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by: Edna Boyle


Edna Boyle
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S. Hilton

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S. Hilton
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This 21 page Class Notes was uploaded by Edna Boyle on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 4130 at Louisiana State University taught by S. Hilton in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see /class/222470/hist-4130-louisiana-state-university in History at Louisiana State University.


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Date Created: 10/13/15
History 4130 November 10 2009 Secret War OSS Origins no real secret service spy agency The FBI was able to round up some German spies No real intelligence gathering body in the European theatre soationist country so no need for a spy network In 1940 Churchill sent a man over to talk with FDR about spies However FDR likes to make decisions on his own or with only one or two people When Hoover was elected WM Donovan was known as a very savvy business man and in 1940 FDR sent him to England to talk with Churchill to make contact with the British secret service and he comes back very impressed In 1941 Donovan is sent to the Mediterranean to oversee 5 h Column black ops and spies activities They were very impressive at this Tells FDR that they need an organization like the British FDR creates the Office of CO Coordinator of Information and makes Donovan the head of it It s not a full blown spy organization information collection Met with the same bureaucratic problems like the 50E This would eventually lead to the creation of the Office of Strategic Service regarded as the created of the CIA Organize no experience in training people Had to borrow from the British Added a wrinkle of test taking Devise a series of test that would determine leadership and aptitude Mock interrogation training Never reveal your identity to anybody The 50E was given priority over the 055 in choosing operations on the European continent Priority went to the 055 in North Africa and the Balkans Was everywhere except the Pacific MacArthur didn t like them Recruitment paramilitary training Activities History 4130 September 17 2009 Operation Barbarossa 1941 Germany invades the Soviet Union NaziSoviet Alliance time begins with an alliance between Germany and USSR a b C Economic Ties controlling Western Europe does nothing for helping Germany Actually puts a strain on Germany The USSR was supplying Germany with tons of supplies during the beginning times of the war Uneasy Political Relations ideological differences and Hitler wants to take Russian land for the Lebensraum History of tension between the two of them No one looking at the Soviet Red Army thought much of it as a fighting force The Great Purge of Stalin s senior officer corps by killing off and executing a majority of the Red Army officers 35000 senior officers Order from the Kremlin was to hold summary trials or find something to shoot the officers for The Russian government admits that Stalin killed 20 million of his own people Killed 3 of his 5 Field Marshalls 90 of his Generals and 80 of his Colonels were killed Hitler believes the Wehrmacht Ostheer would have no problem defeating the Russians Soviet Expansionism attempt to take Finland Takes them 3 months to defeat them The Baltic States were Russia s money fund Occupy parts of Romania but Germany s main source of oil lies in Romania and the Russians come within 150 miles of those fields German Planning a b Hitler s Thinking Lebensraum is very important the Red Army is forward deployed and stretched along the borders British lack of surrendering is puzzling to Hitler but he realizes that the British were counting on the Red Army to fight the Germans Time to take it to the Russians but this opens him to a two front war However Britain isn t going to invade or is going to strategically bomb the mainland on its own Military Planning calls for a single forward thrust towards Moscow That would bring the Red Army to mobilize in this area He doesn t want to conqueror all of the Soviet Union Only take the precedent from World War the same territory that was taken during World War I when Russia is fighting their civil war Hitler insists on a 3 prong attack on Leningrad Moscow and Kiev He is listening less and less to his officers Molotov USSR stands strong against Hitler The Wehrmacht must crush the USSR in a quick campaign quotThe world will watch as the Soviet Union crumbles quotBalkans Diversion Mussolini was miffed about Hitler not saying that he was going to war when he did remains silent in fighting in the beginning Hitler visits Mussolini and he says quotFL39ihrer we are on the march Italian troops are conquer ring the Balkans A week later they are being thrown back Greece is now a battle ground Hitler sends support to into the Balkans Going into the Balkans postpone the invasion of Russia which costs him several weeks of good weather weak argument now Nature of War vs USSR this war will be like unlike any other war Cast aside any sort of chivalry of war All officers must remove all unnecessary ideologies May summary execution of civilians who commit illegal actions No punishment for his troops for killing civilians Himmler Einsatzgruppen mobile killing squads Goring is made commander of the conqueror lands German Intelligence Problems suffers from several issues structural no human intelligence no spies in the Kremlin reading low grade military tactics Seize all Russian embassies in controlled territory Disdain for the Slavic people long standing thought would blind them in decision making Underestimate Russian reserves by 50 and the number increases every time Ill Soviet Preparations a Sit Rep September 1935 b Strategic Shocks 9 396 40 c Military Preparations two front war with Germany and Japan Zhukov greatest Russian general during the war The Soviets are trying to leap stages during this time Trying to modernize a chaotic society as quickly as possible Creation of the T34 tank considered greatest tank of all time No armed personal carriers against the Germans Very primitive based armored with shiny tanks 24000 tanks more than the rest of the world combined d Soviet Weaknesses no emphasis on communication during this time Doing too much too fast terrible training of the soldiers Leadership the Germans have the clear advantage The Russians have purged most of their officer corps Germans have tradition of allowing initiative for their officers experience in France Strategic leadership Hitler and Stalin interfere too much with their Generals Hitler has a great memory incredible grasp of detail He listens less and less as the war goes on Stalin is doing much of the same thing but as the war progressives he listens more and more to his generals e Strategic Planning 3 lines of defense 1st line would absorbed the blow and then the 2nd wave would stop them with finally the 3rd wave would attack and throw back the