11/18, 11/20, 11/25
11/18, 11/20, 11/25 1050
Popular in Media In Free Society
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Public Relations
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ellee Watson on Wednesday November 26, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to 1050 at George Washington University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 153 views. For similar materials see Media In Free Society in Public Relations at George Washington University.
Reviews for 11/18, 11/20, 11/25
-Victoria De Almeida Tellechea-Rotta
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 11/26/14
111814 Media Coverage and War we see more enemy casualties than american ones media censoring itself selfcensorship keep morale up cultural bias they themselves are employing this patriotism and fear of being accused of not being patriotic the CNN effect the hypothesis that if casualties turn people against conflict and intervention then in 247 news this should happen tenfold seminal moment Somalia Black Hawk Down popular mythology turned the American people against intervention in Somalia The CNN effect is rooted in Mueer s casualty aversion hypothesis rally support around the president support for the president will decrease with rise in casualties counterargument WWII more than halfmillion deaths support for the war doesn t go down but morale went down massive amounts of casualties The data does work with Korea and Vietnam supports the casualty aversion hypothesis Black Hawk Down support for intervention goes up the americans say Let s go get them but then it dies down the president didn t have a lot of popularity in his party leadership had changed when black hawk down happens there are no elites leading the charge Feaver and Geipi success and rightness matter international relations are driven by elite cues Somalia elite consensus to not be involved Berenski when the elites are in consensus the public follows along the media will generally go along principal policy objective PPO 20023 the democrats were in opposition to Bush but not war yes casualties can matter but the context is important there are multiple variables elite cues success and rightness nature of intervention Feaver wrote plan for victory speeches for the president to test the success and rightness variable wanted to remind partisans why they supported the war in the first place tell them you ll win and that you re on the side of angels early the president has the ability to frame the story later much harder for the president to control framing We can think of examples where people support an intervention even though they knew they wouldn t win Jentleson it s not casualties exactly it s the nature of the intervention there are three different types 1 foreign policy restraint existential threat 1 the public is highly tolerant and casualty tolerant 2 humanitarian Somalia and Rwanda 1 way less likely to be supportive and tolerant 3 regime change getting involved in another s civil war 1 lowest support these are not objective models they are framed by the end of the 90s it turns out the CNN effect isn t really a thing to the American citizens it doesn t predict support but policy makers still think it does It may be that CNN is an accelerate or decelerate to policy changes Vividness literature persuasion if I like animals I am a good person for PETA to draw in however if I like animals I don t want to see animals being mistreated I will change the channel or avoid those pictures PETAs ads are really counterproductive I am the ideal candidate for PETA because I can t handle the images and yet they try and draw me in with the images When people see a dead american they are less likely to read the image when people encounter their own country s casualties the filter them through the lens of partisan support Aday s study people left of center were more likely to see these pictures as tragic and disgusting and as a waste people right of center usually thought it was a noble sacrifice the picture didn t shape the response the self did The usual critique the media turns against the war so the people do not true media matter early when people are forming opinions they are more likely to echo administrative frames especially the White House s partisanship and elites matter later in the war events shape the opinion of the war 112014 Social Media those assumptions of the huge effect of a new medium aren t really warranted what makes these assumptions how true are they 2009 Green Revolution protests CNN report of Neda becomes an iconic image of the green revolution they become something that is fixated in our memory it s spread all over the place because it represents this ordinary person standing up to authority who is shot down Neda represents everyone else Social media are allowing people to reach out to each other and find similarities in a closed information system authoritarian regime Pressure the internet puts on these people A by exposing this put pressure on regime to not crack down as violently 1 Rwanda and Syria with the previous Assad had no exposure 2 some say exposure would have stopped the genocide B by creating inter nation attention it will put pressure on other governments to impose sanc ons 1 boomerang effect the information gets out to an international community who put pressure on other governments to impose sanctions Advantages digital ICT has over earlier technologies decentralized no hierarchy reaches large number of people hence good for grassroots organizing in contrast to old media they are twoway Rebecca Mackinnon Networked Authoritarianism when an authoritarian regime embraces and adjusts