11/4, 11/11, and 11/13
11/4, 11/11, and 11/13 1050
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Date Created: 11/26/14
11414 M edia and War civil war Matthew Brady Antietam the photographers think of themselves as artists At this point photograph is in its infancy limits the type of shots nothing can be moving Gardner moved the body and the gun to make the picture it s art not journalism the pictures Brady took of dead people generated a lot of money creates a market for photographs of dead people they saw these things and could handle it the US government during world war one worries about public opinion right after a major immigration period they censor the immigrant media media management the press isn t allowed to show pictures of dead americans postcensorship the press are allowed on the front lines but their stories are censored WWII the office of war information censorship wing postcensorship model ban showing images too gruesome definitely can t show dead americans they will only censor operational security problems the information that could help the enemy however they take liberties with this and censor to keep morale the biggest concern is that journalists are spies In war we expect people to do irrational things In combat journalists think it can t happen to me it can happen so I ll be more careful so it won t happen you realize it will happen so I need to get out of her as quickly as possible the military is protecting the journalists OWI and natural inclination of press is to feel like they re in the military we had censorship for military purposes WWII becomes a seminal moment in the way americans elites especially talk about war In coverage today journalists reference WWII a lot it has enduring value they use Hiter s name a lot Chamberlain and Appeasement people who don t want to go to war are looked down on the way that we learned about the war shaped the entire way we view ourselves by censoring the information we paint a different story make these people heroic and portray them as if they have no fear and that s why they re heroic the soldiers hated that because there was no understanding of PTSD there were no sources of understanding The disconnect between what we are told and what is actually happening has large ramifications Morale was important as well as support people might not go to work we need people to buy war bonds 1943 OWI thinks morale is low people are complacent they allow a picture of 2 dead marines in Life magazine the decisions to allow this picture makes no sense held these types of pictures back to protect morale put them out to stimulate support press management what they say about the war the korean war the journalists didn t see themselves as adverbial towards the military step behind the censorship process they instantly impose a heavy handed censorship Vietnam 1st TV war the living room war argument that coverage diminished support by showing casualties critical and adverbial Because the public didn t support the war the leaders didn t Postcensorship frame true in theory that we see more graphic stud we are getting news of the war differently than before There is an accusation that these stories and these photographs lend support to the protestors and ultimately contribute to the loss PBS DOCUMENTARY THE UNCENSORED WAR 111114 Media and War Relationships between Military and Press often said that the media lost the war for them because they showed casualties and was antiwar to begin with negative adverbial tone They said that the press was always against the war Walter Cronkite most trusted guy after the Tet offensive he goes over there and says we can t win this lf l ve lost Cronkite l ve lost the country The press coverage of war has always started as nonadversial They were not antiwar in the early stages Hallan the way that journalism covers war is made up of the story we tell about ourselves there were less why questions and tactical concerns the johnson government was lying to the public Pentagon papers we know they decided to lie garner support and troops because they thought we would eventually win there is a point that the tone of the coverage changes Tet Offensive becomes more critical more fundamentally critical Tet tactical failure and strategic victory for the Viet Cong the US never lost a major battle but lost the war although it was repelled the strategic capability of the Viet Cong surprised people the press and the public thought we were winning an eye opener for reporters and congress wait if we re winning how could they do this how did they pull this off Tet exposes the lie and things change If Cronkite can do it everyone can the reflexive position of the journalists was not to questions the fundamentals journalists traditionally give us fairly positive coverage Gans enduring values in Vietnam it framed by policy elite and the press as a cold war narrative they used the cold war frame we could have also seen it through a civil war frame the history of Vietnam is one of constant tension with China the frame disregarded this they thought China Vietnam and Russia would hang out but no There are more options than seeing it as a part of the cold war seeing Vietnam as a part of the cold war was never a question it just was casualty coverage does change more exposed never the level that we have assumed in our mythology we have assumed that there was so much more casualty coverage How much did the coverage after Tet affect public opinion we have learned that if it s going to become critical it s going to be a long time Public opinion of intervention and media opinion of intervention state of political