WORLD WAR II
WORLD WAR II HIST 4130
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Edna Boyle on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 4130 at Louisiana State University taught by S. Hilton in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see /class/222470/hist-4130-louisiana-state-university in History at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Why Does WWII occur in September of 19392102011 53000 PM Starts with Treaty ofVersailles at the end ofWWI 0 Germany has many consequences 0 O O O O Demilitarize no navy no subs no air force standing army limited to 100000 men with no long term volunteers to ensure they don t train troop s Lose territory all colonies taken France takes back Alsace Lorraine Poland gets land back Ally occupation of Germany War guilt clause charged Germany with responsibility for war resentment for Germans Had to pay back allies 33 million Germans thought it was unfair Had to surrender a substantial amount of land lower the power of army volunteer force of 10000 men and prohibited any existence of a reserve couldn t maintain an air force and the navy was cut back to only 6 ships and 10000 men they took away territories overseas that Germany settled Germany also had to pay for damages After these things Germany is very weak and the Weimar Republic is not working Hitler comes to power Power hungry man wrote MeinKamf detailing ideas for foreign policy political views thoughts on Jews and territorial expansion Comes to power through the Nazi party between 28 33 In 1933 Hitler becomes chancellor and soon passes law to be more or less a dictator Hitler understand mass psychology and how to in uence people he is an amazing speaker and came at a time when German s needed answers and he gives them what they want 0 O O Hitler wants 2 main things race a space He hates Jews and wants to cleanse Germany of them all together started as wanting to just expel them but turned to genocide Hitler s ideological approach intense racism hatred towards the Jews and contempt towards the Slavic people of Eastern Europe which led to the genocidal actions towards Jews and Slavs He wants to expand Germany s territory He wants to move East and take Poland and Ukraine because of its soil Also wants over seas territories I Hitler wanted the Ukraine rich agricultural land and natural resources 0 3 things to achieve race and space o 1 Consolidate power uses propaganda creates Gestapo the secret police made concentration camps etc o 2 Rearm must take the Rhineland so he can focus on expanding east 0 3 Keep other countries off balance to buy time 0 quotDiplomatic Resolution This is done fairly easily because lack of opposition from other countries He used PROPAGANDA to win over people in order to seize control and gain power legally and no longer ambushing He PLANNED FROM THE START 1 Dominate Europe 2 create Lebensraum for the German people in Eastern Europe gain land in the Ukraine bc of rich soil and natural resources 3 by accomplishing these ultimately in WAR 4 Planned to solved the Jewish problem but not done in its entirety until after the outbreak of the war 0 Hitler must breakVersailles Treaty and rearm but he doesn t hesitate to do this Hitler repeatedly signs nonaggression pacts then turns around and breaks them 0 In 1935 Hitler begins rearmament and has a draft of 500000 men Other countries 0 Italy becomes an ally for Germany because of ItalianEthiopian war Mussolini wanted a Mediterranean Empire so France and GB isolated Italy 0 Great Britain with Chamberlain as PM appease Germany because they are a big trading partner GB signs a naval pact with Germany and allows them to have U boats which violates Versailles 0 France feels threatened because they share a boarder with Germany their economy was still destroyed from WWI and their army was weak so when Hitler remilitarizes the Rhineland they don t react o Hitler sees their appeasement as weak leadership and that he can move forward with his plan unhindered o Soviet Union Hitler really hates communism and want Soviet and but signs a non aggression pact but will later invade there 0 He made agreements with other countries that he would plan to destroy 0 Germany and Soviet Union nonaggression pact Germany would enable Russia to purchase German capital goods and war material while the Soviets would provide Germany with raw materials German occupation in the Western half of the country and Soviet occupation thought the Eastern half He signed this pact as assurance that France and Britain would become neutral but they didn t back down 0 US is in Isolation and wants to stay out ofwar Hitler thinks US is head of Jewish conspiracy o Ideology played huge role Fascism Italy Mussolini Nazism Germany Hitler Communism Soviet Union Stalin o Totalitarianism 3 different political groups devoted to the commands of a single leader 0 Hitler knows that war with France Soviet Union and US are inevitable to get what he wants but Germany is much more prepared for this than anyone else GB and France have a offense strategy while Germany has a defense strategy Germany also has a better economy and man power to their advantage Militarize Rhineland to focus east and take Poland and Ukraine 3936 Annexes Austria and Sudetenland by quot38 All of these are the causes and events leading up to the war In September of1939 Hitler invades Poland effectively starting the European side of World War II 2102011 53000 PM 2102011 53000 PM WW2 Test 1 Essays Why WW2 occurred in 939 Roots of Con ict Peace of Paris Treaty of Versailles was based on compromises between Wilson who wanted the League of Nations and Clemenceau wanted to protect France from another German attack Wilson s fourteen