as nonfriendly Germany was split from 19451989 The wall collapsing reuniting Germany Essay Two Globalization info starts on page 20 Start out by defining globalization or a term that relates or a general statement that embodies the premise of the essay Globalization is historical and social processes by which forms of human contact have shifted toward more the intense and immediate Mention that globalization is not new it has been intensifying since the 16th century The timeframe from 1941 to 1971 was defined by the Bretton Woods agreements whose ultimate goal was to maintain a stable international currency with international relationships This came about during WW1 and lasted till 1971 In 1945 Kenysian policies came about The idealism was that with proper regulation a stable economy could be present even with a high employment rate This went hand in hand with welfare state a state that promotes and protects the economic and social well being of the people and the policies that it embodied Such as the New Deal which created governmental programs to the economy which in turn would promote the welfare of the people Plus the US had become the supreme creditor and the Eurocentric World System was no longer relevant Also planned economic development was used in France that targeted various problems on a 5 year plan Loans were given to the newly independent as well Certain ideologies shifted the game such as the beliefin efficient markets and Ayn Rand and the popularizers In the 1960s economic recovery occurred in the US Japan and it undercut the Bretton Woods policies Ayn Rand believed that the economy should support the quotjob creators and relieve the taxes on such said creators This idealism would be embodied by the NeoLiberal and rose to prominence under the multiple victories of the Conservative politician The NeoLiberal believed capital held all the cards and deregulation was necessary for the economy to thrive The controls were removed from global finance Reaganomics in the 80s in the US embodied this The irony is that globalization denounces big government but it needs big government to survive In more recent times globalization has been defined and affected by quotjustice globalism ihadist Globalism along with other Fundamentalisms and nationalistic resistances In summation globalization is still occurring and plays a part in the global economy to this day Video summary htt www outubecom watchvd1G hCR Fw Mass Comm Tests September 16 18 October 1416 November 11 l 3 December 7 11 GET AN I CLICKER History August 24 2010 The Great Tradition Themes of Course The Larger Context 0 3 Meta narratives l Secularization The process of becoming concerned only about thisones world opposed to religious concerns 2 Rise of Modernity Idea of a secular society which has political institutions that are democratic society based on physical social sciences 3 Globalization and its discontents Post 1960 period Worldwide economic system intellectual system a lot of people don t like it 0 Political transition in Europe from Traditional agricultural societies 2 Imperial societies To national states constructed after 1750 0 Traditional Agricultural societies led by Warrior Elites and Priests Louis l4mking of France liked to make war bc a Warrior 0 A Few imperial societies that were unusually aggressive and expansive 0 Imperial Motives Also true of traditional societies 1 Gain human and natural resources 2 Status perform elite values against both real human and spiritual enemies 3 Carry a true religion to the unbelievers 4 Note Commoners have opportunities in the contested spaces of imperial expansion 0 Examples Castile Ottoman Turks Aztecs Incas Mali West Africa China Economic Change from 0 Local often in kind economies with limited market connections and long distance trade to Formation of the Eurocentric World System and mostly Atlantic Empires to o Emergence of global markets and Polycentric World Market System Social Change secularization Modernity 0 Limited life expectancy and experiences 0 Fall in death rates 0 More cheaper goods see secularization and modernity o Urbanization A England was rst urban society in Europe 0 Voluntary associations A o Secular individualism A hitellectualIdeological Change 0 Break up of the religious unity of the West 0 Crisis of ancient and other authorities 0 Emergence of the Scienti c Method 0 Enlightenment Reason and Classic Liberalism o Nationalism and its variants o Other isms that promise salvation o Totalitarianism o Relativism 20Lh century Artistic Change 0 Religious Art for instructin Renaissance perspective and realism In uence of Classicism 1835191h Centuries Impressionism ca 18501890 In uence of Nonwestern Aesthetics Abstract Art 1890 s PERS IA Political Economic Religious Social Intellectual Artistic August 26 2010 How did the Great Tradition come to include Various forms of Chrisianity An early form of religious toleration Moves toward a secular world view even in the midst of a religious revival Secularization PRI from Persia The Era of Religious Controversy 15171648 Part I Background and the Protestant Movement Human not transcended Divine Transcended Was the Western Christian