THE US 1865 TO PRES
THE US 1865 TO PRES HIST 2057
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Edna Boyle on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2057 at Louisiana State University taught by Paul Dotson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/222474/hist-2057-louisiana-state-university in History at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Reconstruction 18651877 Post Civil War Situation a South i Confederacy defeated President jailed ii 26000 southern men killed iii Economy ruined iv Major southern cities impacteddestroyed v Major industries destroyed during war vi Railroad tracksbridges vii 13 livestock killed viii Basis of cotton economy slaves now goneno sugar cane tobacco ix Confederate currency worth nothing x At complete mercy of the North xi Have no idea what will become of them b North i Although victorious extremely bitter about fighting bloody 4 year war ii 340000 dead includes African American troops iii lndustry expandedboomed more industrial than South iv In total control of Federal Gov t 1 South always wanted weak fed Gov 2 When south pulls out north does what it wants to benefit people 3 North raise tariff on imports protecting business interests 4 South wanted access to cheap imported goods 5 Creates National bank and currency based to the North Post Civil War Issues a Political i What happens to the 11 Confederate states that left the Union 1 No precedent 2 What s Constitutional processsays nothing 3 How much power will Fed Gov have a Back to weak or stay strong ii What about South and its political leaders 1 PreCivil War leaders allowed to have power again Fate 2 High ranking fed Officials What happens to them iii How to reconstruct the union b Economic i How and Can the south recover 1 Slave labor is gonewhat will replace the system c Racial i What are the slaves status Politicallegal rights 1 1865vague 2 White southerners free 4 million slaves caused them concernfears lll Presidential Reconstruction 18651867 a Requirements on South i Lincoln s Plan 1 Uses power as president to begin process 2 Began reconstruction before war even ended 3 Made process ability of states to rejoin union easy 4 10 of white pop takes oath allegiance to US and is back in union a Why so easy b Lincoln wants war over get states back into Union ASAP c Vague about questions of race 5 Congress adds element 13 h amendmentoutlaws slavery a Any state takes oath has to ratify 13th amendment as well b Creates Freedmen s Bureau 39 Fed Agency set up to help freed slaves in South Assists 4 million freed slaves Sets up schools negotiates labor contracts land leases 1 Slaves didn t know how to readwrite i lt Set up medical clinics v 1000 agents sent into south 6 Lincoln s assassination a Made north even angrier at South i Believed part of confederate conspiracy b Made AndrewJohnson his VP now President ii Johnson s Plan 1 Democratic Party campaign on being quotone of the common people 2 Unionist opposed to succession even though belonged to southern statewanted to preserve US 3 1864 Lincolnrepubican put Johnson on his Presidential ticket 4 Johnson awful politicianunsuited for higher position never listened to opposing side thought he was always right 5 1868wants to be reelected He can get his votes from the Southgain their supports 6 War officially ends when he becomes Presidentpicks up where Lincoln left off 7 PLAN talked tough in public but in reality his plan is easy though more complicated than Lincoln s 8 White southerners need to take oath to US a NormalGet property back citizenship amp right to vote back b If wealthy southerner or high ranking official had to go to DC and apply for a pardon in person from Johnson c Loved making these people beg for pardon b White South s Response C fa TT39janhm Appoints governors for all Southern states i Each state writes new state constitution ii Ratify 13 h amendment iii Cancel confederate debts Each state had to denounce succession from the Union After all completed back into US 1865declares reconstruction over in his mind His plan basically self reconstruction FedGov not much involved Plan didn t address freed slaves fates F Bureau can t do much South quickly controlled by PreCivil War leaders i Reelected back to office after getting pardon ii Same group of people control South before amp after i Weren t happy about Johnson s plan ii Believe succession was justifiable 1 Some believe this today iii Opposed to any federal intervention iv Angry about Freedmen s Bureau 1 Medling by fed Govwant it abolished v Committed to white supremacy 1 6 7 See no place in society for African Americans vi RESPONSE 1 2 3 Refused to pass legislation denouncing the succession Don t ever pass a bill Pass The Black Codes soley designed to control African Americansformer slavesvary state by state Can t serve on juries vote testify in court carrying a gun ownership of land illegal Vagrancy Laws if don t have proof of employment can be thrown in jailonce in jail can be rented out to highest bidder who pays your fine Way to control labor way to forces them to sign labor contracts Women amp children exempt to some degree Republicans in Congress Respond i Bewildered and furious ii After4 years of war this is how president handles reconstruction and how south reacts iii Congress responds 1 2 renew Freedmen s Bureau was expired in 1866 Passes Civil Rights Act designed to counter Black Codes 3 If born in US you ARE a citizen9freed slaves now citizens 4 Guaranteed protection under the law 5 14 h Amendment basically puts Civil Rights Act in Constitution Guaranteed due process of law Fed Gov enforcer of rights Voided confederate debts Bars high ranking confederate officials from holding office in US e Congress tells south has to ratify 14 h before able to join union d Johnson amp the South s Reaction 19an Vetoes FBureau renewal Civil Rights Act ii Congress overrides veto iii Johnson tells south not to ratify 14 h Amendment iv Speaking tour denouncing congress v Congress says the hell with Johnson vi Congress takes over lV