to the inevitable changes brought by digital communications the result is what I call networked authoritarianism social media can also be a tool for repression China is more lenient than you think because in long term they will qualm overwhelming protest by allowing them to steam a bit Earthquake in China a lot of kids died because they were in school within China this story spread quickly the story turned and they started criticizing the building of schools ability to focus on the bigger government problems and the government shut it down There was an assumption that social media would lead to more pluralism that it would create an enlightenment of ideas true you can find whatever you want and yet this doesn t always happen people tend to look for things they agree with We tend to go to the same place for the news centrist news regimes have a lot of power to control the information Dictator dilemma necessary and sufficient way to bring down authoritarian dictators want power and money and control before the information revolution you could control all the information now in order to compete in the international economy you have to allow your country to progress and develop social media the mine you let in digital technology you allow for the very conditions of your demise you have to allow it to maintain power cute cat theory of digital activism Zuckerman how important can the internet be if people are using it for cats yes the technology will be used for superficial reasons but a certain percentage will use it to mobilize Michael Jackson and Iranian Revolution coverage a celebrity dying trumps a story that actually matters Shirky changed his opinion on the revolution effects forming groups has become easier no limit to information there is a limit because of what people seek out We sometimes assume that because we have unlimited access everyone else does example Arab Spring we assumed facebook revolution but a lot of the countries had a small amount of access to social media people thought the media could matter could lead a domino effect but we didn t see that no more dominoes fell little interaction between western journalists discussions and everybody else the discussion is very different in every language there are a lot of different narratives what we don t see is a broadening of political action we are supposed to have a level playing field in the information space because everyone has access but we don t see that the traditional media dominate Does more media mean more information yes if people seek it out it hasn t changed our political knowledge at all Egypt does a good job at mobilizing a movement they have advantages over others the education of egypt media partisanship tempers the accountability how much information do we get New media are really important but those initial thoughts that they would be revolutionary turned out not to be true they had more of a limited effect than we thought 112514 Media Bias What is the role of the press in a free society In what degree do they fill this role started the semester with liberal bias partisan bias we should be able to find biases by looking at what comes naturally Domke et al found empirical evidence that conservative charges of liberal bias are for strategic ends increase in people thinking there is liberal bias because of increase in publication of lib bias charges especially by elites when we see charges of bias they re usually in positive coverage of republican candidates persuasion theory when the audience doesn t know anything a onesided argument is effective Domke shows that there is no argument for conservative bias so it s a onesided argument Niven finds no evidence of partisan bias if there s a bias we should see that democrats get more credit when things go right and less blame when things go wrong 20 years of nonpartisan coverage of governors he did find racial and gender bias less credit more blame demographic bias he looked at mayors too Groseclose writes about liberal bias but not well central problem there isn t really a measure of bias he completely discounts the role of elites when we talk about bias we know elite cures matter a lot this is problematic D Aessio and Allen metaanalysis of 59 studies of partisan bias in presidential campaigns since 48 looked at three types of potential bias gatekeeping selecting stories for one party coverage amount for each party statement favorable coverage for each party found no newspaper bias some magazine and only small insubstantial TV bias in coverage and statement political stories lend themselves to twosidedness it s easy to not be biased we wouldn t expect to find a liberal bias in political coverage because it s too obvious journalism is about credibility Where do we expect to find it religion and social issues there is a bias towards twosidedness problems they assume there are only two sides that the two sides are equal and that they are party identities there is a bias towards soft news ethnocentrism bias Michael Jackson knocked down coverage of the green revolution Vietnam cold war frame or civil war frame we used the cold war frame small town pastoralism bias making rural america seem normal typical and real america bias towards official sources dependent on sources cultural and social biases that reflect broader biases coverage of war patriotism journalism is always trying to live up to this responsibility of informing the people AND being a commercial medium biggest mainstream bias valuable if you are media literate be there to lay out information easily for us but then seek out more if you want to know more
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'