THE US 1865 TO PRES
THE US 1865 TO PRES HIST 2057
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Edna Boyle on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2057 at Louisiana State University taught by Paul Dotson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/222474/hist-2057-louisiana-state-university in History at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
The 1990s George H W Bush a Reagan s VP b Lawyer c Elected after Reagan served 2 terms d Major event i Collapse of the SU and communism 1 SU economy was in a decline a Trying to keep up w the US on military spending devastated the SU economy Funding their Cold War allies hurt them Economy in general terrible and all combined to produce 397 039 economic downturn for SU 2 SU began pulling troops out of satellite countries a Communist government in those countries e End of Cold War Victory i Their spending on the Cold War that made this possible ii Can no longer campaign on being cold war warriors William J Clinton llNew Democrat a SU was still around much more difficult for him to be elected b Couldn t have happened if SU threat still existed c Elected in 1992 beat Bush Elder bc the economy killed him he was out of touch d Democrat New Democrat e Trapped under the NC so he has to run under a New Democratic notion i NC wanted End Welfare as we know it Cinton passed welfare reform that limited benefits up to 5 years in life Moved against deficit spending to end it iquot Balance budget produce budget surplus Emphasized free trade signed NAFTA f Had 2 women in his bed lt i Testifying for sexual harassment sue by Paula Jones when committed perjury Monica ii lmpeached by congress 1 Found not guilty 2000 Presidential Election a Essentially a tie vote i Gore won the popular voteBush won electoral vote ii Went down to the Supreme courtwon bc of his daddy b Bush was reelected in 2004 i He isn t doing so great now28 approval rating World War II Fighting and defeating Germany amp Japan Out produce Germany and Japan US mainland not attacked 9 turn out more military products Build massive air force Focused on opening up second front and also begin bomb raids on Japan D day 1944 2nd Front Operation Overload 39 3 million troops cross English channel and rapidly push German troops back to meUm Germany Soviet Union also closing in obvious that Germany will be defeated Hitler kills himself II Conceptions of llthe good war I a The good war llGood vs Evil Evil easily identified Hitler Japan Nazis US on side of the good iv Easy to see especially compared to wars after WWII v 16 million soldiers who fought that were are considered to be The Greatest Generation 1 Little dissent during WWII from American public a FDR prepared the American public for this process telling them it was going to be a long and bloody war b Public trusted FDR bc he got them through the Depression 2 Japanese atrocities anger the American public a Pearl Harbor Japan takes 30 thousand US troops prisoner and forced to march across an island called Bataan b Anyone who fell behind were killed 3 Germany and Japan are totalitarian 4 Economic concerns 9 war costing the US markets in Asia and Europe 5 Really wasn t much needed for propaganda posters 6 Not a lot of goals victory alone was enough they just wanted to llwin and go home 7 No outbreak of hysteria a No espionage act or sedition act 8 EXCEPT against JapaneseAmericans living on the west coast a After Pearl Harbor there were rumors that the Japanese Americans were working for the nation ofJapan and paving a way for the attack b All persons ofJapanese ancestries living on the west coast are to be evacuated to internment camps i 127 thousand were relocated to internment camps 80 thousand were US citizens Had to sell everything you owned before you left iv Had to stay there till the war was over v Taken to the supreme court and it was ruled that it WAS constitutional c No German American s were put into camps just Japanese Americans d Life still went on while they were basically in prison played baseball boys joined boy scoots e In 1980 the US government apologized and gave them 20000 b Some problems i Race war in Pacific 1 Dehumanization of the Japanese 2 Governmentsponsored propaganda campaign war in the pacific was very brutal a Why We Fight i US Soldiers are told why the Japanese are sinister ii All Japanese has suitable targets b Lots of Poster showing Japanese as inhuman c Result is the war is brutal and horrific i Common for the soldiers to take quottrophiesquot for their efforts teeth skulls ii Holocaust 1 Defeating Hitler raciest monster and ending the Holocaust is viewable as the good in llthe good war N 911 million people were killed in death camps PROBLEM a When Germany is rounding up Jews in the late 30 s the US 5 didn t loosen immigration laws to let them in b FDR did nothing to raise German immigration 