Church Uni ed o Clergy were within a single institution organized in a hierarchy of offices with the Pope at the top 0 Sacraments ceremonies were basically the same across Western Europe 0 Certain beliefs were widely held but not universally held among Christians Clergy and Lay o The Church s Authority in Question 12 things in the text 0 Authority willing obedience to a person or institution recognized as having the right to rule 1 Clergy as Landlords Criticism of clerical life styles 3 Theological Disagreements Thomists Platonists Nominalists Humanists Heretics people take sides 0 There were reform movements in some parts of Europe 0 The Elites were concerned about the behavior of the urban poor N Commonly Held Beliefs l Providentialism belief that nothing happens by accident Evil is the result of human actions and Divine Wrath good things are due to the intervention of the Saints etc 2 Contractualism The belief that you can make a deals with the saints the Blessed Virgin J C and even God 3 The Imitation of Christ as the highest form of spiritual and daily life for Clergy and Lay 4 Fragments of Folk belief in animistic and other spiritual forces in nature the Enchanted World 5 Simpli ed Model of Last Medieval Road to Salvation SEE MOODLE SiJ19Spi139itual Penalty9 Baptism9 0K9 Heaven Sin Temporal Penalties Purgatorypurging your sins9 0k9 Heaven Sin9Temp0ral Penalties Other sacraments 0k9Heaven Good works offset Temporal Penalties Right behavior reduces Sin and thus temporal penalties Indulgences years of pardons valid if you have a bowl of holy crusade Two Currents of Reform 1 Popular movements Seek 0 Greater personal spiritual life o Outward moral behavior 10 commandments and local custom Civic Behavior Works of Charity Less concerned with sacraments Sometimes aided by Clergy Institutional Church sometimes opposes 0 Popular Movements Examples 0 Brethren of the Common Life 0 Confratemities o Observant Movements among Monastic Orders related 0 Heretics such as Jan Hus John Wycliffe Bohemia Czech Republic 0 Note Strongest in towns NW Europe and N Italy 2 Reform of the Institutional Church Aim 0 Remove abuses of Canon Law at high levels abuses were political o Restoreenhance the position of the church and clergy in society 0 Supported by the Elites who also want to reinforce MALE domiance in a heirarchical society 0 Conciliar Movement l4m15th centuries 0 Popular pressure against Clergy not living the Imitation of Christ 0 Further d 39 I of the B 39 39 39 39 sacramental system 0 Mutual criticism among clerical groups Observant movements Two Pieties SEE MOODLE Sacramental Piety Sacraments pilgrimages monastic life Contractual Piety Indulgences vows EXvotos Cult of Saints Martin Luther 1 Biography of a Radical According to Martin 0 Vow to St Anne mother of virgin Mary Contractualism 0 Eliminate Sin s Penalties confessionpenance Behavioral System 0 The Wall and Despair a god that demands of me what I can not do is unjust God is justice therefore he is going to hell An answer The Justi ed live by Faith coming to this idea was gradual St Augustine9he does this therefore is going to Heaven Protests Indulgences as a scam Wittenburg Mainz The Dominicans pushed him to truly radical positions pushed him into becoming a heretic His Ideas A Radically simple theology9 then breaking with the of cial church God alone saves man can only believe Only the Bible is authoritative Priesthood of all believers Church is under State s protection But in practice he wanted Christianity as he imagined it had been in the 1235131h centuries O O O 0 N September 9 2010 The 17111 Century Political Crisis ca 16401653 Central Issue The claim of sovereigns to give laws without the consent of subjects Origins of the Contract Theory of Political Power The 17111 century crisis was an intensi cation of a longerterm struggle within the elite over who would have power and tax revenue that reached a climax in the 1640 s Ideologically Expressed in terms of Sovereignty v Tyranny The right to give the law to all of the people without their consent Jean Bodin Resistance to tyrants is OK even under Divine Right justice is the reason for the state tyrants violate that reason Practical Expressions 1 Decree Law A general assertion of the righ to legislate without consultation with traditional parliamentary bodies 2 Tax Law eg The Dutch Revolt the English revolution of 1640 Text 35455 on 4 causes 1 Rising costs of war result in state claiming more of society s resources resisted in the name of traditional Liberties 2 Context of stagnant or lagging government revenues post 1560 3 Religious Language the coin for expressing social economic and political quot used to J 39 Fr quot39 39 39 imagry 4 Monarchy is personal as well as institutional so dynastic succession is important France 1563 ff People obey governments because of 0 Fear Physical force violence or POWER 0 Usually expressed through the law and legal institutions and the use of police 0 Belief that obedience is the right thing to do AUTHORITY Monarchs claim absolute power to legislate because of 0 Roman Law Codes named o Theories of sovereignty 0 King is god s representative on earth for temporal