points were very idealistic He was very kind to the Germans because the US did not suffer to the extent that the other European powers had in WW1 He wanted an international peace keeping organization disarmament of Germany and the securing of the right of all peoples to govern themselves Clemenceau wanted Germany to have a smaller army territory reduction and payments for war damages He also wanted France GB and the US to join in an alliance that would protect France should another German attack occur Wilson got the LON and Clemenceau got protection The Rhineland remained part of Germany but the allies were given 15 years to station their troops Germany also had to give a lot of territory back to Poland the Polish Corridor Without the Posen land Poland would be a landlocked country It s only access to sea would be through Germany Danzig a German populated state in the Polish Corridor became a free state under the LON and Poland reserved the right to use the ports there Germany gave up their territories along the Chinese coast and Africa had to downsize their navy and pay back 5 billion dollars in cash and commodities during the interim and as a total cost 33 billion Lastly the Big 3 included a war guilt clause that charged the Germans with responsibility for the loss and damage suffered by the Allies This was done to justify the costs for the German s repayment The Germans detested these changes A highly nationalistic country they were not convinced that they had really lost WWl They viewed the treaty to be extremely unfair and humiliating towards such a prestigious country The war guilt clause threw a wrench in their reality and caused resentment towards the bill The loss of Danzig and the Rhineland also upset them and they looked forward to the day when they would retake these lands as their own Another root was the man in charge Hitler He is extremely disturbed man From childhood he has thought himself to be on the earth for a specific reason to achieve something great His hate for Jews stems from his mother s illness denial into art academy and his grandmother He is an expert in mass psychology This is clear through the rise of the Nazi party in which he is almost solely responsible for Mein Kampf becomes wildly popular and is like the bible of Germany In it he basically maps out his brutal antiSemitic feelings his foreign policy and military strategy He is a crude Darwinist Aryans are superior in favor of a dictatorship overall he is attacking liberals socialists and Jews He ultimately wants to achieve expansion for Germany if you want an empire you have land to expand inLebensraum space to live He would go to any lengths to achieve this Hitler wants to overthrow the Versailles settlement and expand Germany and he does in March 1935 when he introduces military conscription and when his troops invade and occupy the Rhineland If it served his immediate purpose he make deals with countries that he would eventually invade and take over HOW The Diplomatic Revolution is another root of the beginning of the war When France make an alliance with Soviet Union for protection Hitler sees his opportunity to make Germany look like they got a bad deal out of the Treaty of Versailles So he says that Germany is a surrounded country and if they are attacked and don t have arms to protect themselves its not fairthey want rea1mament Mussolini had an antiGerman coalition building up in 1935 then all of a sudden they are leaning towards supporting Hitler Why Because of ItalioEthiopian War and the naval Pact between Britain and Germany The war between Italy and Ethiopia killed all relations between Italy and other Western Powers and offered opportunity for Italy and Germany to cooperate with each other When they attack the poor country they thought that England and France would look away but they don t and set up sanctions against them Then Hitler remilitarizes the Rhineland and France makes a huge mistake and does nothing By 1936 there are 2 distinct groups in Europe the Democracies and the Fascists Churchill becomes PM and just appeases Hitler for a while because he has the same doubts about the Versailles Treaty they have a small army and imperial obligations just to name a few GB and France appease Germany by making few concessions to them At Munich conference Hitler is given the Rhineland and takes control of Austria Britain and France loose all their credibility to ght and Hitler senses this He does not think they will react if he attacks Poland They do not stand up to Hitler Stalin views this as basic encouragement to go to war All of these things led to the German invasion of Poland in September 1939 Essay 2 Compare and Contrast FDR and Hitler Foreign Policy Hitler Darwinian Perspective opposed to Democratic Republican government the Weimar Republic In Mein Kampf he lines out his FP which includes the end to limitations that the peace settlement had imposed the insistence on Germany gaining Germans of Austria Sudetenland Danzig and Poland His ultimate goal was expansion Lebensraum living space for the German people in the Soviet Union He also wanted to come into power legally by election of the Weimar Republic and eventually created the Third German Empire the Third Reich Some say he never really had a FP just an opportunist and struck when the iron was hot and took advantage of the weakness of other countries but the evidence in MK and his later policies are too alike to agree with that theory If it served his immediate purpose he would make agreements with countries that he eventually planned to destroy He always had European domination and Lebensraum as his main and final goals and to ultimately do this he would go to war