4 1942 US knew of the death camps a What could we have done i Bombed the concentration camps 57 Focused on defeating Germany to end practice American public didn t know about the Holocaust AFTER the war was over 0 d Wasn t war to end Holocaust in minds of American public iii War on civilians 1 Bombing civilians 2 Early in the war we focused only on military targets 3 Later on we turned to carpet bombing entire cites iv Atomic bomb 1 Ultimate bombing of civilians was an Atomic Bomb Hiroshima and Nagasaki 2 Germany tried to build an Atomic Bomb but gave up 3 Height there was 150000 people trying to build an atomic bomb 4 We re the only country that could have done it a Had the money man power and brains b Summer of 1945 we tested it out c By then Germany had been defeated S Truman authorities 2 atomic bombs to be dropped in Japan a Died instantly and survivors died of radiation 6 Controversy a In 1990 Smithsonian Space museum were going to put the plane along with imagery of Hiroshima after bomb dropped b When veterans found out they insisted plane be on display with no context c Exhibit ended up being just plane no context 7 Arguments a Truman talked about justification no choices Drop and end war or send troops In the invasion hundreds of US troops perished iquot Historians say they can t find its that high i lt Did the Atomic bomb to impress to Soviet Union 8 Problem was the second bombwhy do it we know we defeated Japan a Not long after the 2nd bomb Japan s Emperor surrendered on the radio v Easy to see the war as a Good war and sees it as pure good vs pure evil doesn t look at everything lll Impact of war at home a African Americans i FDR hiked up military industries jobs for all wanted unless you were black 1 When this began to happen someone named A Phillip Randolph began to question that plans a march to demand equal access in the war industries 2 FDR didn t want this march to happen want to unify not protesting so he creates the Fair Employment Practices Commission a You can t discriminate based on race and religion b Still doesn t really work more symbolic then real ii Black Participation in the war effort 1 About a million soldiers 2 Double V campaign a Wanted Victory abroad over Hitler and Victory at home for equality b Expected their participation will give them citizenship with equal place in American society c Very little changed army stayed segregated b Women 39 Dramatic change in what they do but their expectations stay the same 12 million men left theirjobs to go to war woman take their places 37 of the industry were woman iv Rosy the Riveter v Expectation is once the war is over they will go back to the home and be homemakers teachers secretaries vi When the war ends they leave their jobs and go back to what they were doing before the war c Existing social amp economic tends i Growth of industry 1 Big businesses grow into hug corporations ii Role of Federal Government in economy 1 Still continues 2 Set limits on what the Americans can buy during the war a Limit access to material that is needed for the war All steel went to the war no new cars washing machines etc No tires produced made out of rubber rubber came from southeast asia iquot Gasoline was rationed 3 gallonsweek 2 EVERYTHING was rationed sugar gas anything v Had to have a coupon and cash to buy everything 3 During war 100 of people paying taxes iii Prosperity 1 RETU RNS 2 Only half of war effort paid with taxes other half with deficit spending 3 Ran massive deficit during war more money those 4 year than they 150 years before Massive dept 9 economy boomed Unemployment almost goes to nil Keyne s economic theory is correct Ian39Ib Americans consumer ethic a During war weren t allowed much to buy iv Consumer ethic 1 Pent up consumerism 2 When the war ends Americans go on a spending spree 3 quotGI Bill a Passed for veterans of war i Gives them low interest housing loans and government aid for high educations b About half had taken advantage and gotten a college education c Became part of the middle class Background rthpUm iv ll Causes The Great Depression Economy was booming in the 1920 s production doubled Most Americans living in urban area Republicans control the White House Federal government roles decreased while economy boomed Followed by economic collapse Collage decides not to run for President Herbert Hoover get s the republican nomination and wins election 1 P94quot 5 He was a selfmade man was a orphan and bc of hard work he became a selfmade millionaire During WWI Hoover involved in providing for and in Europe He s a symbol of corporate America Campaign on promise that economic prosperity will continue onward a llA chicken in every pot a car in every garage Sustain prohibition Al Smith is a democratic nominee 1 Symbol of new urban culture Hoover crushes Smith 6 Months after he is in office the Stock Market