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by: Magnolia Heaney


Magnolia Heaney
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J. Reonas

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J. Reonas
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This 62 page Class Notes was uploaded by Magnolia Heaney on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2057 at Louisiana State University taught by J. Reonas in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/222475/hist-2057-louisiana-state-university in History at Louisiana State University.


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Date Created: 10/13/15
A Nation ReUnited The South Defeated O O O O The enormous loss of capital in the South At the end of the civil war the south becomes more subservient and connected to the north Northern industries supplied all the things that made the slave system in the south work But after the civil war the south position is even that much more out of wack in relation to the north Become independent to the north The end of slavery is a huge economic revolution in the south That entire industry is wiped out The Agony of Reconstruction I Many of the African American men who fought for the Union went on to distinguished political careers during Reconstruction I Reconstruction also called the quotUnfinished Revolution promised but did not deliver true equality for newly freed African Americans 0 Many of the changes that began during Reconstruction laid groundwork for later revolutions in American life From Presidential to Congressional Reconstruction O O O O O O O O The President versus Congress I How far should the federal government go to secure freedom and civil rights for four million former slaves This question led to a major political crisis 0 Minimal approach White House Favored quick restoration of the Union No protection for freed slaves beyond prohibition of slavery o Radical approach Congress Favored readmission of southern states to be dependent on guarantees that quotloyalquot men would displace the confederate Elite in positions of power and blacks get basic rights of American citizenship Wartime Reconstruction I Tension between president and congress over how to reconstruct the Union began during the civil war Lincoln never set forth a final plan for bringing rebellious states back into the fold 0 But he did take initiatives that favored a lenient policy towards Southerners who would give up the struggle and repudiate slavery If you want to loosen the economy flood it with paper money Our money today is based on faith in the US government Created greenbacks during the civil war Greenbacks were accepted everywhere First central banking system First income tax And selling war bond is what paid for the war Internal Improvement Bills The north had increased its population and industrial expansion during the war Lincoln s quot10 Percent Plan 13 h Amendment I The plan 0 He offered a full pardon to all southerners exception to certain class of Confederate leaders who would oath of allegiance to Union and acknowledge the legality of emancipation O 0 Then once 10 or more of the voting population of any occupied state had taken the oath they were authorized to set up a local government Unionist government When Lincoln comes into Richmond slaves are still in their pins Wasn t entirely sure what to do with these freed people He was antislavery but mainly because it was what was needed for the war Abolishing slavery did not mean racial equality He did make the Emancipation Proclamation o Protects slavery in Union counties o It was a wartime act 0 So if a county was flying the union flag they could keep their slaves He had his own goals for reconstruction o Lenient reconstruction bringing the south back in With malice toward none Sometimes called the Louisiana Plan 186364 Allow southern states to form union governments A number equal to 10 of the registered voters at the time had to take a loyalty oath and be certified by the National government the state could form a Unionist government 0 So what you had was rival union and confederate governments 0 But it was a way for Lincoln to start the process of reconstruction o Slavery is done with But everything else is negotiable The 10 plan was very lenient Certain blacks served in army were literate owned property rich could become voters 6 Lincoln s idea But was nowhere in the 10 plan Lincoln hoped to weaken Southern cause and further his emancipation policy with the 10 plan Congress didn t like Lincoln s plan In 1864 they refused to seat Unionists elected to the House and Senate from LA and AK 0 Some opposed the plan because they did not trust the Confederates o A minority the antislavery radicalsRepublicans wanted protection for black rights mainly male suffrage as a precondition for the readmission of Southern states Congress thought that Southern confederate states had given up their place in the Union They thought that the southern states should be punished not readmitted immediately But Abraham wanted to forgive and forget Congress after ignoring Lincoln s 10 governments passed a reconstruction bill of it s own 0 WadeDavis Bill of 1864 0 Required that 50 of voters take oath of future loyalty before restoration process could begin Then ones who never supported confederates could vote Did not require black suffrage but did enforce emancipation Lincoln pocket vetoed this bill His reasoning he did not want to be committed to any single reconstruction plan When Lincoln is assassinated Johnson takes over 0 Andrew Johnson Ascends He was a Tennessee Unionist I Showed up drunk to inauguration Barely had a relationship with Lincoln From East Tennessee they didn t own slaves Super unionists West Tennessee super confederate Johnson hates the Planters slave owners He had to work for what he had unlike planters I Democrat White southerner Liberal I When he takes office he is leader of Republican Party I The Radicals Thad Stevens Chas Sumnerbeat in the head with a cane while a senator by a southerner Benj WadeThey want to punish the south God was marching with them to punish the south Old Testament guys Fire and brimstone Some of these guys are really fed up with Lincoln in 64 Lincoln basically kept them grounded because he wouldn t let them punish the south 0 Now that Lincoln is out of the way they want their way to be the way Johnson wanted to o Punish the south 0 Lift up the freedmen Not because they actually cared But because it would screw the South s social hierarchy 0 He is looking for who is going to be his allies the south Johnson was put in an impossible situation Government won t listen to him He pardons people who the republicans thought should have been executed for treason Most white northerners were extremely racist and wanted nothing to do with black equality Johnson is seen as great deceiver He was also racist wanted nothing to do with equality But did support Lincoln s idea of letting certain blacks vote 0 quotRadical republicans Freedmen s Bureau I Johnson missed being removed from office by only one vote and then basically becomes a lame duck from then on Radical republicans are in full control from 1866 and on I Under Johnson s lenient plan confederates begin being voted into office 0 So the rad Rep think that the south hasn t learned its lesson Because they are going on like nothing happened 0 The Black Codes come into play 0 Limit mobility of African Americans They wanted to find their family and maybe be able to travel since they were free 0 To preserve the proper respect for whites And have appropriate punishment for disrespect 0 Improve labor stability Done through making freedmen sign contracts at the beginning of the year with an employer I Direct violation of North s idea of free labor If your being beat or not paid you should be able to leave But under the black codes you could not leave Illegal So North sees the black codes as reinstitution of slavery 0 Also violence I Blacks were trying to legitimize their relations with each other Through marriage They couldn t get legally married during slavery They weren t people they were property Also through gain education Join political system I In 1865 Freedmen s Bureau begins Help adjust both whites and blacks to blacks being free Oversee labor contracts Rarely broke up abandoned lands and gave to freedmen A lot of black universities were started during this period Wanted to lift freedmen up and allow them to vote and run for office 6 Ultimate punishment to south 0 Military Reconstruction Act 1867 I South is broken up into military districts Union general is in charge of creating the government I If passed earlier it could have done good job but it was done 2 years after the war ended So the south had 2 years to recoup I In 1868 black suffrage I Many African Americans do not have economic independence No opportunities 6 Great flaw of reconstruction 0 At this point many northern blacks still can t vote I The majority of freedmen could not read and write So it was hard for them to run for office I Planters maintain their plantations Because plantations were more efficient than small farms One boss planter tells everyone what to do Sell crop divvy up the profit 6 Sharecropping 0 Even if white planter lost everything plantation remained intact o 14 h and 15 h Amendments I 14 h create idea of US citizenship Reconstruct the south make it in a new image 0 Due Process Exconfederates holding office again That s no good I 15thRight to vote for blacks All races 0 White Resistance in the South 0 The Klan White Leagues and quotConservativesquot I Klan starts in Tennessee almost as a joke but spreads fast And turns into a convenient way to intimidate blacks Political assassinations murders I Jesse James and the guerilla wars He went after banks trains the symbols of northern power I In 1871 they arrest a hundred Klan members They were very successful But when the Calvary disappeared the Klan came back I One vote lessone black killed I In 1870 and 1871 when the federal govt stamps out the Klan in Arkansas and other southern states It comes back worse than ever White Leaguesmilitias to overthrow the reconstruction of republican governments in the south North is losing will to continue the battle for reconstruction 0 Reconstruction Comes to an End 0 The North s llRetreat from Reconstruction I Scandals Corruption and Weariness o ScandalsThe US Grant Association His administrations plagued He was good general bad president He loses his authority to enforce reconstruction in the south 0 Northerners are tired of hearing about the south It gets old White northerners still didn t believe in racial equality Most don t really care about what is happening to the blacks in the south I The Lure of the West 0 Late 1860s early 70s Yay west North I Panic of 1873 o Recessions 0 Northern economy had really expanded and then rapidly contracted Railroads buildings quit being made for a little while 0 The Presidential Election of 1876 and the Compromise of 1877 I Reconstruction ends with the great compromise of 1877 South begins to be white man s country once again Notes from the Book During the reconstruction period African Americans struggled to become equal citizens of a democratic republic A number of African Americans who fought valiantly for the Union went on to a distinguished political career during reconstruction For a brief period of years black politicians exercised more power in the South than they would for another century A series of political developments on the national and regional stage made Reconstruction llan unfinished revolution promising but not delivering true equality for newly freed African Americans National party politics shifting priorities among Northern Republicans and white Southerners commitment to white supremacy backed by legal restrictions as well as violence all combined to stifle the promise of Reconstruction Many of the changes begun during Reconstruction laid the groundwork for later revolutions in American Life The President Versus Congress 0 Problem of how to reconstruct the Union was one of the most difficult challenges American policymakers had ever faced How far should the federal government go to secure freedom and civil rights for four million former slaves I Minimal Reconstruction policy favored quick restoration of the Union M 39 for the freed slaves beyond 39 quot 39 39 of slavery 0 White house favored I Radical policy wanted readmission of the southern states to be dependent on guarantees that quotloyalquot men would displace the Confederate elite in positions of power and that blacks would acquire basic rights of American citizenship 0 Congress Favored o Wartime Reconstruction I Lincoln never had final plan on how to bring rebellious states back into the Union But he did take initiatives that indicated he Lincoln favored a lenient policy toward Southerners who would give up the struggle and repudiate slavery I In he set forth his 10 percent plan 0 Offered full pardon to all Southerners who would take an oath of allegiance to the Union and acknowledge the legality of emancipation 0 Once 10 percent or more of the voting population did so they were authorized to set up a loyal government union government I In 1864 Louisiana and Arkansas set up Unionist governments I This plan was meant to shorten the war 0 First by weakening the southern cause by making it easy to switch to the Union side 0 Secondly he hoped to further his emancipation policy by making new governments abolish slavery I Congress was unhappy with the president s Reconstruction experiments They didn t like the 10 percent plan I In 1864 Congress refused to seat the Unionists elected to the House and Senate from LA and AK I Congress s Ideas on the matter 0 Andrew Minority of congressional Republicans strongly antislavery Radicals favored protection for black rights mainly black male suffrage as a precondition for the readmission of southern states Larger group of congressional moderates opposed Lincoln s plan because they did not trust the repentant Confederates Congress believed the president was exceeding his authority by using executive powers to restore the Union Dominant view in Congress the Southern states had forfeited their place in the Union and that it was up to Congress to decide when and how they would be readmitted s decided to pass the WadeDavis Bill in July of 1864 Required that 50 of voters take an oath of future loyalty before the restoration process could begin Once that had occurred those who could swear they never willingly supported the Confederacy could vote in an election for delegates to a constitutional convention Did not require black suffrage but did give federal courts the power to enforce emancipation Lincoln pocket vetoed the bill He said he did not want to be committed to any single Reconstruction policy Lincoln died Andrew Johnson took his place Lincoln was showing willingness to compromise towards the end but then he died Johnson at the Helm His policies eventually set him at odds with Congress and the Republican party Democrat Spokesman for Tennessee s nonslaveholding whites Most successful politician in the state He was not antislavery or friendly to the blacks He stated that slaveholding was the privilege of a wealthy minority He was jealous Born into poverty Wished that every head of family in the United States had one slave to take the drudgery and menial service off his family As military governor of TN he implemented Lincoln s emancipation policy as a means of destroying the power of the planter class rather than as a recognition of black humanity Similarities with the Radicals Fiercely loyal to the Union Thought that exConfederates should be severely treated Johnson initiated his Reconstruction policy in May of 1865 Con gres O O O 0 Disturbed some radicals 0 Most republicans were willing to give it a chance 0 Appointed provisional state governors who were responsible for calling constitutional conventions and ensuring that only quotloyalquot whites were permitted to vote for delegates These conventions were urged to I Declare ordinances of secession illegal Repudiate the Confederate debt Ratify the thirteenth amendment abolishing slavery O 0 After governments had been reestablished under constitutions meeting these conditions the president assumed that the Reconstruction process would be complete and the ex Confederate states could regain their full rights under the Constitution 0 The new constitutions for these states proceeded to pass the Black Codes Restricting black people s freedom 0 To Radicals the Black Codes looked suspiciously like slavery under a new guise o In December of 1865 the growing rift between Johnson and Congress became evident This was when the House and Senate refused to seat the recently elected southern delegation 0 Congress Takes the Initiative Congress after refusing to seat the new delegation established a joint committee to review Reconstruction policy and set further conditions for readmission of the seceded states Clash between Johnson and Congress could not be reconciled Johnson wanted to restore the prewar federal system as quickly as possible and without change except that states would not have the right to legalize slavery or to secede Most Republicans wanted guarantees that the old southern ruling class would not regain regional power and national influence by devising new ways to sub39ugate enslave blacks Limit political role of exConfederates and provide some protection for black citizenship Republican leaders believed that all citizens must have the same basic rights and opportunities Not that blacks were inherently equal to whites This would also strengthen the Republican party because they were the ones who freed the blacks In early 1866 Johnson vetoed two Republicansupported bills 0 Freedmen s Bureau bill 0 Extended the life of the Freedmen s Bureau temporary agency set up to aid the former slaves by providing relief education legal help and assistance in obtaining land or employment 0 Civil Rights Act 0 Meant to nullify the Black Codes and guarantee to freedmen llfull and equal benefit of all laws and proceedings for the security of person and property as is enjoyed by white citizens Congress overrode Johnson s veto on Civil Right Act This had never happened before Johnson helped found the National Union movement 0 Promote his plan to readmit the southern states to the Union without further qualifications 0 United small minority of Republicans who supported him with a reviving Democratic party that was rallying behind his Reconstruction policy Congress passes the Fourteenth Amendment Gave the federal government responsibility for guaranteeing equal rights under the law to all Americans National Citizenship extended to all persons born or naturalized in the US Government could not deprive any person of life liberty or property without due process of law nor deny to any personequal protection of the laws To make sure Johnson would enforce emancipation Johnson was not happy I The Republican majority in Congress increased to a solid twothirds in both houses and the Radical wind of the party gained strength at the expense of moderates and conservatives 0 Reconstruction Amendments 18651870 13 h Amendment 1865 o Slavery