WLD HIST SINCE 1500
WLD HIST SINCE 1500 HIST 1007
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This 56 page Class Notes was uploaded by Edna Boyle on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1007 at Louisiana State University taught by D. Lindenfeld in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/222466/hist-1007-louisiana-state-university in History at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
The Era of Eurasian Expansion 1500 17501162009 54500 PM China around 1500 Land and population 0 Today s Population 13 billion 4 times US 0 Civilization started by the yellow river 0 Rice grows in the south in the hilly areas and wheat grows in the flatter north China is a subcontinent comparable in size to Europe 700 BC population moves south Very dense population in North China Many people live on rice and wheat since cattle population was limited Many people are poor Chinese values emphasize the collective rather than the individual Government 0 EmperorThe Mandate of Heaven Had power to bring prosperity good crop rain etc KowTow is the bowing before the emperor o Bureaucracy Emphasis on learning education and merit Civil service test a Based on teachings of confucious Way to achieve higher status in society Favoritism created problems for the government Natural disasters were a sign that the mandate of heaven was lost and the emperor had to go o Ming Dynasty 13681644 Came in right after the Black Death Mongols were previous dynasty overthrown by a peasant named Hongwu 136898 Ming wasn t a family name it was propaganda which means brilliant Ruled by fear but his descendants were able to bring prosperity to the kingdom Hongwu s grandson built the forbidden city and Beijing the capital of China Today 0 O O Temple of Heaven place to renew Mandate of Heaven through sacrifice once a year on the winter solstice Great wall was built by the Ming Dynasty to protect against further mongol attacks 0 Qing Dynasty Shing 16441911 Manchurian group Took about a generation to control the entire Ming area Adopted civil service era Quingpure also a propaganda name a Maintain certain distance between bloodlines Taiwan became a part of their dynasty KangxiEmperor 16611722 a Dealt with corruption and missionaries a Jesuit missionaries n Problems over habits of worship o Chinese prayed to ancestors and Jesuits thought this to be idolatrous 1724Chinese emperor bans Christianity o Confucian Values 0 Series of ethical teachings o How can we get people to live in peace 0 Confucian Values Tradition Filial piety n Respect of the son for the father father has all power over son Patriarchy n Men are superior to women n Women give up family for husbands family Social hierarchy n Scholars n Peasants and craftsmen n Merchants n Soldiers o Economic consequences O 1443 emperor has all voyages stopped and ships are destroyed trade isn t completely stopped just not as constant trade was not the particularly important to china china was diverse enough to not need imports Japan around 1500 and after 1162009 54500 PM Land o Slightly smaller than Cali o 115 miles from Korea 450 from China 0 Gave protection from attacks and overtaking o Mongols tried to invade but were turned back by a tsunami the Japanese called this divine wind Kamikaze o Influenced by Chinese culture in many ways o Chinese each letter is a word and Japanese make it so they have an alphabet more multisyllabic language o Very mountainous which means the amount of land for human cultivation is very limited o Very crowded country because the lack of land size Government o Japanese feudalism o Power the emperor held is more of a figurehead than Chinese emperor o Quioto is the capital to this day for the emperor o Daimyo Land owners aristocracy Maintained power by force Warriors had prestige and not scholars 0 Samurai Loyal to Daimyo Known for bravery in combat individual thing More honorable to die by suicide than at the hands of your enemy Great pride in control of their bodies The Era of Warring States 14671568 c Changes in warfare 0 Samurai start making peasants foot soldiers o Warfare becomes more destructive o Battles become more widespread and lethal o Arrival of Portuguese 1543 0 Guns European invention Early muskets took about 100 separate motions to take one shot Japanese discover muskets are effective if everyone is going through the same motions at the same time Japanese were having gun battles long before European s Gun battles made the building of castles come along for protection 0 Missionaries Made considerable amount of Japanese Christians Conversions were in groups rather than individual Daimyo could trade for getting his people to convert Conversions had to do a lot with the warring states About 50000 conversions total Unification after 1568 The Tokugawa era 16001867 Hideyoshi r 158298 o Tokugawa Ieyasu r 16001616 and the Shogunate o Shogun s are his descendants 0 Established a new capital now Tokyo formerly Edo 0 Made sure other daimyo knew where their borders were by setting up boundaries 0 Gets daimyo to alternates years in their provinces and years in Edo Helps expand roads and communication between capital and outside and inner trade Farmers produce grain products for the city Peasants had more leeway than before Centralized government o AntiEuropean 0 Banned Christianity Rebellions were executed 0 Banned foreign trade and Japan isolates itself from the west Mainly worried about Christian infiltration If any Japanese returned from the west after residing there he must be put to death Still were okay with the Deutsch Still trade with China Guns disappearing o The 200 year peace 0 O O O O O O No war at all mostly because of the isolation Flourishes internally Confuscionism comes into play Samurai become aristocrats Edo becomes one of largest cities in Japan Start to shop Practice birth control A Note on Korea o Becomes a stepping stone for warfare back and forth used to get to Japan The World of Islam 1162009 54500 PM Origins the prophet Muhammed 571632 CE o Islam Means peacesurrender or your will be to the will of god Started in the Arabian peninsula Make visits to Mecca once a year to visit the Ka ba o Muhammed Born in Mecca Didn t like the decline in morality by the Muslim people Started having visions or visitations from the angel Gabriel Starts preaching in a public square Has to fight for his life Goes in exile to the city of medina which is where he really starts the faith In the year 630 he reenters Mecca and rededicates the Ka ba to the one god Allah Beliefs and Practices o Radical monotheism o No images of god 0 No miracles o Muhammed is simply a prophet 0 Believe god can take any form he wants o The Qu ran 0 Written by Muhammed 0 Muslims believe that you can t really translate the Qu ran to understand it you have to understand Arabic o The law sharia o Practiced polygamy no real place for married women A way of keeping society