elites influence both congressmen start questioning so the mdi a does Larice Bennett coverage of foreign policy crises indexing hypothesis index to reflect the range of political elites opinion when political elites are in agreement press conveys that might be prointervention the tone is uncritical leadup into the Iraq war followed this pattern international elites and congressmen questioning the fundamentals there are no disagreements about Hussein having WMD when elites disagree coverage will reflect this can be critical after awhile there is an opportunity for criticism By the time we get to Tet if frees the press to do what it wants public opinion follows elites as well the most important cognitive shortcut is through the party when things are in consensus we assume it s true heuristic when the parties think differently it probes our party cue the people follow their party congressional elite questioning different coverage Tet open door after the war the Vietnam syndrome the american pubic has no tolerance for war and feel guilty there is an argument that the press really let us down how will we deal with this issue in the future What we know from indexing most crises get resolved really quickly when it doesn t other actors will come into the conversation studies show that the president has a greater role in indexing 1982 Falkland Islands the argentinians invade the islands and the British get upset when the press gets to islands they make the press stay on the beat Don t worry we ll tell you everything that happens military reporters have no option but to follow these press conferences the officials the information is completely controlled by the military America likes this effect so they adopt it too precensorship model you don t let them on the ground the invasion happens and the reporters are kept on the boat 1991 the coverage is very glowing the Vietnam syndrome is over america is back we find out later that those briefings was not accurate it turns out our intelligence wasn t so great which stories were on the front page the invasion NOT the mistakes that s a win for the military and the government first case of US precensorship Persian Gulf War Hussein invades Kuwait we were told it was going to be difficult the reporters leave them in Saudi Arabia but we will take press pools to see some stuff not really good frontline information Peter Arnett accused of not being on America s side Arnett was skeptical of the information the government was giving CNN precensorship model and really difficult war we get a lot of misinformation about things working well the initial coverage stays with us the press management worked created the embedding program why are you getting rid of the precensorship model that worked the US has a credibility problem we ll probably get positive coverage the way the US wages war is very fast and we can t just have journalists driving around the assumption was that it was like a postcensorship model 111314 E mbedding program there is a practical need for the embedding program the terrain was harsh and the pace was very quick journalists kind of have to embed some reporters chose not to embed unilateral journalists The indexing hypothesis coverage reflects elite opinions administration official sources are particularly privileged the white house and members of congress we have all of these other options but the indexing hypothesis says these first two sources suffice until their opinions diverge there was a latent assumption that the WMD claims were true we might think the frames are important the administration s argument said repeatedly that the US was doing what was necessary furthermore that we were on the side of angels and the Iraqis wanted out help the administration said we would be liberators The clip of Hussein s statue falling reminds journalists of the Berlin Wall and they say it making two aspects of the victory frame we are liberators we have won The clip of the statue falling is shown over and over again once every 45 minutes on Fox Aday the coverage runs over and over again but also the tight shots you can say there is a large crowd even though you might only be seeing 100 people Alternative frame that Hussein is gone and it s good great but also humiliating to the lraquis because the the Americans from the West liberated them This victory frame really makes the press think we won Did the press realize the victory frame was premature no they decreased battle coverage because they thought we already won and these battles didn t mean anything victory frame created out of indexing hypothesis largely uncritical and coverage that reproduces the existing frames there is no contract for embedding so when the journalists get to Baghdad where they do not need as much help navigating they unilaterally separate BUT in the fall the insurgency starts it becomes dangerous for journalists to move freely embedding quickly becomes the only safe way to cover the war before this journalists were not targeted since 911 journalists are now targeted covering a counterinsurgency is difficult if you are bound to embed so you don t get killed the coverage starts to reflect that the war is going bad the press is not covering all of the good news in Iraq When you re embedded in this situation the military controls what you see and eventually changes what you think and see Casualty coverage was sparse during the initial invasion the first dead american photograph didn t show up until 2005 these are examples of the press choosing to censor their coverage selfcensorship they choose not to show casualties perceived commercial needs leads to selfcensorship