prohibited in US 14 h Amendment 1866 0 National citizenship 0 State representation in Congress reduced proportionally to number of voters disfranchised 0 Former Confederates denied right to hold office 0 Confederate debt repudiated 15 h Amendment 1869 o Denial of franchise because of race color or past servitude explicitly prohibited Timeline 1863 Lincoln sets forth 10 percent Reconstruction plan 1864 LA and AK took Lincoln s plan and set up Union governments Congress refused to seat the Unionists elected to the House and Senate from LA and AK 1866 Johnson vetoes Freedmen s Bureau Bill and Civil Rights Actpasses over his veto Congress passes Fourteenth Amendment The Great Depression and New Deal Early 1920s Manufacturers were beginning to slow down on production of goods American manufacturers were over producing and goods were pilling up in warehouses The Crash of 29 October of 29 nothing to ground people in reality Booms go bust very quickly October 29 16 million shares traded that day the average up to that day were 3 million up to that point In that frenzy people began to sell their shares because they were over balanced By the end of October stock market lost 40 of its value market correction It was correcting itself from massive speculation lt preceded this drop off people lost life savings the working capitol of hundreds of thousands of banks were just disappearing Disastrous turn of events for the wealthier classes in America Everything is gone all their investments in the stock market Between 1929 and 1933 approx 13 of nations banks will be gone All of their investments are gone peoples life savings savings account just gone In those same years the gross national product is cut in half The physical output of American industry physical tonnage of steel in 1932 was equal to that of 1913 That whole decade of growth from the WWI period is basically erased American agricultural sector collapses even further Suffers even more severely People that were breaking even on cotton 910 cents a lb are now to 4 5 cents Same with pork and beef and milk Prices hit rock bottom Not even worth putting the effort in to raise hogs or cattle No one is going to get what they out into it Throughout the early 1930s it doesn t really begin to dawn on Americans until 193232 Sort of in that period that we are right now The collapse of the stick market and banking industry people see it as a temporary setback and its very damaging but repercussions don t really hit until 193031 Temporary rise in the early 1930s people think the economy is going to ride itself but there are larger structural issues The short recovery gets everyone s hopes up Had a short recoverythen the bottom really fell out By winter of 1933 American unemployment is running at 25 Hundreds of thousands of people are out of work in Chicago New York Relief was the welfare system are completely overwhelmed Up to this point public relief or welfare have been largely in the hands of local charities or churches mainly local groups and organizations This whole concept of public welfare didn t exist at this time people went to local charities and churches to get meals Herbert Hoover has all this happening on his watch Orphanself made millionaire Wanted people to rise from poverty and make a success of themselves through hard work American dream The son of the most impoverished people could rise up Had sort of made his reputation during WWI where he ran the food administration Had an understanding of what bureaucracy could do but had an inherent distaste of public relief or welfare Didn t believe in government being in the business of handouts as he called it Had a philosophical distaste of public relief Government should be involved in recovery but to give direct relief payments would demoralize workers and create a permanent welfare class Government needs to be involved in society being that helping hand Once industry was up and running again the employment issue would go away and there would be no need to welfare When dealing with unemployment at those levels people don t want to see corporate welfare They want their tax dollars going to bail out large industries to help them get back on their feet Seen as being too friendly to big business and giving back too much to big business to get it up and running again Was more focused on business and industry Investment in larger recovery programs are too small His efforts he does make later on in office are too little Hoover is not really a face man Good looking salesman Worked tirelessly 16 hours a day sometimes Dropped lots of weight later in his presidency Wasn t really selling his administration very well 1 of only 2 American presidents who gave his money away to charity JFK was the other He did not work very well with the press Opportunities that would have gotten him a lot of empathy he let pass His electoral campaign was his first bid for elective office Wasn t a politician Was a self made business man then a bureaucrat Had several issues running against him business over the common people doing too little too late didn t have an understanding of public relations how to get the media on his side and manipulate the media Never really had a real sense of how they could be exploited to him benefit Franklin D Roosevelt and the New Deal Born into old NY family Landed gentry type family Only child Every whim was catered to His family had money so they weren t tied into the nastier aspects of having to make money weren t involved in wall street the dynamic capitalist enterprises They were old money Nobless Oblige 9 helping the people out that have less money than you Decides early in career he wants to go into politics His uncle TR is in the process of being one of the most influential presidents in US history Wanted to follow his uncle Very influential in life especially because his father died very young Ultimate glad hand 9 Can work a room Just shaking hands small talk with everybody His whole goal was to get to the white house So comfortable there because he had always envisioned himself there Understood the politicians way Had a firm grasp of what the politicians craft was all about Knew how to control his surroundings Like TR was assistant secretary of the navy in 1920 ran as vice presidential candidate for republican party Young dynamic politician had the name of course goes around country and democrats lose anyways In early 1920s stricken with polio Paralyses of lower limbs Career at this point is salvaged by his wife Eleanor Had been a good doting wife up to that point when he is stricken with polio she nurses him back to good health and keeps his political career going Very active in women s politics in 1920s Had a natural flair smile that could easily light up the room Could control and dominate a room He is the whole center attention Natural charisma about him Understood mass communication and use of radio Fire Side Chats 9 radio addresses to the nation Conveyed what his administration was doing what the pressing issues are and to explain legislation and executive orders to the lay men and women in the rest of the country hundreds of thousands of people are out of work Conveys a certain empathy and understanding Connects with American people in a way Hoover was never able to do Started crafting a reform package in this emergency session of congress called the Hundred Days March June 33 normal functions of relief are completely overwhelmed didn t believe in government being in the public relief stuff economy and nation at lowest point in fall 32 9 The Hundred Days March June 33 banking and securities reforms industrial reform and infrastructure reform agricultural sector and getting a handle on the issue of relief Result in a whole bevy of new bureaucracies and federal agencies and programs some of which will be more lasting than others CWA CCC AAA NRA Creates all of these to deal with the national crisis Banking and Securities Reform Emergency Banking ActFed Deposit Insurance Corp FDIC o declared a bank holiday every bank closed for business until it could be inspected bythe federal banking officials for soundness 9 that banks were on good financial footing All banking business is on hold Restores confidence in banking system People start putting deposits in the banking system Deposits out number with withdrawals for the first time in months 0 dealing with leftovers from the Hoover administration 0 once banks were certified they were reopened o FDIC 9 if your bank goes under your savings are guaranteed up to like 200000 0 Makes the banks practice sound policies 0 Most of the problems in the 1920s was banks investing arms were all getting mixed together and there was no checks a balances Part of what the FDIC and EBA were to do was make the banks be more responsible provide some checks a balances so the loan arm doesn t get over extended Providing regulation Federal Securities Act Securities and Exchange Commission SEC 0 SEC 9 governs wall street and stock markets around the country Basically intended to sort of bring regulation to the securance of trade to the stock market 0 Brings checks and balances to wall street file annual reports give investors a clear understanding of their standings SEC was there to oversee that and enforce violations of regulatory rules 0 fair play in the stock market O 0 Industrial Re 0 FDR tapped one of the most notorious violators of that time Joe Kennedy Sr made a killing in the 19205 through questionable means tied in with bootleggers tied into Hollywood studios and early film making business in LA and was tied into the stock market and all sorts of shady irregularities in wall street in the 1920s FDR attacks Joe Kennedy Sr to be the head guide to the SEC takes a thief to catch a thief Knew all the different angles so he was tacked to clean it up Hard larger political ambitions so was Willing to sacrifice all the old buddies on wall street to get this positions Come to be ambassador to Great Britain Was ready to move out of the capitalist side of things and move into politics FDR wants to bring structural reform to the system One you establish structures that help regulate and control the economy then that helps build consumer confidence Investors will come back to wall street without the feeling that they will get burned again FDR s motto was action action now form and Infrastructure Building National Industrial Recovery Act NRA Public Works Admin Will create the National Recovery Administration as well was Public Works Administration NIRA had two main goals to get business to work together to impose codes and regulations on industry to make it run more efficiently Invest federal money in the national infrastructure PWA NRA will eventually be struck down as being unconstitutional wanted to guarantee fair practices across the board in every industry in America aimed at making industry more efficient and more stream lined RA 1 Recognizes the right of workers to unionize Gives legality to union activity 2 Does away with the more unseemly aspects of American business elimination of child labor sets precedence in a couple other areas 40 hour week and first minimum wages in certain industry southern planters refused to pay outrageous wages to their workers fair trade faircompetition fair practice create a playing field where everyone is on par symbol for NRA was the blue eagle Motto was We Do Our Part 9 industry and working class are all in it together PWA 9 public works administration huge portions of our campus built by PWA Hymes Hall Tiger Stadium Allen Hall focused on building infrastructure 9 schools court houses roads sewage systems public buildings hospitals roads airports Anything and everything under the sun building an infrastructure for future development If you don t have an infrastructure the economic development cannot come provided lots of jobs Pouring federal money into all these construction jobs A lot of people are being put on jobs that don t have a lot of money used local workers for local jobs PWA was almost not existent in terms of its impact until 1934 because if you are doing big construction projects it requires workers plans surveys all that takes time to put together Tennessee Valley Authority TVA 7 or 8 states in the mountainous region of the mid south Tennessee river valley was prone to terrible flooding but it was also a progressive dream to tapping the hydro electric power Create series of dam ns that would control flooding provide electricity to one of the poorest regions of the nation domestic and commercial purposes All kinds of different pluses if you can control flooding you can control agriculture transportation economic development stabilization of the environment and eclectic power Through this damn system you could light up most of the south east Agricultural Reform 0 A 8 Handling Relief gricultural Adjustment Admn AAA was created to bring order to agriculture 1 because American agriculture was too efficient bythe 1920s was producing more products than could be sold on the market the system was still antiquated and there wasn t room for all of the goods 2 intensive to decreased production of crops there to control production if you decrease production then prices go up and farmers could become part of the consumer society that was developing and become part of the American mainstream federal government will pay RENT to farmers for their unplowed acres Pay farmers to not plant crops Drove the price of crops up Farmer would get the benefit of increased prices for his crop then he would get a lump sum payment from the government for the acres he didn t plant AAA basically saved American agriculture moneyto pay the farmers is coming from a tax was eventually struck down by the supreme court but came back in the 30s does have a negative affect on small farmers because it favors people with larger farms or corporate farms mall farmers need their 50 acres of cotton to survive but if he s only given 30 acres he cant survive unemployment is running at 20 when FDR comes in to office the relief structure that existed before this time was completely overwhelmed Hoover problem was he didn t really come off as empathetic Didn t realize what people were experiencing at work level Roosevelt comes off as very empathetic Wants to improve all society Wants to bring everyone up Federal Emergency Relief Admn FERA under a veteran social worker Harry Hopkins Liked to visit fairgrounds and gamble on horses Understood FDR s mission to get this money out as quickly as possible Hopkins was somewhat reckless with the money but didn t really matter in his mind because he was getting money out from the federal government out to the states and the local level something like 500 million dollars was his first draw direct relief work relief or employment relief Putting people on federal payroll to give out money get money out to the local level and get money circulating again Civilian Conservative Corps CCC Chico Fontainebleau and lake vista node 3 in this state tied into idea of work relief The federal government has to step in and provide employment run through the war department The CCC basicallytook young men 1820s and created a military type structure and would be put to work on major projects especially active out west and here in the south as well Given like 30 a week which was really good Got uniforms 3 meals a day and often had literacy classes and improvement classes there in the camp Limited project Kind of like today s AmeriCorps many state parks and national parks were built heavy work 9 Reforesting vast stretches of wilderness building roads in the middle of nowhere The Second New Deal Opposition to FDR and the New Deal Conservatives American Liberty League 0 conservatives 9 the wealthier class investing class the leaders of finance and industry 0 FDR accused them of being greedy and that their greed brought this larger problem on America FDR was very hard on these guys American Liberty League DuPont Family President of GM and on and on a lot of the major banking and industrial families in the country In the 36 election was kind of when the liberty league was at its peak They kind of staffed and had a budget larger than the republican party Radicals Huey Long Father Charles Coughlin 0 Long was from LA Cut out of the old Populous Party Came from a very well off family Very strong biblical background was a great salesman From country vernacularpoor man s vernacular Drew on whole reference to the bible Spoke language of rural LA Elected to railroad commissions in 1914 Wins governor election in 2728 Elected to US senate in 30 In mid 1980s takes political game on the road Campaigned for FDR By 34 he organized his Share Our Wealth Program 9 series of clubs very loose philosophy Every man a king but no man wears a crown Powerful speaker uses the radio Attacking wall street attacking big business the corporate interest By 35 he s attacking FDR as him being too much of capitalist being in bed with all the corporate interests of the Us Potentially pulled 23 million votes as an independent candidate Could conceivably be the difference in electing a republican to office in 36 or re electing FDR 0 Father Charles Coughlin 9 Catholic priest in Michigan outside of Detroit Rises very quickly to fame finds new medium the radio to reach out to people in Detroit Very quickly he goes nationwide Attacks wall street corporate interests in America big business and wealthiest families begins to break with FDR in 35 Thought he was going to be something he wasn t was going to be more of a radical than he was FDR was not into any of that Was into streamlining but is not overturning the system will not confiscate private wealth Taps into the same themes of discontent Popular in the northeast where there are a large number of Catholics They are reaching billions of people across the nation and are really on fire attacking FDR for being too conservative These guys are saying he has not gone far enough The real issue is when people go to the poles its hard to listen to FDR A lot of anger and a lot of discontent out there because things are bad 10 employment is not a good thing Both of them broke with FDR in 3435 and had a tremendous amount of followers This leads FDR into the Second New Deal FDR is feeling political pressure to do even more so new legislation comes through to expand the new deal and take it to new places in American life in 1935 there s an increased expansion or amount of New Deal legislation that comes through Congress Long is shot down in the capitol in September 35 and Coughlin increasingly gears off into antiSemitism Starts to see this larger Jewish conspiracy at work to underline America Becomes more fascist in his outlook and becomes more antiSemitic Masters of chaos you can only stay at the level of anger for so long Maintaining that level of involvement and intensity is hard to keep up with The Second New Deal in 1935 FDR wanted to kick start things again and get this reform movement under way give it new legs this focused the idea of security And increasingly the new deal as it shaped out was an idea of security he wanted to build a social safety net for people that fall through the cracks of the government system Government if above all of that and works to regulate and help