together Had to treat them fairly Women can inherit property and have rights 0 Some of Muhammeds wives become leaders 0 Women should be secluded to the back part of the house o The 5 pillars o Recite the creed There is no God but Allah and Muhammed is his prophet 0 Regular prayer 0 Give to charity 0 Observe Ramadan Observance of the flight of Muhammed to Medina o Pilgrimage to Mecca Everyone wears a simple white robe Also only encouraged to go at least once in your ilfife Jihad the Caliph 0 Means holy war Expansion o Conquerer s did not make people Rights were respected c not a racial religion at all Varieties of Islam o Sunni o Majority of Muslims 0 Means custom or practice Shiite 0 Means parting Minority division occurred a few years after Muhammed s death to discuss who is the Caliph O 0 Must be member of Muhammed s own family 0 Shiite s lost 0 Iraq was the main Muslim area 0 True caliphs are invisible and will return 0 Over time hae been more willing to question tradition o Sufi Islamic mystics Developed about 300 years later Goes back to the fact that Muhammed had mystical visions Identify things like dance and song Perpetrated by wandering holy men Kind of like gurus Expansion of Islam continues 0 O O O The Ottoman Empire 1162009 54500 PM Ottoman Ascendency 13001500 c Come from Turks o Nomadic people very good warriors and soldiers o 3 big Islamic empires 0 Safauid Empire 0 Mughals o Ottoman Sunni s o Osman establishes name under this power 0 One of the longest empires 0 Part of military conquest In the name of Jihad wanted to start Holy Wars Battle of Kosovo n Took place in Serbia Serbians lost big time to the Ottomans in 1389 n Serbs have never forgotten this n In 1989 the Serbs claimed Kosovo as Serbian territory Willing to allow other than Muslims to practice religion 1453 Turks take over Constantinople It then becomes Istanbul site of the first coffee houses 0 1517 Ottomans took over Cairo previous rulers of Cairo called themselves Caliphs u had some of Muhammed spossesions and teachings n O O o Sultan o Balkan Peninsula Reasons for Their Success o Economic 0 Very rich area Military 0 Had cannons which were relatively new 0 Cutting edge of military technology o Government 0 Discovered ways of keeping it fresh and getting new blood in Role of slaves Janissaries a Common in the Mediterranean and Islamic world a Mostly prisoners of war a Give them prominence n Some go into bureaucracy becoming advisors n Once enslaved were forced to convert to Islam Role of women concubines n Same principle as janissaries a Job was to serve the Sultan and satisfy his sexual pleasure n Could accumulate tremendous power o If they became pregnant their sons could become a successor of the sultan n Once they had a son they acquired the power of raising that son with stipends and people under them Choosing a successor n Sons were sent out to different provinces to fight and this is how they were chosen a Once picked they had to kill their brothers to prevent future Civil War called The Law of Fratricide a Special string for strangling Suleiman the Magnificent 15201566 Mainly a warrior sultan led the troops in battle every year Great patron of the arts and learning Updated and rationalized the legal system a great deal Takes over Hungary and Budapest Tries to take Vienna but the roads were bad and muddy so he couldn t bring all his artillery After turned down from Vienna he goes the other way and takes Baghdad and Iran This continued until the fall of Saddam Hussein in 2003 where the Sunni s were the minority Fell in love with one of his concubines 0 Russian woman named Roxelana o Convinced him to marry her 0 Convinces him to slay his eldest son and his grandson from a previous woman 0 This is believed to mark the decline of the Ottoman Empire The question of Ottoman decline 15661700 c Military Expansion 0 Had reached their limits of expansion with the technology they had 0 Were constantly being tried to be pushed back by the other countries 0 Became harder and more expensive to hold the lines o Financial Difficulties o The more they expand the more difficult it is to pay the soldiers 0 Many times soldiers didn t get paid at all 0 They start riots and begin taking from civilians o Changes in the palace 0 Practice of fratricide ends 0 Afraid to go out to other provinces Limits education for children 0 Less experience in the real world 0 Weaker rulers less innovative less interested in the advancement of technology o Devolution of power 0 Decisions are made less in the capital and more in the provinces 0 Power gravitating to provinces made corruption easier 0 Bribes were easier without the big eye watching 0 The peasants and others that weren t government found this wasn t better India and the Mughal Empire 1162009 54500 PM Introduction Indian diversity o Geographically diverse has a great deal of variety in climate and population 0 many mountain ranges and more like all of Europe than just one country in Europe o Subject to wave after wave of migration The World of Hinduism o A syncretic religion 0 Quite a complicated religion o Gods and goddesses Brahma Vishnu Shiva 0 Very diverse 0 Supreme being is Brahma but is only the first among hundreds As far from Islam as possible Vishnu God of preserver of life keeping things orderly Buddha and Jesus are believed to be reincarnations of this god 0 Shiva God of destruction and dance 0 O o Karma 0 The belief if you do good things good things will come to you in return 0 Law of nature out there as a universal principle o Reincarnation Sati o The karma that you build up in your first life will determine what you come back as in your next life 0 Sati if the husband dies then the wife commits suicide in order to accompany them in the next life and only women did this Men did not do this for their wives o Caste 0 Born into your caste and that s where you stay Priests Brahmins n Keep religion going Kings and Warriors n Trying to expand your kingdom as much as possible a Lots of kingdoms that are at war with others which made India quite unstable n Expected to rule and fight well Merchants and Farmers Craftsmen Outcasts untouchables o Political Consequences The Mughal Dynasty Akbar 15561605 0 Name means the great Good warrior Had troubles reading and problems with being epileptic Very grateful to the Sufi s and built his capitol site where he met a Sufi man who cured his anxiety 0 Was a very curious man about everything 0 Life flourished under his reign o In 1581 he establishes an official worship of the sun o Shah Jehan 162858 and the TajMahal 0 Means emperor of the world 0 Builds the TajMahal Built as a tomb for his beloved wife 0 Not all of his children approved of this building o Aurangzeb 16581707 decline begins 0 Fight occurs between him and his siblings Imprisons his father when he takes power Reverses many policies created by the Mughals Reimposes the tax on hindus O O O O O