HIS WES CIVILIZATION
HIS WES CIVILIZATION HIST 1003
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Magnolia Heaney on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1003 at Louisiana State University taught by S. Marchand in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/222473/hist-1003-louisiana-state-university in History at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Courtly Culture 0 O O O O Belief in precedence privilege Belief in legal inequalities as the right way to order the universe Partiarchal beliefs 39fathers39 take care of 39children39 The King39s Touch Culture is for aristocrats Courts as patronage networks The Witch Craze O 0 Product of era of religious conflict and fear of others Product also of era of plagues unusual weather events political upheaval Era in which there is no specialized medicine The Old Regime39s 39Revolution39 0 O O O O 0 Agricultural Revolution Enclosure Crop Rotations Increasing Populations in 18thc Reclamation of marshes New crops eg potatoes The Commercial 39Revolution39 1 O O O O 0 Creation of new colonial outposts pushed by mercantile ideas Increased trade in exotic goods cocoa coffee tobacco tea sugar Importance of the Caribbean New financial instruments banks stock markets Development of 39capitalism39 The Commercial 39Revolution39 2 The 39Industrious39 Revolution 0 New smallscale industries 0 The 39putting out39 system in the countryside 0 Bank of Amsterdam is created first government backed bank 0 Merchants and trade is what kept the economy running The Scienti c Revolution Begins as early as the 16thc as outgrowth of the Renaissance The old authorities and the new Trusting one39s own reason and one39s hands Emphasis on empiricism testing Galileo39s uniform universe 0 Newton39s laws Universal application of laws Emphasis on observation What is Enlightenment o Immanuel Kant39s definition quotEnlightenment is man39s overcoming of his selfimposed immaturityquot Possibility of improvement Possibility of humankind obtaining new knowledge Utility Possibility of human progress Trust in the power of individual reason Importance of reading 39the book of nature39 Universalism Belief in law and laws Usefulness of criticism Equality of all men at least of European descent O O O O O O O O O O The Geography of the Enlightenment Density of thinkers books salons greatest in western Europe Can be found everywhere even in Sweden Carolus Linneaus39s 39System of Nature39 rational categorization of all living things 0 O o Comes a bit later to eastern Europe where population density and commerce are less censorship and subsistencelevel poverty greater 0 Makes very few inroads into Russia or Balkans Early and Moderate Enlightenment Thinking in England 0 Some key figures John Locke 0 english scholar and natural scientist involved in politics during the Exclusion Crisis in the 1670s and 80s quotLetter Concerning Tolerationquot 1672 Essay on Human Understanding 1690 Critique of tyranny in Second Treatise of Government 1690 Spells out here the right to rebel and sovereignty of the people Advocated separation of church and state Very very moderate in his beliefs and ideals The Scottish Enlightenment 0 Adam Smith 0 Critique of mercantilism and advocacy of free trade 0 David Hume O Critique of miracles Insistence that the only knowledge we have is empirical knowledge The More Radical Enlightenment France 0 Voltaire Famous for wit and style Philosophical Letters 1734 Sometimes friend sometimes enemy of absolutist monarchs Deep critic of superstition and of Christian dogma quotExrasex l39enfamequot 0 ll Rousseau O quotDiscourse on the Origins of Inequalityquot 1756 Emile 1761 The Social Contract 1762 quotMan is born free but he is everywhere in chainsquot The Parisian Salon 0 Private version of coffee shop 0 Where well known individuals went to talk and debate 0 Very social environment 0 Prestigious if invited Diderot and teh Encyclopedia 0 28 volumes 17511772 0 Utility to be used by people now not for the King39s glory o Necessity of revolutions in ideas 0 man at the center 0 End to secrecy 39Guttersnipe39Enlightenment Rumors 39affairs39 The Affair of the Vanishing Children 1765 Diamond Necklace Affair 1785 Accusations the King is corrupt the Queen rules the roost and France has declined the priests are debauched Transmission songs stories popular newssheets underground books First public criticism of government or rulers O O O O O Absolutism and Enlightenment o Absolutism shares with Enlightenment rationalizing universalizing semimeritocratic worldview Emphasis on efficiency and utility toleration or attempt to limit the church39s powers Examples of Enlightened Absolutists O O 0 Catherine the Great of Russia 0 Josep O Frede O Came to power after husband died Always searching for new knowledge very curious Opposed torture reformed bureaucracy wanted to create and efficient government Came to an end after serfs rebelled against her enslaved them and bound them to their properties h II of Austria Most of his reforms were overturned at his death Not very popular Under his rule equal punishment for all regardless of rank tolerant of Protestants rick the Great of Prussia Won the title of quotGreatquot for military achievements Enlightened ruler Toleration of Muslims Improvements on public education and government Enlightenment v Absolutism o Absolutists do not want to destroy the system of privileges or be 0 O restra Here ined by laws reform must come from above Horri ed by 39Guttersnipe Enlightenment39 The Enlightenment and Religion 0 O O O O Criticism of clerical authority Criticism of 39useless39 prayer and rituals Criticism of clerical corruption Criticism of biblical literalism But Most supporters of Enlightenment are believing Christians