Roosevelt 7 Isolationist policies He was concerned with the expansion of German Japanese and Mussolini powers but he was very cautious toward all three HE institutes the Good Neighbor Policy and the Neutrality Laws The GNP and NL involve not intervening trying to separate the Americas from War This makes us look really good to other countries we should be a lesson to Europe We have always been isolationists superior to Europeans separated by oceans most self suf cient economy in the world We can survive without those countries Other reasons he was isolating us was because of the weakness of our anny and the Great Depression America seemed isolationist because of his reluctance to do anything that be seen as threatening and lead the country into war In order to win the favor of the Congress he tries at one point to embargo the sale of arms but ultimately he accepts three Neutrality acts these are the best expression of his isolationism The legislation called for immediate embargo on all arm sales to belligerents This was thought to keep us out of another European con ict For the US disarmament is the single most popular foreign policy in the 20s Japan signs limiting agreements at the conference US propose that the opendoor be written into treaty and Japan accepted They are being a good international citizen but are just doing it to buy themselves some time before they attack Leadership Hitler he becomes chancellor and bullies congress into passing a law that gives him executive legislative power Propaganda censorship and the Gestapo are all ways in which he played out his plan He kills all of his brown shirt leaders and thus does away with any internal threat he faces What he said was that all aspects of economics must be focused on rearming Germany He wants to build an air force He starts by forming quotair clubsquot to teach young men to y He begins the concentration camps and mass extermination of Jews homosexuals mentally ill etc he is a master psychologist His speeches physical appearance and radical ideas literally put a spell on people and they fall for it He makes everything seem like he is doing it for Germany Being an extremely nationalistic people the citizens love this But all of his actions are really all about what he wants to accomplish and be recognized foriwhat he knows is right Roosevelt ANTI GERMAN RHETORIC Seems like he is in it for his next re election Presidential Leadership he39s elected 4 times he had great attributes but was a politician rst and foremost He creates the New Deal but is writing checks to people for not working DEFICIT SPENDING By 36 the New Deal has supposedly quotsaved Americaquot When he is reelected he says alright we have to cut government spending and provoked the quotRoosevelt Recessionquot Historians debate whether he was a nationalist or internationalist He focuses on Germany he believes that Germany could and would project power across the Atlantic Believed that they would take over Europe then move down to west Africa y over the small strip of the Atlantic to north Brazil then bomb the Panama Canal Also the Nazi s were a threat to Christian Western Civilization A threat to morality Germany was the major and first threat Japan is a secondary threat The Japanese are moving away from American possessions in the Asian area This is a mistake of Roosevelt s underestimating Japan If you look at broad American policy in the 30s it is isolationism in an extreme We were experiencing the worst economic crisis ever This isolationism is also done because of reevaluating why we joined in during WWI Presidential leadership will decide foreign policy He tells Americans time and time again that we will not fight a war but we will help the allies Pretty much convinces people that Japan will not attack Ifyou want to judge American foreign policy and know nothing about it Hitler violated treaties and prepared for war at no point does he say I wonder what the US will do if I do this This is where the two men differ The US even with the depression is the most prosperous nation in the world Very few Americans favored US entry into the con ict but the isolationists feared that we would get involved by aiding GB spirited debate between isolationists and interventionists After winning the 1940 election he is not so cautious anymore and pays more attention to the European crisis Gradually we see a better leader emerging Tactics Roosevelt Post wwl the major problem that the army faces is the defensive only strategy Any thought or weapons system given to offensive uses was blocked The army is going to set up committees to study WWI one thing that came up was the new technology used The machine gun and airplanes Airplanes primary function was as a ying observation posts and an artillery spotter It s all close to the battle eld this is tactical air Close air support With tactical airpower your airpower is tied to your infantry The guys on the ground control what goes on in the air power Strategic bombing was in the air Hitler Strategic Planning Roosevelt Anti Gerrnan RhetoricPropaganda Strategy strengthen ties with Latin America aid the allies and tell Americans about what Germany is doing and STRENGTHEN MILTARY American planners revised their strategy in case of war Roosevelt actually listened to them unlike Hitler who made all decisions alone The concluded Rainbow 5 the possibility of US is getting involved on the side of GB and France in case of a war against Germany Shortly after Roosevelt s re election in 1940 they also came up with Plan Dog America s chief priority was German defeat Starts giving ABC talks He sets up Lend Lease lease or lend aims to GB and they just pay us back after the war This was