Germans The Germans would rip right through this Where will the Germans attack guessing game Zhukov is named commander of the Russian forces Stalin thinks the main German effort will be in the south Ukraine The Germans will make a pretty aggressive effort here The 2nd offensive will be more this way There was in the works a plan to launch an attack against Germany Soviet behavior could be seen as aggressive Had fortifications along the original border before the division of Poland but after moving up they never built any new defense structures IV Invasion a Opposing Forces The Wehrmacht Ostheer vs The Red Army b German Attack the attack begins in June 1941 The Soviet army is in disarray and unorganized following the initial impact of the Wehrmacht The impact was so stunning that Stalin went into a funk He goes into seclusion Small group of advisors go out to see Stalin and he thinks that they are there to arrest him Comes back to form a special defense council The surprise is almost total The German advance is so swift and brutal they were killing and capturing 4 million troops so many Russian troops German Chief quotthe war is over If the Germans could have taken Moscow they could have won the war By winter of 1941 they are on the door step of Moscow taken Kiev V Why Surprise some Soviet spies sent complete intelligence to the Moscow and alerted them to the German attack invasion on June 22nd the exact date of invasion Soviet Spy named Lucy gets intell from high ranking German officer British sent warnings to Moscow German printers made code books for soldiers about Russian code words German citizens are getting out of the way and German planes are violating Russian air space and with increasing numbers Massive amount of intelligence that says the Germans are going to attack The German had launched a campaign of deception built on 3 themes 1 said that build up was defensive 2 said build up was part ofOperation Sea Lion Propaganda helped back this lie up make the Russians think that the Germans are still after Britain 3 assault is for the Balkans A lot of last minute movement of soldiers Stalin is convinced that Germany will not attack trust with Hitler and that blitzkrieg would not work Will not attack without a warning thinks that would give him 2 weeks to prepare At the last minute a German soldier defected and said the Germans were mere VI hours away from attacking Stalin thinks that England is trying to provoke a war by attacking Germany because they are struggling with German In the last hours Zhukov convinces him to warn the front lines but only partially don t fire until fire upon Why Failure The Germans once again have bitten off more than they can chew Only wanted to take the 13 of the Russian land World War precedent The fatal mistake Hitler s orders to stand down outside of Moscow to help out in Leningrad and Kiev In September the weeks of preparation allowed for the Russians to build up and they couldn t stop them However the weather helped in stopping the Germans The long weeks of planning hurt the Germans attack plans Luftwaffe meteorologist found that there has never been 3 severe winters in a row and 39 and 40 were especially severe And the winter of 41 insanely severe The Germans were not prepared for this kind of weather and the Soviets were able to prepare for this kind of weather Would have the capture of Moscow been the end of the Soviet Union The Russians before haven t stopped fighting when Napoleon had done it so why now Takes the Soviets 4 years to recapture the German held territory History 4130 November 17 2009 British Warfare Effort The experience is unique for the British but similar to the US in a way No real land fighting on the island Had to deal with the bombing attacks 60000 people killed No occupation or defeat so no traumatic effects like Germany and Japan No starvation but did deal with some shortages War imposes various tests on society the idea of cohesion and bringing together of people The British people faced a very difficult time during the war Increased taxation when the war first began The government said in effect that you will not make excessive profits during the war eventually a 100 tax Increased tax on food items and the progress of war and the changing strategic ideas affect the government s control on things income tax rose to 40 Many cultural stars left the country because the taxes they faced during this time lreland passed laws that artists didn t have to pay income taxes These taxes became something that England couldn t escape after the war April 1941 the income tax is raised to 50 and exceptions are lowered to bring in more people to the taxation process Rationing began in 1940 Summer of 1940 Britain tried to limit consumer goods 17 classes of consumer goods were cut by 33 Diets and consumer products are all rationed Food imports are 50 less than what they were before the war Argentina provided 13 of beef wheat and leather for Great Britain during the war Bread is basically the only thing not rationed but it changes to National Loaf Made with quotflour in which 85 of the wheat was extracted A HORROR Clothing was also rationed during this time Birthday parties for kids in Great Britain were terrible u Housing and transportation were tight before the war and became worse during the war 25 million bombed out houses The people had trouble getting gas and oil Bike production was cut to 13 of per war conditions Train travel was terrible as well The labor supply the minister of labor had the ability to tell anybody to do anything and could control the hours in which people could work Armed forces were going to have to take V2 million men from the labor force Solution was women and old men 90000 women and 1 million men are performing compulsory tasks All work is essential and nobody could leave theirjob democratic society Passed a law that conscripted men and women into the work force Virtually impossible for a woman to avoid war work 1939 V2 million preschoolers and pregnant women were evacuated The evacuation program cast a spot light on social inequalities It opened the eyes of middle class people The erosion of class lines during the war The bombing got people building bomb shelters besides delaying the evacuation programs The subways would become air raid shelters during the war Humor was a main British weapon quotWe had a close shave come and get one yourself quotWe are more open than usual Lingering social consequences lsland nation with a social structure that is more defined than the US All walks of life are going through similar experiences during this time The rich get bombed just like the poor Most people are decent and fair minded and play by the rules The scrap drives in which everybody participates This makes the upper and lower classes more tolerant of social welfare The people love Churchill as a war leader while at the conference in Potsdam he is voted out in favor of a labor party man The Beveridge report basically calls for a socialist system Socialist program