THE US 1865 TO PRES
THE US 1865 TO PRES HIST 2057
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Magnolia Heaney on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2057 at Louisiana State University taught by Paul Dotson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/222474/hist-2057-louisiana-state-university in History at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
The New Deal Franklin Delano Roosevelt a Personality i Came from a wealthy family Married Eleanor Roosevelt 1 Teddy Roosevelt s Niece 2 FDR s political partner iii Went to Harvard iv Had 6 children v Got Polio and so he couldn t stand on his own 1 Public wasn t aware of his disability 2 Media was very understanding v Very quickly mastered art of the radio 1 Talked to American public series of talks called llFireside Chats 2 Convinces Americans that there is someone in the White House who cares about them vii Was a lot of people who also disliked him wealthy believed that he was a traitor bc of his legislation 1 Putting the US in the path of socialism viii Many Southerns were against Eleanor Roosevelt b Philosophy behind New Deal Term for FDR s legislation package to end the depression and provide aid Help Americans in need i Interpretations 1 Not really radical most popular a Constitution of liberal reform 2 Conservative a Sees new deal as a radical departure from the past b Dangerous expansion of federal government c Oversight interference gone mad 3 Liberal a Way to conservative b Change system just enough to allow capitalism to survive c FDR should ve gone further ii Roosevelt 1 Would have said he didn t have a plan 2 He was making it up as he went along 3 Willing to try anything that he thinks might work 4 Wants an activist government 5 Was in office for 4 terms a The first and Last to do this 6 Happens in the first 100 days of his presidency 7 During the time when FDR was elected and when he took office November till March Hoover did nothing and is said to be the worst period of the depression 8 The day after his integration he goes to work II Development of New Deal a llFirst New Deal 1933 i Called everything he did while he was in office part of the new deal 1 Thousands of pieces of Legislation passed ii Restoring Faith in financial institutions 1 llBank Holiday a Does this the day after his integration b Banks are closed for 4 days c They were still there but during this time they were inspected to make sure they were financially sound d Only the banks that passed approval were allowed to reopen e Others had to stay closed till they got everything in order 2 SEC a Securities stock Exchange Commissions b Federal agencies to regulate the Stock market c Made to make sure the a Stock Market Crash doesn t happen again d Forces the Businesses to open their books to the public e Restore Americas faith in the institutions that already exist 3 FDIC a Federal Deposit Insurance Company b If the banks failed then the money was guaranteed up to 2500 Today that is 100000 4 All moves are extremely conservative iii Attempts to end economic downturn 1 NRA a National Recovery Administration b Designed to stop the economic decline c Voluntary agencies government staffs agency business and labor have reps d Teamed up and figure min wages for workers in each industry e Puts a cap on production so they don t over produce f Government encourages for the public to only buy products from businesses of the NRA g Didn t work very well bc the businesses would break the agreement h Very Conservative move 2 AAA a Agriculture Adjustment Act b Helps farmers c Deals with the problem of the fundamental problems for farming overproduction Get farmers to produce less so the crop prices will increase Government agencies pay farmers to stop farming Does this while people in the US are starving The Problem is it only helps land OWNERS Hurts the Share Croppers ranhrno Very radical move compared to the NRA j Using the government to bring up prices in a private industries 3 TVA Tennessee Valley Authority Government owned industry Poor area a b c d Builds damns to produce electricity ends flooding e Works very well f Likes the AAA it helps the south g Government owned industry competing w private industries h Radical move iv Direct relief to individuals 1 Federal grants a Give states money so they can provide aid to their residents i Feed people ii Take care of their health problem 2 CCC a Civilian Conservation Core b Hires young men and puts them to work in the federal park system c Builds bridges road plants trees d Set up camps and the young men come in get feed paid 30 25 goes to the family 5 they get to keep e 3 million men were hired f 4000 camps set up g Planted 3 billion trees h This is a way to put money in people s pockets 3 FHA a Federal Housing Administration b Government backs up the loan for banks c If a owner defaults on loans the government will pay it back d Wants to restore housing development 4 These pieces of Legislation is the beginning of government saying every 5 American should have certain standards of living a You should have food a job and a place to live Very bold moves by FDR and take a lot of criticism bc of it b Growing opposition to New Deal i From Supreme Court 1 2 Congress is in the hands ofjustices that were appointed by conservative Republicans and disagree w FDR Declare the TVA NRA AAA unconstitutional 3 Says FDR is putting the US on the path of socialist 4 Tells FDR they re going to look at all his programs ii From the Right 1 2 3 4 a b 5 a b c d e f g iii From the Left 1 2 3 4 Many conservatives and wealthy Americans are appalled Believes FDR is putting them on the path of socialism Has money to do something about it Get together and create the llLiberty League Mount legal charges Through this they advertise against the New Deal Biggest threat comes from Charles Coughlin Had a radio show most popular coming out of the 20 s and going into the 30 s Had a third of the population listening to him The voice of Conservative Americans Early on he was a big supporter of FDR i Told his listeners llRoosevelt of ruin Later in the mid thirties he turns against Roosevelt t and the new deal i Had an idea that it came from a Jewish Banking Currency ii Roosevelt was part of the Jewish Conspiracy Created a 3rd party to run against FDR i Nominee didn t even receive a million votes Eventually taken off the air for supporting Hitler A lot of people who think he isn t doing enough The New Deal is to conservative Want more government involvement in the economy aid etc Biggest threat