bitterly opposed by isolationists Yet Hitler in an immediate sense doesn t think about what the US would do US is sending the signal that it doesn39t matter what you do we aren39t going to get in the way Once war breaks out in Europe he asks again to lift the aims embargo and Congress says yes on a cash and carry basis The strategy now is to aid the allies Provides arms to the allies France is defeated and that leaves just Britain Roosevelt allots a certain amount of military supplies to go to France Great example of civilian control of the military ABC talks extension of PanAmerican Security Zone Marshall is working nonstop to whip the army into shape As for battle strategy German army is the center of it How will we defeat them After getting the results of the ABC talks Roosevelt asked what they needed This became known as the Victory Plan and the beginning of strategic bombing and the Air Force Academy Japan attacks us then Germany declares war on us no now we can go back to the Germany First Strategy Hitler OKH Nazi Germany s high command of the army and Hitler disagreed with some things They wanted Germany to concentrate on the capture of the capital Moscow for the industry and railroads Hitler wanted to focus on the Baltic states and Leningrad and Ukraine because of the resources of grain iron ore and oil He also wanted German army to link up with the Finnish army because they joined the Germans to regain land they lost in the Winter War A compromise of these thoughts was Operation Barbarossa It included Army Group North Center and South Army Group Center was to destroy Poland forces then aid Group North with smashing the enemy in Leningrad After all of this they would head back to center to continue fighting through Moscow HOW DID IT WORK They both came into power at the same time and solved the economic depressions going on in their countries These depressions were being caused by social and political problems in both courtiers They both hated communism and democracy The differences are that Hitler was a racist and lacked social justice Roosevelt had sympathy for others and was a keen democrat Jan 20 2011 Hist 4130 Hitler s Strategic Vision and the European Crisis 0 Distinctive qualities of German experience 0 Geography I Germany is surrounded by countries that are hostile or potentially hostile I SO unlike France who face no land aggression from the West and somewhat the south they can concentrate and focus all energy on their enemy Germany Germany may have to fight a war on multiple fronts I In Germany this becomes a strategic element in their view of things They are ringed in by hostile people 0 Nationalism I Because Germany is relatively new as a unified country there was an argument that its nationalism had a keener edge than other countries It was a little more intense I When Germany was unified you now have to think ofa world strategy push German policies throughout the world figure out who their enemies are they want to become a major world player 0 Sense of national unfulfillment I Trauma of defeat in WW1 I Gives them the idea that Germany has been shafted shortchanged wronged o VirulentantiSemitism I Particularly strong in Germany but at the time it was also strong throughout central and Eastern Europe but only in Germany s state did it become part of their strategic policy 0 Weimar republic Anytime you have a substantial change in government structure there will be tension and some flaws and now it s magnetized because of their recent defeat I The treaty of Versailles to end WW placed restrictions on Germany 0 Military restriction 9 limit size of the navy demilitarized the Rhine no submarines no air force limit the size of the army to 100000 men of longterm volunteers could not have a general staff Had to pay reparations 9the war guilt clause said that Germany was responsible for the war so they had to pay for it Territorial possessions 9 lost all of their colonial possessions Lost a lot of land to the east to create Poland which separated East Prussia from Germany 0 During the 1920 s the political system in Germany was grappling with massive financial problems because of the reparations In 1923 the French were angered with the slow payment invaded part of Germany Then the depression hits This makes the conditions right they needed a man a leader 0 O and Hitler stepped forward ready able and determined to exploit the problems 0 Hitler 0 Background I Blamed Jews for all of Germany s woes I Served in the German army during the war I At the end of the war he is military unit in southern Germany as a political officer His job was to monitor activities of subversive groups 0 Postwar political Activity I A lot of right wing Paramilitary groups I While doing thatjob he hears about a party called the German workers party 0 He goes to one of their meetings and loved everything he heard He began regular attendance and began speaking and emerged as the dominant leader of that group 0 This was the beginning of the NSDAPNAZI party 0 NSDAP I National socialist German workers party I Formally launched in 1920 I ts voice is lost in a sea of protests and demonstrations There were a ton of these kinds of groups at this time I German politics is very violent I In 1923 Hitler took part in an attempt to seize the government and as a result of this he was sentenced to time in prison and while in there he dictated to his cellmate what became the book Meinkamph my struggle o Meinkampf I llmy struggle I Kind of biographical I But he lays out what he thinks Germany needs to become His views on Jews government etc I Lays out his foreign policy idea I Says that territorial expansion is vital for Germany They wanted to increase the