and redistribution of wealth Thatcher would eventually come along and get rid of this The war has a leveling effect on the people they have to go through the same experiences as everyone else in England The Yankee invasion of Great Britain The US wants a cross channel invasion The US will put into the British Isles 15 million troops That many people in a small geographic space what will happen They will need food shelter companionship etc Housing was an enormous problem The practical aspects of dealing with that many soldiers were demanding Hollywood movies are being exposed to the British people They thought that everything that they saw was true Some American soldiers were mistaken for Germans similar helmets The two countries tried to prepare each other for the cultural clash The issues of black Gl s needed the cabinets intervening The army carries with it is it racist mentality No association with African Americans was nonexistent to the British people Fights were breaking out amongst white and black Gl s and the US government asked the British to make it in which there was separation and discrimination to keep the whites and blacks separate in public places The British considered this but eventually would not be a part of segregation History 4130 October 15 2009 Eastern Front amp USBrit Campaigns counterattack against Germany Eastern Front Leningrad survives through 3 years of German siege Strength of the Soviets in the face of 8085 of German forces a Sit Rep 1942 the battle line has stabilized Soviet counteract outside of Moscow German officers lose their job stand and fight orders Will the Soviet Union survive a second offensive US goods are coming in but not in large quantities Tough geography to get supplies to Russia Stop the Germans with their own resources in 1941 Soviet primitiveness turns into quagmires for the Germans Horses are used to move German trucks Lack of paved roads makes the German armor incapable of moving on the roads Also no train system in Russia b g German Offensive Blue turning point spring 1942 the situation has improved for the Soviets but there are still some issues The Russians have purged their ranks of fearful officers with younger more aggressive officers American aid is also reaching the USSR trucks and communication equipment Great strides in artillery development in combination with the T34 Hitler s goal is not to topple the communist system in Russia or destroy the Red Army His primary objective is the oil fields in Russia critical situation for Germany 39 Goas obtain the oil fields in Russia to fuel their armies German Staff Officer Ploeist not the top German general Thought the Russians would be easy pickings Staingrad the Wehrmacht reaches Stalingrad in August thought it would take days to a week to claim the city It took them to January to claim the city but still loss the battle The Russians launch their counterattack from across the river while attacking their flanks to overturn the Germans Hitler refuses to order a retreat while there was still time to get out Can only be resupplied by the Luftwaffe Often fell into Soviet hands c Kursk 71 43 turning point the largest tank battle in history 75 of tank forces and 65 of the Luftwaffe Soviet preparation called for hundreds of hundreds of miles of barbed wire and trenches The German army in comparison to the original Barbarossa army is understrength This shows that the Germans do not have the logistical parts to fight the Soviet Union The German army was a great fighting force but it was just under resourced The Germans throw what they have against the Russians and they stand their ground First time Russians actually have an advantage The loss at Kursk meant for the first time that Germany is now on the defensive against the Soviets Hitler had no other options except to fight after invading Russia Can do nothing except take delaying actions against the relentless Russian advance Takes the Russians a lot longer to reach Germany then the Germans take to get to Moscow The Wehrmacht fights so well against the Red Army in defense of their homes War in West Mediterranean invasion of North Africa by the Western Allies wear Germany out to the point of collapse then invade Italians have trouble with the British German weakness bad allies Has to send troops in the aid of Italy General Rommel and the Afrika Korp a quotTorchquot 111 42 Egypt is very important to the British for shipping lanes and could reach Germany outside of the homeland Does not go along with American beliefs Tobruk is being held by the British under attack from Rommel but the entire British forces had surrender to the Afrika Korp Churchill is devastated by this FDR asks what can be done 57 C Helped the general argument that the place to attack was in North Africa not the mainland Within the month FDR calls for the invasion of North Africa lnsist on the cross channel invasion but get involved someplace General Mark Clark US from major to general officer in a short time tries to negotiate to let the Vichy government that the invasion is a liberation movement Charles De Gaulle insists on maintaining French authority got left out of the planning Landings in Algiers Morocco and Casablanca Mixed result but overall the landings go smoothly 2quotd Battle of El Alamein General Montgomery the British defeat Rommel and end his thrust to the canal fought before the Torch landing May 1943 the Germans surrender in Tunisia Gives the American soldiers some experience in battle but the Normandy invasion troops are green Army Rangers taking Point de Hoc are green as well Torch delays the invasion of Europe The building up in the British Isles is delayed What happens next quotHuskyquot Sicily 7 43 39 Casablanca Decision FDR and Churchill meet to decide what to do next Americans want to pick up and get ready to invade France the Brits call for the invasion of Europe through Sicily and Italy a lightning blow to the Axis up ltaly Postpone DDay until 1944 The Americans don t like this but FDR once again agrees with the British Couldn t believe this not a war winning theatre to open up Torch locks America into the British strategy of attrition FDR announces his unconditional surrender policy Errors in Sicily Goes well enough but with some errors still The Straits of Mecina and the Germans have no support in southern Italy but the Allies don t contain German retreat back into ltaly Invasion of Italy amp Fall of Mussolini General Montgomery goes into Italy but Italy is well suited for defense Have to slug your way up the peninsula don t reach Rome until a couple days before the DDay landings in 1944 Hitler does send some reinforcements into Italy but not too much Absence of landing craft in 1942 postpones the DDay invasion Political ideals delay the creation of landing craft Strategic Bombing Campaign destroy the German infrastructure the air is a new dimension of warfare no true strategic bombing Douhet argues that bombing should be targeting civilian populations Take lives now to avoid losing lives on