society to help level the playing field a little bit for people who fall through the cracks Wanted to create a system that would level things out a bit wanted to keep losers elderly disabled in capitalist system from falling through the cracks Works Progress Admn WPA o sometimes confused with PWA Basically did the same things Wanted to bring federal dollars into the state and local economies Federal One Program 9 included federal theater project the writers project federal art project and federal music project sort of 4 artistic programs grouped in this program Promoted cultural literacy Would employ actors musicians writers and artists All of these were sort of driven towards creating art forthe American public One of the most visible legacies are the murals that decorate buildings across the country Big mural in Allen Hall was a WPA project but was the same mentality one of the most lasting things they worked on was the State Guide Series Cultural tour guide to each different state and sometimes individual cities LA had a state guide and New Orleans had a city guide Did tremendous amount of research then wrapped it all into a tour guide format resettlement admin 9 takes down and out farmers and sets them up on federally owned land and gave them a house and land and get them back up on their feet 0 WPA was a limited relief program Had a shelf life Wanted to achieve more tangible goals for the future Natl Labor Relations Act Wagner Act 0 Because a lot of the early administration was struck down by the very conservative supreme court so FDR had to go back to the drawing board This was a reaction to the supreme court ruling that made it illegal for workers to unionize reiterates the importance of the right of workers to unionize Unions are important and for an important purpose Gives workers a collective voice 0 NLRB National Labor Relations Board 9 commission put together between union leaders and company leaders labor union leaders to hash out these issues Sort of a nationalfederal commission to mediate these disputes and conflicts Sets a precedent for the future even today for laborers to unionize Social Security Act essentially creates a federal pension for the elderly and disabled also creates very importantly a federal unemployment insurance and workers compensation program the elderly disabled injured and poor are most vulnerable in society so he creates a system that will provide for these people in the American society All of this is paid for out of our wages social security and then goes out to people once they reach a certain age get injured become disabled or go out of work one of the most lasting pieces of New Deal legislation One of the most guarded People take it very seriously Not so much a big deal if you are well off but if you have spent your whole life not really getting ahead social security is the difference between living in a house or not it will be expanded tremendously in the 1960s under Linden B Johnson 9 was a young New Deal congressman would later serve in Senate and would be JFK s running mate and would take over presidency when he was killed He wanted to take in a expand it further through Medicaid Medicare health insurance National Youth Admn NYA created in this time of the Second New Deal one of the classes of American citizens who took it really hard during the depression were the youth As their parents struggled through the depression their children struggled as well was really focused on providing for kids to get an education or for older teenagers getting them training and into job training programs Work Study in colleges and some high schools provided federal funds to educational institutions to give kids jobs Working in libraries putting them on grounds crews Helping them work and get an education as well mainlyfocused on 16 and over Mainly wanted to keep these kids in school End result would be them putting pressure on job market Wanted to remove pool of younger workers from the larger job pool expanded largely in the 1940s its legacy was in the GI bill To get veterans back in school And expanded in 1960s under Johnson as well as the Pell Grant program federal financial aid and scholarships doesn t really continue under NYA but in some form or fashion they are resurrected under different bureaucracies down the road 0 O O O Politics and Policies in the Late 1930s always was a large number of people that disagreed with FDR or his policies Was sort of his own worst enemy and succeeded in spending off his political capitol of a couple of fruitless ways The Court Packing Plan supreme court had largely been appointed by republican presidents at that time Had struck down a number of New Deal legislation wanted to expand the supreme court form 9 to 15 members Were some intricacies to this these elders here on the supreme court are over worked and need some additional justices to help them out He was going to appoint these new justices His side the New Deal the democratic side the liberal side was going to have a preponderance American people feel a distrust for this whole plan as well Loses control of the battle of the media Becomes a public relations fiasco Sort of dies in committee Very protracted very public struggle and FDR loses is As a political leader as president even if legislation doesn t meet what you ask it to do if you put your name on it and sign it then you can show that off as a success that you got something accomplished Court packing plan was a very losing battle he comes away with nothing except a bloody political reputation in early 37 The Roosevelt Recession of 19371938 pull out some of the supports of the relief program Cuts some of the funding to WPA PWA cuts a lot of federal money going to the relief programs The stock market plummets and millions of people are laid off of work Sort of self inflicted bythe end of 38 FDR is forced to re institute a massive relief and work relief to get federal money back into the economy Very negative public relations fiasco for FDR Much of it in some ways was tied to him By 37 FDR was in office over 4 years and his policies are pretty much in trench so he gets the blame for this recession End result is that the country is not any better than it was a decade earlier The issue is would it have been much better under a different administration or would the economy have survived if the government had not gotten as involved as FDR made it Much of the other New Deal agencies are going to fold up and basicallythe New Deal by the 1930s has lost most of its steam FDR is more focused on international events WWII arising He s created the legacy of the New Deal a security or safety net for the capitalist system in American society Accomplished reform in the financial markets housing markets houses farms agricultural sector control production created safety net or system of security for the poor marginalized members of American society the underlying structure that FDR helped build are still in pace and have become part of American government and American life in general not a revolutionary event In 1932 America is teetering on the edge here It took a very charismatic personable president like FDR to pursue and hold things together Might have been his greatest legacy that the nation did not collapse under his watch America came out of the depression because of WWII But FDR did create a structure that sort of supports the modern America that we know today The Coming of the Second World War bythe end of the 1980s FDR s attention is drawn to the international scene Throughout the middle 30s America is more focused on what is going on internally than what is going on in the rest of the world Known as isolationist tendencies Lets put our head in the sand and not worry about what s going on in the rest of the world America goes between two extremes extremely isolationists put borders up and have strong army and navy and then being overly engaged isolationists strand is not as pronounced as it used to be thanks to technology American lsolationism Nye Commission 193437 Gerald Nye was a senator from Minnesota worried about getting involved in another world warforeign conflict That s the core root of where the Nye Commission comes from Nervous and anxious about America getting involved in another war League of Nations proved to be very ineffective European nations were selfish and greedy and more interested in settling scores than peace than achieving a lasting peace 80 the sacrifice of American lives was something that Nye and other isolationists regretted didn t want to go through that again didn t want to be the police of the world A set of hearings on American internationalism and American foreign policy The general consensus was 0 American industry and finance was too tied to the allied cause US couldn t let the allies lose so we had to jump in to make sure they didn t lose Seen as the reason that America got into WWI in the first place If they were defeated then those European countries would have defaulted on loans Neutrality Acts Basically forbid American companies from loaning money or shipping arms and ammunitions to warring nations Several Acts Established this level of American neutrality American companies and banks and lending institutions cannot make financial loans or commitments of ammunitions to warring nationsbelligerent nations limits America to being a spectator on the side Takes away American morality in the world Takes American wayfrom that leading role Francisco Franco 9 waged war against the liberal government France and Germany were funneling tons of money will be slightly revised down the road really come out of the Nye Commission Investigating American policy Want to limit American exposure to international conflicts The World Crisis European economies at end of WWI were complete wrecks even the allies Spent all this energy fighting the war and had very little to show for it The rise of the Fascist Powers in Europe Benito Mussolini 1922 o rose to power in Italy to make the trains run on time idea of law and order and bringing the power of the state to rule over various aspects of society Fascist Powers 9 old symbol of Rome and Roman empire used to be an axe and bound by cord and sticks of wood Fasces Symbolized all the elements of society labor business agriculture are bound together bythe state axe Stronger entity was built Building a way of power that was controlled and superior over other aspects of society 0 FDR Broker State government was the judge and jury and worked out differences between aspects of society and could shifts things one way or the other to the needs of society Mussolini and Hitler were doing things where the state has complete power over all aspects of society FDR never went that far All under the rule of one guiding hand In Germany Hitlerand in Italy Mussolini Business labor and everything is subservient to the state Mussolini greatly wanted to suppress the mafia wanted to bring order to society Much like FDR was doing in the US in a different way These are industrialized nations have to deal wit the same problems what to do with people who are marginalized what to do with problems between people and had visions of building new empires Mare Nostrum O OO O Adolf H O O O O O O O O O O The Sp 0 O O O O O O O 0 In 1935 o itler 1933 comes to power as sort of a messiah figure Wants to restore the power and glory of Germany many Germans because of the nature of defeat felt betrayed by civilian leadership Felt German army was never really beat on the battle field Hitler is a corporal recovering from poison gas after the war Hitler goes into this Stab in the back idea Behind the civilian leadership of the country the Jews brought Germany down That the Jews wanted to see Germany defeated Wins power in the German parliament Then the Nazi s give all the power to Hitler Hitler does revitalize Germany39s economy He uses his executive unlimited power to impose his will on the German economy German agriculture and German labor He is building up German military The scapegoat You don t want to face the reality of the situation That Germany s army was defeated at the end of WWI and the German people were teetering on rebellion on revolution Hitler can put all the blame on the scapegoat the Jews master race Belief in Arian supremacy Formulated on white supremacy The other peoples of the world were inferior and intent on degrading this master race The Jew for him became someone that would degrade these pure Germanic peoples Very little respect for America because it was a conglomeration of different races African influence southern Europeans America was a hodge podge Subjugating these inferior races to the will of master races 1000 year Reich German state That his views would last for 1000 years or longer anish Civil War pretty much all of Europe was driven between disputes Between communists and republicans liberals and conservatives nationalists and ultranationalists All of Europe was in a state of political conflict We can point to that as being a symptom of the larger crisis of the modern era Where in the emerging modern order you had increased technology and communication and break down of these older imperialist and agricultural societies and increased expansion of modern thinking and modern tendencies Mainly a conflict between the liberal elements in the Spanish political scene republican forces also included the communists and socialists and more so these left leaning parties Fighting for democratic government Flanged against them was the forces of reaction of conservatism the catholic church that large land holders and especially the army Francisco Franco 9 led the army Was a very complicated man Essentially a strident catholic that believed the power of the catholic church was the chief pillar of Spanish society Where the liberals were seen as godless Had been in Spanish colonial forces in Africa Led revolt on the military against the democratically elected government in Spain 193689 Liberal forces were very divided amongst themselves in terms of ideologies political beliefs Whereas Franco had a very solid sense of what he wanted to do destroy that government reinstitute the Spanish monarchy establish the church and the military as sort of the defenders of conservative Spain western democracies were kept out of this while Mussolini and Hitler poured tons of resources into helping Franco beat the liberal democratic government of Spain America was crippled or kept out of it by what Neutrality Act America had a strong sense of isolationism and legal restrictions Hitler and Mussolini sent air units to Franco in Spain They got experience in modern warfare Evolution of tanks and modern airplanes and air tactics bombing tactics Put some of these new technologies they had been working on to the test 36 Hitler starts to take his newly revitalized Germany and military and puts it into action 1936 Hitler moves into the Flhineland demilitarized zone no armed forces in the area France had wanted to keep this area as a buffer France and great Britain and France do nothing direct violation of treaty of Versailles Hitler even admitted later that if they would have said something he would have backed down because his army wasn t built up yet o the failure of Great Britain and France to put up resistance encourages Hitler to move into other areas 1938 he invades Austria in what s called the Anschluss the connection German speaking Austrians were now reunited with Germany 0 Later in 38 Hitler occupies the Sudetenland part of Czechoslovakia Under Czech rule but ethnically German Later in 38 and into 39 he ended up establishing protectorates over the rest of Czechoslovakia The British and French just sort of stand on the sidelines 0 With Britain and France not putting up any resistance September 1939 invades Poland Was partly to Regain lots of German territory that was lost at the end of WWI Was also part of the master plan to subjugate the Slavic people of eastern Europe to this master race lebensraum Move these lesser peoplesraces out of good prime land and move German families there Create a living space in the east 0 September 1939 the war in Europe is under way Japanese Imperialism in the Far East 0 Things had been deteriorating since beginning of 1930s Japan led by Emperor Hirohito Japan had basically had been a medieval empire up until the 19h century Beginning in 1970s undergoes this tremendous industrialization process and turns itself into this major global power Under control of industrialists and central government Modernize army and navy and become regional powers then become global power Fight a couple of wars against China occupy most of Korea In early 1900 fight major war against Russia and defeat Russia Japanese humiliate Russians in the far east Seen as sort of a major blow forthem Japanese society is controlled by its military arm 0 Tojo gt one of the chief advisers and strategists throughout 1930s and during the world war Captured by the allied forces and execute 0 Japanese were Focused on expanding their influence and capturing resources For an industrialized nation to succeed they needed resources oil iron rubber steel aluminum Japan severely lacking in natural resources 0 1890s occupy Korea Formosa Taiwan defeat Russia then in early 1930s invade Manchuria today known as the northeast incredibly rich in natural resources one of the most industrialized parts of 000 0 China 0 Manchukuo 9 placed under the last emperor of China PuYi last of the Manchu s or Qing Dynasty 3 years old when the Chinese imperial dynasties came to an end Manchu s came from Manchuria Were sort if outside of China Proper they were ethically Chinese but weren t Hun Chinese 0 Manchuria had a lot of natural resources invade China Proper in 57 Japanese invasion of mainland China in 37 was incredibly bloody and brutal Lots died 0 Japanese saw themselves as a master race as well Wanted to control the South East Japanese saw themselves as the lighter colored people in the far east Saw Chinese as being lesser people because they were darker When Europe goes the war in 193940 Japan utilizes that confusion among the western powers to seize a number of the European colonies in southeast Asia US didn t really have much of a steak in the far east at this point on time we had the Philippines but the China market that American businessmen always talked about never really did materialize never really a major part of the American economy Roosevelt s Response FDR sees all of this happening Europe ascending into war Japanese aggression in the far east wants to make preparations for American defense and defense for the democracies of the world FDR sees the world in flames as a Contest between tyranny and democracy Becomes a black and white sort of issue On one hand the forces of dictatorship and militarism with Hitler Mussolini and ToJo in Japan and the forces of democracy represented by GB France and the US Sees it as a contest between dark and light good and evil After the world war begins he pushes through this last of the neutrality acts sort of a reversal of previous ones Neutrality Act of 1939 cash and carry 0 we don t want to get embroiled in a war but we can make certain exceptions for people who the president deems as supportive of Americana s