THE US 1865 TO PRES
THE US 1865 TO PRES HIST 2057
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Test 1 2011 January 18 Secession and War 1 The Antebellum United States 9969 517 H 1860 technically 1865 Antebellum means before the war First European colonies South is an agriculture society not growing food to eat but growing to sell Main thing they re growing is cotton Ifyou wanted to grow a lot of cotton to make a lot ofmoney you needed laborers slavery Slaves were the labor source for the agriculture system As the South grew more cotton they used more slaves North had slaves to show how rich you were to drive you around or cook so the wife didn t have to Around American Revolution North gets rid of slaves because they didn t need them they had factories A lot more people lived in the North than the South and the North had more urban areas New Orleans was the only major city in the South 1 Immigrants were poring into New York Everyone s hope was to move out West by the empty land but it still cost money so they were stuck working in factories Northerners had more House of Representations because of all the people living up there Everyone gets 2 Senators Tariffis a tax tax on goods imported from other places This is going to be the issue in the antebellum era Tax things coming in so it s not as cheap anymore and keep buying things in the United States Southerners hate terrorists They don t like the taxes g 2 Territorial Expansion a b C The original settlement was on the eastern seaboard Manifest Destiny 1 Conquer the land from sea to shinning sea Have a better life with your family out West Are they going to vote with the North or the South It all depends on if they allow slavery It s a race for the Western territory The land is first territory then it becomes a state Mexican War They were a joke We got an enormous amount of land out ofit The North s perception of the war was for us to gain land and turn it into slave states The Southerners fought in the war more than the Northerners so they weren t happy when the North didn t want slave states d Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo i The treaty ending the war e H 02 P 1 January 20 2011 California Gold Rush i Lots of weapons few women and men wanted to get all the gold and it was a dangerous place They need some form of government there to keep everyone under control President Zachary Taylor from Louisiana came up with a solution for California over slave free or not He said why make it a territory and not just a state There was enough people living there to go straight to a state and the people living there could vote Southerners had a fit because Zachary was from the South and didn t make it a slave state and all the people living there were from the North so it will become a slave free state Balance of Power i Slave free state Secession i South says we are out Mental Giants i Statesmen working to keep the United States strong The United States was fragile and everyone thought it would fail so they fought to make it strong Compromise of 1850 i None of the basic issues are solved Southerners walk away with the belief secession is a good solution if they feel threatened Politicians who take over mental giants when they die were young and thought the country was fine and just wanted to win the neXt elected by all means even having north vs south KansasNebraska Act i Proposed by Stephen Douglas in 1854 Stephen Douglas i He was from Illinois Now we got California we need to get to it faster A railroad would be faster than a wagon Economic Boom with the railroad He wanted it in his home state First start from Illinois to California But it would have to go through an un territory region To make this work he has to settle the land No slavery above Arkansas Missouri line Tries to appeal the line people on the ground will vote South votes for Kansas and Nebraska North is not happy and respects the line so now they re going to try to reestablish slaves Slave power conspiracy Whigs vs Democrats m 2 1 American Party System 11 Republican Party i Only existed in the North They have more people so they think they can overrule the south They shouldn t compromise with them Not entice voters from the South but win over the North They counted and could win without any votes from the South The South could count 35 slaves as part of their population which the North thought wasn t fair Northerners don t care ab out slavery until it hurts them 0 Bleeding Kansas i No one thinks slavery could go that far North Who ever gets the most people in Kansas first for the vote will determine if it s a slave state It s a race for Kansas The vote allowed slavery ii Lecompton Pro slavery government 1 Many people came in from Missouri to vote even though they didn t live there iii Topeka Anti slavery government 1 The two governments arm themselves There are two governments in one state iv Sack of Lawrence 1 They shoot the town up light buildings on fire and a guy dies from a building falling on him This wasn t a sack but it sounded more interesting v ohn Brown 1 Goes to live with sons in Kansas and is horrified about the government because they didn t fight back His friends sons and himself go to the house of assumed pro slavery people and pull out the father and sons while mother and daughters watch while they hack the men on the farm Then go to the neXt farm and do the same Known as Bleeding Kansas Basically a civil war in Kansas vi Pottman Sumner vs Brooks 0 Charles Sumner of Massachusetts 0 Attacks the South as vicious as he could He practically hated South Carolina and their senator 0 Andrew Butler of South Carolina 0 Sumner makes fun ofButler s lip because he was old and couldn t control his lip not staying closed Everyone even north says that was hitting below the belt 0 Preston Brooks 0 Cousin ofButler and worked in government in South Carolina in the House After he read the speech in the Senate chamber he told Sumner he insulted his state and so on then beat him with a cane Now Northerners are standing up for Sumner after Brooks beat him because that was way out of line South sees Preston as a hero and sends him boxes of canes and a note that says hit him again for me North gets even madder that the South loves Preston 0 John Brown s Raid 0 Fled Kansas wanted for murder He thought he was chosen by God to get ride of the sin of slavery by arming all the slaves and letting them kill the slave owners I Harper s Ferry VA 0 Where they keep the weapons He and about 20 other guys sons and African Americans go to get control He didn t tell slaves about his plan so they didn t come By then the government steps in and attack after they refuse to step down A son is shot and in agony and his father says quit your whining and die like a man Was tried with treason and found guilty and promptly hanged North ies ag at half mass for trying to do something Southerners believe all Northerners are like that And he s not just some crazy person 3 1860 Presidential election a Republican party Abraham Lincoln i No slavery in any new areas b Democratic party i North and South can t agree on who to vote ii North Stephen Douglas iii South John C Breckinridge c Constitutional union party John Bell i Lincoln wouldn t be on the ballet for the South He sweeps the states in the North Walks in the White House without a single vote from the South 4 Secession in Louisiana a FireEaters i Southerners who want immediate secession b Cooperationists i Wanted to cooperate with other Southern states They supported secession but go about it differently c Unionists i Didn t want to have a union d Dec 20 1860 South Carolina secedes from the union i Crittenden compromise ii 13th Amendment 1 Never becomes a law because of the war 1 South Carolina Mississippi Florida Alabama Georgia Louisiana and Texas all join the Union 2 Montgomery 3 Confederate States ofAmerica 4 efferson Davis Alexander Stephens iii Iamestown VA is the biggest city down south They don t like Lincoln but he hasn t done anything wrong January 25 2011 Two bonus points to final grade today does not show in Moodle 5 Bloody Furious Civil War a Fort Sumter i Instead ofbeing federal property it s confederate property One in Pensacola F1 and Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor SC 1 Major Robert Anderson 1 Tells Lincoln they re running out of supplies there Lincoln can let if fall in confederate hands or help resupply it Lincoln decides to resupply Fort Sumter knowing it might strike a war with the confederates Iefferson Davidson of the Confederate thinks allowing them to resupply Fort Sumter is showing a weakness on their part so he s not going to allow it 2 PGT Beauregard 1 April 12 1861 i The confederates have now attacked the US federal They fired the first shot b The Upper South Secedes i VA AR TN NC ii Richmond VA 1 Lincoln arrests any pro secession politic in Maryland because it s surround by pro slave people and Washington DC can t be taken over c Ideology ofWar i The south is fighting for independence for a country of their own The North is fighting to prevent that Lincoln said states couldn t just walk away it s not a war to end slavery This war did not start as a war to end slavery but it gets wrapped up in the situation and