O Background to Western Expansion 1162009 54500 PM The Crusading Spirit Began around 1100 Crusades were like a Christian version ofjihad and were trying to regain land from the Muslims Gave Europeans taste of the middle east and started a lot of Mediterranean trade Made Venice a large trade area The reconquest of Spain pushed most of the Muslims that were there to Granada 0 Myth of Prester John Believed to be a descendant of the wise men The role of Portugal 0 Prince Henry the Navigator 13941460 Sets up a navigation school 0 Sailing the Atlantic the Volta do Mar return by sea Was a source of death and destruction in the medieval imagination Was viewed this way because most of the sailors that went out that way never returned Smooth sailing going down but coming back up was not quite as easy Portuguese find a way to get back using the gulf stream Vasco Da Gama was the first to use this way also the first European to sail across the Indian Ocean Find Brazil as a good pit stop on the way to India Caravelle is the type of ship the Portuguese used for all their expeditions and they were big enough to mount big guns on them These ships helped them control the sea s where they went Had nothing to sell to the people when they got to Asia The Renaissance Spirit Humanism o Individualism Certain individuals were singled out by god as especially gifted or talented Da Vinci was considered an individualist Leonardo da Vinci 14521519 a Was born to a poor notary n Was one of the first to map the human anatomy n Was big into inventions and botany Christopher Columbus 14511506 a Grew up in Genoa a From a humble family and was self taught u Had the idea that you could sail west and eventually reach China and Japan 0 Versatility o Curiosity The Role of Spain o Ferdinand and Isabella O O O Believed it was essential to convert as many people to Christianity before 1500 s Drove out Muslims and Jews from Spain The Jews were welcomed by the ottoman empire o The year 1492 o Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494 said everything east of the line was Portuguese and everything west was Spanish o Later developments 0 Ferdinand Magellan 14801521 First to sail west and reach Asia Western Chritendom Around 1500 1162009 54500 PM A Fragmented Civilization o Nobility and Clergy indulgences Normally had mistresses but children of them were not allowed to be noblemen Women could be successors Catholic clergy was believed to have divine powers Saints were supposed to also have powers The clergy offered opportunity for women to move up The Reformation Charles V vs Martin Luther o Charles V 15001558 Habsburg o Martin Luther 14831544 0 Born into normal family 1517 posted 95 theses on the church door in his town criticized the pope as the embodiment of the devil came up with the Lutheran church Put to trial for heresy Refuses to take back the word of what he s written Charles V can t force the condemnation of Martin Luther because he had to put down a revolt in Spain then the king of France declared war on him The king of France made an alliance with Sulahman the Magnificent against Charles V John Calvin 15091564 0 Same ideas as Luther and takes them to an extreme 0 Opposed all imagery of God o The catholic reformation The council of Trent 154363 0 The pope and all bishops met and decided to not renounce anything they did in response to John Calvin A century of religious civil war 15501650 c France the St Bartholomew s Day Massacre 1572 o Calvinist were in Paris for a wedding and the King decided to kill as many Calvinists they could 3000 protestants were killed o Germany the Thirty Years War 16181648 0 Inviting in rulers from other countries is what both Catholics and prots did to keep the war going 0 Ran out of money to pay soldiers which made things worse 0 O O O O O O O O O O O o Decline of Spain and Portugal 0 Both Catholic powers spent too much time seeking out prots in their respected country 0 Spanish inquisition where many authority figures went out and looked and brought suspects to trial for heircy The Rise of the Netherlands o Under control of Spanish kings o Became a big place for prots From Christendom to Modern Europe 165017501162009 545o The Scientific Revolution 16001700 c The heliocentric theory Copernicus 14731543 0 Said the sun rather than the earth was at the center of the earth 0 Mainly just a theory with no real proof Galileo 15641642 Trial 1632 o Able to come up with evidence to support Copernicus theory he did this with the telescope Charged with heresy Renounced his work so he wouldn t be killed Finished his book and smuggled it out o Came up with the modern scientific method o The scientific method 0 Experiment controlled conditions 0 Mathematics Isaac Newton 16421727 0 O O o Deism 0 God created the world to run in a certain way 0 Seeing god as the architect of the world The Growth of the Modern State o Absolutism o A system of monarchy where the king rules absolutely o France Louis XIV r 16431715 0 Becomes king at only 5 years old 0 Kingdom disintegrates into civil war 0 Had to leave town for a while o Versailles o Contained apartments in the kingdom o Artificiality was a big thing in this time or tamed nature o Bureaucracy intendants people close to the king that went out and watched over the provinces and made sure taxes were collected o The army 0 Were able to be paid now Got uniforms and looked good Have barracks now More of an institution now than just a group of people 0 O O 0 Louis loved war The Westernization of Russia Peter the Great r 16821725 Had become the center of eastern orthodox after Constantinople falls Different alphabet Czar Tsar and pope all rolled into one Absolutist ruler as well Decides to travel to the west and try to bring back their secrets Returns to Russia andstarts to change almost everything Forces nobles to serve for him in the bureaucracy He builds a new capital city from scratch St Petersburg All of this transforms the elite of Russia not really the peasants Background to the Industrial Revolution 1600 1800 The Atlantic Slave Trade 1162009 54500 PM Modern Capitalism o Merchant corporations 0 Rise of the modern corporation Represents international view of the world When in pursuit of wealth becomes widespread Not independent of the state Government gave these corporations a charter to have a monopoly of trade over an area a The Dutch East India Company 1602 o Become state within a state 0 In order to protect trade they created colonies to protect the company 0 Army was formed for protection in each colony o Distantcreditriskscale Globalization n Capitalists think on a global scale Credit n Transporting goods would be expensive o Have to borrow money to do this 0 Banks and system of money transactions stock exchanges O O O Risk n Voyages are dangerous cargo may not make it o Uncertainty is built in 0 Insurance Agency Protect themselves against the laws Scale n Profits are