national interests 0 we cant loan you money but if you want to come pick up American made arms you can bring your own ships and we will sell whatever you need You have to pay for it right then and there 0 American shipping isn t in the line of fire lts British ships primarily that are carrying goods back to GB In 1940 France falls British army that is on the continent is kicked back to GB by springsummer 1940 things are bad for the allies France is knocked out of the war as an occupied country GB is out of money Conscription and War Preparations For FDR that kind of kicks things into another level He asks congress to constitute a peace time draft First Peace Time draft in American history Follows the collapse of France and GB calls up over 1 million men Over 16 million Americans under arms by the end of the war Interested in calling up men into the armed forces getting them trained for a war he sees as being part of Americas future then war preparations funneling millions of dollars into American industry to get it up and running so throughout 194041 massive procreations in the budget for defense purposes Purchase of planes trucks as well as American industry to begin production for wartime FDR was building army and navy and getting American industry that could support them in the fields American economy needs to be able to support that war effort Increasinglythroughout 1941 FDR sees world crisis getting even worse June 41 Germans invade soviet union conquered pretty much all of Europe in the west and east and make tremendous amounts of headway through Ukraine and Russia itself The arsenal of democracy Lendlease act FDR sees the US as the arsenal of democracy We are going to be the storehouse the industrial heart of the democracies at war with Germany and Japan Primarily we are seen as providing support for GB Soviet Union and to nationalist China pushes to Congress the Lend and Lease Act 0 a massive transfer of arms and equipment to GB SU and China We are going to loan all this equipment to you and you can pay us back later Ships planes trains trucks weapons of all sorts artillery rockets bombs over 7 billion dollars of equipment and ammunitions are transferred to these 3 powers understanding that we will loan all this to you and you can pay us back later All the debts are basically written off and saythey don t have to pay but GB actually paid back in the 1970s Oil Embargo of Japan still sending mass amount of oil and petroleum to Japan Japan with its oil supply cut off from the US is forced to look in the East Indies Forces them to look to the south to East Indies and what is in the way of that The Philippines The Japanese say look it s the last straw so they make an attack across all fronts attack Philippines Dutch east indies and strike the American fleet at Pearl Harbor all in one swoop to try to clear the Americans out of the Pacific US had sort of push Japan for some reasons and pushed them to where they had no other choice Had to have that resource Tried to clear America out of the pacific all together underestimated what that would do to American psyche Underestimated American patriotism and what it would do to American economy Pacific carrier ships are not in port so Americans still have most ships for war Japanese want to clear Americans out of pacific so they can have western pacific all to themselves so they have to destroy fleet at pearl harbor where Americans cannot attack them back By 4344 American economy is hitting all cylinders of production The sheer amount of production overwhelms the Japanese We are putting out 100 ships a month compared to their 5 Americans at War accompanying the draft was an increase in defense expenditure A massive serge of federal money flowing into American defense To get American industry geared up for the war as well FDR poured mass amounts of money in to the economy did what the New Deal didn t the residual effects of the depression unemployment was no where near what it needed to be for a healthy vibrant economy American had an obligation to stand up for democracy in times of tyranny Bringing our concept of democracyto other poorer peoples The Progress of the War Europ 0 North Africa 0 Italy 0 DDay Invasion of France 6 June 1944 o Collapse of the Third Reich AprilM ay 1945 War in the Pacific 0 Midway May 1942 o Guadalcanal 1942 0 Island and Okinawa 1945 o Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1945 The Home front American Conceptions of the Second World War The Good War there were solid principles we were fighting for but primarilythere were some really bad guys out there that were the bad guys Japanese and Germans Oppressing people of the world and bringing them into slavery our job to beat them was very clear cut Put them in their place and go back home wasn t until pearl harbor that most Americans pushed to support the war WWII was the last good war where there was clearly a good guy and a bad guy In the late 90s there was a real sentimentalist view of the great depression and WWII from that particular generation saving private Ryan wasn t until Pearl Harbor that pushed most Americans into support for the war it wasn t until Pearl Harbor that Americans thought we should go to war with Japan The large minority of Americans thought we should just stay out of this conflict Like 911 for our generation Pearl Harbor made Americans want to join the war seen as a fight for democracy The Fight for Democracy Roosevelt s Four Freedom fre dom from want U freedom from fear U freedom of worship U freedom of speech and expression tied into American articles of faith Constitution Declaration of Independence people have a right to be secure in who they are have freedom of faith to have that security that FDR established in the New Deal freedom from want people should have the inherent right to live a good life to have their basic necessities taken care of freedom form fear people should not have to be anxious and have anxieties about what their government might do to them articulated later in the war but FDR pieced them together The Holocaust systematic extermination of the Jews and gypsies something like 6000000 people systematically exterminated Concentration camps torture chambers mostly Jewish but several million other marginal or subpar races or ethnic groups gypsies migrant groups mentally ill handicapped physically disabled homosexuals artists freethinkers intellectuals while all if this is going on in Europe FDR has a understanding of this as early as the 1089s Americans had a strong streak of antiSemitism within it as well AntiSemitism 9 one of the reasons the immigration restrictions was pushed through was because Americans were afraid of all the Eastern European and Jews non Christian peoples coming into America throughout the 1930s40s FDR refuses to allow the people fleeing Europe sanctuary Wasn t going to lift the immigrant restrictions from the 1920s even for emergency circumstances throughout WWII itself the Holocaust is very far down on FDR priority list Hardly comes into his policy discussions More worried about winning the war than incidental issues but it does cast some light on the good war that Americans were doing everything in their power to free people of Nazi Germany and tyranny Japan decimated refused to bomb concentration cam ps Wasn t a high military priority Our priorities were German industry and German military capacity concentration camps were very far down the hit list even during the war itself there were instances where the US failed to live up to its larger purpose We were very focused on certain issues and some of them got pushed to the side Support for Uncle Joe Stalin and Soviet Russia Stalin was on par with Hitler in terms of his brutality and his murderous intent Came to power in the 1920s and secured his reign in Soviet Russia by executing all the opposition and even people that were nominally loyal to him by clearing out all sources of power other than himself one reason that Germans had such success early in the war when they invaded Soviet Union early in the war was because Stalin had only recently within the last 2 years decimated the Soviet armies officer core generals cornels In the 1930s he instituted a purge of his most experienced officers That was just his army you can only image what he did to civilians Stalin was from Soviet Georgia country of Georgia today Lots of central Asians Ukrainians cheered the arrival of the Germans because theythought anything was better than Stalin s Soviet regime but Hitler had a very dim view of their rights and it ended up being worse than Stalin pushed to sell the war Stalin and Soviet Russia are portrayed as the good guy Whereas in reality he is a mass murdered a madman that in the 1980s had fear that FDR was trying to implement and Stalin like regime Our key allies were GB nationalist China and Soviet Union in our fights against Germany and Japan So although it was a very unlikely pairing very democratic US with totalitarian Russian with Stalin we had to make the best of it and the government went along with it pasted over differences and portrayed Stalin and Russians as being part of this larger fight of good against evil Light against dark good against evil Stalin and Soviets being on the side of good was weird in retrospect but we had to make the best out of our allies and go on with things Good war hypothesis is undermined by things going on at home as well Racism at home and abroad race riots internment of Japanese American propaganda styled ourselves as fighting for a international democracy African Americans in the States were still being legally barred from voting and being defacto barred from being seen as first class citizens Jim Crowe segregation differed in different places but underscored bythis threat of violence And all geared toward keeping blacks in the south economically restricted politically restricted and socially restricted conflict at home could be seen in hundreds of race riots 9 Zoot Suits Mexican and African American youth in LA suburbs the black areas of LA in 42 Basically sort of going against the norms and being nonconformist in the times of military preparation and deployment Style of dress was sort of the old fashioned zoot suit Involved in the early gangs of LA More like neighborhood groups Young guys showing off dressing in flashy way Erked the LA police and the thousands of soldiers and sailors that were coming through LA on leave 1 they were Mexican American and Black 2 they weren t in the service so they were seen as slackers or not being real Americans Sailors and soldiers took it upon themselves to go into neighborhoods and at random beat these guys up police were complicit in it Police would look the other way sometimes participated in it while sailors beat these guys up enforce white supremacy put these minorities in their place And geared toward by conformist attitude brought on by war Wars promote conformity everyone needs to get in line with war goals and war aid everyone needs to go along with the war in LA had a subset of people that were minorities and were not considered not real Americans by soldiers and sailors coming into LA Here they are dressing in their outfits not sacrificing for their country not joining the service wells here s what they are going to get Permeated LA throughout 43 hundreds of race riots across the country something like 60 million men in the military bythe end of the war included African Americans Latinos Asian Americans all sorts of races classes and ethnicities In particular the military remained a segregated force races and ethnicities were separated serving in segregated units had less pay fewer opportunities for promotion most officers of these units were white southerners because they knew how to deal with blacks better than whites from elsewhere Potentially explosive situation black men in uniform Upsetting the established racial status quo Nothing set off conflict in the South like seeing black men in uniform All sorts of incidents where local police or mobs saw to enforce colors barriers and lines to keep black people in their place tremendous pressure for limited resources Especially housing during the war years Often had 10 15 people living in 23 bedroom houses Housing market was not a priority during war years Caused all kinds of conflict in Detroit across the color barrier because often times black residents were moving in and encroaching on white neighborhoods Internment of Japanese American Japanese had sort of fill a void and immigration of Japanese into the United States is cut off in the 1920s a few hundred thousand Japanese Americans strung out along the west coast Mostly small store owners farmers or fisherman Very productive mostly nonviolent citizens Worked hard went to school wanted to get ahead and wanted their kinds to get ahead Bought in on the American dream December 7 1941 their ideal world came crashing down These old ideas and stereotypes as Japanese being untrustworthy people deceitful and inherently treacherous came back into play They were going to subvert good white Christian society wars start all sorts of hysteria This happens all the time Post 91 1 Arabs Japanese were going to invade American mainland after attack on Hawaii after a series of military orders Japanese or people of Japanese decent were to be removed from potential war zone FDR signed this order Thought these Japanese and Japanese Americans were to be Japanese spies and needed to be removed from the war zone 250000 or so Japanese and Japanese Americans were removed to refuge camps or concentration camps relocation centers in the deserts out west Arizona New Mexico Some as far out east as Arkansas Some temporarily came through LA last through the next two years of the war up until 44 Most of them are released at that point Not until 45 years later that the US Congress actually issues an apologyfor removing these American citizens from their homes and costing them their livelihoods Good war served into purposes in mobilizing Americans to fight the war Making Americans believe what we were fighting for democracy and liberty Expansion of Government WWII was a defining period when America emerged as a dominant power in the world economically and militarily Very defining period the expansion of government during the war itself was more than anything FDR could have dreamed of during the New Deal Although there were accusations of new deal being massive growth of federal government and bureaucracies all that is dwarfed by expansion of government during the war the expenditures during the war dwarfed anything FDR tried to do with the New Deal control consumption ensure everything is running smoothly and make sure manpower is being put to effective use essentially regulated everything the US produced or consumed during the war years Office of Price Administration OPA primarily concerned with maintaining price levels controlling inflation All the things that were available to consumers before the war all gets converted to the military When you take that all out of the market the price of what s left on that stuff starts to creep up was really in charge of regulating consumption of these goods and keeping prices in check rationingration books To purchase anything that was regulated Everything was regulated Food clothing metal products every person over the age of 16 received a ration book per week per commodity when you went to the store you had to have your money and your stamp to purchase stuff people had more money than ever during the war years but had less stuff to spend it on gasoline was heavily rationed rubber Based on what stuff was needed by the military War Production Board WPB focused on getting industry to operate on full capacity provided hundreds of millions of dollars in cheap cheap loans to retool their industries and factories construction across the nation federal government underwrote this massive expansion of industry across the nation WPB was effective in getting the American economy really geared toward the war effort and war production business benefitted in 2 way federal government underwrote all these loans for factory expansion costplus contracts U deals the government made with specific industries They were the only ones in their fields the only ones that were able to produce certain things We will give you what it costs to make these things plus a profit D This was a wayto grease the palms of big industry It was a wayto get big business on board A way to provide big industry to turn a profit during the war years National War Labor Board WLB focused on maximizing employment Getting people laborers to the right places where they can be the most effective during the war years unemployment drops to 12 during the war years wages went up by 30 during war years With that comes the expansion of Big Labor 9 utilizing the war to press its own agenda Expansion of Big Labor AFL and CIO Labor Unions main took was the strike There were several instances where strikes tried to happen but the federal government shut it down Sent in federal troops because it was a vital part of the war industry in the mines big labors tried to go on strike but the federal government shut it down because it was a vital part of the war industry New Opportunities for women and minorities during the depression unemployment of minorities was upward of 50 Was much higher than that of white Americans minorities and especially women could be a substantial part of the labor market In the 40s they became vital cogs of American industry among women it primarily was opportunities for young women to move into many clerical jobs many it was an opportunity to be out on their own but also for older women to brought back into the workforce once the war was over and things got back to normal most women were forced back to home life Many women stayed in the workforce but many women were pushed back into their proper role more than ever before you saw minorities moving into new jobs and working their way into new industries where they have been paned before provided new opportunities on lots of different levels Fair Employment Practices Commission FEPC authorized by FDR in 1941 before Us got involved in the war FDR was backed into a corner on this issue because of A Philip Randolph A Philip Randolph 9 early civil rights leader and early labor organizer Helped create the brotherhood of sleeping railroad union for African American waiters and servers on the railroads sort of a labor unionizer than activist had been seeing a lot of money pour into the defense industry and a disproportionate part of the new workers were black white Americans got most of these new jobs threatened to march on Washington in 1941 FDR saw this as a big distraction from his larger goal of supporting the allies He didn t need the distraction of racial disturbances Backed FDR into a corner didn t ask to ban discrimination completely but asked that defense industries had some kind of fair employment test that these industries had to pass Had to practice non discrimination in hiring Had to hire and fire on a color blind analysis for that time and era it was a tremendous victory It was really stating to get under way from a legal standpoint there was still discrimination but