the battlefield Don t build fighter aircraft doesn t see the growth of fighter aircraft and nothing can stop the bombers 11 British Effort 194042 believe you can build defenses around radar and fighter defenses to attrite the enemy and minimize damage RAF calls for a bomber and fighter command All governments agree to non attacks against civilian populations British mindset changes in the later part of the war Precision bombing to hit industrial targets to avoid collateral damage Creating collateral damage becomes a British policy Weak effort in strategic bombing in the beginning If you trigger bombing you might get retaliation They dropped propaganda on the Germans and that consisted of their quotstrategic bombing 1941 the RAF dropped fewer bombs than the Luftwaffe because they didn t have a great strategic bomber Targets were widely disperse in Germany and the there was a lack of trained personnel in England Official committed to the same policy as the US Biggest problem was hitting the target if you could find it Extremely dangerous to fly daylight missions They began to study photos and such of their raids and discovered that only 25 of bombers dropped bombs that landed within 5 miles of n 0 their targets In the Ruhr Valley only 10 hit their targets within 5 miles This will become a seriously increasing annoyance Oct Dec 1941 bomber command dropped 10000 bombs and 6000 fire bombs and 50 fell on open ground and 17 hit decoy targets Losing 200 RAF men to kill 400 German civilians Try to impress the Soviets by doing this 39 SirArthur Harris shift in official justification of mission goals Quit worrying about precision bombing get to the city and drop the ordinance Disruption of the German transportation system and the German moral By 1944 his projection was for the bombing campaign to destroy 6 million homes leave 25 million homeless kill 900000 and wound 1 million seriously In the fire bombing raid temperatures on the ground reach 1000 F and created winds up to 300 mph and killed hundreds of people US Effort 194243 firm policy in striking against only military targets only The Army Air Corp focused solely on strategic bombing No close air support doctrine they wanted an independent air force Only way to get independence from the army would be to get a mission separate from the ground troopers The embassy is the main intelligence center for the US Very limited in what the Air Force can do in the beginning The Army Air Corp is still struggling for status in the military By 1941 the AAC is convinced that strategic bombing was in effect a possibility of war winning potential 154 specific targets in Germany assemble plants electric power aluminum plants etc and argued that it could destroy those targets and thus Germany wouldn t be able to wage war With 6 months of strategic intense bombing they could end the war George Marshall thinks this plan has merit thus creating American strategic bombing and also creating a separate Air Force 1942 the 8th Air Force in England with bombing during daylight raids with high altitude precision bombings B17 Bomber Flying Fortress can repeal fighter aircraft in formations can withstand their own in missions take a pounding and keep going Early efforts aren t very effective They weren t able to achieve their goal of 6 months but they argued that it was because of a lack of resources and dispersion of those resources P51 Mustang is considered the best fighter plane of all time has the ability to escort and protect bomber formations deep inside of Germany The Luftwaffe becomes the primary target of the Air Force Feb 1944 the Luftwaffe is hurting bad at this time and in a series of raids destroying assembly plants and shooting down fighters in mass numbers Big Week destroyed the backbone of the Luftwaffe Now able to deploy strategic bombing as intended General Eisenhower Commander of Operation Overlord calls for the bombing of marshalling yards train depots and bridges but Combined Bomber Offensive Eisenhower wants to control of the 8th Air Force in connection with the DDay Operation Wants to isolate the Normandy area Speer head of the German railroad and electrically grid said that the strategic bombing campaign could have brought Germany to its knees by the end of summer in 1944 Results the bombing campaign allowed Germany to disperse its industry Destroying the Luftwaffe The Germans show great resilience to the bombing By 1945 the German economy was divided into a patch quilt of isolated economic activity Still able to produce the weapons but can t get it to the soldiers on the front Destroyed 9000 German planes on the ground On DDay the AmericansBritish had 12000 aircraft against 300 German aircraft Force the dispersion of German assets to activities to stop the bombing opposed to fighting the Russians Alters the entire structure of German aircraft production more fighters then bombers produce 1944 18 produced were bombers German 88 Artillery for anti air purposes now use to be for Russian tanks Oil supplies in Germany are dropping dramatically Communications were shot railroad traffic was V of what it was in winter of 1943 Places a ceiling on what the Germans could do Production was basically cut to 13 of it was to focus on fighting the air war History 4130 September 15 2009 Battle of Britain August September 1940 the defense of England Significance the German air campaign to destroy the British RAF in Operation Sea Lion in the invasion of mainland England First effort to bring a nation to its knees by air power Becomes Hitler s first setback Failure to defeat Britain leaves Hitler to make some very hard strategic choices British Preparationsmuch more united in defense but in terrible shape a been preparing for a German onslaught of air power b major priority becomes to not allowing the Germans to take the French fleet i seized all French ships in British ports and British warships show up in North Africa to take control of ships 4 damaged and 3 captured capital ships c no combat divisions are ready d evacuations of people in Southern England school children are key priority i zones to move people out of there begins months before the war begins ii May 1940 the school children are evacuated from the South 14000 kids come to the US and another 2700 are shipped off as well e Internal defense creation of the Home Guard men between 1565 to enroll in their local police stations with a lack of weapons and ammunition make spears The Churchill government ask for the people to turn in their small arms and the American people donate arms to the British and got training schools setup f General Defense loaded the beaches in southern England with objects to slow down the German invasion gliders and tank traps have to disable cars when you leave it stay put order calls for people to stay at home when the Germans come removal of signs with directions German quotPlanningquot major difference in planning after defeating France Expected England to sue for peace Shocked that England hasn t started talks after mainland