becomes a big part of it d Strategy i Northern Anaconda plan 1 Slowing squeeze in by starting out of the coast and coming down the main rivers ii Southern Cordon defense 1 Try to cover every square inch of the southern territory The South doesn t have enough people to cover all of that land 45 men of confederate men will fight e In Louisiana i Robert E Lee 1 In charger of Northern Virginia Who ever can fight the longest will win Within in the first year ofthe war the South was starving They didn t have much food and had to import it from other countries ii E Battles 1 539quot F 0quot Fquot 9 1St Manassasjunction1St bull run i 1St big confrontation before Fort Sumter ii The Confederates win this first big battle The federals run back to Washington DC The Louisiana Tigers i Soldiers from New Orleans criminals who s preferred weapons was a buoy knife They fight very well until a couple ofyears after the war David Farragut i Union navy commander Benjamin Butler i Farragut leaves Butler in charge of New Orleans Baton Rouge falls at one point and completely destroyed but New Orleans was saved General order 28 women s order i The women of New Orleans weren t behaving like ladies towards the Union soldiers and if they were caught they would be treated like prostitutes Vicksburg MS 39 Lots of people from Louisiana were staged in Vicksburg Confederates were stuck in trenches for months eating mice and rats Vicksburg will eventually fall and go further south to Port Hudson Port Hudson LA i AfricanAmerican troops there ii Hoping to get alliances with other countries France and England don t get involved because they don t want to be on a losing side France suggests going to the North side and fight Sharpsburg Antietam i George B McClellan is paranoid Robert E Lee has more soldiers McClellan s troops discover an abandoned Confederate site and find their plans so McClellan knows he has way more troops than the Confederate Confederate troops retreat because they don t have reinforcements like the Union has 13000 Union members die and 10000 confederate troop members die One of the bloodiest battles of the war Lincoln wants McClellan to rush in even though they retreated but he said no so Lincoln brought in US Grant 9 US Grant i They attack and attack Robert E Lee and every time they move Grant will follow and keep attacking f Emancipation ii39 lt v39 S 6 Aftermath The slaves keep helping the confederate fight the war The North is fighting to end slavery and that now gives them a reason to keep fighting All European countries have given up slavery so now none of them will go to the side of the Confederacy Emancipation Proclamation 1 January 1 1863 1 Slaves in states remaining in rebellion will be free 13th Amendment 1 Frees all slaves everywhere Gettysburg Pickett s charge at cemetery ridge 1 Lee forces Pickett to charge at an open field where they have no protection Lee ordered Pickett to regroup his people but there is no one left Sherman 1 War should be so terrible we will never want to fight it again So they will burn the fields hurt civilians and do everything they can to destroy things Appomattox 1 Court house where Grant s men will surround Robert E Lee They went there hearing Appomattox has a lot of shoes which the men have been fighting the war in barefoot Lee surrenders here a 620000 men died The war was fought on southern soil Houses burned cotton burned of stolen huge amounts of families died slaves are free January 27 2011 Reconstruction 18651877 1 Wartime Reconstruction a Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction 1863 10 Plan i 10 of the population had to pledge loyalty to the union Wendell Phillips quotmakes the negro s freedom a mere sham c WadeDavis Bill i 50 of the population had to now vote d 13th Amendment i 1865 legally eliminates slavery for good Presidential Reconstruction U a Andrew Johnson Democrat b Renounce right of secession deny debts ratify 13th c quotThis is a country for white men and by God as long as I am President it shall be a government for white men Black Codes a Vagrancy Truancy b Can t sit on juries c Can t testify against a white man d Can t carry weapons d Congress and Johnson a Office ofTenor Act can not fire a cabinet member without approval from the senate Congressional Reconstruction also known as Radical Reconstruction a A Freedman s Bureau reinstated i Provided food housing education healthcare helped them vote and obtain property Political Office Blanch Bruce Frederick Douglass and Hiram Revels US Senate b Reconstruction Amendments i 14th 1868 Makes anyone born in the US or civilized a citizen prohibits states from passing laws district the right of citizenship ii 15 1870 protects voting rights for male citizens c Military Occupation 1867 1877 39 Military Reconstruction Act creates 5 divisions Southern institutions quotmust be broken up and relaid or our blood and treasure have been spent in vain Thaddeus Stevens i39 iii New state institutions must guarantee black suffrage ratify 14th amendment d Civil Rights Act of 1875 i No segregation in public Accommodations trains movie theatres steam boats restaurants ii Important later Redemption a Reconstruction begins to unravel in early 1870s b 1874 midterm elections Democrats regain control ofHouse c Redeemers d Cartoon Thomas Nast 1874 White League and KKK create conditions quotworse than slavery for African Americans in Louisiana End of Reconstruction a Presidential Election of 1876 i Samuel Tilden Democrat ii Rutherford B Hayes Republican iii Tilden wins popular vote Hayes wins in electoral college by one vote iv SC LA FL undecided b Compromise of1877 i Hayes President i South will deal fairly with blacks ii39 End military occupation iv Federal funds for internal improvements v Cartoon Thomas Nast 1877 quotAnother such victory and I am undone Quoting King Pyrrhus of antiquity Elephant vi Reconstruction officially over Effects on African Americans A New Freedom i James A Garfield quotWhat is freedom Is it the bare privilege ofnot being chained If this is all then freedom is a bitter mockery a cruel delusion ii Henry Adams in 1865 quotIfI cannot do like a white man I am not free B Rebuilding the Family i Family and community ii Power and authority ofmen as family patriarchs iii Separate spheres C Economic i 1865 attempts at land redistribution ii Sharecropping D Political i 1883 Supreme Court invalidates Civil Rights Act of 1875 ii Methods of Disenfranchisement Poll Taxes Literacy Tests p Grandfather Clause 1 Ifyou re grandparent was a slave you couldn t vote Fraud 1 Throw away votes iii Plessy v Ferguson 1896 quotSeparate but equal Lynching In every year between 1883 and 1905 more than 50 people a year were lynched February 1 2011 Changes in American Life I SETTLING THE WEST i ii iii quotThe Great American Desert how vacant the west was initially Manifest Destiny The believe the American were destined to occupy the west A DESTRUCTION OF THE INDIANS a U 9 SD Americans thought that the Great American Desert was unfit for human habitation so it s a good place to stick the Indians Tribes ended up in the area of the Great Plains They practice a nomadic lifestyle of herds ofbuffalo Americans move into the Indian Territory because they discover gold which makes the land very valuable Americans see themselves as different and better than Indians and look down on them for not being like them Americans think the solution to dealing with these Indians was genocide extermination Americans didn t believe the Indians were even human beings The US government has to deal with this and they decided to try and restrict the movement of the Indians by putting them on reservations and force the natives into other lands For the Indians whose lives are nomadic they are unwilling to abide by the reservation system The American government promises to provide food and clothing to those who agree to move to the reservations The war department is in charge of making sure the Indians get these promises A lot of government agents are getting rich off these Indians by selling the things that are meant for the 517 H 02 Indians to other people These natives are therefore unwilling to abide by these reservation laws William T Sherman and his second in command Phillip Sheridan say the only good Indian is a dead Indian The US army fights a Plains war in the 1860s to the 1890s which tries to force the Indians onto their reservations and if they don t agree they kill and massacre them The Indians have a couple of successes in this gorilla war and try to avoid face offs in this war but over time the army breaks the spirit of the Natives big numbers of the Natives are killed the brutality is unreal the Natives are very susceptible to the American diseases therefore diseases wipe out a lot of the Native population The buffalo population also dies off they are intentionally killed off trains were sometimes put on hold because buffalos were stopped on the tracks therefore they decide the buffalos have to go B MINING CATTLE AND THE PRAIRIE a P P P Mining is a major reason Americans begin to move into the west These mine towns pop up out of the middle of nowhere and there is a big ux of minor seekers who crave gold Settlements pop up and disappear quickly lots