THE US 1865 TO PRES
THE US 1865 TO PRES HIST 2057
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Edna Boyle on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2057 at Louisiana State University taught by Paul Dotson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/222474/hist-2057-louisiana-state-university in History at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Changes in US foreign Policy amp Origins of Cold War Why America s role in world changes a We were always interested in spreading democracy b Maintaining economic opportunity abroad c Strategic interest i Having military bases outside of the US 1 Bases in Europe d Munich Analogy i Deal with Hitler ii Can t appease dictatorships Planning for a postwar world What is Cold War Conflict w US amp soviet Union Happens after some say during WWII 19461989 Called Cold bc there is no actual fighting going on not a Hot war Get involved w wars w sides we re fighting with rthpUm Geopolitics i Global confrontations w the only 2 super powers ii The chance of war happening is very possible iii Many were expecting a nuclear war g Capitalism vs Communism i US is the Land of freedom ii Soviet Union sees itself of the path to creating communist utopia iii Operates on a religion level 1 US Christian 2 Soviet Union atheisms h Race to space Education i US wants to develop the smartest scientist j lnterstate system is introduced i Away to get soldiers around miitary 5 Civil Rights Legislation Were allies during WWII m Why are we now bitter w each other n After the war we were the only 2 powers standing i Are now in a 40 year struggle w the Soviet Union Origins of Cold War in Eastern Europe a Tensions i Only recent allies 1 US didn t recognize SU until 1933 lt V 5 viii 2 Sent troops into SU during WWII US believes Stalin was insane killed 20 million of his own citizens Alliance of convince 1 The enemy of the enemy is my friend Stalin was fighting the war alone till we showed up 1 Believed the US was delaying showing up and helping Didn t tell Stalin we had perfected the Atomic Bomb while we did tell Great Britain Ended w no peace conference A lot of issues that weren t settled Series of meetings instead 1 Yalta February 1945 2 What to do w Germany after it s defeated a Stalin SU looses 27 million he wants something to prevent that from happening again wants buffer zone between eastern Europe and SU wants Germany to be weak forever b FDR believes there should be a buffer zone sympatric to that notion also bc he believes may have to invade mainland Japan and needs SU on our side to also defeat Japan no one certain about atomic bomb at this point c Stalin agrees to enter war w Japan 90 days after Germany defeated 3 Reached 4conclusions a Divide into 4 pieces b Each major Ally get s chunk of Germany c Divide capital Berlin 4 ways d Each ally runs their section until Germany is reunited at some future date date is undetermined e What to do w Poland 39 Also a major buffer zone SU took over Poland Problems is original polish government fled to Great Britain and it wants to come back iv US and G B sympathetic to that goal would like to see that original government return Democratic elections will go on League of Nations fail and the FDR is ok w all of this 9 weeks after Germany defeated another meeting takes place ImU39Ib a Potsdam Germany b Truman Stalin amp Big Three ltlt C d b Containment Doctrine Truman s attitude is different from FDR more suspicious less sympathetic doesn t need SU to defeat Japan Fewer issues were solved or agreed George Kennan US diplomat was in the SU writes a paper and sends it to sec of state Developed mewwe Stalin can t be dealt w wants to take over the world bad guy Can t sit down w him and come up w an agreement Only choice US has is to contain spread of communism That s how you defeat it If you stop it it will die on its own Kennan was right and his idea worked Every President after that up to Bush the elder used it Acted Upon 1 Greek Civil War a b c d e Communist revolution broke out in Greece after WWII lntegral communist insurgency SU only had small role Truman saw it as communist aggression supported by SU Gave speech called the Truman Doctrine World is divided between free people and those under totalitarian regimes on the other communism Must be US policy to support struggles of free peoples everywhere iquot We have to stop communist aggression whenever we see it 2 Congress gave 400 million and snuffed out that insurgency v Monarchy was restored in Grease 2 Marshall Plan rqurhmnp Aid to Europe named for secretary of state George Marshall Countries impacted by war to help rebuild infrastructures and return economy Restore those markets in Europe Communism feeds on poverty and economic turmoil Succeeds Countries able to rebuild and restore economies SU challenges US 1948 GB France and US merged their pieces of Germany creating western Germany SU didn t want to be a part of this j Germany was never reunited to its originality When GB France and US created western Germany SU was 5 upset I Made a move in Berlin closed all roads leading to west Berlin m ldea was to starve out west Berlin and take it over 3 Berlin Airlift Truman followed Containment Doctrine Won t challenge for access to roads Going to fly in everything the city needs do it as long as it takes 95m d Stages massive airlift e Stalin gives up 50 days later vi Works all 3 times Alliances and Rearmament a NATO i Created after the Berlin Airlift ii North Atlantic Treaty Organization Military alliance between GB France and US iv An attack on one member is an attack on all the members v US is the major power b Beginnings of Rearmament i Preparing our military for what eventually be conflict w SU ii 1947 passes National Defense Act 1 Creates Department of Defense to oversee military 2 Created Air Force deliver nuclear weapons and protect US 3 National