the important thing to remember was there was still an opportunity to file a grievance There was a mechanism to address those issues where previously it was the norm government was getting into new areas it never dreamed to be in Moving the federal government into positions of power that it never dreamt of having Part of that was because of the needs of the war itself Couldn t have 50 states going in different directions Had to have everyone doing the same things afterthe war blacks were focused on civil rights Couldn t have half the country acting one way and then have the south acting another keeping blacks from voting discrimination Had to have a base level of equality across the board America During the War throughout 3942 you see expansion of Germany across Europe Reaches its high tide in 1942 German tide begins to recede Meanwhile from the east the Russians have recovered and are pushing back across all this conquered territory through Poland Hungary Austria and Romania and back in Germany by May 45 The US is supplying Russia but Us production is increasing during 45 and is outpacing anything the Germans can keep up with Us has become this arsenal democracy Maximizing Americas economic power Germany cannot keep up with what the US is pushing out on a monthly basis meanwhile the far east which was the main area of focus for the US Japan reaches its extent of its range in 1942 The first major conflict was at Pearl Harbor stop a major offensive at midway in 42 then we invade Guadalcanal in 43 which was a nastyfight in the jungles Americans sort of begin to make a pinster movement from the central pacific to the south pacific In the south pacific our main goal was to get back to the Philippines Islands then work our way up these island chains In the Central Pacific is to take each of these islands and then launch the larger invasion of Japan Instead of taking each individual island the US starts Island Hopping 9 taking certain islands that have air strips and can serve as valuable supply bases for the larger attack on the Japanese and bypassing other ones Cut off the Japanese supplyfrom the islands Instead of spending all these lives and ammunition taking all the islands just take certain islands that can be used as bases US is closing in on the mainland of Japan in 45 last two major battles in 45 are Iwo Jima Feb 45 and Okinawa July 45 Okinawa is part of the Japanese island chains so we have landed on Japanese territory Thousands of Americans dead American losses at Iwo Jima and Okinawa have outnumbered the amount we have lost in Iraq ad Afghanistan Americans had to literally use flame thrower to clear the cave hideouts Okinawa American armada was over 5000 ships that was larger than the fleet we used to invade France on DDay This was the largest fleet that had ever been seen on the face of the globe Japanese couldn t keep up so they turned to other methods 3P quick to fall back into old ways in terms of international policies as wel Kamikaze 9 In the 13 h century the Mongolian leader had his sights set on Japan Building a massive invasion fleet they embark and get caught in a freak Typhoon on the coast of Japan Almost the entire fleet is destroyed Japanese celebrate this saying that it s a Kamikaze divine wind had swept in and destroyed this fleet So the Japanese got young men and taught them a little about flying a plane and them sent them on planes filled with dynamite and sent them to crash into American ships USS Kidd was hit by Kamikaze s these last major campaigns come at a high cost and Americans are very much in dread of the costs that cost of the actual invasion of Japan is going to take This is where the atomic bomb comes into play Brought to FDR s attention by Albert Einstein Once the war started FDR diverts a huge amount of federal funding into the Manhattan Project development of atomic bomb two main centers in Los Alamos and Oak Ridge TN finally succeed in developing the atomic bomb In July 45 They detonate the first atomic bomb on July 15 1945 At which point the US starts manufacturing another one we have two in our arsenal by August major American bomber in the pacific was the B29 Were bombs that started major fires Basically begun in early 45 Its succeeds in setting most of Tokyo ablaze Perhaps as many as 100150000 people were killed in these major fire storms Japanese were pretty much defenseless against American military power However they refused to surrender More intent on going down with all guns firing FDR having died in April 47 Harry Truman makes the decision to detonate the atomic bomb Nagasaki and Hiroshima Around 100000 total in both places combined Devastation is complete Emperor presses for surrender War ends in far east September 2 1945 Unites States is the dominant super power in the world Soviet Union close behind but America has the atomic bomb war cost approximately 500000 Americans dead America at the end of the War Americans have more money than they ve ever had before and immediately start consuming in 45 46 up until the 60s when America goes into recession Buying new cars new houses new pliances stuff some of them haven t had since before the depression Post 1945 America an The New World d the World up until the 1980s the US was in what was called the cold war ending of one era and beginning of another somewhat fitting the FDR who was so instrumental during this time did not really see the beginning of this new era FDR s Parting Vision visions for what postwar would look like Progressives9 mankind and humanity can be improved to make our condition better Hasa very broad vision for the future tried to steer the course of word events in this direction two in particular events Yalta and Potsdam Yalta and Potsdam Conferences Yalta in Russia in February 45 got together with his old pals Winston Churchill and Stalin to hash out this larger world as he imagined it could be The one thing where they differed were the issues of colonialism FDR much like his predecessor Woodrow Wilson believed in this idea of the free will of people and the rights of people for self determination The idea that religious groups and ethnic groups ought to be able to determine the shape of their territory or government this old I idea of self determination Would lead the break up these great colonial powers and et be self empowered democracies Churchill and FDR were pretty much in agreement FDR self determination of nations Wanted a body of countries to come together like a league of nations like a world governing organization and would become the United Nations FDR believed that Us had to be involved in this had to take the lead Would serve as police organization or even as a military force the UN can actually enlist different nations to deploy troops overseas in pursuit of a common goal 1 Self determination of peoples which becomes the 9 2 United Nations 3 building institutions that could help build a more secure and connected political global world Yalta Feb 45 FDR came back very ill with brain cancer and was in the last stages of that disease still very mysterious subjects as to what illnesses he was suffering from ls succeeded by Harry Truman Had been in the Senate FDR chose him as VP in 44 Truman was pretty much a nobody In April 45 he is put in position to wind down this global conflict and relieve the country and world in this new age Potsdam Conference In July 45 Truman goes to meet Stalin in Germany was consulting about the future of Europe and sort of hash out the issues for the future of Europe and for Truman he wanted to ensure that Soviet Union would come into the war against Japan Stalin also promises to hold free elections in eastern Europe particularly Poland And to join the war against Japan Truma n goes back home and gives the orders to drop the atomic bomb against Japan and Japan shortly surrenders Establishment of the United Nations convenes in San Francisco in April 45 Permanently headquartered in New York now In New York for a reason the US has to be involved Learn from their lessons in history lsolationism is not a way to conduct foreign policy that US as a major global power has to be involved in som e ways FDR achieves even in death most of his main goals The colonial empires after 45 begin to break up India is granted independence in 4748 Which leads to much disorder on the Indian subcontinent One hand the British have held all the ethnic or religions tensions in check but once the British move all the religious groups are free to open up against each other Break up of the Indian subcontinent to predominately Muslim Pakistan and Bangladesh Africa undergoes the Independence movement Larger goal of self determination United Nations is established and continues on Dawning of the Cold War Josef Stalin at this early point in 45 is the beginning of the cold war era Creation of what we can call a bipolar world Two super powers US and Soviet Union engaged in larger conflict against each other Stalin is an intensely paranoid distrustful maniacal mad man Driven by deep insecurities and deep fears of being overthrown or deposed so much of his actions following the end of the war are driven bythis deep sense of insecurity Incredibly ruthless In the midst of the Russian revolution he was in charge of what came to be Stalingrad His job was to eliminate the political opposition Actions are driven by deep paranoia and insecurities Wants to build a buffer of satellite states between the USSR and the West Americans understood it as Stalin being an aggressor and wanting to spread communism all over the world So Stalin is not so much an aggressor but wants to build communist states that will provide him with space between the homeland Russia and the West He wasn t going to allow elections in other countries Eastern Europe in Poland in 1944 as the Germans were withdrawing the Polish underground had launched a revolt in Warsaw and the Russians were very close by within striking distance to support this overthrow but instead of rushing to help Stalin orders his Generals to stop on the outskirts of Warsaw the Germans come in and stop the rebellion and murder many of the what Stalin saw as potential rivals in the Polish liberation movement so throughout 194546 as most of eastern Europe is occupied by Soviets they establish communist parties and communists governments and communist infrastructure to establish satellite powers They would have their independence but in the big scheme of things they took orders from Moscow The Iron Curtain This is what Churchill very famously describes this as the Iron Curtain descending down across Europe That everywhere as far west as the Russians had reached across Europe this iron curtain kind of descended and everything behind that fell into darkness Churchill never trusted Stalin Thought he Soviet Union would control these countries Stalin wants to establish buffer zone to protect him from the West Major goal was to protect everything that he had established To challenge this the US in 4748 begins what is known as the Marshall Plan The Marshall Plan and the Reconstruction of Europe George C Marshall 9 secretary of State Establishes large economic recovery plan for Europe and Asia as well Goal is to help European democracies get back on their feet European economies were in shatters even GB and France s economies were wrecked Advisors wanted to create economic stability to create political stability So basically this was a massive shot in the arm of US dollars into western Europe Partlyto counter Stalin s influence in eastern Europe Although most of the Eastern European countries as well as the Soviet Union received Marshall Plan dollars It was a very liberal open handed gesture on the part of the US to help these war torn countries to get back on their feet develop economies give people jobs and promote political stability Incredible success France gets back on its feet In the 50s Germany is split and divided but West Germany becomes an independent country and bythe 60s becomes an industrial power house Today Germany as emerged as a major economic player in Europe and even the world Mao Zedong and Chinese Communism Chairman Mao had waged civil war with the nationalists Nominally more democratic Sort of all put on hold from 3745 due to the Japanese invasion But once the Japanese are booted out this civil war sort of picks right back up where it left off in the late 30s Despite all our efforts thousands of tons of American ammunition sent to the nationalists cause they are overthrown in 1949 by Chairman Mao and the communists partly the nationalist divided among themselves their bureaucratic structures were corrupt and inefficient never made any strikes toward land reform in china so the communists of course had a very clear leadership under Mao and were attractive to the millions of Chinese peasants that were oppressed by the landlord system Nationalists were booted to the island of Formosa on the southeast coast of China and formed the nation of Taiwan Today is the origins of the very dicey dispute that the US is caught in between the mainland Chinese and the former nationalists on the independent country of Taiwanese Taiwanese see themselves as an independent nation in The US for good or for ill is firmly committed to defending Taiwan the fall of China to the communists is like a dark cloud that rises over the American horizon Because in 1949 as well Stalin and the Soviet Union detonates their first atomic bomb Stalin throughout the 30s had cultivated hundreds of lower level officials in the American government young intellectuals that had blurred with communism and had embraced this idea of communism being a solution to the worlds larger problems Bythe 40s50s many of these bureaucrats had become situated in key spots in American s political infrastructure in security posts in technological posts in economic posts so there was this large web of communists network that had infiltrated American society Red Scare 49 was doubly dangerous for the US Because you had the fall of your ally and they are overthrown by communists Stalin had used his extensive network of spies to steal atomic secrets detonated the first atomic bomb for Russian in 49 as well Korean war lasts form 5058 Actually still under way because they never signed a peace treaty just signed a ceasefire Technically war could break out at any point in time bythe early 50s there is a threat to the American way of life seems very real and will get us involved in the whole conflict in IndochinaVietnam Collapse of the Colonial Powers India Africa and East Asia across the world the colonial powers were collapsing India gains its freedom in the aftermath of the war most of the other British colonies gain independence in the 50s and 60s in Africa and East Asia the Portuguese had a few holdings in Indonesia still very strong in Angola in Africa which will not win independence until 75 after a bloody civil war There is an independence in the 339d world Vietnam Louse and Cambodia in southeast Asia Had all been underthe protectorate of France By the 1880s France had established a colony The beginning of WWI it had fell under Japanese control Indochina 9 rubber and vast quantities of rice unfortunately for the US France at the end of the second world war decides it wants to re assert its colonial power Its does not like to be without this global pull France loses many battles in Indochina Vietnam and Africa the French in the end end up giving up everything the US gets drug into this because of this threat of global communism France is one of the key democracies in the west so we want to support them but we our goal was to break up these colonial empires but in an odd twist we end up supporting the re assertion of French colonial power in Indochina even while we are pushing for the break up of these powers everywhere else US ends up picking up the slack where French leave off because we don t want any other countries to fall to om m America in the Atomic Age At the end of the war America is prime rate for an economic explosion Truman administration wants to integrate all the solider and sailors back into society in 44 FDR pushes through one of the biggest legislations 9 GI Bill of Rights Benefits for soldiers and sailors getting out of the armed services Funding for schooling provides moneyfor housing Medical benefits education and housing tremendous amounts of infrastructure built up Huge economic boom in 40s and 50s American leaders didn t recognize the potential in the American economy For the next 20 some odd years unprecedented explosion of economic activity and economic growth and prosperity for the next 20 years into early 70s Americans are making more moneythan ever more vacation time than ever economy explodes after WWII Reconstructing the Nation The United States in 1865 the civil war was coming to a close 6000 Americans died during the war Catastrophic event in US history The north and south went toe to toe for 4 years until they could not fight anymore Infrastructure of the south was almost completely destroyed Agriculture was destro e The south ended in total destruction Sherman s march to the sea For a whole generation after the war the common south was a broken land Veterans are coming home to a revolution in a racial war 4 million African Americans have become free billions of dollars in investments gone up in smoke southern land owners had their money invested in land and slaves whole financial structure of the south impedes with the emancipation proclamation Main question for the reconstruction period what is the social order and what will the society look like Nort 0 Strong central government industrial power 0 Everything became stronger 0 America turned on their industrial minds for the second world war 0 War demands weapons more of everything food clothing shoes trains 0 Launch the great period of the 188090s puts American as a world power 0 Centralization of power 9 federal government became stronger Leadership manpower 0 Large connections between government and businesses are made 0 First income tax is passed printing of mass amounts of green backs to give the people more money pacific railroad homestead act is passed to encourage people out and get homesteads to make more produce for market centralized banking system 0 On the verge of becoming a metropolis o Producing growth of industr o On the verge of the reconstruction period was what to do with the south and what to do with the massive freed black population 0 Lincoln had a strong interest in the process of reconstruction He never really recognized recession Wanted to integrate the south back Wanted a very lenient reconstruction policy Wanted to bring the south back in to the fold as easily as he could o Emancipation proclamation South 0 Provides raw goods for the north The issue of southern Reconstruction at the National Level Lincoln s Plans forthe South The The TenPercent or Louisiana plan 0 essentially Lincoln wanted to establish loyal governments that would then abolish slavery in their own right Wanted states themselves to abolish slavery once 10 of the 1860 voting population had taken an oath of loyalty those people could organize a new union or state government 3 states did this while the war was ongoing LA AK TN Lincoln could work