far greater by globalization than on small scale o New Attitudes o Depersonalized land Feudal systemland was part of the family a Passed from generation to generation a Part of the family identity Buy and sell land 0 Depersonalized labor Before modern capitalism a Part of the family tradition job passed down each generation a Part of identity Capitalism brings in the idea of the market a Something that can be bought or sold a Employer could firehire Employee could leave for higher pay etc a Acceptable to move and receive best price for labor o Labor could be bought or sold slavery o Mass production and consumption 0 More luxury goods are available to society 0 Standard of living is rising Role of Sugar o First item of mass production and consumption o First encountered in the Middle East during the Crusades 0 Luxury good like a spice o First good to be subject to modern capitalism o Must be harvested within a short time span o Must have multiple workers to harvest 0 Usually had one worker per acre Beginning of plantations o Rise of deserts Transformation of Slavery o The African Slave Trade 0 Slavery was already in Africa Not a western Not permanent Grows at the same rate as Modern Capitalism Inhumane Thrown overboard if not needed or unruly n Spielburg sAmistad is a movie that shows this 0 O O 0 Africa could get manufactured goods from Europe because of Slave trade o Brazil 0 Becomes first country to import slaves on massive scale Over time 38 of African Slaves go to Brazil a Cheaper to bring slaves in rather than to have them reproduce o Palmares Maroons n Escaped slaves o Establish kingdom that is out of reach of Portuguese plantation owners People had slaves o The Caribbean 0 Become center of sugar production 16001700 Increase of slaves a Northern European Countries get involved with slave trade Original idea was to establish some settlements to eat away at Spanish Empire n Barbados o British settle and create colonies Indentured Servitude a Can be free after certain number of years of servitude Did not go as planned because of disease a Most do not live out period of servitude 0 Barbados becomes 75 black 0 Cotton indigo tobacco all become products that are harvested by slaves o The American South 0 Number of servants increase 0 Not concerned with disease 0 Become conscious of black and white Densest of populations n Ascension parish had the most o Allowed slaves to reproduce o Paternalism Men had to take care of slaves n Saw slaves as children The Enlightenment 1162009 54500 PM Introduction o Some of these go at odds with the industrial revolution Human Rights 0 Equality 0 Thomas Jefferson 1776 Declaration of independence a God creates the laws of nature o The social contract John Locke 16321704 0 Inversion or reversal of the notion the west had about government had their right to rule from god 0 New belief was that people gained the right to rule from below the people o Religious toleration Voltaire o No one religion should dominate a government or society 0 Voltaire 16941778 c Consequences 0 Jews Were said to be treated equal to Christians 0 Slaves 1787 first antislave society is founded in London 0 Women Mary Wollstonecraft 175997 A Vindication of the Rights of Women 1792 Rights of men should be extended to women First feminist of sorts Women are as intelligent as men they have the same capacity to reason and should be given equal access to education Democracy The USA Constitutions constitutional monarchy The powers and structures of gov should be spelled out in a written document Every other country in the world imitates in the course of time Europeans adopted a constitutional monarchy a King sti rules but his powers are limited by the constitution O O Progress o Marquis de Condorcet 174394 o History moves in a forward motion of advancement amp improving o Marquis wrote a book on 10 stages from primitive society to utopia o Says the rest of the world will become like w civ this is progress 0 Idea which western civ Has believed since modernizing growing areas Nationalism o JeanJacques Rousseau 17121788 0 The Social Contract 1762 0 Important for people to be in touch with our feelings and enlightenment has undermined that 0 Can we have the benefits of western civilization and get in touch with natureour feelings his answer was yes 0 How do we do this Patriotism 0 Soul and spirit of nation will develop LaissezFair Scottish to let do c Free trade or open trade between countries o Leave the economy to itself and it will even out eventually o Opposed to government regulated economy Adam Smith 172390 0 The Wealth of Nations 1776 Allowing individuals to act according to their own economic interests will result in a greater good for the whole Free labor is more economical than slavery Utilitarianism Jeremy Bentham 17481832 c British product o If we change the environment we change society o The idea that all this sensory input could be measured into pleasure or pain o This principle motivates people trying to modernize places Like India and other primitive cultures o Develops program for implementing progress 1162009 54500 PM Revolutions in Latin America 1789 18251162009 54500 PM Introduction o Wave of revolutions occurs at the same time roughly as the French Revolution o Revolutions of colonies against a mother country usually Spain o Some were class revolutions like poor vs rich St Domingue Haiti o Haitian society 87 slaves o 8 White planters o 5 free people of color prevented revolt by extreme brutality and enforcing fear on them o Impact of French Revolution 0 A ToussiantL Ouverture 17441803 All 3 groups wind up rebelling and demanding freedom from the French By 1791 slaves begin to rise up against the planters Spanish and British both send troops to stop the revolt n Starts coordinating various slave armies for revolts n Becomes a good enough leader so they can fight back and beat back the armies like the Spanish n Largest opponent was Napoleon n Sends an armada of ships to take control of Haiti and tells them all they are equally French and this tricks Toussiant when they arrest him and take him back to France and he dies in a jail cell in France o Independence 1804 and after 0 The French retreat because of yellow fever and this leads to the Louisiana Purchase 0 Economically it is a hollow shell of the country it once was after France gets out of there 0 America didn t recognize the Haitian government until 1862 after the civil war Spanish America o The causes and course of revolutions 1808 the Spanish monarchy is gone and this shows opportunity for the planters to seize control of their land Napoleon is gone and the Spanish king is convinced to get his empire back These were civil wars 0 Mexican examples Manuel Hidalgo 17531811 a Gathers a band of about 80000 people and starts marching on Mexico City They give the upper class a good scare but eventually they are defeated and Hidalgo is put to death