Security Council originally created as team of experts to advice president on Cold War 4 CIA Central Intelligence Agency spy on SU iii We believe we are winning the cold war c Major Events in 1949 i Chinese revolution 1 Civil war between communist and nationalist 2 After WWll civil war flared up again 3 US sided w nationalist 4 Communist prevail and make the People s Republic of China 5 Weren t sure how they would deal w SU 6 Weren t sure w how they would deal w SU a Quickly sided w SU 7 Nationalist fled to island of Vermosa today Taiwan a Republic of China 8 US refused to acknowledge mainland china as china called Taiwan China 9 Result a Horrified the US b Blamed Truman c Who lost China 10 SU successfully tested the atomic bomb a Didn t expect it to happen so fast b Able to do this bc they had spies in the Manhattan project c Horrifies US bitter enemy now has one d Changes psychology of president American people military planners e Now believe we re losing cold war f Outcome i National security council drafts a paper ii NSC 68 1 World is divided into 2 hostile camps 2 The SU is determined to take over the world 3 The US is the only nation in the world that can stop the SU 4 Advised the President that the US has to build up a HUGE army 5 Quadruple the military spending 6 Giant military papas 7 Create enough Atomic Bombs to kill everyone on earth 8 Fund to create the Hydrogen bomb 9 Created enough bombs to kill the earth 10 The SU did the same V The Cold war at home llSecond Red Scare a Background i Russian member Gouzanco ii Federal Employee Loyalty Program 1 Designed to identify disloyal Americans 2 Screened all federal employees 3 Fired those who were thought could become spied a Alcoholics b People in bankruptcy c Homosexuals d These people could be threatened to be a spy P 5 million were screened a couple of hundreds were fired U39I Spy Cases a Audrey Hisk i Senior editor Times magazines ii Member of the soviet underground b C In government i HUAC 1 2 3 4 5 Fquot l iii Whitaker Chambers accused Hisk of spying iv Hisk sued Chamber v Pumpkin papers 1 Chambers hid the pumpkin paper b Rosenberg 39 Spying on the Manhattan Project Member of the Aerospace project iquot Convicted of giving nuclear secrets to the SU during WWII iv Didn t give many secrets but was key in recruiting those who did v Wife was convicted of helping him w this vi Pled the 5 h vii Only two people executed during the Cold War c Result of the cases led to a sense of hysteria Second Red Scare House UnAmerican Committee Originally to deal w Pro Germany Nazi etc Once the Cold War started it began to shift towards Communism Started going towards actors writers and such Believed films being produced by these screen writers were propaganda for communism People Black listed people weren t able to write any of their own material and get credit for it Hollywood 10 Up to 300 others who were also Blacklisted ii Joseph McCarthy In public W J w opoxign 10 Claimed to have a list of 250 people known communist a Number changed and decreased the farther he went on More for his own gain rather than actual rooting out communist Claims communists spied within government were reason US is in cold war Didn t find any communist did it all for himself Would lie blackmail witnesses continue to badger people during hearing until they broke down and pled the 5 h On rampage instigate communism within US Army Accused US Army of promoting communism within US Soft on communism George Marshall Eisenhower said were disloyal Trials started to be televised Seen as a crazy man i Banned books from public library Robin Hood ii Educators forced to sign loyalty iii Teachers professors though communist teach Marxist thought deemed communist and therefore fire d Overall results i Internal Security Act McCarran Act 1 Required all members to communist action to register w government 2 FBI had list of all known soviets socialists communists 3 Would prepare list of registration compare them 4 Gave president power to round all these people up to put them in detention centers a Had quottrialsquot ii More popular support for fighting and winning Cold War iii More Support for containment Doctrine iv Foreign Policy shaped by domestic affairs 1 American public won t tolerate losing Cold War 2 Any loss communism considered Political Suicide Vll Korean War a Colony ofJapanese empire b Korea split at 8th parallel between communists and anti communists c Supposed to be temporary i Plan elections were to take place to say who would politically control Korea ii Pseudo democracy emerges supported by US 1 Tanks money air force toward South Korea 2 Public support bc prevents communist expansion iii Soviet begins supporting north iv Both sides prepared for conflict v June 1950 North Korea pours across border start of Korea War vi Well attacked Vlll Status of containment after Korean War SU decided to boycottsomething Must act Can t appease a dictator China said if you get closer to our border they ll retaliate Now McCarthy pissed off the Chinese Truman doesn t allow McCarther to try again Strategic nuclear bombs among Chinese Do you listen to McCarther No you re stupid rthpUm if you do Truman fires McCarther and hires another general bye bye McCarther rm 4 reasons 39 Korea is a side show China is right thereso you don t want that iquot Unlike the good war of WWII public opinion turned against Korean war as causalities began going up iv Containment Doctrine i Still the 38 parallel today i 4 Major things about something 39 Warjustifies the doctrine Confirms that communism is on expansion but it can be contained iquot Make Asia a prominentand other stuff iv Korea War helped to militarize the cold war v Something that forced US to spread out military presence in Germany increased spending military spending in south Korea vi Solidified the cold war vii You re either with us or against us