Europe has been conquror and now has to improvise a plan to invade England No long range strategic bomber is developed by the Luftwaffe The Germans plan to put 6 divisions ashore on the southern coast but they don t have any landing craft no experience in this Had to neutralize the RAF before the sea invasion to begin Opposing sides Britain is much better prepared when the fighting begins a Leadership British leadership vs German leadership b Geography big in favor of England the distance affects the length of how long the German planes can fly operational time of 90 minutes c Psychological unity had done it in the past Spanish Armada d Air Power i British Spitfires and Hurricanes ii German Stukas and Messerschmitts e lntelligence state of the art warning system radar with a series of coast stations observer Corps and pick up squadrons of fighters and send relay back ULTRA ultra secret refers to the secret German communications ex jmabz means The enigma machine U571 movie used by the Germans looks like a type writing type one letter and it comes out looking like another one ex ak The Polish in the beginning could read small bits of messages without the encryption The task goes to the British after the Polish and French are defeated In the spring of 1940 they start reading the messages of the Germans This becomes the best kept secret of the war The city of Coventry was bombed but the British might have known about it The German Intel systems are far inferior to that of the Allies f All sides are about equal V Battle of Britain a The Luftwaffe intelligence on industrial targets is based on a pre war documents underestimates British air production by 50 August 12th Eagle Day is ordered by Goring the Luftwaffe is ordered to destroy the RAF August 13 h the battle begins The Luftwaffe is pounding the air fields while in air to air combat The real strain on the British was the lack of pilots After the RAF attacks Berlin the Luftwaffe is redirected to attack the cities with London taking a majority of the pounding cities prove to be able to take a pounding and still survive Churchill had left soldiers in the southern part of England in case of land invasion and fight behind German lines Check for poison gas reserve English first line of defense is the English Channel Hitler in September gave the order for several invasions but kept postponing until indefinitely and eventually never Vl Reasons for German Failure a Lack of intelligence and British preparation b Hitler s first defeat What to do now to achieve long range goals Time to deal with the Soviet Union His sense of time is running fear of the United States entering the war Also ideology has to do with it Wants Russian resources and needs to remove the Marxists Maybe focus on the Mediterranean Egypt and the Middle East for oil Closest he ever came to there was sending a small armored force to North Africa Heart was never really into it Have to focus on the bigger issues instead of North Africa History 4130 October 27 2009 War in the Pacific ETO amp PTO A Comparison a Geography Island hoping vs landlocked fighting i Distance Europe is compact and short In the pacific it is the exact opposite Fighting occurred in almost 700010000 miles of openocean The navy s role in Europe was for troop and communication movement Not much of a combat role Big amphibious operations were the main role of the navy in the Atlantic In the Pacific however everything is increased to a greater role WaterAir war Primary weapon was the aircraft carrier ii Terrain dense jungle fighting to more open solid land fighting iii Climate hot humid wet climate b Weapons systems i Navy Airbourne divisions ii Europe ground fighting is a war of maneuvering iii Pacific used the establishment of artillery and flamethrowers c Rhythm of Operations in Europe you fight Germans and overcome of local resistance long periods of continuous operations In the Pacific it is more of cycles Battles range from days to weeks to months lsland hoping d Command Structure Europe Eisenhower has total command of a very structured command list Coalition of forces in Europe The Pacific is largely an American operation Dual Command structure with the SW Pacific MacArthur Army and Central and N Pacific Nimitz Navy e Nature of the Enemy race war the two nations approach each other with strong racial tension Japanese conduct during the war differed greatly from that of Germany Emperor Togo issues do not surrender edict to the soldiers Western strategic culture places emphasis on wanting to live affects on what you will do to live The Japanese soldier will keep fighting till he is killed on the battlefield or kills himself All sides dehumanize the enemy Japanese are very cruel in their treatment of prisoners f llLevels of Civilization fought in established societies opposed to the Philippines are the only real sign of society Causalities are higher in Europe due to German artillery but neruopsychological causalities are higher in the Pacific Air power forced the end of the war of the war in the Pacific theatre Put Japan on the ropes until the Atomic Bombs were dropped Japanese Military Overview has a siege mentality that created a closed society Not many English language experts in the Japanese army but the same goes the for the US army The Japanese military control over the political system was much great then the US army in preparation of war When it goes to war will use its best troops on the Malaya area Singapore and the troops that fought in the Pacific were not their best soldiers Their training is increasingly reduced over the time of the war fewer and fewer good fighters However this machine had a great spirit despite lack of training Had what was considered the best fighter plane Zero in the world early on in the war It was still not a high tech society emphasis is place on effort of spirit and tradition Typical of backwards societies to place emphasis on human element Emperor Togo really didn t know what he was going to do after the initial outbreak of V V war Ignored long range goal development Domination of idea of warfare in the mythical elements as opposed to the strategic sense banzai charge amp kamikaze Element dimension of fighting was hand to hand combat Offensive action and on the attack not placed on defense except in an offensive manner puzzled by armies that retreat a Problem leadership as we understand Lead charges very inflexible and just carried on attacks rather than figure out how to get around defenses lnitial they are superior in weapons but as the war drags on they become less of the leader in technology American answer to the Zero and a lack of armor Anything worked against the Chinese Lightly armored tanks with little firepower mobile machine gun killers No provision of withdraw a war of extermination TheyJapanese have no antitank weapons Outdated weaponry rifles too big forJapanese soldiers Great imbalance of logistics tooth to tail ratio US 118 Japanese 11 ability to supply men in the field No equivalent to the Kration