Congressional Reconstruction 18671877 a Why shift in power i Constitution doesn t say who s in charge ii Wants south to admit they were wrong b New plan for South i Johnson s plan null in void ii Deniedbarred southern congressman their seats in congress iii Divided south into military districts sent union troops imposed Marshall Law iv Told southern states to have another convention and make new constitution v Not permitted to rejoin union until all requirements are met vi Much harsher plan and different than johnson s vii Political solution to process 1 Believed if gave African american s rights they could join white southern republicans take power and support themselves c Attack on Johnson i Johnson began removing military officials from Southangered i Tenure of Office Act 1 Can t remove high ranking official in military or gov t without explicit permission from congress Johnson fires secretary of war Congress impeaches him Johnson survives by a single vote His presidency is essentially over 1868 Democrats turn back on Johnson 915nwa Republicans nominate Ulysses S Grant a 15 h amendment passed in his time i No male can be denied right to vote based on race b Grant needed rep votes from south Congressional Reconstruction in the South a Biracial politics amp Republican governments i 2 states are black majority will take coalition for plan to work in south ii Republican Party 1 Carpet Baggers white northerners who moved southtypically former union military personnel businessmen educatorsnamed for carrying cheap suitcases made of carpet in 1866 cheap a Some said they came to quotfill carpet bags with money and then leave 2 Scalawags name for a sick cow a White native southerners who become republican or were republican all along b Opposed to succession against slavery c Continue to join after war d Some joined bc better for business for party 3 African Americans a Make up majority by far 4 Carpet baggers and scalawags elected to power 5 Volital coalition bc white leaders and African Americans have different goals a Want to create economic opportunity railroads b Those who elect want schools etc c Eventually the 2 groups will clash d Gain control of every state in South initially e Rep held on to power for 29 years in Deep South b Economic Reconstruction i What will replace slavery 1 Economy is ruined tobacco sugar cane 2 White landowners want to return to system as close to slavery as possible 3 Difference would be you d get paid a small wage 4 Exslaves want total opposite a Don t have money b Must work compromise c SHARECROPPING is compromise white plantation owner divides land and rents out plots of land to freed slavescrop split half and half Pay rent with crop Can turn it into cash d PROBLEM get paid at end of seasonhave to buy on credit until theninterest chargedeverything you buy is more expensiveafter paying credit and debts little money leftcreates cycle of poverty lf crop failed even worse Thrown in jail for failure to pay debts iquot White plantation owner can threaten the sharecropper and threaten them politically 1 lll ll take away this cabin and plot of land if you don t vote Democratic iv Cotton prices went on a freefall 1 Every year becomes less valuable v Always broke in the end Vl End of Reconstruction a Democratic party takes over south b Four political developments 39 Republican Party had internal tensions Alienate their constituents Eventually conflict comes forwardparty falls apart from inside 2 Democratic party getting stronger and more unified at same time 1 How c White democrats take control of South 39 Complain about new taxes Before civil war southern states didn t provide social services schools police hospitals etc iquot Democrats charged them with corruption 1 Home rule claimed that southern states being governed by outsiders ie carpet baggers 2 Claimed Dem Party was party of white folks iv Violence 1 Ku Klux Klan a Sole purpose to terrorize potential rep votersdrive them out of officeprevent being elected b Effective in their efforts 2 White League v Northerners in general lost interest in process 1 Exhausted with dealing with civil war 2 Dealing with this over a decadeTired of itLess concerned about black s rights 3 Economic depression that hit north especially hard a Made northerners focused more on their own economic well being rather than black equality in South vi Republican party falls to Democrats d Disputed presidential election of 1876 i Only 3 state gov t left controlled by republicans 1 LA FL SC ii Governor of Ohio Rutherford Hayes against Dem Gov Samuel Tilden 1 Clear that Tildon carries pop vote by 250000 votes 2 However there s a dispute between vote in those 3 states Both sides claim victory Massive fraud and violence Whoever gets those states will win election by 1 Electoral vote Didn t seem to be a clear way to resolve meUm Congress sets up commission to resolved i 8 rep 7 dem r Rutherford Hayes wins presidency Democrats furiousthreatened to block inauguration qn Hayes and Dem Worked out a deal to prevent that 39 Dem Party allows him to assume presidency and Hayes promises to pull fed troops out of those rep governments Rep gov ts would collapse and be replaced by dem iii RECONSTRUCTION OVER Vll Outcomes of reconstruction a Political i Nation is reunited yay 1 Messy but significant Federal power has increased iquot Southern power on national level will be reduced compared to what it was before civil war i lt ln south dem party stay in power until 1960 s b Economic i Sharecropping 1 Southern economy 2 Cotton economy devastated 3 Sharecroppers in cycle of debt c Racial i FREEDOM For4 million slaves 1 Now citizes with the right to vote a KNOW THE AMENDMENTS Looking to reunited familiesbuild their communities White supremacy in South for the next hundred years 2 Segregation to come down the road Hopeful legacy of 14 h and 15 h amendment lt 1 1960 s Civil Rights movements uses those 2 amendments v Historians argue if reconstruction was successful or not TEST QUESTION
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