The caudillo Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna 17971876 a Often outsiders were the caudillo s n Antonio was the guy from the Alamo o War of the North American Invasion18468 Local vs Central Government The planters want local control and not strong central government Simon Bolivar 17971830 Gran Columbia 1819 Planter background Orphaned at an early age so he was exposed to the good education Economic consequences 0 O Northern Hemisphere Imperialisms 1162009 54500 PM Russian Expansion Eastward 15811811 c Siberia o Cossacks were bands hunting and selling furs to Russian merchants 0 Native Siberians but not a lot of them Easy to conquer o Russians find it s better to work with the natives than against them later in time A good working relationship develops between the two o North America 0 Vitus Bering 16811741 Commissioned by Peter the Great to sail to North America Where the Bering straight came from Alaska was settled by Russians and then they moved further down The North American Complex c about 3 million native Americans in the country when the Europeans started to settle here The conquest of North America was like a genocide is a slight exaggeration There are certain places where this happened out west The settlers made boarding schools to kill the Indian culture They took away all the children from their parents and taught them everything to do in the European to do 0 The Cherokees Stayed mostly in North Carolina area Scalps were kept as trophies War like nation or tribe And the British n Made a treaty with Brits n Much mixed marriages n Remained loyal to the Brits During the Revolution Washington to Jefferson n Treaty of Holston 1791 o US agrees to respect Cherokee land Jefferson was the architect of American Imperialism o Manifest Destiny idea a Georgia compact 1802 Agreement with Ga With the government so that the Gov will remove all the Indians for the state of Ga No specific plan or idea for when it would occur By 1835 Europeans is up to 138 million in North America Cherokee Responses a They learn the language and agriculture n Seqoyah comes up with a Cherokee alphabet a They are trying to recognized as independents inside the state a John Ross Chief 18281866 a Ga Doesn t like this so they create a state militia to make the Indians obey the laws of Ga with force Jackson and removal a Responsible for the removal of Indians more than anyone else a Works very close with Ga to remove the Indians n Indian Removal Act 1830 n Worcester vs Georgia 1832 Famous case in the Supreme Court The court sides with the Cherokee Andrew Jackson says he will ignore this basically a Treaty of New Echota 1835 Leadership of the tribe refuses to recognize this Given a certain amount of time to leave By 1838 those who have not left will be forced to leave The Trail of Tears and After a n n Went from their homelands to a set place in Okla They do well in Ok establish homes and businesses This repeats itself in the next century but instead of giving them reservations they gave them individual plots of land allotment policy o This turned out to be a disaster they were used to farming communally This all happens around 1906 right around when OK becomes a state Enlightenment ideas In the 19th century 1162009 54500 PM Socialism Communism Socialist ideas today can be traced back to the French revolution Utopian socialism 0 Communities formed amp shared Karl Marx1818 1883 0 Thought of himself as a scientist o Socialism wasn t a nice idea but it was inevitable o Enlightenment idea of progress 0 Dialectical materialism Dialects progress through opposition Materialism the primacy of economics n The motor of the dialects The Abolition of Slavery in the Americas Lots of powerful people making money off this People begin to say rights matter Abolitionists came up with this idea People from the enlightenment were for abolition as well Works because the Christian groups are sending missionaries out Believed abolition made economic sense as well because with Laissez Fare where free labor was better off Many argued against this including an African King England abolished it in 1807 There were still people that got underground slaves because the slave trade was abolished but slavery wasn t all together British West Indies Jamaica 1833 Non violent revolution occurs Most of the planters preferred to live in England Major weapon they have is the protest of the treatment of slaves Male slaves were limited to 25 lashes This was enough to encourage more revolt Slavery was abolished all together in 1833 The owners received money for the slaves since they were property Not all the slaves turned to Christianity which made the Christian missionaries mad 0 O O O O The US 186165 0 One of the most violent wars 0 civil war 23000 fought 3600 dead 0 Brazil 1888 0 One of the last to eliminate slavery 0 British sent war ships to eliminate slave trips 0 Cut off trade in 1852 0 Find new labor in Europe 0 Leaders are classical liberals 0 Finally get a law passed eliminating corporal punishment and abuse 0 In 1888 the farmer come to an agreement with the liberals that they will give up slavery if the government will send over 90000 Italians The Decline of Imperial China in the 19th Century1162009 5450 Internal Factors o Population explosion doubling between 1750 and 1850 o Influx of new crops from the new world helped lead to population rise o The Malthusian Trap 0 Thomas Malthus 17661834 Population expands faster than the resources we need Population multiplies and food just adds Western Penetration o Christianity 0 Missionaries are back teaching secretly o Came on boats and also had opium on the very same boats 0 Why were good Christians dealing out drugs England wanted to trade because tea was big in Europe and it grows best in China so the best thing to trade was opium o Opium trade 0 The opium war 183942 Chinese start seizing opium and throwing it into the seas This causes the British to send over troops Gun boats end up being very decisive for the British troops British are victorious o Treaty of Nanjing 1842 British force their terms on the Chinese a British get the right to trade in certain ports all along the coast not just the few o Hong Kong o Shanghai Once the British did this the rest of the West decide to do the same They do it the same way the British did and then there are no less than 90 ports along the coast for European trade All of this was by 1900 After this they began to trade opium for tea Chinese Responses French Germans and Japanese are the others that force their way in China o The Taiping Rebellion 185064 0 One of the biggest peasant rebellions in Chinese history 0 Taiping great peace in English 0 Hong Xiuquan started this rebellion Aspiring civil servant Wanted to become a bureaucrat Fails the civil service exam 4 times Started having hallucinations amp thought he saw God Forms a society of God worshipers Goes out