ofweapons and booze few women Mining is big reason why we start to see settlers here Cattle has always been big in Texas which prior to this point in time were for using their hides for leather there weren t that many people in Texas to eat the cows The big cities have a demand for beef this is why cowboys emerged their job was to steer the cattle from places in Texas and literally drive the cows toward places where they will be slaughtered like Chicago and the meat will be loaded up and sent to the major cities in the east Mexican black and white cowboys this is very brief other ways come about where they don t need cowboys anymore Homesteaders move their families out into the west The homestead act give you land for free ifyou work it for 5 years you can have the land in order to encourage people to move out west it is very hard work and still need money to buy the things to start and maintain farming Farmers out west are trapped into a life ofpoverty and the share cropping system that keeps them in debt e 1890 the census says there is no more frontier there are people living everywhere II AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT i After the civil war the nation population grows and the agriculture doubles there s lots ofdevelopment in late 1800s ii iii The 2 101 Industrial Revolution Changes from a producer culture to a consumer culture A CONTRIBUTING FACTORS a 1 Abundant Natural Resources 5quot w 1 CD U1 i US has all the sources to industrialize we had lots of coal and oil plenty of timber iron and things that were needed to build an industrialized economy Plenty of Workers i Immigrants are eeing in they are willing to work in the factories for long hours and low wages Growing Urban Market i There are increasing numbers ofpeople living in urban areas they aren t growing their own gardens etc So people in the cities have to buy even the most basic necessities Technological Improvements i We get a systematic reliable transportation systems that s going to link all parts of the nation The Railroads The number of Rail tracks across the county explode The telephone and light bulb is invented in the 1870s Thomas Edison is working and on avg a new invention was created every 5 months ii iii Government Assistance i Put tariffs on anything imported into the US ii In order to entice Americans to buy American products rather than European products the government taxes imports to the US Government helps with railroads in a big way money and land iii iv Government works against organized lab or they take the side of the managers and helps big businesses to get off the ground V The Supreme Court that businesses have the same property right as individuals B THE RISE OF BIG BUSINESS a Businesses are going to get bigger and bigger Previously businesses were owned by a single person or a small group Now they are getting enormous as they are serving this national market for the first time There s a real absence of the personal relationship One reason they get bigger is because it increases your efficiency Vertical Integration one company owns all levels ofproduction Eliminated excessive competition C ROBBER BARONS 5 91 9 SD 517 Prosper incredibly at the end of 19th century Jay Gould one of most notorious robber barons Specialized in railroads he would quotfixquot railroads and sell them however he never really fixed them He s why we call them robber barons their concern is making as much money as possible he s not concerned about his workers its all about the money John D Rockefeller self made man into the Oil company He was ruthless with his competitors He was different than Gould because he was a philanthropist and gives a lot of his money away Andrew Carnegie selfmade man dominates the steel industry He is a rationalist Writes a book called the gospel ofwealth millionaires are clearly the best He was also a philanthropist JP Morgan was an investment banker Period of pure profit they pocket every dime because there isn t an income taX Because these guys become so dominant and wealthy they come to control the political system in the US The Congress and the President do the bidding of these robber barons D INDUSTRIAL WORK a 9 As these businesses get bigger workers have less ofa relationship with their managers Workers have less of say and simply just punch a clock and work certain hours There s a real separation of owner and the workers which means the work itselfis going to be miserable with very low pay No safety mechanisms workers comp health insurance no holidays or vacation avg wage was 20 cents an hour They saw it as supply and demand The whole family had to work to support the family c In 1881 1 out of6 kids were working full time Kids were locked in a room until the work was done conditions were horrible Alcoholism became huge E IMPACT a Communities start to break down as people move away Big businesses start to move in There doesn t seem to be any hope for the working class to get ahead People become very dependent on the Railroads There was no government regulation ofbusiness F WHY INDUSTRIALIZATION CONTINUES a Despite all the scary stuff Industrialization continues and Americans endure these changes For most people life gets easier during this time period Things being produced make lives easier light bulbs cameras hand cranked washing machines mass production of food clothes and furniture department stores mail order catalogs Shifts from a producer culture to consumer culture February 8 201 1 III IMMIGRATION a Most immigrates came from Western Europe Poland India Russia They don t speak English Most ofAmerica is Protestant most immigrants are Catholic Most got stuck in the cities working low wages with no holidays They didn t go west and make a life they wanted A lot didn t ever learn English b New York City was either foreign born or kids of foreigners In late 1800s Italians weren t considered white because they had darker skin c Protestants were afraid of Catholics because they thought they were more loyal to the Pope in Rome rather than their country IV URBANIZATION A NEW NATURE OF CITIES a People are poring into cities immigrants and young people from rural areas They were the first to have electricity sewage and shopping Main forms of transportation were still horses B PROBLEMS a Most don t have sewage systems at first and horses produced a lot ofwaste No systematic trash collection Horses would fall dead in the street and left there Cities were not very clean or healthy Diseases and fire will spread rapidly b 1871 23 of Chicago burned The structures ofhouses weren t built properly C Survival rate of children was very low in the city There was a lot of crime d No regulation Young people didn t have parents looking after V i ii them RESPONSES TO CHANGES People fear they re losing the American dream The world is a lot more complicated They could fix oil lamps themselves but with electricity people couldn t just fix the wiring themselves A SOCIAL AND CULTURAL a The rise of professionalization The number of colleges increases drastically in the late 1900s You start to see more professionals to get things done right College enrollment increases a lot B RELIGIOUS a b When things get scary they go back to church late 19th century Late 1800s early 1900s people travel around to hear a certain preach Try to enforce some religion in the government No birth control information spreading no alcohol C SOCIAL IUSTICE a 9 Believe in basic human equality Everyone should have the same opportunity Outbreak of private charity Trying to fix everything wrong Jane Addams settlement houses 39 English courses for immigrants Establish daycares schools parks A lot ofproblems are too big for private charities They need the government to come in iquot D ORGANIZED LABOR a 5quot 5quot Try to make changes in the way they work Get workers to work together Like everyone asking for less hours or a pay raise rather than one person asking alone Knights of Labor i First big organization Anyone could join skilled unskilled men women black white Increase safety standards and get children out of factories American Federation of Labor i Samuel Gompers 1 Only allowed men skilled workers Focused on wages and workers going on strikes Main labor after overtook Knights of Labor Industrial workers of the world Wobblies i Over throw management all together Membership is small but they are very loud e Government says workers can t go on strike but they do anyway f Molly Maguires i Pennsylvania ii Bomb rail lines beat and murder people g Great RR Strike of 1877 i Aimed at railroads They treat their workers terribly Cut wages ofworkers so the business didn t suffer Workers in different states go on strike It spread and became enormous Attack trains business offices Haymarket Square i Workers want an 8hour workday Police come and someone throws a bomb at police and kills a policeman They think workers are trying to over throw the government Some anarchist people do but not all people D 3quot Test 1 Full size blue book Test 1015 multiple choice from lecture 23 short answer from lecture Questions on book be detailed a couple of paragraphs Essay 2 questions pick 1 from lecture material February 10 2011 GILDED AGE POLITICS I PARTY POLITICS a Government isn