with governments He would have supported a limited franchise of free slaves or blacks that were free before the war or served in the war Despite being a revolutionary figure was a deeply scrupled constitutionalist Saw himself as having very limited powers due to the constitution Challenge of the Radical Republicans At the last year and a half of the war started to challenge Lincoln Committee on the Conduct of the War 9 questioned Lincoln s policies Wanted to forge a policy on their own Lincoln became a martyr Southern slave holders caused this war that cause hundreds of thousands of deaths and maiming and turmoil they needed to be made to pay Wanted to not only punish white slave holders but also Freedman s Bureau 0 intended to give African Americans opportunities in education economic uplift and a degree in political activism OO o helped organize schools funnel funds for missions helped settle this very mobile group of African Americans who were in motion at the end of the civil war helped find families 0 becomes a huge refugee issue when you have a huge population trying to cross borders before the war was even over 13quotI Amendment 0 abolishes slavery Andrew Johnson a native southerner from east Tennessee strident unionist and Presidential Reconstruction succeeds Lincoln in presidency Lincoln switched to Union Party wanted to bring in someone from the south when Lincoln dies after 6 months in office there was a white southerner at the head of the government Very much against the political power of the slave system In a very difficult position where he is trying to piece together his own political party to rerun for presidency Radical republicans didn t like him opposed his reelection right away Johnson had to embrace the southerners because no one else liked him Supported a very limited franchise of blacks like Lincoln Pushed for black equality got them land extends the presidential pardon to many members of the confederate membership class He had a very strong distaste of the leadership of the old south Late 65 66 trying to form alliances between people in south White southerners were at the mercy of the national government The Course of Events in the South o In the fall of 1865 elections are held for political power in the south They reelect their old senatorsgenerals Refuse to let these exsenators and generals to take their place in congress South continues to wallow with no representation in Washington In fall 1865 they institute the Black Codes 9 a whole set of regulations and stipulations on what the freed black American population can do 0 Thought black people needed limits placed on them because they were childlike and don t really understand all the consequences of everything they do Limits on their ability to travel and whether they work or don t work Blacks can officially marry sue and be sued in court have certain legal rights The fact of the matter is the restrictions in placed on them The legislation starts to move to DC and they realize that its turning into the same thing it was before corporal punishment beatings and whippings being bound to land by contracts reelecting old leaders 0 Race riots in Memphis and New Orleans 9 battles between black and white White population was heavily armed black population not so much Old mechanics hall downtown on Canal was a portion of the old constitutional convention was trying to reconvene to talk about including black voting rights in a new constitution 0 Get national coverage and push congress over the edge Things got out of control now the overnment has to step in and do the right thing Congressional or Radical Reconstruction things were getting too out of control so government was stepping in Civil rights Bill 1866 provides equal protection for persons born in the united states 1439 Amendment 1866 federal citizenship 2 important clauses disbarred many of the exconfederate leaders from holding office states denying eligible males the right to vote would lose proportionate representation punishing the south 0 O O 0 000 Military Reconstruction 1867 since the south was not willing to repent on its own Congress would break up southern governments and puts them under military district rule then sets a bar for those states to be let back into the union Andrew Johnson was over ridden on all counts Missed being removed from office by one vote Overall population of the US in 1860 was 31000000 About 600000 were South in 1860 had a Reconstru fighting for the north or south pproximately 9000000 inhabitants 9 approximately 250000 were killed or died of disease THE SOUTH RED EEM ED ction of the Southern States the southern states have no choice but to comply with the for white southerners this is the error of Bayonet Rule physical military presence ratification of the 13h and 14h amendments and establishment of some form of legal participation by African Americans in the political process Re 0 O 0000 O 0 Opposition O O O O overseen by union or civilian officers end goal is to crate a more equal south later on What s left out Economic restructure that took place No great restructure of the economy publican Governments congress passes the15h amendment bans attempts at discrimination based on race overwhelming amount of political participation in 681870s 9 black participation at all levels of local and state government republican party in south is based on the black voter at the local level Party of Lincoln the leadership is a bit more mixed Exslaves moving into political ranks New Orleans had strong unionist sympathies 9 lots of German immigrants who never really gave in to slavery scalawags native born white southerners who agreed with Republican party carpetbaggers union men ex union army officers Reconstruction governments were very liberal and progressive in their orientation public school programs expanded social services hospitals institutes for disabled expanded infrastructure developments railroads bridges roads These big programs were funded by taxes on trade property commerce through import duties which fell on the ex slave holders Republican governments in the south were driven by factional infighting fighting within the party White South 9 overthrowing what they consider to be illegal government and establishing white democratic rule 18691870 most were readmitted by 1874 KKK established in the 1860s Nathan Bedford Forrest 9 Whites turned to illegal terroristic matters Klan is established as a political group has a political purpose chief means is violence A terror organization geared toward over throwing illegitimate government The End of Reconstruction 0 By the mid 1870s as the federal government increasingly begins to wash its hands of the whole process the Klan begins to come out of hiding and emerges into groups known as White Leagues they drill out in the open with cannons and rifles they are functioning as the military arm of the democratic party Collapse of Northern Support O O O 0 Democratic party party of redemption Several things ongoing early 1870s 1873 tremendous downturn of the economy Over time north moves on and south is stuck in a neverending racial conflict Over time people become immune to it America is moving west That has captured America s attention more than the south Less and less of an interest in exerting power in the south and they start to let thing work out normally Compromise if 1877 O O O 0 Republicans lost this election LA changed from republican administration to democratic one South is redeemed From 1870s1950s south only votes democratic North turns its back on southern states economic depression also at national level scandals are being revealed in the republican administration under president Grant Sam Tilden vs Hayes Tilden wins the popular vote electoral votes are in dispute Most of the south has been redeemed 9 they have gotten rid of the republican administration three states are still nominally held by republican administration Combined their electoral vote will give Hayes a one vote victory in electoral college 3976 conservative leaders democrats meet with republican national leaders and they come up with the compromise of 1877 These electoral votes SC FL A republicans in the north washed they hands and turned their backs on the republicans in the South South is now firmly in democratic hands white man s government Solid South Party of white supremacy The South Redeemed Bourbon Government in Power redeemer governments but generally they are known as the Bourbon 9 they are French royal family They had been out of power for 20 years and post napoleon they come back into power They try to restore things to the old order This old leadership that has been deposed in the civil war and out of power has resurrected back into position of power in congress The bourbons learn nothing and remember nothing They essentially want to clear the books of the reconstruction and reset back to the way things were Recreate a social racial order interested in 2 thing 0 Fiscal Retrenchment or Conservatism Fiscal Policies9 rolling back the taxes that had been enacted holding down and cutting down the size of state government rolling back social services Tax cuts repudiating much of the debt that the republican administrations Bourbon government repudiates half of the debt For every 7 borrowed they pay 4 0 money was loaned to an illegitimate power and no one recognized it Large portions of people were barred from voting and there was an illegitimate voting party Big money men in London and NY should have known better 0 What does this do to LA and the South paying only 50 back on the 1 9 hurts credit a lot The state governments say they don t really care and they aren t going to be paying for these expenditures anyways so they don t care if south cant pay it Establishing White Supremacy Racial Policies9 there was a very violent racial strain at work Paternalism 9 concerned for the free people of color because they couldn t do it on their own Needed guidance White people claimed they had the best interest of the black people at heart Very soft racial ideology Bourbons were equally as corrupt as anyone else Giving out generous land grants had just as many scandals White mans government blacks were effectively cut out of the political process throughout 1880s and into the 1890s black votes were still recognized but they were controlled as a block They were manipulated in such a wayto provide the bourbons with political supremacy The Rise of the New South Reconstruction is over Bourbon Government established 1880s rebuilding Primarily marked by an attempt to industrialize Rise of more widespread consumerism mass movements more linked in with the rest of the nation Railroads provide communication with the outside world becoming a new market for the industrial goods North wants to acquire the south s natural resources South offers agriculture cotton natural gas oil iron timber coal 9 all labor intensive The south is a basket of opportunities the northern financial class have an invested interest in getting the south back on their feet this opens the south up to manufactured of finished group from the south generallythe bourbon governments supported northern investments Need the flow of northern investment in the south To build new railroads new roads water transports flood control levees their greatest concern about someone opening a new factory is losing their workers and laborers two main strains going on in southern society 9 Getting back to what it was before the war 9 Henry Grady and the Idea of Progress 0 young editor of the Atlantic Constitution 0 saw a south that would accept all the northern industrial involvement 0 the south had been limited by slavery o slavery is not seen as a moral sin and that the emancipation was a good thing They see it as something that had limited the south s development no room for business growth and industrialization this new south will vindicate the southern people Limited Expansion 0 limited in its ability to uplift southern masses Exploitative Character 0 low wage Exploitative in nature people and natural resources textiles coal and iron and timber southern laboring classes were not organized like the North cheap labor cheap resources and lowno regulation textile mills began to sprout up through SC NC GA AL Children were the face of the textile industry I mills and mill towns were attractive because they offered employment I opening of coal andor iron and oar I attract people from across the south Black or white There is work and they are living in depressed economy I South was producing raw materials I Reconstruction era cheap labor cheap resources non union and few regulation Developments in Agriculture 0 2 primary industries moved south textiles 9 hydroelectrical power from rivers Utilization of child labor Opening up of the great coal fields More opportunities for African Americans in these jobs South is in turmoil Beginning in 187080s timber industry 9 cypress big in southern LA mass reserve of pine land employed tens of thousands of people black and white Could make more money going into timber camp for a few months than you could make all year new deal was to reforest the south The Spread of Cotton Culture 0 South was known for the production of cotton 0 beginning of 1860 south producing about 4 billion bales later 10 billion 0 depressed economy Need all your money up front Ideally if the weather s right you get a nice big cotton crop and pay off all debts then start the process all over again in the spring 0 Onlything that has real value to the north is cotton itself The Tenant and ShareCropping System 0 People lost their land and have been forced to become sharecroppers and work for someone else and split the crop o the farmer who no longer has land only has his expertise as a farmer to the landlord They are basically splitting the risk landlord loans seed animals etc in return the sharecropper grows cotton and if it s a good season they split everything 0 sharecropper gets everything from the commissary plantation store 0 Farmer owns the commissary Controls all the access for outside goods 0 White southerners poor whites get sucked into this cotton culture too The New Racial Order 0 While all this is happening there is a breakdown of the old social order in the south the racial order begins to crumble as blacks come from the countryside into the cities 0 what we begin to see are attempts to reformulate southern racial relationships Fluid nature of postwar race relations 0 Emergence of the Old South Myth 0 By the 1880s you have a whole generation born outside of the bounds of slavery 0 young begin to see literature and romanticize vision of the old south in reality it was built on greed and violence Joel Chandler Harris Uncle Remus 1880 kindly old exslave aunt jemima mammy lots of conflict growth of cities brings whites and blacks into contact with each other and put them in uncomfortable situations the mammies were usuallyteenage girls who were having children themselves as well as taking care of the white children n u u u The Lost Cause 0 goes handinhand with this old south myth Making sense of old social order through myth vindicating the south s honor will admit that slavery was wrong but vindicated themselves in honorable fashion every town across the south had a statue of a war hero or general lee circle It says that your town has wealth 0 providing a sense of order Creation of Jim Crow Segregation taking black and separating them from white society is disordered and in disarray Movement of people from plantations and into cities Breaking down social order leads to encounters with blacks across what had been previously established as social barriers If the barriers were crossed bad things happened especially in urban areas Urban cities were much more wide open in terms of their social restrictions and enforcements more mixing of social elements in urban areas One if the main areas in transportation white views of African Americans don t alter that much in time yet socially the structure of the city allows for all these interactions between races needed to be clear definitions about the space between whites and blacks throughout the 1890s voting restrictions on blacks throughout the south Basically the thinking was that if we just removed blacks from the voting process then the white voting process will be clarified There will be less of an opportunity for whites to manipulate the black votes 000 00 OO O OO o literacy test grandfather clause if your father or grandfather could vote before reconstruction then you could voteso no blacks could vote poll tax violence in LA between 1898 and 1904 black voting decreased by 99 increasingly in the 1890s they began to impose segregation in public places if used wrong water fountain or bathroom resulted in arrest if the barriers were crossed led to arrest or death 40000 public lynching s black response to this was along 2 fronts sort of an active challenge to segregation Come out of New Orleans Led by the old class free people of color Very proud of French some Spanish ancestry There was a Creole or free people of color militia unit Saw themselves as being entitled to full citizenship U Rodolphe Desdunes 9 a historian of the Creole community 0 all this led to plessy vs ferguson Plessy v Ferguson 1896 o a case about segregation 0 Homer Plessy 9 78 white Could have passed for a white man 0 plan was for him to get on the train and sit in the whites only section and then tell the conductor that he was legally black and that he was in violation of that particular code Worked its way up to the supreme courts 0 Segregation was alright as long as separate facilities were equal 0 for a brief period there was a complete collapse in the black community 0 white southerners saw it as a green light to have a full segregation in society 00000 O Booker T Washington and Black Activism o born a slave in v7Virginia o gained an education at a technical college 0 became an image of black advancement in the south 9 black uplift 0 he wanted to show that black Americans were capable of being responsible citizens to show that blacks are capable of being hardworking even under Jim crow laws 0 Washington was a tremendous opponent of black education 9 went on to Alabama where he founded Tuskegee Institute Technical college 0 tapped into the pockets of northern philanthropists channeled a lot of money into black education in the south 0 Fiosenwald schools 9 1000 or so one or two roomed schools Paid for by Julius Fiosenwald President of Sears Roebuck Channeled a lot of personal wealth in to these schools 0 WEB Dubois 9 very removed from the daytoday struggle in the southern landscape A Nation Looks West The Idea of The West 0 Moving west had been thought about for years 0 much like the south the west becomes an unlimited source of natural resources that can be explores will fuel eastern industry and finance Californios Building a Transcontinental Railroad Market 9 nebulous economic system of capitalism producer and consumer Pacific Railroad Bill 1862 o establish a railing across the country to unify the continent claimed nearly 200 million acres of federal land by 1871 build communication and transportation link considerable amount of financial manipulation at play by 1900 its become