Crashed a Stock Market Crashing was NOT the main cause of the Great Depression 2 lt V Most of the stock recovered before Depression b Why did market crash 39 Stock value through decade went up 400 Most Americans believed that growth would never end and if they invested in stock they d make a fortune Looks like an easy way to get rich Credit was easy to get More Americans had invested in stock at this point 1 Mainly had taken out loans refinanced houses etc Problem 1 Value of stock was only real till mid 1920 2 After the Crash the value of the stock was artificial 3 Stock market crash was typical correction cycle designed to put stocks back to what their values should be 4 This was most dramatic a Market lost 10 billion dollars most stock fell in value by 13 or reflected actual value 5 American economy was NOT healthy despite prosperity a Market completely unregulated vii lll Impact b c Fraud inside trading Stock brokers corrupt in some cases 6 New auto industry had run out of customers by the end of the 1920 s a Giant industry had tapped out market b Car sales plummeted 7 Banking system had structural problems 8 Urban America problem a Banks and their customers used customers money to invest in stock 9 General lack of demand for goods a Output surpassed demand b Overproduction and under comsumption 10 After market crashed the federal government raised interest rates a Raised interest rates to prevent inflation b Made matters worse 11 Congress likewise made the same mistake by raising the tariff From all this the Great Depression came a Economic lt239 V Gross National Product had declined down 50 13 of all banks closed their banks if you had money in a bank that was closed your money was gone Manufactured goods were down 50 85000 businesses closed Unemployment raised up to 25 About 100000 workers lost their job a week b American public 2 v c Natural d i Many people were starving to death bc there was no government aid Private aid industries would ask restaurants for scraps to feed those who were starving llKetchup sandwiches Jobless men and their families were wondering the nation looking for work 1 Terrible social and economic conditions At any time 2 million Americans on the road looking for work Disasters A drought hit the US and made matters worse Dust bowl 1 35 million workers moved to the CA to get out of the area Social Impact American Middle Classes 1 Suffer the most during this time 2 Believed that if you were poor it was your fault so they blamed themselves and went into a state of depression ii Poor American Class 1 Things don t change bc they were poor to begin with iii Upper American Class 1 Has money put away so they can ride it out and live somewhat the same lV Responses a Hoover Believes the Great Depression will ride out and markets will fix themselves ii Believed it happened bc some countries in Europe got off of the gold standard iii Federal government should do nothing in this situation iv lnsight that federal government balanced budget even if it means raising taxes v Believes the invisible hand will fix everything vi When G D doesn t go away as he predicted 1 Moves to do something outcry from public so great 2 Starts by asking for voluntary pricewage control a Doesn t demand or pass law many committed initially but then break their word vii Reconstruction Finance Corporation 1 This agency loans federal money to banks big businesses and states to try and prevent some business banks from going under 2 Loans out 2 billion 3 Doesn t do anything 4 Saves SOME banks and businesses but not all 5 Doesn t help Americans in need viii Declares the GD over in 1930 but this was not correct at all b American Public i Wealthy Americans stood behind him completely are satisfied see him as a hero for holding the line when so many call for more government action ii Middle class iii Those harder hit farmers 1 Demand expect more 2 Begin to protest against federal government inaction iv Bonus Army 1 Aka Bonus March 2 Mid20 s the government passed a bill saying they were grateful and that they were going to give veterans 1000 in 1945 5 When the GD starts the men ask for their money now P Begin to organize and have a march in DC to demand for their bonus now 5 Once they get to DC they set up camp at a downtown street Mall 6 Every day they would march to the White House asking for their money now 7 Typically peaceful and organized 8 House passed to give the men their money the Senate stopped it and Hoover said quotnoquot a Hoover believed that the march was organized and headed by communist v After the march Hoover looks like a monster 1 Hoover Blankets Hoover Flags Hoovervilles Election of 1932 a Hoover is the Republican nominee b FDR was the Democratic nominee i Campaigns on a promise to fix things Wins in a landslide iii The default candidate
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