t going to step up to protect business owners Democrats and Republicans were very important during this time and all the people were about 5050 so all elections were really close Republican party is a little bit friendlier towards businesses Voter turn out is enormous There s a lot of corruption II LOCAL POLITICS A ON THE CITY LEVEL a Machine Politics i Their goal is to control the city they re in for their own personal gain Machines are good at making friends with immigrants This is somebody you can go to to get help give you money for groceries until you get a job in exchange for your loyalty your vote They re the first to get the sewage system started b Boss Tweed Tammany Hall i They gain control of New York City Vote early vote often Tweed will be arrested and convicted of 120 counts ofbride and fraud Skimmed about 200 million Though these political machines get things done they re causing people money and doing more harm than good B ON THE STATE LEVEL a States try to get in companies like railroads make children attend school limit the amount of hours children and women work You don t see any unemployment assistant If they re not working than they re not trying to find a job III PRESIDENTIAL POLITICS i Presidents are a back seat to congress no strong presidents A HAYES 1876 a 1876 election ended construction People think he s a fraud He doesn t run for president again because he was disgusted B THE 1880 ELECTION AND AN ASSASSINATED PRESIDENT a After serving 4 months he was assassinated in a Baltimore railroad station b Charles Guiteau shot him because he believed the vice president would give him a job c Chester Arthur become president and distant himself from corruption d Pendleton Civil Service Act implements people who are going to get jobs with the federal government C 1884 ELECTION a James G Blaine i Most corrupt person who the republican chose as their president b Mugwamps c Grover Cleveland i Responsible for Tammany Hall being brought to justice First democratic president in about 30 years Tries to decrease the size and cost of the federal government He s going to start taking land back to the federal domain away from the corrupt railroad companies He s going to give us the first instance of federal regulation in any way d Interstate Commerce Commission e Tariff i i job to regulate the railroads You had to be fair and charge everybody the same rate TaX on imported goods It s unequal The federal government was small but was getting a lot ofmoney This is just making things more expensive for Americans The industries love it because they re making money quotWhat s the use ofbeing reelected ifyou don t stand for something Cleveland D 1888 ELECTION Democrats run for Cleveland Benjamin Harrison a b C d e IV i Republicans vote him against taX reform Harrison is going to be elected Grand Army of the Republic i Harrison won the loyalty by offering generous pensions to people who fought in the union army First to people injured in the Civil war Then to anyone who knew anyone who fought in the war 1st congress to spend 1 billion Sherman AntiTrust Act McKinley Tariff i Passed in 1890 highest tariff in American history So high countries decided not to trade with the United States THE POPULIST REVOLT A TROUBLE FOR FARMERS a They see the world changing urbanizing Declining crop prices new machinery and technology helps farmers grown even more They need to grow more and more to keep prices up They re not tariff protected i Sharecropping 1 Newly freed slaves don t have land but want to farm White people lost land because of the war things were burned Large landholders who don t have enough people to work You give a portion ofyour land to other people and they pay you a portion of the money they make from it ii Crop Lien System 1 Crops make money but you need to make the crops first Only making money during the season the crops were ready Business let them buy things on credit and when your harvest comes in you pay off the Businessmen It s risky because there might be a drought so they will charge interest This forces farmers to grow cotton because that s the crop they wanted in return When you can t pay them back you re force to sign on for another year to work on their land because the landowners usually own the business nearest to them B FARMERS ORGANIZATIONS 1 THE GRANGE a b Aka patrons of husbandry They live day after day on the farm Never come in contact with other people than their family Specialist will come out and give advice and hold gatherings for farmers to get together Then they realize they re all getting screwed with the railroads their rates always changing Granger Laws RRs i The Supreme Court strikes a lot of those laws down because they cross state lines 2 FARMERS39 ALLIANCES a F 5quot Social organization that turn to political action Want to find relief from these prices all across the South and the West National Farmers Alliance i The wrong people are benefiting from their hard work The middlemen the railroads moving their crops and businesses selling the crops are making all the money They re trying to eliminate the middle men Charles Macune d Subtreasury i Want farmers to get a big thing to store their crops Problem was everyone harvest at one time so now they won t have to sell everything immediately Goes to congress and voted down so now farmers are going to get into politics themselves C THE POPULIST PARTY 1 NATIONAL PARTY AND ELECTION OF 1892 a Tom Watson i Goes on tour urging black and white farmers to work together b Populist People s Party Platform i Finance 1 They want unlimited point age of silver increase the amount of money in circulation and want postal savings banks ii Transportation 1 Nationalize the railroads and telephone and telegraph iii Land 1 Continue reclaiming land New immigrants shouldn t own land if not citizens iv Labor 1 Trying to entice urban workers to come work on farms No 8hour workday 2 PANIC OF 1893 a Severe economic depression More than 1 million people lose their jobs 2 0 b Iacob Coxey Coxey s army i Congress votes down his policy March from Idaho to Washington DC Didn t do anything wrong so they arrest him for walking on the grass 3 1896 a Obstacles i Race 1 Still have racial issues after the civil war 1 Population ofpoor people they don t have much money iii Sectionalism 9 Free Silver Republicans William McKinley i Opposes free silver d Democrats William Jennings Bryan i In favor of free silver 391 e Fusion f Mark Hanna i Republicans 7 million ii Democrats 300000 iii The republicans take the win February 15 2011 AMERICAN IMPERIALISM I CHANGING AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY a Two foreign policy impulses i Expansive ii Isolationist iii Monroe Doctrine 1823 1 Worried about European countries messing with South America We don t want Europe coming in the Americas establishing new colonies v William H Seward 1 Wants to expand American in uences overseas Wants America to gain territory outside of the United States 2 Leads to him purchasing Alaska Make Russia friendlier They wanted to get ride ofAlaska II WHY POLICY CHANGES A INTERNATIONAL BALANCE OF POWER a Other countries are expanding their traditions to other un continents and country s b Alfred Thayer Mahan 1 He believes that any nation s power depended on their domination of the seas In order for US to keep up they needed to beef up their navy PROTECTION OF US MARKETS w III a In the late 19th century the productions are expanding greatly In order to keep economy going we need to sell things overseas C CLOSE OF WESTERN FRONTIER a Conquered sea to shinning sea but still want to conquer more D SOCIAL DARWINISM a Stronger nations are the ones to dominate places territorial The US was not the fittest England France Germany and Japan are doing well Certain races are more superior lighter skin people and some that are less superior darker skin people AngeloSaxon the best E AMERICANS ABROAD a SPANISH A CUBA a b d e Americans who moved to other places around the world wants America to bring in uences there American tells US to go to Costa Rica even though Costa Rica wasn t stable AMERICAN WAR Only 90 miles of the cost of Florida Monitoring what they re doing wanted to make it a slave state prior to Civil War General Valeriano Weyler i Goes to Cuba to crush the rebellion by cutting offaccess to civilian population ii Nicknamed the Butcher Reconcentrado i Relocate huge segments ofpopulation to prison camps More than 2 million Cubans die in these camps from disease and not fed properly Yellow Journalism i American press wants to report on all this Their concern is to make it exciting over accuracy to sell more newspapers Cubans are iffy if they want the Americans coming in Want they re help but don t want them to take over USS Maine ship explodes killing 266 Americans US blames it on Spain McKinley sends war message to Spain Debate why are we going to war and what are we fighting for Agree not to acknowledge Cuban rebels promise not to take Cuba over War for Cuban dependence changes to SpanishAmerican war US wasn t equipped for this war 200000 American volunteers Roosevelt resigned position under secretary of Navy to go fight Raises troops called Rough Riders Not enough guns no tropical uniforms old