It was an economic pigma going to war with the United States Japanese Tide Dec 1941mid 1942 a b C Japanese Conquests attack on Hong Kong and Singapore Wake Island the Malaya Peninsula and the Philippines PhilippinesBataan tough terrain to move in and watch over 1000 Jap troops moved behind enemy lines for a week without anyone knowing General MacArthur was ordered out of there and goes to Australia Commander Wainwright is left in charge and is forced to surrender due to lack of supplies MacArthur is furious by this mad at Wainwright for surrendering But accepts him when he comes back from the POW camps Moral was high in the Japanese army after early victories especially after taking Singapore Doolittle Raid not often mentioned April 1942 Lt Colonel Jimmy Doolittle was put in charge of bombing the Japanese home islands Originally thought this could be done no bomber could take off from an aircraft carrier 1 way mission from aircraft carrier to China Do great damage and most do reach China Great moral boost to the American forces Establish a wave of containment and then unleash hell on the American forces and make it too bloody for them and hope they will sue for peace Turning the Tide Japanese thought calls for the destruction of the American aircraft carriers a Coral Sea May 1942 move forces there for the taking of Fort Moresby and the US Navy counters this Leads to a navalair battle in which the 2 fleets never see each other The battle is essentially a draw Strategic victory for the US navy Japanese loss of planes and pilots Midway June 1942 they use practical their entire fleet are Midway Main objective was to lure the Americans away from Pearl Harbor Under estimation on the Japanese about the American pilots American code breakers discover the plans and sneak ships out there to counter the Japanese They lose 4 aircraft carriers during the battle Heavy blow to the Japanese fleet No thoughts of an all out offensive attack for the Japanese lsland Hoping quotleap frogging avoiding Japanese positions if they have no real threat to US forces Guadalcanal US invasion August 1942February 1943 closest thing to a siege in the Pacific Theatre Japanese had been building on the island Strategic Bombing Marianas 1944 first use of strategic bombing in the Pacific Haven t been able to find a place to bomb Japan from MacArthur had a 101 kill to death ratio Several hundred Japanese planes are shot down during the invasion Battle of Leyte Gulf greatest naval Vl battle in history first use of units in kamikaze attacks instead of singular pilots The distance in the strategic bombing factors into toughness of bombing mainland Japan The 829 is created during this time the first true strategic bomber If everything went perfect one could barely make the 3000 mile trip 200 mph jet stream Few visual sightings of the targets not much damage done The Japanese had no counter to this The overall campaign is not very effective Curtis La May is put in charge of the strategic bombing He decides to try a new tactic by taking off the weapons since the Japanese didn t really have defense to them He fills them up with firebombing tactics March 1945 he aims his sights on Tokyo The city is completely on fire and out of control It destroyed 16 sq miles of Tokyo and about 80000100000 and Japanese reports said 200000 killed About 50 of the urban area ofJapan is destroyed by these tactics Atomic Bomb amp End of War they were not necessary for military victory Latest ground engagements cut the distance on mainland China by taking lwo Jima and Okinawa But by taking these islands the US forces are facing the toughest and bloodiest battles in the Pacific What are the options now Continue burning their cities naval blockade Messages are being read that the Japanese are preparing for a suicidal defense ofJapan with no signs of surrender President Truman decides that with the development of the atomic program when we get it we will use it August 6 1945 Hiroshima 44 sq miles destroyed and 80000135000 people killed August 9 1945 Nagasaki is also bombed didn t do as much The Soviet Union decides to enter the war just after the bombing The Emperor finally decides to surrender October 8 2009 History 4130 Big Three and I quotBig 3quot and Problem of Strategy how to defeat Germany a Personalities effects political conduct i Joseph Stain barbaric and primitive Created an absolute monster his regime Hitler is talked more about because he systematically set out to destroy a particular group of people Stalin is the man of the left a socialist regime Americans are much less willing to criticize a group for trying to help people Hitler in comparison was nothing to Stalin Stalin killed 20 million of his own people who weren t even involved in the war Molotov USSR stays in the White House Doesn t want to eat at the WH afraid of being poisoned Cracked the code on social control Stalin would have people arrested who were both antigovernment and people who were completely loyal to the country lnstill fear in the people amoral person Afraid of what Stalin would do to a person Would eliminate people from history Stalin in his primitiveness intended to have as much as he could get away with Winston Churchill tough shrewd knows the history and the world lives and breathes the British Empire He is an archrealist Typical of the British upper class it is strength but is willing to step outside the bounds to protect it llYou wanna shoot some Nazis let s just round them up and shoot them Less tolerance for silliness knows his business and Europe Franklin D Roosevelt he is a cripple and is pain Wears heavy iron braces on his legs He was hiding tons of pain Very optimistic prototypical American Overcome adversity to keep being president of the United States He is less able to step outside of the American domestic framework in comparison to Churchill and Stalin Has enormous faith in being able to persuade people Thinks he could win over Stalin if given the chance Roosevelt makes policy decisions with conversations with his small group of advisors Famous for having cabinet members who adopted opposing positions and after talking with him they feel that he agrees with them He wants to be liked great faith in his own ability comes across as a weakness in talks with Churchill and Stalin Understanding of the political culture of the United States The fight wars for political reasons and Stalin and Churchill understood this America thinks war is a sin It is not as diplomacy by other means For Americans here is war v how life should be See a sharp line between the two Diplomacy first then if that doesn t work go to war But during war the political strategy goes out the window Why is Britain even fighting Germany To preserve the balance of power in Europe Roosevelt s lifelong fascination with the naval world Argued that this shifted focus to the militaristic sense of war from that of the political sense of wa r b Divergent lnterests Stain would try to grab as much of Europe as possible Dec 1941 German armed forces