much more connected The north and the south 0 Chinese labor coolie labor Credit Mobilier Scandal 1872 0 did a lot of subcontracting work for union pacific 0 huge amount of corruption involved in building railroads Huge waste of tax dollars in building them 0 scandal broke in 187273 It s uncovered what was going on with the Grant administration lots of congressmen who were involved in railroad were uncovered vice president a few tors O O O O sena Boom and Bust on the Frontier the case in mining and cattle culture and in farming Everyone goes all in then the colony crashes and then everything starts again instead of lots of ranches you have one or two large ranches over hundreds of acres 0 Mining 0 GOO 000 O Cattle O O OO O O 0000 most recognizable in the mining in the west The great rush that sets it off is the gold rush in California Thousands running into California Merchants end up making the most money in the gold fields of California because people needed clothing food Furnishing agencies making money because they are collecting in the end always the people making money are the people providing services that miners want Periodic mining bonanza s gold silver In Arizona its copper All throughout the southwest and west there are tremendous amounts of lead iron coal and copper as northern and British money was pouring into south its also going into the west development of boomtowns Saloon 9 general store 9 gambling house 9 churches 9 schools when the gold iron copper suns out the towns are deserted Become ghost towns Virginia City is one of the most elaborate Paved streets sidewalks opera house very important in west even today Arizona s economy is built on copper mining Post civil war era for about ten years into early 1870s the golden age of the great cattle drives ranching has been a part of Mexican economy province of new Spain Long history even outside of what we think of as the continental united states Texas in reunited into the nation tremendous expansion of labor tremendous demand for beef as railroads are moving west the cattle drives are being moved to them to move the cattle to bigger cities about 10 year era of great cattle drives come to an end as the great ranches of the west are set up and the system becomes a lot more corporatized Great ranches that are tens of thousands sometimes millions of acres begin popping up in Montana range wars gt 1880s smaller ranchers are being pushed out by larger corporate enterprises Squeezing out the competition Two key enemies of cattle farming were other farmers and sheep ranchers competing for same grass lands barbed wire is introduced in 1870s provides a sense of order on the range Chinese labor Streaming into the west yellow peril Chinese exclusion acts 9 national governments put a ban on new Chinese immigrants Would not let more into the US The Farmer Moves West likewise set on this boom and bust mentality Homestead Act 1862 O O O 0 passed with a purpose of providing small farmers with land Usually 160240 acres of land Jeffersonian ldeal southerners opposed to opening up the west Theythought everyone would move west laborers from the north Political power of the south wouldn t move anywhere As new states would open up they would be free states approx 270000000 acres opened up still in effect up into the 20 century Bonanza farms 0 O staple agriculture 9 wheat became the bonanza crop then potatoes and beets in Idaho Colorado Wyoming wheat was the big market crop many people end up declining and losing their farms Closing the Frontier The Plight of the Native Americans Constant battle Subjugation of the Northern Plains Reservations assimilate native Americans push them off into the land that white man didn t want 0 Indian agent 9 assigned to each reservation by the government Led to massacre at wounded knee in south Dakota in 1893 9 part of transitional process 0 Ghost dance 0 old west beginning to fade out Wild west shows begin Sitting bu Sioux Crazy Horse Cheyenne and the Little Big Horn Conquest of the South Geronimo and the Apaches Reservation Life Wounded knee comes out of this spiritual movement called the ghost dance tribal men have been having visions of the Sioux and Cheyenne being out back into their place in the world Led to a sort of spiritual movement A revolt against the reservation system 0 Dawes Act 1887 offers these native Americans a grant of land outside the reservation if they give up their rights to reservation property 9 extension of homestead act many end up saying that reservations are just traps ghettos Tribal identities weaken over time tribes become in debt sell off land to speculators and it goes on and on and on Late 18708808 wild west shows come onto scene Become legacy in old west Like circus acts Buffalo Bill out together a show of the wild west shooting demonstration horsemanship Goes on until early 1900s replaced by film Travelled across Europe north and eastern United States Some peoples only experience of the west bythe 18808 buffalo bill was enlisting native Americans to come into his shows Sitting Bull goes on a few tours with him The Frontier Closed 1890 Census 0 first census where there is no line for the frontier o was defined by average persons per square mile 0 2 people per square mile 0 no discernable frontier Have filled up with enough people that there is no longer 2 peoplesquare mile 0 on average by 1890 each of the territories in the west were full Frederick Jackson Turner Early historian 0 Significant of the Frontier in the American History 1893 9 published shaped how Americans interpreted our growth and expansion argued that the frontier this march from the east to west coast had defined the American character Horses violence guns independence tough rugged hard working determined Jackson was making an argument that this legacy of struggle and conflict had defined and shaped American character Made it an exceptional country Columbia expedition in 1893 in Chicago The Rise Of Corporate America The Rise of Big Industry and the Corporation guilders age age of the robber barons no regulations consolidation of the corporation the corporation becomes part of everyday life tremendous economic expansion north and east Exploration of natural resources in south and west are adding to the economy in north and east You could not have this without power if the corporation john d Rockefeller 9 standard oil petroleum industry Vanderbilt s DuPont s in chemical industry Industries geared toward production Iron and steel industry building of railroads great timber fortunes corporation comes into play 9 putting all the pieces together so the capital could work smoothly most of these people had their start during the civil war or grew exponentially during the war years they were in the right place at the right time and were able to utilize their resources to expand exponentially Business and the federal Government looking for people that can provide large amounts of goods for cheaper prices consolidating their empires corporation is composed of many different owners Combine their capital to do larger things than they could do individually corporation build to do big things part of American growth Expanding both horizontally gobbling up all the smaller organizationscom peting firms and vertically buying up the whole process of production buying up the resources owning facilities owning transportation trust 9 expansion of corporate idea Separate entitythat controlled different businesses and other corporations Held interest in other corporations Usually a large corporation that help controlling interest in other small corporations Did not our right own other corporations but controlled them The parent company underneath it were the subsidiaries Wayto manage corporations and other industries entrepreneurs are discovering how to put together capital how to produce things more cheaply sell more goods make more money in the end part of this development is tied to federal government government can be either pro business or pro consumer Administrations tend to usually be one or the other Democrats seem to be more consumer republicans seem to be more business late 19 h century is a time of republican domination Very pro business anti regulation outlook Prefer to let business run itself and let business tend to its own affairs 0 Laissezfaire economics Let business run itself Have no regulations want to let people be able to experiment want people to be able to make money don t want to lessen their ability to do that by increasing taxes implementing safety regulations labor regulations Social Darwinism 9 survival of the fittest Smartest companies best run companies will survive and prosper and gobble up the weaker ones out there Strongest most evolved will do the best long term The ones that don t change tactics or adapt will fail heavy racial tinge to social Darwinism Taylorism and scientific management 0 Cult of the expert Scientific management 0 Frederick Taylor mid level management in the steel industry Did studies on the actual functions of different jobs and how jobs were carried out Taylorism 9 scientific management how to make the company more efficient How to get more out of the workers 0 guilds 9 each worker saw their work as craft work Labor Becomes Organized Knights of Labor 0 formed in 1875 By 1880 had over 700000 members Mostly unskilled labor 0 banning child labor wanted equal pay and rights for women improved safety public ownership of utilities communication and transportation 0 had a vision of utilizing government to work for them 0 had the power of federal and state governments behind them 0 Populists 9 rural equivalents of knights of labor 0 1886 Samuel Gompers and the American Federation of Labor AFL o Cigar maker Gompers vision was much more conservative He wanted his union to represent the more elite more skilled tradesmen in crafts Specifically many of the building trades emerging technological trades Or had a certain specialized knowledge Limiting membership in the AFL o didn t really want to over turn the system 0 more content and satisfied to receive measureable gains shorter work hours better pay safer work conditions Tangible gains 0 much more conservative much more respectable o labor movement reaches its peak in 1930s 0 Immigration and Urbanization The Immig ration Experience Post about 1870 tremendous flow of foreign immigrants into the country 9 drives the industrial expansion in the 1880s a huge serge of immigrants coming form eastern and southern Europe Between 18711880 2 million from western Europe in the decade from 19011910 something like 2 million from western while over 6 million from southern and eastern Europe pogroms 9 persecuted Russian Jewish communities opening a whole other variety of nationalities and ethnicities languages and introducing them into the American scene immigrant coming in such numbers that they are transforming the landscape of the cities bring there culture food ways religion etc coming to America for work Primarily this mass of influx of immigrants is going to make up the backbone of industrial America working in the heavy industries steel making ship making construction The physical laborers whole communities coming from other countries restaurants businesses self sustaining once established initially Bad living conditions bad sanitations epidemics throughout communities small pox measles mumps rebuild cultural institutions Schools churches fraternal lodges social groups secret societies cultural force and eventually political force not long before these groups exert political power Bob Maestri 9 elected mayor in New Orleans Built new infrastructure in New Orleans French market housing streets were all under Maestri s watch LaGuardia 9 Machine politicspoliticians 9 makes votes mobilizes different ethnic groups New Orleans always held special place in LA politics because its always had a way of dominating votes Mobilize whole communities Could always count on new Orleans to come in and push you over in election votes The Transformation of the City Technology enables the growth of the cities advances in technology so great that man is able to overcome geological limitations steel beam technology Construction of enormous bridges and sky scrapers 1889 the first elevator brought onto the market Vertical mobility expansion of transportation network rail lines trolleys electric car lines Richmond VA 1888 850 trolley operations by 1895 across the nation First subway in 1890s in Boston New York city subway opens in 1904 electricity brings power to urban areas and allows people to build away from water ways and into new geographic areas Along with those come new advances in city services public health sanitation and water 0 telephones come on line in 1880s Emergence of the Suburb o suburbs existed before Paris Really grew with urbanization Not limited into be tied into downtown business district People can commute a getaway for upper and middle classes Offices still in city but they can move out of the city Garden districts Mass Culture and the Middle Class o by early 1900s moving pictures cars people have leisure time A clear division between work and O O everyone can participate in mass culture everyone can go to the movies Coney island A Nation Looks West The Idea of The West Becomes and Unlimited land or natural resources Expansion of North and East Capital to the West Californiosithe people that made up the Spanish Texas communities were primarily ranching 1840 s7Mormans into Utah then to Illinois 1840 s Connection bw east and west was very tenuous government wanted to bring east and west together Building a Transcontinental Railroadito bring east and west together 18701900 0 Until civil warithey Whigs wanted federal assistance to built railroads 0 South pretty much had their own economic development but after civil war the southern representation in government is no longer there Paci c Railroad Bill 18627offers the west tenitories a railway to the west coast to unify the continent 0 Had a hard time for rail companies to develop and pay for a transcontinental railroad Incentives to help build was land then the companies could sell or hold free land By 1871 railroad companies had claimed over 200 million acres of federal land By 1900 hundreds of railroads were built to California Two main groupsiCentral Paci c and Union Paci c used much Irish and Chinese labor Homestead Act Credit Mobilier Scandal 18727did much of the subcontracting for the Union Paci c 0 Puts the cost at about 50 million dollars and charged about 7375 million for the government 0 The Grant administration was pretty much behind all this 0 O O O 0 Much corruption Boom and Bust on the Frontierimostly recognized in the mining industry Gold Rush 18481850 0 Mining 0 Gold Rush 18481850 California 0 Gambling became popular 0 The people supplying all the equip food and buildings are the ones that have the money 0 Late 1890 s Klondike Gold Rush on Alaska Canada Border o Boomtowns were createdionce the mines became empty these towns become deserted o Cattleiranching post 1860 s 0 Ranching had been part of the Mexican economy Texas is now reunited into the nation and the northern industries and now down in Tx Demand for beef after the civil ware Most of the beef is going to the big cities after being canned OOO O O O O O O O O Ranchers and being pushed out by larger corporate enterprises Ranching depended on the water resources Range wars were surrounded by competition Two key enemy s were farmers and sheep herders Independent operations were feeding off the larger ranges by sealing cattle causing ghts The ranching industry was cut off by the invention of barbed wire fencing 1870 s established the dominance of corporate organizations More than half of cowboys were MeXican or Black Chinese labor helped ranching in the west Yellow Peril is known to taking advantage of the Chinese man jobs are being taken over by the Chinese Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 but a ban on new Chinese immigrants The Farmer Moves West Homestead Act 18627passed with a purpose of providing small plots of land to new farmers 160240 acres almost directly after the outbreak of the civil war 0 O O O The southemers didn t want the northern move west because they would become free states letting the south loose power in the government There were people that were claiming thousands of acres under the Homestead Act Wheat market crop Potatoes and beets became the main crops of the west In reality you get a staple one crop agriculture system plantation system Bonanza Farms see above America in the 18905 7511 1101 AM hyper patriotism Challenges to corporate order The Panic of 1893 9 major physical crisis More of a depression than a recession thousands of banks end up closing industries laying off people right and left 0 those are followed by labor strikes The Pullman Strike 1894 Started outside Chicago in the Pullman rail yards Late spring and summer of 1894 0 Workers that manufactured the nice Pullman sleeping rail cars 0 company laid off bunch of workers which led to a strike bythe remaining workers mushroomed into a nationwide series of strikes to support the original strikers something like 30000 workers cross the nation are involved in this strike pops up in lots of places throughout the country strike is closed down bythe intervention of federal troops Grover Cleveland lone democrat to win office in Republican domination sends in federal troops to break the strike One of the great labor leaders ad socialists politicians Eugene V Debs 9 arrested and the case goes to the federal court Labor organizer and socialist leader in the 1890s Reached a climax of his fame in the 19teens Also ran for president one of the most successful 339d party candidates in 1912 in American history Very successful losing campaign spontaneous protest as Pullman factory yards railroad workers across the nation putting down tools and walking off the job in sympathy of their working brothers in Chicago democrats generally have been favorable to labor Even democratic party is largely in the pockets of big business and industry 0 both parties are basically conservative 9 based around protecting property and peoples rights building an environment where people can prosper democrats are more pro consumer republicans tend to let business run itself 0 Cleveland was no more pro consumer than his counterparts in a sense the Pullman strike it doesn t spell the end of the labor strikes but it does put a big damper on it Meanwhile out on the heartland of American The Populist Revolt knights of labor were much more focused on unskilled labor Were never able to bridge that gap between urban working classes and rural laborers Urban and rural divide n 1890s still a rural country corporate urbanization in American society is impacting the agricultural sector Push back by farmers and farm organizers as early of the 1870s The Grange 9 organized in 1870s 0 O O O O O O O O O incredibly popular in the south and midwest texas small farmers are feeling the pressure of this corporate system Increasinglyfeeling exploited by railroads and by a system that is built more toward big agriculture than toward small farmers Small farmers felt left out of this system Could not compete economically with