guns Spanish was even worse off than we were Americans sink ET destroy any Spanish ships 3 months after war started Spanish surrender B THE PHILIPPINES a Port of Manila i War starts there before they even get to Cuba C HAWAII a Go after Hawaii around the same time Americans there are growing sugar since not part ofAmerica yet they face tariffs b Get them to sign treaty agreeing to be annexed c They say Hawaii is necessary for us to go to Asia d Spain and US go to Paris to sign a Peace Treaty Spanish surrenders Cuba Puerto Rico Guam and all of the Philippians US gives Spain some money Americans confused of what getting those territories means e Expansionists i Ifwe didn t take over these regions someone else would ii Henry Cabot Lodge f Antiimperialists Unconstitutional to take over those territories and control native people 39 Andrew Carnegie 1 Very strong against anneX of those territories 2 Wants to personally buy the Philippines himself and set them free D IMPACT OF SPANISH AMERICAN WAR a Platt Amendment i Could enter into treaties about their independence ii Restrictions to their independence IV THE OPEN DOOR TO CHINA Advanced Civilization up on this time They can t keep up with the technology with the rest of the world Secretary of State John Hay comes up with Open Door Note i Preserve Chinese territorial integrity un E 95quot ii We want China to remain independent so we have access to them d 1900 Boxer Rebellion i The Chinese people decide all foreign people are troublesome China doesn t have any warfare They believe marshal arts are impervious to bullets ii Americans send people to protect American manufactures V BIG STICK DIPLOMACY A THEODORE ROOSEVELT a Explosive personality vice president b Republicans want to get rid of him because he does whatever he wants 9 2 years in McKinley s run he is assassinated Roosevelt is suddenly president B THE PANAMA CANAL a Concerned with building this canal because there s no convenient way from Atlantic to Pacific Nicaragua would have been easier but a French company has already tried making one in Panama b Columbian congress turns it down because it s too favorable to the United States c Philippe Banau Varilla i French engineer will lose a lot ofmoney if they don t complete this Appoints himself foreign minister of Panama and directly goes to DC d HayBanau Varilla Treaty i Signed before any Panamanians arrived in DC C ROOSEVELT COROLLARY TO THE MONROE DOCTRINE a Latin America is unstable We can intervene to protect that instability Test 2 February 22 2011 THE PROGRESSIVE ERA I The Nature of Progressivism a Roosevelt goes out to become a cowboy He feels like he has all the answers b Reform i A lot of distress unhappiness and people are suffering They want to fix everything They tend to be uppermiddle class residents so they re not poor or in that situation They are worried for the poorer people and someone needs to help them They believe they can perfect society and make it safe for everyone c Progress i They believe man was more good than evil so they can fiX the problems around them d Muckrakers i A group ofjournalists who attempt to publicize the problems around them Experts should rise up to fiX these problems They are known for making everyone aware ii Ida Tarbell goes after oil How they are unfair iii Iacob Riis is worried about poverty and sanitization iv They re good at pointing out problems but not solutions 11 Progressive Themes and Reforms A Democracy a They wanted to democratize the political process Take the power away from politicians and give more control to the average American people b Direct primary i Allows party members to vote for the political party c 17th Amendment i The people get to choose their senators d Initiative e Referendum i Allows us to vote on things f Recall i Allows voters to vote to recall someone from office B Efficiency a Frederick W Taylor i Writes a book The Principles of Scientific Management 1 He says there is one best way to do something b Taylorism i Gives the correct way of doing things to workers ex You only need to screw this 3 times not 6 or 8 times ii Good for business and management not good for workers it takes away their own way to do things c Commission System 1 First adopted in Texas after a hurricane when their government collapses Commissions of different departments like food health City manager plan 1 Hire a professional someone educated in school ii Still have elected officials e Robert LaFollette of Wisconsin 1 He establishes a research and advice to elect someone to the legislature Bring experts in D C Regulation D Social Justice a Trying to clean up parks sanitation limit working ours for women and children have school attendance Get safety regulations for factories b Triangle Shirtwaist company i Mainly young women working locked in so they can t take smoke break There s no fire escape E Prohibition a They blame everything that is wrong on alcohol 111 Roosevelt A Personality a The more local the Politian the more acceptable He believes the president should be calling the shots Previous presidents were letting congress call the shots He loves being the center of attention B Regulation of Big Business a Square Deal 1 Prosecute people for not behaving You need a big government to regulate big businesses He s careful to go after these businesses at first because they fall under the federal government At first he goes after railroads b 1902 coal strike i Miners worked under the worst weathers There s a lot of anger at the mine owners already A lot ofpeople walk offjob until they get a raise 9hour workday and official recognition of their union He invites leaders from both sides for a meeting at the White House The owners refuse to sit down with the workers Roosevelt says is they don t work out something he s sending the army in to take over the mines 1St president to intervene on the side of the workers c Bureau of Corporations i Keep an eye on big businesses Their goal was to work with and advice them If you refuse to work with them they came after you and broke up the big business d The Jungle by Upton Sinclair i Expose the meat packing industry company This disgusted people and Roosevelt e Meat Inspection Act 1906 i Regulation ofmeat and have sanitation standards f They go after medicine because of all the bad things such as alcohol in them g Pure Food and Drug Act 1906 i Make it illegal to misbrand things and other things of that sort C Conservation a Chopping down every tree and not replanting any b Gifford Pinchot Forestry advisor 39 Want to keep it around for generations Establish hunting seasons National parks and monuments like the Grand Canyon No more clearcutting forest Now poor people depending on hunting to feed them can t kill as many and Indians have to obey by these p iquot ltE39 v39 rules February 24 2011 William Howard Taft a Republicans choose him and easily won b Roosevelt goes on a tour in Africa he said he was done being president c He creates a storm of controversy within his own party 1 He tries to tackle tariff reform believes it is way to high ii He gets a bill passed in the house but the congress attaches 800 changes to the bill d Ballinger Pinchot Controversy 1 Richard Ballinger from Seattle He opens up big chunks ofland out west that Roosevelt had the government take back over 1 million acres Also took some land in Alaska reserved for military service He allows people to come search for gold Pinchot was upset about what Ballinger was doing He felt it was illegal Taft said he s doing nothing wrong or illegal Taft fires Pinchot Taft was elected because he was believed to follow Roosevelt s path but he wasn t iv 1910 Roosevelt comes back from safari and people tell him what s going on and wants him to fix it Roosevelt tries to stay out of it because he picked him to take his place 1912 Roosevelt goes against Taft 1912 Election a Taft and Roosevelt run for the Republican nomination Party regulars want to stick with Taft since he s seems to be doing good and he wins Republican Party 9 Taft Progressive Party Bull Moose Party 9 Roosevelt 1 He made his own party d Woodrow Wilson Democratic candidate 1 Grew up in Georgia strong Christian says the president should be more like the British prime minister He believed government should promote public welfare He was governor of New Jersey Eugene Debs Socialist i All of these guys are progressive All want to make changes iquot 95quot D VI VII 3quot Roosevelt s candidacy was almost over before he began because he was shot in the chest He gave his speech anyway Quickly becomes a twoway race between Roosevelt and Wilson Roosevelt s New Nationalism i Says big businesses are here to stay Wilson s New Freedom i Disagrees that big businesses are here to stay Wants to lower tariffs Wilson wins First southerner in the White House since the Civil War Wilson a 9 u U He believes he has all the answers wants to confront evil monopolies tariffs banks Talks to congress personally others had theirs read to them Tariff Reform a Tariffis inhibiting imports lower businesses b Quickly gets bill passed through the house the senate is harder to get through He goes to them himself and gets his tariff i Underwood Simmons Tariff 1913 1 Lowers taxes on imports Banking