smashing all the statues of idols because of the 10 commandments with the idols Over the course of time the demon devils of this vision become the Xing dynasty He opposes opium and the repression of women Against foot binding Gains about 20000 followers and the decide to march on Beijing They occupied and area roughly the size of France The resulting war was huge and about 20 to 30 million died Thought they could go to the British and the French and get their help because they were Christian and they were wrong because the westerners didn t like the idea of God having a 2nd son So they supported the Xing s and eventually overcame the Taipei Rebels o Modernization SelfStrengthening 0 Start to gain military strength but ultimately this strategy fails too O The emperor is on the side of the conservatives The emperor is just a child Cixi Empress Dowager 18351908 By the end of the century she had a grand total of 373 miles of railroad track not very modernized Japan was getting ahead of china constantly n Was being much more successful 0 Japan Invades 1894 They make so called mince meat of the Chinese o Rejection the Boxer Uprising 18981901 0 Secret societies that were based on normal Chinese traditions like martial arts and kung fu 0 Go out and start attacking Christians and foreign embassies o Cixi supports the Boxers o The western powers make an agreement to send ppl to control this uprising o Boxers fail and china is fined 333 million dollars for the price of controlling the uprising o Aftermath Devolution and fall 1911 0 After boxer uprising most officials came to conclusion that there is not avoiding modernization if China wants to survive o No longer trust the imperial court anymore 0 With no trust to the imperial court young people are going to Japan to learn about modernization Western Nationalism amp Imperialism 187019141162009 54500 Spread of industrialization amp enlightenment o Inventions coming along telephone radio lights movies automobile heroin airplane o Enlightenment 0 Western European population 95 literate o Suffragettes Women become very feministic Increase in Scale o Everything becomes more o Weapons get bigger as do factories o Factories become larger and more efficient Consequences o Away from laissezfaire o Hurt small business owners o Cartels trusts zaibatsu o Cartels associations of business men and manufacturers that meet up and decide the prices they ll charge 0 Japanzaibatsu several companies cooperating with the govt to help Japan s agenda Government gets bigger due to everything else growing More competition between countries even with cooperation between them 0 Competing for raw materials markets and so one consequence is people are moving away from free trade o The new nationalism 0 Moving away from the ideas of the enlightenment now more associated with competition 0 Charles Darwin Origin of Species 1859 Social Darwinism n Ideas were taken to human beings across the board Idea of race becomes prevalent The notion of race just thrown around a lot Used to justify that their group was superior in dominating others 0 O n n n n Racism backtracks on the ideas of the enlightenment o Not all races are equally human current idea o Imperialism 0 European countries are taking over and colonizing as much of the world as they can 0 Greatest land grabbing in the history of the world 0 Britain adds 66 million to its population 0 Increased tensions among European countries at home o Towards WWI o The arms race GermanEnglish naval competition a Germans make Navy larger which the British don t like because they were always ahead n England begins to look for an alliance against Germany 0 Competing alliances Triple Entente England France and Russia a Pretty much surround Germany and Austria a Means Triple Understanding Central Powers Germany and Austria a By the first World War Germany and Austria form with the Ottoman empire Alienation and its effects o Impersonality o Compensations o Anarchism 0 Lower middle class and AntiSemitism o Zionism 32309 The 1920 s 1162009 54500 PM Hopes raised and disappointed o The Treaty of Versailles 1919 o A peace dictated by the winners of WWI to the losers o 13 loss of territory for Germany 0 US not ready to join the league of nations yet Republicans were opposed to it The Middle East the case of Turkey o Able to declare itself independent o Mustafa Kemel Ataturk 18811938 0 Leads army of Turks against British and French attempts to carve up Turkey Severs all ties with the Islamic world Abolishes Arabic alphabet and Islamic law Totally abolishes the title of Caliph Turkey has evolved towards a democracy and more western style 0 Wants to join the European union and be completely westernized Europe Inflations and its consequences 19191923 Governments situation got worse after the war rather than better Instead of raising taxes they decide to just print up more money In Italy the prices of goods go up 8x in just one year 0 Communism Demonstrations in Italy Germany and France 0 Fascism People say communism isn t patriotic and is international rather than national a National Socialism o Benito Mussolini 18831945 0 Creates the Fascist party in Italy 0 Emphasizes war conquest and militarism o Antifeminist o Promotes totalitarianism Adolf Hitler 18891945 0 Very influenced by Mussolini O O O O The Great Depression 19291933 Effect of WWI Has the effect of making each part of the world more self sufficient Each part of the world has to make things for themselves because there is nothing to trade Europe doesn t have the trading customers it had before the war Ag Countries find that they have a surplus and they re not able to sell to Europe as before the war 0 Latin American countries for instance Coffee went from 22 to 8 cents a pound United states was seemingly insulated from all this turmoil Not being in the war that long made it a lot easier for us to recover o Experienced great prosperity at this time 0 Wall street becomes the new Europe when it comes to trade center of the world People over investing Black Thursday Oct 24 1929 Everyone tries to sell their stocks that they believe are losing value at the same time Stocks lost about 80 of their value The Chain Reaction 0 Businesses withdraw money from banks Banks recall loans Businesses cut back production lay off workers Unemployment rises Germany was hurt the most by economic problems 35 unemployment o Nazi s had become the largest German party at the height of the great depression Only had 37 support about because Germany really had a 6 party system rather than 2 This allows Hitler to gain power 0 O O O O O World War II 19371945 1162009 54500 PM Introduction o Each side realized that war wasn t pretty o About 60 million people die o The civilian death toll was much higher than the first world war 0 Russia lost the most people in this Axis Expansion 193742 o Japan invades China 1937 o Nanjing Massacre in 1937 was one of