comes from Huey Long a b Grew up in a middle class family Didn t graduate High school i Wanted the 12 h grade but was expelled bc of it Got accepted to LSU but couldn t afford the text books c Ran for LA public service position i Used office to attack Big Businesses 0 Became LA Governor in 1928 Good record of reform i Increased taxes on business used money to improve f39D transportation roads bridges building education ii Increase funding for LSU GEAUX TIGERS f Has a dark side i Wants to run everything like a dictator Became a senator while he was still governor qn Tries to block legislation Gave 155 hour filibuster speech i Does this bc he wants to be president ii Use the depression to get to the White House 1 quotMy First days in the White House I Has a platform to get him into the White House Share our Wealth Believes wealth is distributed unfairly The way to solve this problem is llShare Wealth I iv Take money from the wealthy and share it with everyone else 1 If you make more than a million the rest goes to the government blah blah blah 2 Going to give the money to the poor going to give most needy 5000 and then 2000 to other continue each year 3 Wanted to provide a free education and money to the elderly 4 Incredibly popular v Many called Long the most dangerous man in the US vi Came up w the song llEvery Man a King k Believes if he runs as a 3rd party candidate split the democratic vote and the republicans will win 4 years later he will run for office and win I Was killed so FDR s threat is gone c llSecond New Deal 1935 i Comes after he is criticized from the Right and Left 1 Made to kill the threat from the Left ii Far more radical then the first New Deal iii REA 1 Rural Electrification Administration iv V vi WPA U1wa IO 8 9 Still Millions of Americans that were in the Rural land that were without electricity Provides Federal Grants to electrify all Allowed public to create electrical and do it themselves Very successful Provided electricity to 15 million Americans Government says everyone should have access to electricity Works Progress Administration 100x the sizes of the CCC Massive Government job program 85 million Americans hired and paid them a wage Got them to do projects just so they could be hired to do something and get paid for Got roads built city halls libraries schools communities center A lot of LSU s campus was built by the WPA a Death Valley b LSU Lakes c Himes Hall d And the list goes on and on and on Hired Artist to work to paint murals writers photographers etc Made up jobs not a hand out and only temporary 10 Very Radical Move Social Security 1 2 5 NLRB WNquot P DUI Arguably the most important thing that came out of the New deal Designed to help 3 kinds of people a Laid off Designed that if you lose yourjob you get 6 months of Social Security b Retirement once you retire you get money sometimes got more then you put in if you lived passed the age of 65 c Single Mothers if you are a single money it is money given to the mother to help support the children The payments to single mothers are often criticized as hand outs National Labor Relations Board Organized Labor The role up to this point was if there was a strike then the government would come it but the NLRB is a 180 degree turn around Gives people the right to form unions bargain wages and hours and stipulates that a business can t fire someone for being in a union Federal government now protector of organized labor As result union membership skyrockets 7 New unions 9 Congress of Industrial Organization CIO a Unlike AFL ClO organized by industry b Links all industries and their workers in a giant union c No matter to skilled unskilled race religion etc 8 105 million by the end of 1930 almost triples d 1936 Election i Kills the opponent w a LAND SLIDE ii Wins bc he puts together the AAA and CIO 39i Carries the Labor Vote and African American vote bc they re happy with what is happening w the New Deal e Roosevelt s second term i Does llVery Little in comparison in his 2nd term ii llCourt Packing Plan 1 Roosevelt wants to do something about the supreme court attempting to deem his legislation unconstitutional 2 Add a new judge for every supreme court justices above the age of 70 3 Says he s doing this out of the kindness of his heart 4 Trying to shift the political balance in his favor to the democratic side 5 Congress refused to pass it iii Southern dissent 1 Early on they were being supporters of the New Deal 2 In 2nd term they began to oppose new pieces of New Legislation 3 Why State s rights 9 feared that federal government was becoming too big feared New Deal was shifting power too much also feel 11 New Deal is a threat to repressive racial order 57 Also worry about keeping wages low in south They oppose unions 9 want no unionized nonnative labor 0 force that has low pay iv Keynes Economic Theory 1 There was minor economic downturn in 1936 2 FDR revisited an economic theory he learned about early in his presidency a If nation is in depression has to do 2 things i Provide jobs for the public ii Government has to engage in deficit spending to put money in the public s hands 3 Roosevelt insisted on balancing the budget 4 When that recession began he decide to embrace Kaynes Economic Theory a 5 billion spending not enough Kaynes advocated 10 times that amount 5 FDR starts to adopt Kaynes Theory in deficit spending a Yet overall he begins being inactive during his 2nd term f Federal Housing Projects i Government guaranteeing the basics of living g Fair Labor Standards Act i FDR guaranteeing basic needs for everyone ii Min wage Max Hours 1 25 cents back then living wage iii Southern Democrats opposed this bc wages in the south were different by race iv 40 Hours work week so it created more jobs bc the employers didn t want to pay for overtime lll Basic characteristics of New Deal a New role for organized labor i NLRB b Government ensuring basic standards i Temporary Relief Employment ii Housing iii Social Security iv Minimum Wage amp Maximum Hours v Ensures Access to Electricity c Government intervention in economy i Fosters confidence ln Capitalist System ii Sets some price controls iii Supports alternative forms of Ownership iv Adopts Keynes Theory of Deficit Spending lV Overall significance of New Deal a Made the depression tolerable i Does NOT end the great depression WWII ends it b Didn t change capitalism c Put a safety system in place for capitalism d Helped sustain prosperity e Solidifies that the Government should be a pace of last resort for basic standard living