matters divine right Monarchs use four techniques to control 1 Legal training for judges 2 Judges and Bureaucrats from nonnobles at rst 3 Elaborate the paperwork restricting arbitrary action by individuals 4 More systematic collection of taxes Con icts Early Examples 0 The Wars of Religion 0 Ivan the Terrible Russia 1560 s The 17111 Century Crisis Why the 1640 s 1 Economic and demographic problems 2 30 year war s larger armies and cumulative drain 3 Re nement of the theory of Absolutism 4 Actions ofthe 1620 s and 30 s to raise revenues Results 0 Events 0 English Revolution 16401660 Catalan and Prtuguese Revolts 164059 The Fronde France 164752 Prussia ca 1653 if Russia 1690 s peter the great wanted to modernize and ended up killing some nobles who opposed him 0 Outcomes o Absolutism Triumphs 0 Russia 1560 sl690 s o Prussia 1660 s 0 Austrian empire 1620 s Absolutism pp 38183 1 THEORETICAL subordination of all elements of the power structure to the crown taxes are the key index 2 Reducing or breaking nobles ties to local patronage networks they now depend on the Crown 3 Ministers reporting directly to monarch a cabinet system October 5 2010 The French Revolution of 1789 Text Chapter 21 What was revolutionary The constitution of the French State was changed from Absolutism to Parlimentary Monarchy France was no longer a geographic abstraction A National Sate Created Equality under the law was a fact in a number of areas of human life Why Then MerNE39 War Debts Failure of the various attempts to force expanded or continued taxation 1770s and 1780s Effects of the Enlightenment s questioning of the was things were esp in politics Coincidence of 4 Movements 1 Aristocrats thwart king force calling Estates general issues Taxation Bourgeoise challenging Nobles and demanding reforms Peasant Revolt over price of food and abuses Urban unrest over price of food Jew Personality of Louis XVI Fails to use Power 1 June 1789 National Assembly 2 July 15 1789 Withdraws provincial troops National Guard Formed 3 5 Oct 1789 Louis Captured by Women of Paris Symbolic emasculation Stages 0 The National Assembly 17891792 0 The First French Republic 17921804 1 The Convention 17921794 2 The Directorate 17941799 3 The Consulate 17991804 0 The Empire 18041814 1815 Constitutional or Mixed Monarchy the National Assembly 17891792 Single Chamber indirectly elected Constitution of 1791 Began on Administrative Economic Legal Reforms Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen The First Republic 17921804 Phase One AKA The Convention Directly elected single chamber Committees serve as executive The Terror 80 of people executed were poor people Attacks on the Catholic Church bE NH o The First Republic 17941799 Phase Two The Directorate 1 2 Chambers indirectly elected in 3 steps 2 Directors are executive 3 Not much happened except war 0 The First Republic Phase Three The Consulate 17991804 1 3 Chambers indirect and mixed franchises 2 3 Consuls are executives 3 Napoleon emerges as the leader 4 Important reforms 0 Empire 18041814 1 Senate and lower chambers appointed and highly indirect elections 2 Napoleon is Emperor 3 France as Great Power of Europe 4 A Few additional reforms How did the Goals work out 0 Goals ofthe poor 0 Vengeanceto varying degrees 0 Protection from the Free Market only in 179394 0 A Degree of Social Mobility 0 Goals of the Enlightened o Achieved a constitutional monarchy Equality under the law End of Inequality Uniform Administration Unified law Codes 1802 1807 1810 Uniform Free Educational System open to talent Yes Liberty See Above 0 Problems the Revolution Created for Itself 0 Problem of the Executive 1 King executed January 1793 2 Committees drift to one man rule 3 Emperor as the answer 0 Problem of the Church and Its Property 1 Property seized to pay national debt 2 Clergy made employees of state if they swore allegiance to the Constitution of 1791 Many resist 3 Convention declares open war 4 Consulate negotiates Concordat of 1801 with Trojan Horse Signi cance o A model of change and revolution The state drives socioeconomic change Created bureaucracy and Educational system that endures Forced Louis XVII to give his subjects a Constitution with 2 houses limited property franchise Idea of Equal Rights Including Jewish Emancipation Rede ned society to be an inclusive term that is it began construction of the nation vs local patriotisms November 9 2010 Science Per Se 1 Post 1850 Advances 0 Math Chemistry Bacteriology 0 Electricity Thermodynamics 2 The Problem of linear change 0 The FossilLiving form question 0 Darwin 0 The books Origin of the species by natural selection and Descent of man and selection in relation to sex 0 Ingredients Paleontology Malthus population dynamics 0 Enlightenment EXtemal shapers orderly processes 0 Flaws Doesn t talk about genetics Scientism A The Cult of ScienceTheological metaphysical Positive cience o Comte s Positivism 0 Historical stages of knowledge 0 Sociologystudy of society 0 The misuse of Biological ndings 0 Spencer and social DarwinismRicher people have more advantages Competition weeded out socially un t 0 Scienti c Racists Haeckel Gabineau HS Chamberlain o Eugenics