the biggest rapes and invasions of the war 0 Intended to subdue china into submission o Germany invades Poland 1939 o Hitler had promised the allies from WWI that he would not take over any other land 0 How the war in Europe starts o German Advantages Blitzkrieg o Literally means lightning war 0 Wanted to make it a war of movement 0 Use weapons to maximum advantage Panzer concentration of tanks French spread tanks around and Germans were more successful with their idea o Fall of France MayJune 1940 o Germans send panzer divisions through a heavily wooded area which is good for cover 0 Conquered nearly 23 s of the country 0 French ensue for peace 0 Germans would occupy France but would allow some independence o Battle of Britain JulyOctober1940 0 One of the only countries still fighting Germany 0 Germans trying to knock the British out 0 Germany tries to weaken the British from the air 0 Basically a series of air raids 0 Britain was successful in this war despite outstanding numbers disadvantage 0 During all this time The US remains neutral except for the massive amount of aid we re giving Britain and China o Germany Invades Russia 1941 o Hitler changes path from west to east and invades Russia 0 Never able to make decisive defeat of Russian army 0 Becomes more difficult as they continue through Russia 0 Russians counter attack near Moscow o Japan invades SE Asia 1941 0 Turn attention from china towards the pacific o Phillipines Japan realized that they were part of the united states and so they new if they took these then they would have to take on the US 0 They decide to surprise attack Pearl Harbor Why did the Axis lose o Spread too thin 0 With the land they took over overtime they would be unable to hold on to the land 0 Especially true for Japan c Avoidable mistakes 0 Racist Attitudes Both the Germans in Russia and Japanese in China looked at opponents as inferior whereas they could have cooperated with them instead of fighting them 0 Lack of Coordinating Inspired people to act courageously but do not work well with other countries Japan didn t tell Germany they were invading Pearl Harbor Wanted to go their own way and not cooperate with anyone else 0 Lack of planning No rationalmethodical sense More rivalry under Hitler for power a Led to inefficiency Became more evident towards end of war a Wanted to develop intercontinental missile to destroy British V2 o Allied Strengths 0 Both Americans and Russians maximized resources 0 Normandy Invasion June 6 1944 n Able to overcome differences to plan and have a successful invasion 0 Russians use five year plans Built tanks and were able to keep Germans back 0 Arial bombarding raids become huge Would raid major German cities and leave them to rubbles The Holocaust o Attempted to wipe out Jewish people o Hitler wanted to eliminate Jewish empire eastward o Killing of Jews began with Russia 0 Special Death squads were sent out to round up Jews and kill them 0 Gas Trucks Used carbon monoxide 0 Gave way to permanent Gas Chambers in death camps Most famous Auschwitz Easy to transport Jews there because it was a railway junction Killed 9000 people a day The Atomic Bomb Hiroshima Aug 6 1945 o Was actually made in 1938 in Germany a few weeks after the night of the broken glass Top priority for US and it was top secret Test it in July 1945 Dropped on Hiroshima and killed 54 of population The Cold War 19451990 1162009 54500 PM Introduction Creation of the UN came in 1945 to try to prevent war from breaking out again There was a large fear that the 2nd world war wouldn t be the last The cold war was a description of the type of war it was European Origins o Conflicting war aims o USA claimed it s aim was the same as WWI mainly to make the world safe for democracy people should have the right to choose their own governments Soviets wanted a sphere of influence to protect them from further invasions or to make a series of buffer states around Russia that would also be communist and buffer away any 0 further invasions o Yalta Conference Feb 1945 Poland was trying to find a place to settle Stalin pressures Poland to adopt a communist government 0 Potsdam Conference July 1945 Stalin was the only consistent person there Roosevelt had died and Churchill was voted out of office Trying to establish a treaty for a post war government o The Years 194749 0 Truman Doctrine 1947 Later got us into Vietnam and Korea 0 Marshall Plan 1947 Acted as a precaution against countries becoming communist 0 Russian atom bomb 1949 First one for them Gets the arms race running full speed now 0 NATO 1949 Warsaw Pact 1955 North Atlantic Treaty Organization o Communism in Eastern Europe 0 Hungarian Revolt 1956 Very brutal revolt O O About 20000 ppl died for this Czechoslovakian revolt 1968 Peaceful revolt no fighting Passive resistance but soviets still send in force to bully Berlin and the wall 1961 Berlin became an escape hatch for people who wanted to get away from communism A lot of people did this and it was called voting with your feet They built the wall to keep the people in Eastern Germany The case of Latin America o Guatemala JacoboArbenz r 195054 0 O O O o Cuba 0 O Wants to limit the US role in his country Starts nationalizing plantations Turns to Soviets for aid CIA gets a group from Honduras to overthrow Arbenz ultimately keeping communism out of Guatemala Fidel Castro r 19592007 Begins as a guerrilla fighter and succeeds in 1959 to become leader and then starts nationalizing Cuba Turns to the Soviets for aid and becomes close with them Bay of Pigs 1961 US tries to spark a revolt against Castro The Cuban Missile Crisis 1962 Soviets put missiles in Cuba pointed at the US and Kennedy told Kruschav to remove the missiles and they did but we had to remove missiles from Turkey and Kennedy had to promise no more attempts at invading Russia The Case of Asia o The Korean War 195053 0 0 53000 US lives lost the borders pretty much stayed the same o The Vietnam War 196573 75 0 Ho Chi Minh 18921969 Started to push for communism before WWII Tried to split it up the nation Out dropped WWII in the amount of bombs Over 1000000 troops sent in About 55000 US troops died and about 1000000 Vietnamese troops ost US withdraws in 1972 Communists take over in 1975 The Chinese Revolution 191249 and after1162009 54500 PM Anarchy 191227 o Ching dynasty loses the mandate of heaven c Sun YatSen and the Guomindang Nationalist People s Party 0 Wanted China free of foreign imperialism Wanted democracy o The Warlord era 191627 0 The state was powerless to stop them 0 Come to power by terror and force 0 Imperialists still present which upsets many of the citizens 0 China wants imperialists to leave o The May Fourth Movement 1919 0 Students attracted to communism 0 Form a small communist party around 1920 Nationalists and Communists o Cooperation 192127 0 Rise ofJiang Jieshi Chiang KaiShek Raised in confuscion tradition but