Reform a There is no central bank right now b Federal Reserve Act 1913 i A national banking system expanding money and credit and creates security Trust Busting a Federal Trade Commission i More power than burro corporation 1916 Election and Wilson s Second Term a Moves further along his progressive scheme indorsing farm and labor reform special banks set up for farmers federal license for private warehouse for farmers to keep their crops federal grants for farmers highways being constructed excluding children from factories 8hour workday for railroad workers Limits of Progressivism a b c d Anti immigrant prejudices More decisions being made by government workers Voter turn out decreases Slaughter in Europe March 1 2011 THE GREAT WAR 1 Wilson s Foreign Policy 1914 war breaks out in Europe b Wilson was an idealist he wanted to create World Order He also believed that the United States should hold a leadership role in the rest of the world Sec of State William Jennings Bryan 11 World War One a Events in Europe War breaks out and America is shocked Assassination ofArchduke Franz Ferdinand heir to throne of AustriaHungary 1914 by Serbian Nationalist in Bosnia 1quot Blank Check Austria turns to their ally Germany iv Austria Hungary Backed by Germany declares war on Serbia Serbia looks to Russia Russia look to France Germany declare war on Russia and France Germany is in the middle of them so they try to knock France out of the war first and go through Belgium who is neutral They are very violent with them which brings Great Britain in viii Great Britain declares war on Germany E 5quot lt v39 lt Central Powers Germany Austria Hungary Turkey Bulgaria Allied Powers Russia France Great Britain Japan Italy Italy was Central at first Massive amount of trench warfare 475 million miles of trenches b American Neutrality We thought thank goodness we re far away from this The world has never seen so much chaos before and it s killing a lot ofpeople and seems to be getting nowhere So many immigrants came in the past few decades we have connections with Europe We have at least 8 million German ii39 Americans iv We re allies with Great Britain We become a source to help provide food and needs to people at war They run out of money and need to buy our products with credit loans William Jennings Bryan says loans will just lt v39 S lt X39 xiii keep the war going and giving out loans to these other nations isn t a good idea Wilson quietly gives out loans to allies We re loaning to both sides but way more for Great Britain s side Great Britain has the biggest navy and is refusing for us to loan to Germany They didn t let us trade war related material including food and wool that was never war related material before Anything going to Germany they will seize They blocked Germany ports Great Britain will censor they info we receive about the war so it looks like they re the good guys Germans come up with the Uboat submarines They warned neutral countries Great Britain starts ying American ags so they think it s neutral boats when it s them so German says neutrals are in danger too May 1915 a German submarine sinks a British ocean liner which had Americans on it They warned Americans not to get on the ship 128 Americans were on it We demand an apology and to not attack passenger ships He resigned rather than deliver the message Someone else delivered it and they apologized We have an election year 1916 and Wilson runs His slogan said quotwho keeps us out ofwar Wins by half a million votes He wants to offer a peace without victory but with honor but both sides are in too deep and aren t interested and want to win Zimmerman Telegram sent from German sec to ambassador in Mexico to offer an alliance in case ofwar between German and America and in return with help regain land that the US took Unrestricted submarine warfare they know they re risking war with America but they can t allow America to send goods to their allies March 1917 German subs sink 5 American ships Wilson s cabinet asks for a declaration ofwar We get it April 6 1917 c America at War i Most people didn t expect America to get an army and fight overseas The French demand America sends some soldiers because they need assistants 14000 American soldiers go and they ask for 1 million more We only had 300000 by the end of the war we had over 3 million un un ii39 lt v39 vi39 d Peace i ii Food Administration asks Americans to eat less so they can send more to the soldiers 1 Herbert Hoover provides a lot of aide and is in charge of food administration They ask people who have never farmed before to start farming some in their backyard War industries board tells you what to make They are producing at max Recruiters go south to get African Americans who worked as labors to help Great Migration begins African Americans go north during the war to help work factories Committee on Public Information They focus on propaganda urging people to save food 100 Americanism They want everyone to be completely loyal with America Schools drop German class everything German was bad Espionage and Sedition Acts Can t have people doubting the government Socialist are targeted for speaking bad about the war March 3 2011 Wilson s Fourteen Points 1 Presents to congress for the only way of peace 2 Asks for freedom of the seas 3 Exclude trade barriers 4 Asks to adjust colonial claims 5 Uses this as a propaganda 6 September 1918 German government hints at a negotiation settlement November 1918 the shooting stops but that doesn t mean there s a peace treaty yet Paris Peace Conference 1 Wilson goes himself to help settle this to create a lasting peace 2 He makes a few mistakes going He loses touch with political realities at home since he s gone for so long He asks for people to only vote for democrats which hugely back fires He doesn t bring a single republican with him to Paris 3 When he arrives at Paris he is greeted as a hero as someone to create world peace 4 The Big Three US Great Britain and France 5 He gets his league of nations but he going to be forced to back down on some other major issues 6 All France wants is revenge to Germany Germany loses all of its colonies and loses parts to France France insists on a demilitarized zone between them France gets control of Germany s harbor which is where most of their money comes from Germany is only allowed to have a certain amount of tanks and army soldiers 7 The biggest battle is over reparations To pay for war damages They want Germany to pick up the entire cost of the war and also a war that happened a long time ago 8 Wilson accepts is War guilt clause which blames the whole war on Germany This is all just because Germany gave Siberia a blank check If they hadn t gotten involved none of this would have happened This cripples the German economy They didn t set a price and wasn t paid off until November 2010 33 billion plus interest iii The Fight for Ratification 1 Wilson got his league of nations which will be the end and will have world peace Then he comes home and it has to be ratified by the senate 2 Henry Cabot Lodge a republican hated Wilson He s realistic and hates Wilson s idealism 3 Irreconcilables a Mostly republicans didn t want US to enter the League of Nations 4 Reservationists a Limit evolvement in the League of Nations Harry Lodge was part of this 5 Wilson has a 22day 8000mile railroad tour to talk to people on why this is a good idea On this trip he has a stroke 6 Republicans vote down the treaty without the amendments 7 US never joins the League of Nations never ratified the peace treaty III Aftermath of World War One a America s Place in the World 39 More of an interest in world affairs Economy is completely transformed after this world Become a creditor nation lending money out Only economy not devastated by the war b Economic Trouble i Soldiers come back and want their old jobs back but now there aren t enough jobs for everyone c Flu Pandemic i Spring 1918 starts in Europe then spreads around the globe kills 2 2 million people worldwide more than twice the amount ofpeople killed in WW1 Theatres and even churches are closed Spring of 1919 the u goes away d Social Unrest i Labor Unrest i39 1 Workers are out ofjobs in most places prices rise after the war Freed from production stress then the workers began to strike More pay fewer hours 2 Strike in Seattle from all unions Mayor wants federal troops to put an end to this Then police go on strike in Boston and all hell breaks loose Murder violence riots and chaos ii Racial Friction 1 More than 25 race riots in 1919 Mostly because soldiers from war come home and find African Americans working their jobs e Red Scare i Spread of communists People are paranoid ii Comintern from Russia to create everyone to communists iii April 1919 post office finds 40 letter bombs A few slip by and destroyed the house of an attorney general and blows off the hands of another guy iv Palmer Raids 1 The government arrests people without warrants and people are departed v 1st attempts to limit immigration f End of Progressivism i Women s suffrage THE RO I 1 The fight to give women the right to vote A lot of progressive women get involved Working towards federal amendment 2 19th amendment in 1920 doubled the size of the