are fighting on the doorstep of Moscow and the Russians are fighting with counteract tactics The fighting stalls until the winter snow melts wait for a second possible German offensive He wants the British and the US to C open up a second front to put pressure on the Germans However some thoughts trail back to World War I when Russia pulled out of the war when Germany was putting pressure on them earlier The British were willing to talk about territory Churchill everyone knows that German needs to be dealt with first He wants a balance of power in mainland Europe Concerned early on with the Red Army and the post war situation in terms of the balance of power Wants to protect the British Empire Afraid that the Japanese would drive into India and the Germans would link up with the Japanese FDR isn t talking much about the balance of power issue Defeat the Germans first then worry about it later Dealing with the issue of Pearl Harbor right now Administration isn t busy in dealings with mainland Europe dealing with embarrassment of Pearl Harbor Why do the Americans hate long wars They are the only nation in the 19 h and 20 h centuries that is perfect for a war of attrition Does not appeal to the American people we are problem solvers Get the job done as fast as possible lronically you have the United States agreeing with the Soviet Union on what to do with Germany Strategic Choices the best way to get into Germany would be through Northern France You will achieve your objectives will be through aggressive actions The better army will win in battle American Military Directive takes the war to the opposition Look for a decisive attack at the earliest opportunity Reinforced at the ABC talks AngloAmerican Debate a b C US Pressure for 2w Front American Operation codename Bolero build up American forces in the British Isles with Eisenhower in charge of this Cross channel invasion Churchill on the other hand and plays FDR like a fiddle Comes to the US after the attack on Pearl Harbor Pillar of British strategy is to get the US into the war Winston can read people FDR wants to be liked Praise the president US ideas invade the mainland in 1943 and if the Soviet Union might be knocked out of the war put a few divisions ashore to get a foothold British say it s too early British want to invade North Africa Don t have the equipment for channel invasions George Marshall and other high ranking military officials want to deal with Japan but FDR decides to back Churchill in Europe Begin to plan Operation Torch AngloAmerican invasion of French North Africa British Reluctance FDR s Acquiescent in Churchill s Strategy War in the East History 4130 October 22 2009 DDay Invasion of Fortress Europe lune 6th 1944 l Prep the largest amphibious operation in world history the culmination of taking action against the Germans a b C Planning begins in 1943 Supreme Allied Command Shaef headed by Eisenhower Needed a port that could hold the projected amount of supplies Cherbourg Need an expansive beach to make the landing in which Normandy was perfect for this The Germans expected the Allies to land at Calais tactical aircraft could fly multiple missions to it Divided the beaches into sectors the Americans on Utah and Omaha on the German left with the British and Canadian forces on the German rights at Gold Juno and Sword Why is this It just happened that the Americans were setting up in the place The Airbourne divisions were the first elements into Normandy Build portable harbors mulberries 39 Caen British mission is to take it and hold it until the Americans could break out Montgomery and Patton just couldn t stand each other Montgomery was considered to methodical in making decisions St Maire Egise everything went wrong here Germans flooded the fields No one has experience in training of paratrooper dropping Many pilots panic in the wake of German flak and speed up when they were suppose to slow down Logistics armada of 5000 ships Great Britain becomes a huge warehouse for the operation the only thing keeping the British Isles afloat were the mirage balloons 15 million American soldiers in England Deception quotFortitudequot very vulnerable crossing the channel to get to Normandy Rommel was in charge of the Normandy defense The tank traps with explosive devices and mines on the beaches The place to defeat an invasion force was on the beaches Argued to bring the armor closer to the beaches General von Man wanted to keep the armor back enough to keep it safe Time is the key here The Allies launch a massive campaign of deception to convince the Germans that the landings would be a Calais Send out little pieces of quotinfoquot out to let the Germans figure it out for themselves that the landings would be at Calais The Germans feared Patton and the Allies used this against them They take Patton and create a fictitious army near Calais to make the Germans think that Patton will be leading the assault to this area Created a low grade code that they knew the Germans could read Hitler suspected that Normandy would be the invasion ground but is convince by his Generals to move the Panzer divisions to Calais Isolation of Battlefield 39 French Resistance from loyal French groups to right wing radicals Charles de Gaulle tried to settle down the resistance Moulin escaped to London and was sent over to get the resistance together and to work with Shaef Don t let activities interfere with Allie plans 100 hundred separate networks in France a specific mission was assigned to those in the Normandy area The BBC was to coordinate the movements The groups had their own missions when the message is given over the BBC Hear preliminary message then listen for your own ii Air Power French civilians are going to be killed collateral damage Charles de Gaulle accepted this Hit as many targets that would prevent the Germans from being able to reinforce the Normandy beaches marshalling yards bridges etc The Operation overall the operation goes well Once ashore however the plans don t go accordingly to plan Don t achieve the break out from the Normandy beaches until July Hitler orders the army to stand and fight just outside of Caen The Allies encircle them and pound on them eventually pull back and go back towards Germany Montgomery wants to take the resources north from Caen but Patton wants to go across the Rhine Shows the American ability to adapt to situations on the battlefield Close air support for armored thrusts across Europe Just pounded the Germans with this flying artillery Continuous air support for all movements The Germans have the so called vengeance weapons Vl amp V2 missiles The llbuzz bombs would make a clattering noise then the engine would shut off over the target to destroy it The V2 was astonishing What if the Germans had developed the nuclear weapons Many attempts on Hitler s life during the war Tom Cruise tried to kill Hitler Failure of Operation Market Garden Not able to cross the Rhine by the end of the year The Battle of the Bulge Germans attempt to break through the