became a christian Able to organize and subdue the warlords for a while Firmly in control by 1927 Doesn t like the commies Hostility192737 o Arrests the commie leaders and eliminates them from his coalition 0 Good at making good relationships in the west o Rise of Mao Zedong 18931976 0 Son of a well to do peasant 0 Student in the may 4th movement 0 Sees communism needs to be peasant based o The Long March 193435 o WWII and after 193749 0 Communists gain majority of control over people Shek is exiled a big disappointment to the USA The Communists in Power 1949 o Initial moves 0 Replace old elites with those loyal to commie party 0 Labor camps for those that resisted 0 Big break from what commies are doing and trad China 0 Chinese commies believed in rights for women 0 Antiintellectual o The lost 20 years 19571977 0 The Great Leap Forward 195859 Plan to industrialize Most people were peasants Mao s solution was to get peasants to work harder and build factories Tried to manufacture steel in small increments and failed The Great Leap Forward was a huge disaster around 20 million died 0 The Cultural Revolution 196676 Some people had to tell Mao that everything wasn t working a He didn t like this and changed everything and replaced all his high officials to younger people Red guards n This also set China back tremendously The Industrial Revolution in East Asia 1162009 54500 PM Introduction o More manufactured goods come from than anywhere else in the world Japan c Impact of defeat o 40 percent of cities had been destroyed 0 need to rebuild and great opportunity to rebuild 0 Douglas MacArthur head of Japanese occupation Drafted a new constitution for the country Wanted to increase the democratic tendency in Japan Wanted to make sure the emperor was preserved for tradition sake Article 9 stated that Japan would renounce war as a foreign policy in the future o Democracy 0 One party rule liberal democratic party since about 1950 o Japan s economic miracle 0 New industrial plan Japan has become an economic super power 0 High educational standards Nationally imposed set of college entrance exams taken after high school Leads to a kind of classless society 0 Confucian values shushinkoyo lifetime employment Japanese values basically give you job security you can rely on it for life Keeps conflicts between workers and management to a minimum Great deal of loyalty from workers Many businesses are steered by govt o Cooperation between business and Govt Was good and bad at the same time Too much cooperation can lead to corruption China o Deng Xiaoping becomes leader in 1977 o Tiennamen Square 1989 0 Students want more freedom of expression in the state 0 Many environmental problems Carbon emissions exceed USA The others o Vietnam 0 Commies take over Saigon 1975 0 Very repressive and punished south Vietnamese 0 Eliminated all private businesses at 1St and then reversed it 8 yrs later o South Korea 0 Very poor at end of WWII and split up north communist and south America gave south constitution 1St pres Dr Syngman Rhee Manipulated elections corrupt Resigned by 1961 0 Gen Park Chung Hee Overthrows 2nd rep this when korea becomes a prosperous manufacturer Assassinated in 1979 Period of instability O O The Middle East Since WWI The Secular Aspect 1162009 54500 Introduction o Population Trends 0 The steepness of the population increases in this part of the world Is still going up Raging populations translates to raging hormones A large amount of these people are young o The Gridlock between State and Nation 0 Nation and states go together the world is built up of them but that is deceptive because state and nations don t always coincide o The nation is an emotional bond to a group of people that you are a part of a feeling of loyalty The Formation of Israel o Balfour Declaration 1917 0 Famous declaration promising the jews a homeland of their own in Israel Britain commits on paper Raises a good deal of hope and expectations for the Jewish religion War 194748 0 The british decide there s nothing more they can do Hand situation to the UN which is barely two years old Fighting breaks out between Arabs and Jews in Palestine and surrounding Arab areas o Israel Proclaimed 1948 PanArab nationalism o Egypt under Nasser o The SixDay War 1967 o The Baathist Party freedom unity socialism 0 Means resurrection 0 Want new leadership Iraq Since WWI o Composition 0 Kurds15 Don t speak Arabic 0 Shiites60 o Sunnis37 o The British Mandate 192032 0 Claim it in 1919 0 First response was to revolt against the British 0 Hashemite Dynasty Traced origins back to Mohammed King Faisal I was the first Iraqi president o Cycles of instability 193268 0 Wars cause Britain to come back and set up military bases o The Baathists in power 19682003 0 Saddam Hussein 19792003 Turns democracy to totalitarian regime a War with Iran 198088 a The Gulf War 1991 o Attacks Kuwait 0 All this time are years of great oil revenue 1162009 54500 PM Pakistan and India since independence 1162009 54500 PM Pakistan India Formed in 1947 PervezMusharraf current military leader of Pakistan Gridlock between state and nation due to the arbitrary borders of Pakistan Both the eastern and western borders Disputed territory of Kashmir border cuts right through towns and ethnic groups Bangladesh bloody war with refugees going back and forth over the border In the 1970 s Pakistan becomes a nuclear power 0 At first US protested this then let it go so we could be friends with Pakistan for the war against Afghanistan The world s largest democracy 0 Democracy has taken root among the Indian people 0 The congress party is in control today The Nehru Dynasty 0 Jawarahlal Nehru r 194864 British ways Very secular separation between church and state Very effective spokesman for India Maybe a little too western for India s own good Liked the socialist idea very much Distrusted capitalists o Indira Gandhi r 196677 198084 No relation to Mohotna Declares a state of emergency and suspends democratic freedoms in 1975 Tried to curve the population problem by sterilization Voted out of power but was right back 3 years later The Sikh problem a Separate religious group in the north of India a Very hardworking industrious people and were thinking about seceding from India Very bloody battle at the golden tomb leaving very many Sikhs and Indian soldiers dead a After the death of ms Gandhi many Indian people revolted against pretty much anyone wearing a turban Rajiv Gandhi r 198489 a Very little experience a Starts moving away from government sponsored socialism and more towards free market economy a Assassinated in 89 by another religious group in the South of India Tamils o Hindu revival the BJP O o Ayodhya O O O 0 Northern India Said to be the birthplace of Rama Also said that the birthplace had been destroyed by the moguls to build a Mosque In 1996 the Hindu nationalist party takes power till 2004 1162009 54500 PM