productivity of their soil 0 Uses a term Lebensraum quotliving spacequot in the east is the area he wants to grab for Germany 0 Hitler as political leader I Thought Communists are the enemy I He sees the Jewish hand behind all of Germany s problems So extreme anti Semitism was at the core of his thinking I Will launch a world war and become involved in it because of his ideology I Had a keen sense of understanding German psychology A good instinct for how public opinion could be shaped or influenced I A great orator which he practiced He would write his speeches out and practice them in the mirror His events were very staged 0 His associates I Rudolph Hess 0 As they are planning to attack the Soviet Union he consults an astronomer gets in a plane flies to Scotland and parachutes out who was known to be kind of sympathetic to the Nazis All without talking to Hitler He went there to make peace with England so that they could attack Germany He was then sentenced to life in prison I Herman Goering 0 Was a true war hero fighter pilot last commander of most distinguished fighter squad in Germanair force married a rich Swedish baroness 0 Very loyal to Hitler and didn t want power himself He was considered 2nd most powerful man and he was content with that Joseph Goebbels o Propaganda minister head of it all Believed that if you keep telling people something even lies eventually they will believe it 0 Loved Hitler In 1945 they poisoned all of their children and then poisoned themselves because they could not see life without Hitler in it Himmler 0 Joined the party a little later but became head of the SS 0 The SS started out as the elite bodyguard for Hitler in the 20 s but it is built up to become the core enforcement group of the Nazi state 0 Reich minister of security 0 Party s rise to power In 1928 Nazi party was the 12 h largest party in Germany In 1929 the depression hits in 1930 the Nazis become the 2nd largest party Went from 12 to 107 seats In 1932 they become the number 1 party with 608 seats and almost 14 million votes In 1933 Hitler became chancellor Many wonder without the depression would they ever have achieved power The depression polarized German politics The Nazis gained more and more votes because people thought it was becoming a choice between the communists and the Nazis and so they went with the Nazis regardless of whether they believed in everything Hitler said Communist international 9 comintern Set up to control all of the communist parties around the world 0 Communists don t have nationalism don t believe in private property not religious 0 All of these things were very opposite of most Germans so that s why they didn t want to vote communist o Machtergreifung llthe seizure of power Nazis always wanted to talk about decisive aggressive action but they didn t really seize power 0 Hitler s foreign policy ideas 0 General Politics is a struggle with every government trying to gain success at the expense of their neighbor Key to success in the international arena is power Hitler sees war as the only means by which Germany can obtain their objectives 0 Race and space The 2 pillars of his foreign policy No great empire can withstand racial impurity He is not calling for the physical extermination of Jews but he blames them for all of Germany s problems he wants them expelled from Germany Germany had no hope without racial cleansing Space he believes they need more agricultural space The Ukraine is the richest agricultural land in the world and that s the land he wants 0 Attitude toward other states Soviet Union 9 deadly enemy that must be destroyed and it has the territory he wants so war with them is inevitable France 9 the eternal enemy They will always get in Germany s way Italy 9 Mussolini has been in power with a fascist government since 1922 so they have some similarities Mussolini had greater ambitions for an Italian empire in North Africa so that meant there would be conflict between them and France which gave Italy and Germany a common enemy so they could be allies Great Britain 9 cornerstone of British foreign policy has been maintaining some power on the European mainland So any country that sought to dominate Europe would be an enemy in British eyes They wanted to keep things balanced o Hitler knows this but he thinks that if Britain sees that his ambitions are limited to the European continent that they being a colonial imperial nation will be willing to let him go and accept him and maybe even become an ally He likes the British racially Sees America as the boardroom of Jewish conspiracy Thinks at some point there will be a showdown between the US and Europe led by Germany 0 Hitler s initial program 0 Tasks93 o Policies Consolidate his control over Germany Rearm Versailles treaty was a barrier to this Keep other countries off balance to gain time Keep them divided Through constitutional policy He intimidated the Reichstag into voting a special law that was called the enabling act that gave Hitler the chief executive legislative power At the same time his propaganda people are putting people behind Hitler Concentration camps are being set up as llhard work campsquot not yet death camps Set up a secret police in 1933 The Gestapo All of these elements together form the basis of his personal rule now he has to get the business class and army on board 0 Business by giving contracts 0 Army 9 get them on board by eliminating the paramilitary groups They were called the SA sso in june 1934 the SS people broke in and shot the brownshirts 0 Also gave the army money who made all units of army sign and take an oath of allegiance of him not the state he is the state
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