Improve the race by selective breeding B History the discipline as a science C Religion God could speak revelations through the church Pope can speak for God Positivism Challenged A Nietzsche l Rejects absolute knowledge 2 Superman and 0 Natural mortality in contrast 0 To conventional religious moralities 3 Aphorisms His savings Authoritarians scienti c racists and nationalists B Social Sciences 0 Freud and the non rational mind 7 Doctors dissected corpses to nd physical causes of mental illnesses were Tired to help women who had been sexually abused 0 ID Ego Super Ego Memory below level of Ego Superego 0 Max Weber generalizations Cultural Anthropology Pittrivers Boas Mead C Sciences 0 Radioactivity Becquerel Curie et al 0 Doppler Effect and general relativity Art 0 Japanese simplicity architecture 0 Form and content divorce subjectivity o Fragmented audiences November 11 2010 World War I Origins Text Chapter 28 l RussoTurkish Crisis of 1908 Pan Slavism Serbs 0 Austria gains Bosnia 0 Serbia and Russia Angry 2 Attacks on Turkish Empire 1911 1912 3 2 d Balkan War 1913 Bulgaria 4 Nationalism vs Empire idea that people and ethnic groups or nation should be self governing 5 Assassination of Francis Ferdinand Sarajevo Who is to blame A war no one expected The end of the Empires in Europe A peace that was fragile Europe looses its dominance Was the War a deliberate choice or could it have been avoided o The German war plan avoiding defeat o AustroHungarian dithering 0 German blankcheck Russian mobilization diplomacy with teeth Britain s failure to be Clear Who s to blame o The Unexpected Way 0 Six weeks to Victory Aug 19149 6 weeks because that was how much ammunition they had 0 Trenches and Attrition 4 years of war The War of Attrition Human and Economic Resources 0 Central powers German AustroHungarian Ottoman Empires and Bulgaria 0 2225 Million Menic 20 Billion GDP 0 Allied Powers France Great Britain Russia Serbia Italy1915 Romanial9l6 364 Million Men 7 28 Billion GDP USA 1917 brings Allied numbers to o 411 Million Men 65 Billion GDP 0 Advantage Allied Powers 0 164 to 1 in Men 14 to 1 in GDP 0 With USA in 1917 o 185 to 1 in Men 325 to 1 in GDP Winter of 19161917 0 Russia Collapses March October Revolutions Treaty of BrestLitovsk March 1918 results 0 US joins wawr over German use of submarines and Zimmerman Telegram help to Mexican rebels V US southwest o Wat becomes even more ofa MORALITY PLAY ie ideological war like War of Religion hence aspects of the Peace History C est la 26 avril 2012 The Coming of Modernity Definitions Chronology 2012 Metanarrative Modernity PERSIA This lecture has 13 major headings as parts of the definition They are in turn based on the glossary descriptions These 13 headings are available in class only Your task is to not only know the characteristics of Modernity that define it but also when and where each first appeared and when it can be said that modernity had arrived in the CORE of Europe and when it spread to other parts My Notes Modernity defined When and where did its elements appear When can it be said to have fully arrived in the CORE URBAN SOCIETY Intensive use of nonhuman energy to produce nonfood goods Low or declining death rate Low or declining birth rate toward zpd or below Bureaucracies of the rational type P PWNquot o Definition hierarchy of offices defined in ruleslaws o Obj qualitifacations for office edu Test special skills 0 Limited comprenhencies of each office 0 System of discipline and due process to enforce rules and protect office holders 0 Office is not property salary pays full amount of remuneration 6 Bureaucracies of the rational type 0 modern institutions of state ie bureaucracies structure 0 Institutional bureaucracies except churches and army 0 Industrial and postindustrial service bureaucracies 7 National states 0 Came into be in came from Locke O N When did it become to be talked about nationalism two germans and what were their theory Gov t based on popular sovereignty not divine or historical right Rep forms of gov t based on wide suffrage with some accountability of executive to the rep body Whose theory is this and who are the peo That developed it in practice not only in theory French enlightenment practiced locke theory Respect for minority interest both in cultural and shifting socieconomic goals Equal individuals under the law 0 What is the true question here 0 Enlightenment 0 France Social justice has a high value 0 Justice things are equal Individuals as actors in economic social and political spheres of life idea of the subject personhood When where who why when did middle class appear 19 century 0 locke natural rights strong separation from the public from the private 0 public office is limited public sphere spaces for free association clubs eg free speech political participation individual economic activities 0 welldeveloped methods of mass communication limited censorship strong education system 0 use of rational scientific method to seek answers to problems of all sorts 0 used as means to reproduce quotpower structure class relations 0 secular understanding of most phenomena
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