election ii Prostitution 1 Soldiers start to visit prostitutes and getting VD 2 Start withdrawing money from states who allow prostitution Prohibition 1 Belief that every problem can by contributed to alcohol Can t have drunk soldiers or workers 2 1919 18th amendment which bands the importation of intoxicating beverages 3 Volstead Act go after people who are manufacturing alcohol This is what reformers want Passed at the end iii of the progressive era March 10 2011 ARING TWENTIES Conservative Politics No longer is a beliefin progress faith and progress gone a President Harding and the return to normalcy Harding was a republican from Ohio quotReturn to Normalcy was his campaign slogan He drank bootleg boos in the white house and had lots of female company Harding was really only worried about being loved i Progressivism undone Secretary of treasury is Andrew Mellon he is set out to reduce government spending and cut taxes This did help the efficiency in the Federal Budget People really liked him Tax breaks for the wealthy was one of Mellon s greatest accomplishments He also set higher tariff s to help maintain the United State s superiority in the economy 1 Harding also helps the blacks Corruption returns The Ohio Gang Harding s old friends from Ohio accused oflots of dirty deeds Teapot Dome Scandal The Teapot Dome was an oil reserve in Wyoming a reserve for the federal government Oil companies were given permission to extract the oil The scandal also was a key factor in posthumously destroying the public reputation of Harding L II who was extremely popular at the time of his death in office in 1923 Harding dies of food poisoning b Silent Cal i Whenever Harding dies Calvin Coolidge becomes president He was credited with the shortest inauguration speech ever 4 sentences long Distances himself from the Harding administrations scandals America in the 19205 Modern America a Economic Boom i Herbert Hoover was the Secretary of Commerce Cooperative Individualism voluntary cooperation among businesses The number ofpeople that owns stock increases dramatically Welfare capitalism Wages go up number ofworking hours go down Working conditions improve and in result union membership declines Farmers are suffering The great depression hits the rural south first b The advent of a consumer culture i Since people now have money they start to spend it People are now buying more ofwhat they want instead of what they need Advertisers set out to make people want more and more Whenever people start buying installment plans the people go on severe debt c Mass media and entertainment i Movies become a huge hit People start to imitate the glamour they see in the movies National culture d Transportation i Airplanes The Wright Bros are credited for the first ight A great military weapon during World War 1 Airmail contracts are put in place to boost air industry Amelia Earhart help airplane industry The Automobile This was the biggest social and economic event in the 20th century 1916 over one million automobiles manufactured by 1930 there were over 30 million Rise to a demand for oil products took place Leading example of mass production techniques and efficiency Suburbs grew as rural isolation breaks down traffic The automobile drastically changed dating practices e Intellectual modernism i Dramatic changes in science and social form New scientific findings Einstein s quotTheory of Relativity Developments in quantum physics Anthropologists start to study culture and we shouldn t treat other cultures harshly Frank Boaz Freud said we should satisfy sexual desires Southern Renaissance William Faulkner and Thomas Wolf f The youth revolt i The youth really likes the new ideas that are coming out regarding science and sex The quotJazz Age even blacks were successful jazz artists The New Woman in the 1920 s was called quotFlappersquot They started drinking smoking and experimenting sexually Margaret Sanger started the American Birth Control League Planned Parenthood and eugenics Prohibition was completely mocked during this time period Al Capone g Black life in the 19205 111 i Backlash Jim Crow separate but equal status among black people Political leaders came out with ingenious ways to take away the vote form black people Movement from jobs in agricultural to urban areas WEB Dubois cam out with NAACP national association for the advancement of colored people Asa Philip Randolph emerged as one of the most Visible spokesmen for African American civil rights Marcus Garvey started the Universal Negro Association Argues blacks are better He also leads the black to Africa movement He had an emphasis on Racial Pride Jazz helped out the black s public figure March 15 2011 a Fundamentalism i A lot of these people lived in small towns and liked the old simply life than the new ways of things Take the bible very literally The main thing is evolution They start passing laws that prevent teachers from teaching evolution William Jennings Bryan says it s just a theory Iohn Scopes made Bryan admit things from the Bible like a whale in fact ate Noah b Immigration restriction i Once the world war is over immigration picks up They are a lot cheaper to pay to work ii 19 24 passed law that allowed a certain amount of immigrants come in form each country a year Favors western European countries with more white people like from Britain and Ireland but less from Italy c The Klan i They re not just going after African Americans They go after anyone that s different from the traditional American code Strong in Indiana and other places up North IV Foreign affairs a National Arms Limitation Conference under Harding s administration Delegates agree to this and set limits on weaponry in other countries b Kellogg brand pact was a multinational treaty that prohibited the use ofwar as quotan instrument of national policy except in matter of selfdefense THE GREAT DEPRESSION I President Hoover a 1928 Election i More people than ever voted for this election and Hoover easily won against Democratic Al Smith b Herbert Hoover i Devoted to the public s interest ii Moderate republican iii Supports tariff on agriculture goods that come in to help American farmers iv Hawley Smoot Tariff 1 People were against it thinking it will raise taX prices He signs it anyway II The Great Depression a The Stock Market Crash i Americans have it in their head that the economy will go up and up forever ii Up until 1927 stock was increasing along with business After 1927 stock prices aren t booming anymore People ignore it and prices keep going up People start buying stock on credit which is very scary Gamblers ignore warning signs iii Hoover voiced concern but he is ignored Oct 29 Black Tuesday single most devastating day in stock market history Everyone is selling everything they have before prices go down iv The Stock Market Crash did NOT cause The Great Depression b Causes of the depression i Banking system 1 Banks invested money in the stock market People owe money to the bank but can t pay it off then they don t have the capitol they need If they bank failed and your money was in that bank it s gone Everyone is afraid their bank will fail so people wait in line for blocks to take their money out the bank which causes the bank to fail because there is no money in it ii Unequal distribution of wealth and income 1 The wealthiest people s income increased dramatically People are learning to produce more but no one to buy it iii Government policy 1 Government doesn t help much at all European countries start taXing our goods They think balancing their budget will help get back to normal So they cut government money and add more taxes c Conditions i Middle class is hit the hardest They don t know how to survive on neXt to nothing ii 1930s suicide rates sore Men walk around jobless left their families to fend for themselves Ate smaller amounts of food no meat because it was expansive live with relatives had one pair of clothes no heating during the winter couldn t afford to get married or divorced and couldn t afford to go to the doctor kids stop going to school because they don t have clothes to wear men live in boxes cars and under bridges Drought turns farmlands into cracked soil where nothing can grow 1934 had huge dust storms destroying things III Hoover s Response a He asked people to keep up their hopes try not to lay offpeople b Reconstruction finance corporation i 500 million to give banks railroads Aimed to help business rather than average Americans He becomes increasingly hated c Emergency relief act i Loans to states but isn t enough it s too little too late IV Americans in despair a Farmers start burning corn to keep warm b Bonus expeditionary army i Army veterans from WWI were promised bonuses ii They can t feed their families and request their bonus now iii They march to the nations capitol for immediate bonus but they say no There s nowhere for them to go so they just stay there Hoover wants to get ride of them and pays for their tickets home but they didn t have a place to go The army is sent to move the veterans away They entire country sees this and is on the side of the veterans Hoover insisted they were communists and criminals March 17 2011 Watched Cinderella Man the first hour and