Allies lines in the Ardennes Forest Called the quotbulgequot because of the indent by the Wehrmacht against the Allies front lines Last ditch effort to break the Allies and hopefully get a call for peace ULTRA knew of the German offensive saw the large build up there Germans use English speaking troops to sabotage the American lines The bloodiest battle of the war for the Americans Bastogne the soldiers went through some very difficult fighting here The Allies cross the Rhine in the following spring Allied advance from the West with the Russian advanced from the East The Germans surrender on May 7 1945 VE Day 390 239 E lt Causalities on DDay were only 2400 soldiers In Russia they were getting those numbers in hours in the battles Strategic planning differs greatly from that of the Soviet Union Russia is willing to lose human life in comparison to that of American ideals of preservation of life History 4130 September 10 2009 Blitzkrieg 19391940 Overview Germany is mismatched in terms of resources no great economic base wouldn t be able to fight a coalition of forces over a length of time Has to win quickly and be the aggressor to take territory a Belig Strategiesdidn t want to have to fight Britain and France together Britain and France believe and Hitler agrees the time is on the side of the Allies The British and French have large navies and colonies to reach out for help from along with the US They opt for a war of attrition against the Germans The French plan wasn t terrible but they failed to stop the German first attack b quotBlitzkriegquot What was it lightning war i Development of the tank comes out of the end of World War armored tanks could be the adjunct of soldiers spread the use of tanks among the soldiers New train of thought would be to put tanks in their own division to smash through enemy lines then quotpound on the kettle New war of maneuvering with tanks Dwight D Eisenhower praises the use of tanks in warfare as potentially revolutionizing the way war is fought The Germans looking for more efficient ways to deploy troops on multiple fronts look to the tank as the piece in being able to achieve this ii Superior training and leadership Germany has the best trained officer corps and soldiers in the world Exercise initiative no set way to achieve success in an operation Tactical air suggort Luftwaffe great use of the air force in attacking cities Stuka dive bombers Very successful in Poland and would later be successful in the Western and Russian fronts Polish Campaign 9 39 conquerors Poland very quickly blitzkrieg warfare wasn t the primary attack strategy for this invasion dependent on horses traditional World War army Germany is crushing Poland in this time The Polish weaknesses include a semiencirclement by German forces prior to invasion worry over the potential invasion from Russia no tank forces or horses late mobilization no defense strategy f Luftwaffe very successful quotWinter Warquot Nov 3939 March 3940 no real fighting between the two sides the phony war the only real fighting was between Russia and Finland 3 V2 months of fighting for Russia to finally defeat Russia This showed the relatively poor performance of the Russian Red Army Hitler had ordered 16 times for the attack on France but conditions weren t right Blitz vs Scandinavia Norway and Denmark become the targets to Germany Norway is invaded on April 9quot Sweden has iron ore mines 50 of German imports Norwegian ports aren t frozen in the winter so they need a connection to reach their iron ore The British are interested in the area and Germany worried about this orders for preparation to occupy the area The Norwegians resist the Germans The Germans will deploy paratroopers for the first time into airports but this was also a naval disaster for them But they will eventually take control of Norway Blitz in the West May 10 h the blitzkrieg is turned on the western front The attack on Western Europe was the main show for Hitler The plan called for initially to invade from ii 39 map Holland into northern France Dutch authorities caught wind of this Originally thought to only be able to conqueror only northern France General von Manstein calls for a diversion in northern Holland into France with the main force coming from the Ardennes Forest in southern Holland then race to the coast to conqueror all of France Ally planning falls right into the plan for Germany Number of what if s emerge out of this So many things go wrong that shouldn t have gone wrong The Ardennes is an unlikely road to come through very hilly and rough roads with forests However it offers an ideal opportunity to stop the thrust German traffic jams for miles A lot of the planning was still similar to the original thrust point what if the Brits and French had effective ground units there Air support was crucial here with the development of the Stuka dive bomber The Germans break thru in Sedan where a decisive battle was fought and the French were holding their own till the Stukas arrived on the battlefield French and British have level flight plans for their fighters which makes them an easy target for the German fighters The Germans would saturate the air with flak against the Allies French fighters would were held in the front lines The distinct German advantage was in air power in the Battle for France After the war General Gamlam and they asked him specific about fighter aircraft don t know the mystery to our aircraft right to be astonished The French were over confident in their operations against the Germans Thought tactics used against Poland wouldn t work against them Organizational problems citizen soldier is untrained and command has t move men around like chess pieces but that needs good communications Gamlam had no communications with outpost and had to send couriers to deliver messages Takes 6 weeks to conqueror France Poor leadership leads to its judgment General Guderian is leading the Wehrmacht in France and is making great progress and is actually making such progress he was ordered to stop twice Hitler is worried about French counter attack on Panzer divisions The British retreat to Dunkirk for evacuation the British RAF was not fully committed but they made a valiant effort in the fighting hoped to get 45000 men off the continent Evacuation was able to get 339000 troops in a great effort of removal of British and French preserves the core of the British army The French reserve force was sent to the area of the diversion attack On May 15 h the French admit they have been defeated Churchill arrives in Paris on the 16th Gamlam tells Churchill the Germans have broken thru and there is a 60 mile gap and the reserves don t even exist June 5 h and on begins the rest of German invasion into southern France Charles De Gaulle refused to be a part of the surrender Petain signs the armistice and then sets up the Vichy government in France June 4 h Churchill gives his famous speech to parliament on the defense of England


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