a half March 22 2011 FDR AND THE NEW DEAL I 1932 Election a Hoover is the republican candidate Roosevelt is the democratic candidate Roosevelt won by a landslide II The First New Deal a FDR i A politician educated at Harvard assistant secretary of the Navy got polio at the age of 39 most people thought that was the end of his career he bounced back mainly because of his wife Eleanor She pushes him to help the poorest people She s the first active first lady His personality impresses people the most He promises to do something about The Great Depression but never really said what 20th Amendment changes inauguration from March to January so you don t have to wait so long b First Hundred Days nearly half ofpeople were out ofjobs un lI ii39 lt v39 vi39 viii Emergency Banking Act over 9 million people lost their banking He forces all banks to close for 4 days If banks are determined to be sound they can reopen The night before the banks open he gives people his first radio speech ofwhat s going on and how the legislature will fix it The next day people were lined up to put money in the banks People believe he cares about them and he is their friend 39 Revenue Act 1 Government gets more involved in people s lives 18th Amendment will allow alcohol to be legal to sell but taxes it Agricultural Adjustment Act AAA 1 Aimed at freely relieved farmers because they were suffering and were desperate Farm income was going down 2 Henry Wallace draw up agriculture adjustment act this will pay farmers to do less Raise prices by reducing supply They re too late in this season so they have farmers dip up crops so they don t harvest them A lot of farmers don t own their own land like the sharecroppers and tenants and they don t get paid with this act only the landowners do The poorest farmers W are driven out of farming Tennessee Valley Authority TVA 1 Runs through core area ofSouth Main goal is to provide electric power along the Tennessee River Mortgage Help 1 Homeowners and farmers have been losing land to mortgages so there are two acts one for each for lower interest rates Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation FDIC 1 The most important new policy to you It insures bank deposits Government promises if that bank fails it will pay you back up to a certain extent about 100000 Securities and Exchange Commission SEC 1 Regulate chaotic stock market Civilian Conservation Corps CCC 1 Aimed at putting young men to work between 1825 who didn t have jobs They often got in trouble with crime so it s here to help them by building roads III IV bridges fighting fires etc Paid 30 a month with 25 going home to their families ix Federal Emergency Relief Act FERA 1 Give money to the states to give to Americans who are unemployed x National Recovery Administration NRA 1 Attempting to stabilize the business sector Basic rules and regulations for business money wages etc Limit working hours for everyone and sets minimum wage outlaws child lab or all together March 24 2011 Opposition to the New Deal a b 5quot P D quot5 People believe the government is going too far into people s lives where they don t need to be Communist Part Capitalism is the problem itself not a lot ofpeople are in this party Upton Sinclair 193 0 s runs for governor in California tries to drive out some business People get worried and try to drive him out Francis Townsend doctor who is appalled when sees people digging through trash for food Makes retirement plan for people over 60 Critics noted this pan financially wouldn t work but he doesn t care Father Charles Coughlin known as radio priest Tries to increase money supply 1 million listeners in Midwest Loses people quickly Huey P Long thirsty for power and attention caters to lower classes give free textbooks to schoolchildren but becomes a somewhat ofa dictator He s a democrat Was governor of Louisiana Offer to represent Roosevelt and wins him a lots of people They re too much a like and start to not like each other FDR starts to see Long as a rival because he wants to become president Plan to guarantee families a certain amount ofmoney per year What s the plan name He promised way to much and there are a lot ofpoor people in the country and they love him because they like the sound of his plans Runs against FDR in 1936 His plan is to win in 1940 after a republican comes in and messes things up Long was assassinated in the Capitol building Second New Deal Wants to create security and safety to the community meaning they re not starving and losing their home a National Labor Relations Act Wagner Act i This legalizes unions Gives workers the right to bargain for their choices sets up national relation board Try to appease workers Revenue Act of 1935 i Wealth taX or Soak the Rich tax drastically increases the tax ofpeople making more than 150000 a year Business leaders where outrages and called him a traitor This takes away some of the thunder who wanted Long Rural electrification Administration REA i Created 1935 and says electricity is no longer a luxury They need to provide it everywhere even rural places Private companies say it s not worth it because there are not many houses out there and will use a lot ofpoles llave stoves and refrigerators probably most successful act Because of this most homes by 1950 will have electricity Works Progress Administration WPA i The federal government putting people to work at a large scale about 4 million jobs like construction work Also hired artist Tried to put everyone back to work give part time jobs to students It just didn t pay well only got this job if there was nothing else you could do e Social Security Act i Social Security 1 Retirement fund for the elderly over 65 The average payout was 22 a month a modest pay amount Not meant to live comfortably on just protect elderly from having nothing One of the most progressive taxes we have now Only pay social security taX on less than 65000 a year ii Unemployment Insurance 1 Not men to give you money so you don t have to work only temporary while you re between jobs iii Aid to Dependent Children welfare 1 Aid to women and children home along with no man to support them Give cash payments to poor families charity V Roosevelt s Second Term 9 P D VI a 1936 Election Very cared for so Republican tries to bring someone in that s not well known who didn t criticize Roosevelt Enormous landslide just didn t get two sates Maine and Vermont b Fiscal Policy i Iohn Meyner Keynes 1 Keynesian Economics a Fiscal Policy how the government spends brings in their money b Mass Consumption wants people to buy a lot of things spend money It stops the slide but doesn t solve the problem c Court Packing Scheme 1 50 newjudge ships anyone judge over 10 years or over 70 don t get as much power Everyone is outraged about this scheme This fails but FDR gets his way eventually d End of the New Deal 1 People stop giving him a free hand after the courtpacking scheme People are watching him better Try to oppose FDR s legislation Legacy of the New Deal a Did very little for African Americans African Americans start voting Democratic for the first time b Big business keeps getting bigger during this time Drastically increases the size of the government c Actively keep from crisis happening like this again d The beginning of the rise of the broker state Try to help farmers unemployed little businesses Changes government role forever 6 Changes the nature of government Test 3 THE MARCH TOWARD WAR I International Events A The Great Depression in a Global Context a The US expected this to be paid back but France and Britain disagree especially why the economy begins to collapse They hope the US will forgive the debts Problems increase when the US raises the tariff so Europeans have a hard time paying back debts And they also insist they can t pay the US back until Germany pays them back Germany is in a state of collapse The dollar become worthless inflation is out of control The money is used for wallpaper and toilet paper it is that worthless B Disarmament C m 57 5quot Japan 1 Countries have built up enormous arsenals Treaties and agreements come about to focus on less weapons Nine power treaty gestures for all world countries to avoid another major war and catastrophe Kellogg Briand Pact French foreign minister The US and France promise to never go to war with each other An attempt by France to force the US into a military alliance pretty smart idea They try to invite all the nations to join him 62 nations Total decay can t keep up with technological advances Becomes interested in expanding its control over China It cannot provide all the national resources so it has to look abroad Militant nationalists come into power in Japan to try to turn Japan into a world power They want to dominate the pacific basin Begin to challenge post war settlements They see treaties Kellogg as a way of keeping them from expanding and harmful Then seized Manchuria by force Undeclared war on China changed into a territory called Manchukuo Violation of international agreements Japan agreed to China goes to the League of Nations to ask for assistance yet they do nothing They then go to the US Hoover does not want to get involved
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