large farms Just the way things were The ways things are today small farmer are feeling pressure increasing prices for fertilizer farm implements railroads Working just as hard as ever but getting less return Competing against corporate interest working just as hard as ever but getting just as far as before small farmers get together collectively Mainlythe grange is a response to low commodity prices and increased sense of exploitation at the hands of business interests and the railroads pushes for public ownership of railroads and transportation network or better oversight Need government to be an advocate for us and step in a provide some oversight idea of collective bargaining or collectivization 9 build a larger network of small farmers that can pull their purchases power Get better interest rate for buying in bulk Bulk purchases of fertilizer farm equipment etc provide security and distribution plan for surplus crops Collective warehousing and distribution chain put your crop in a warehouse and hold it until prices rose and then sell it to make extra money wanted to establish a system where farmers could hold onto their crop and make more money for it Never really able to mobilize itself politically Had larger economic goals but could never ever to translate that into political power Fades away and was replaced in the early 1890s by the populous Also like a social club for men in rural communities to get together and play cards Economic goals that were never really able to take off in that environment politically Populous O Populous party is taking shape in 1889 O Ideology is developing Were members of the grange Of course the farmers don t go anywhere so they still have their ideas floating around in their heads and now they need to translate them into a political solution Hijack the democratic party and go down in defeat Response to the panic of 1893 Small farmers are increasinglyfinding it difficult to evolve Need to find an economic solution for political problems Use political power to alter the system that they thought was unfair and unjust Subtreasury Plan 1809s 9 expansion of the granges idea of warehouse distribution system 0 O O the main economic goal of the populist is this plan it is an expansion of the grange idea the populists are saying that this should be the responsibility if the federal government articulation of political solution Especially in the role of the federal government Government should be an integral part of the economy Federal government should be an active player and help out the little people federal governments ran these warehouses issue loans to farmers and when the prices rose for crops they would sell them Government owned warehouses and government loans they ended up buying into the idea which is known as free silver or up opening up the currency to flood the market with money Put lots of money in circulation if you flood the market with dollars what happens with the value of the dollar It goes down Easier to pay off debts Easier to get loans opens the economy to expansion Small farmers in chronic debt Their lives are built around living from year to year running up and bunch of money on one crop then paying it off with a good crop then planting another crop emanates out of the west Very direct challenge to the status quo Challenge to the corporate system as a whole William Jennings Bryan 9 very charismatic preacher very dynamic speaker O O in the 96 election the democratic party country preacher popular in the heartland areas south west farming districts Seen as country bumpkin in urban areas running against William McKinley 9 union war veteran Classic republican nominee Plain spoken middle American Not going to upset the apple card in terms of O O O O O O O O instituting radical reform Limiti government regulation of business Gets most of vote from back east because he is sort of a representative of those values when Bryan lost never quite able to localize politely again Bryan was last hope Never able to mobilize again resurrected in 19teens and 1920s progressive movement picks up FDR39s new deal 9 subtreasury plan reinstituted at a national level Populous very influential their ideas come to several decades down the road Corporate order is established in American society McKinleyfrom middle America Supports ideas of social Darwinism Last real chance to break up the corporate system the challenge of it kind of falls apart On the cultural standpoint its also very important as well because it s a decade when America is firmly begins to move forth towards urban life emergence of mass culture in the 1890s First cultural fads in American society Technological systems are put in place for the development of mass society Like 1 million telephones on the market in 1870s technological changes have an effect on American society All product of technology American is starting to drift more towards urban society and mass culture in the 1890s The Birth of an American Empire 7511 1101 AM America is a global or national power Once the frontier is conquered it leaves sort of an area of global expansion Why do we think America is outside of history Why are we different than other nations 9 we are a young nation don t have as much history America is a country of immigrants a mixture of other countries Our mission to spread the good news and political terms for America spreading the good news of democracy to the far globe Foreign policy 9 sense of mission along with this idealistic goal of American society is a capitalist nation part of this expansion is driven as well by this sense of capitalist need We need an outlet for commerce for our production and consumer goods The Nature of American Imperialism 1 spreading democracy 9 bringing benefits of American society to other parts of the world 0 2 securing markets with goods 9 securing raw materials rubber oil steel coal copper 0 these are two competing interests 0 very often these two competing interests diverge Iraq 9 interest is oil weapons of mass destruction install western democracy and government and then hopefully a domino effect Securing the Continent how does this play out in the late 19 h century 0 America is being ripped apart internally A civil war And so this sense of manifest destiny is put on hold There is a steady march across the United States Americans could now turn their attention back towards establishing themselves 0 Really the two outlying trouble spots were Mexico and Alaska Two outstanding issues that needed to be cleared up to secure American supremacy on the continent 0 Both of these dealt with moving European powers out of the western hemisphere 0 both dealt with moving European powers out of the western hemisphere O 0 Mexico 1867 0 Spanish 0 the French invaded the country and installed emperor Maximilian Austrian noble and wife Carlotta and tear down the established government and establish the kingdom of Mexico 0 Established a monarchy and exert influence across country o in 1860s America is embroiled in civil war so attention is divided at the time however the north Abraham Lincoln does not take lightly to the French 0 when the civil war ends Lincoln then Johnson moves tens of thousands of troops to the Mexican American border 0 Benito Juarez 9 mestizo Represented the expansion of democracy within Mexico itself because he came from a class that were always kept out of the political process 0 Juarez swept back into power with the help of US Maximilian was captured and killed byfiring squad 0 Alaska 1867 0 William Seward 9 purchase of Alaska from Russia Implemented negations with Russia to purchase Alaska 0 Russia had interest in Alaska for several hundred years Were extensive settlement s mostlytrappers o Seward wanted to clearthis last menace off the continent o 1867 purchased 0 unknown expanse of land 7 million acres 2 cents an acre 0 Russians didn t have major settlements just had strong claims to it 0 French had been pushed out of Mexico Russians bought out of Alaska 0 2 key parts of securing the north American continent for expansion Securing American Interests Overseas American start to look overseas Especially interested in the pacific and far side of pacific China seen as an untapped market 9 its across the world Isolated Had a lot of people that weren t exposed to consumer society cheap labor had a huge market for consumer goods Seen as mythical unlimited market Unlimited market of potential consumers interested in acquiring markets maintain American presence in China south America china had been under siege by power 9 Britain wanted to open up china market for there own goods opium France Germany ching dynasty very weak and lost a lot in terms of its effectivmess as a government America was a late comer in china Had contact with china since the late 1700s had an immigration of Chinese into US Not until American industry develops that we need Chinese market At that point we start to take a larger interest in the pacific massive amounts of coal Needs places to stop in the pacific ocean Primo spot in pacific is Hawaii island chains 0 Hawaii 9 very centrally located Excellent farmers Can provide a stepping stone to movement farther west than the pacific 12249 0 0 China 0 0 Queen Liliukalani Queen Lil John Hay and the Open Door Boxer Rebellion 1900 0 Cuba and the Spanish American War 1898 O O the Philippines Emilio Aguinaldo 9 declared himself president and established a Philippine republic and once the American military arrived they opposed him and led to a rebellion against the American Military U messy and bloody affair nationalists movements going on in Philippines and Cuba involved in internal civil war Between natives and the Spanish colonial authorities America was still seen as a second or third rate power SpanishAmerica war put us on the scene Over night the United States come son the scene all at once as a major international player Main thrust All of that is geared toward protecting American economic interest in Iraq its oil in Cuba it was sugar Platt Amendment cuba 1901 geared towards protecting American economic interests in Iraq its oil in Cuba it was sugar 0 Panama 1903 O O O was 7Coumbia panama broke away from Columbian government and negotiated with the US to run the panama canal Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine 1904 O O a very robust supporter of idea of American power he was an outdoorsman served in Spanish American war very robust sense of American power and authority Monroe Doctrine Monroe said European powers needed to stay out of the western hemisphere and the US will serve as protector of these countries interests Progressive America 18901920 7511 1101 AM Who were the Progressive s regulation in the markets interested in o reforming the nations financial institutions banking o reforming the nations industrial institutions making work environment safer o cleaning un government itself less democratic o cleaning up America s morals based out of urban areas and environments 18901920 America shifts to be an urbanized society 0 special familymoving from the country to the city 0 change in their outlooks on life 0 continued process of industrialization culturalization The guilded age period if a period of massive wealth and Capitalism is all about winners and losers want to reform societies and make it more equitable for all they believed in order progress and power of science that man can control his world and use science technology and rational thinking to make a better society Electoral and Governmental Reform the system of government was profoundly corrupted and undemocratic and unresponsive to the people some things that they press for recall and referendum specific legislation initiatives 9 if an elected official 0 becomes so obnoxious that they can formulate a recall to potentially kick them out of office 17quotI amendment 9 direct election of senators O 0 city commission or city council city commission is an improvement because it brings in start to have trained professionals take over city managements Have expertise in particular fields Societal Reform three main areas where progressives were very active O temperance anti alcohol 9 movement towards prohibition alcohol ate awayfrom societyfrom the inside government had to cut away that disease from society ban alcohol in 1919 18 h amendment rid America of the cancer that was eating America from the inside out cleansing of America s morals failure after 14 years 0 Women s suffrage movements 9 include white women in the electoral process female abolitionists were seen as outcasts in society 0 reforming industry and making working and housing environment social ills Muckrackers digging through the muck of American society Teddy Roosevelt and William H Taft He had a strong sym pathyfor the south As a youth was a sickly but imposed on himself this strict physical regiment came from money Noblesse oblige 9 families that have so much money for so long that there is no danger of them ever losing their status or their wealth our duties as the leading members of society to bring up everyone else thought government should be involved in America economy square deal created national park system and wildlife refuges conservation 9 FDA 9 established to regulate Americas food and drug business food supply sanitation transportation great white fleet 9 America has come onto the scene as a large player TAFT trust buster from the older republican party The Election of 1912 very crucial and pivotal election in American history 4 major candidates 0 Taft 0 Wilson D rodes the split of the R party ad ends up winning the election D Roosevelt Bull moosequot party leading the Progressive party 0 Eugene Debs Woodrow Wilson in Office born in Virginia son of a minister educated at Princeton and eventually becomes president of the university established himself as a progressive and reformer at Princeton runs for governor in NJ and wins and makes a national name for himself The Underwood Tariff of 1913 o duties tariffs o trusts O The Income Tax 16quotI Amendment 1913 Federal Reserve Act The Era of the First World War 31610 wars tend to short our or end prematurely movements world war is the end to the progressive movement The War in Europe 19141918 The German empire Hungary ranged against Russia France and great Britain Incredible amount of death over the next few years Europe descends into this orgy of violence death struggle between nations on a level that is unprecedented the war goes on and on millions of men are killed Something like 20 million dead Spanish flu epidemic killed more worldwide lose about 120000 soldiers and sailors killed At same time as war is dying down 650000 Americans died of the Spanish flu trench warfare use of machine guns first chemical attacks gas attacks not only physically lots of this is fueled by advances in technology America was able to mobilize American Neutrality Woodrow Wilson does not want to be involved and neither do other Americans population is composed of Europeans Many of them still have ties back to the old country America is very divided certain things are pushing him into going to war with the central powers Germany and Hungary 0 German use of submarine warfare Submarine warfare in the German mind was going to be used to cut off great Britain s line of supply A key part of Germany s larger war strategy was cutting off supplies through the use of Uboats America becomes great Britain s chief supplier of goods 0 Freedom of the seas 9 American business can trade with anyone Germany39s navy is not strong enough to destroythe British Naval Blockade 9 stopping trade from going when a german Uboat fires at an American cargo ship its an act of war But since American boat is bringing guns and ammo to Britain to be used in war Germany makes a war zone around Britain If a ship enters these zones then it can be shot with torpedoes Sinking of the Lusitania 1915 9 luxury ocean liner Carrying largely civilians 128 American citizens killed The Sussex Pledge 1916 9 American ship is torpedoed accidentally and Wilson almost brings America into war with Germany Zimmerman Note 1917 9 by 1917 Germany is desperate They have to cut off this supply of goods In early 1917 they go back on the Sussex pledge and declare unrestricted submarine warfare Germans made an offer to the Mexican government The British get the note Turn it over to the Americans and Woodrow Wilson is grieved The only wayto avenge our honor is to get into the war Americans honor is at stake We were upfront with the Germans and told them what they needed to do and they said they would do that and then went back on their word We needed to teach Germany a lesson by early 1917 American financial sector is heavily invested in the allied cost American banking houses have millions of dollars in loans to Great Britian The Great Crusade 19171918 Why would Wilson call it the great crusade becomes for Wilson a war for democracy A war against the tyrannical powers of the German empire becomes a crusade for Germany Mobilizing a Nation United States is in the conflict now we have to build an army and get industry process happens very rapidly Building an Army 0 draft is implemented to get the requisite number of men into the armed forces Mobilizes about 4 million men in service for the war 0 American war preparations before this time did not exist so everything was from scratch Organization of Industry 9 to provide everything that is needed for this army intended to bring order to American industry and to help prioritize the flow of resources 0 The War Industries Board 9 Headed by Bernard Baruch the wizard of wall street If you are going to head industry you need someone that knows the ins and outs of industry Creates sub bureaucracy s that control the flow of resources for food production steel production retooling ammunition guns boots food all are private industries but have to be yoked together to o The War Labor Board 9 generally focused on moving men and women into the right places for them to have work In charge of funneling new laborers into these new factories as well as working with unions and Labor to mediate disputes between Labor and management and keeping industries running smoothly Crushing Dissent building support for the war or crushing dissent 0 Committee on Public Information George Creel 9 educate the American populous about why we are at war 0 100 Americanism liberty garden i want you for the navy halt the hunt a very hyper patriotic attitudeultra patriotic attitude if you were questioned about the war you would get arrested lynched or beaten up 0 Espionage and sedition Acts 19171918 The End of the War American man power proved to be the tipping point for the allies by October the German army was in full retreat and by November the Germans began negotiations cease fire went into effect November 11 1918 armistice 9 America was the wave of the future and where all people would be democratic Wilson39s quotFourteen Points 9 designed as the war was winding down wanted to achieve a greater more lasting peace America had entered into the cause on side of allies Had given lots of support Were the final push to push Germans out of the war victors are very far apart in their goals and desires with what were going to come 1 wanted self determination of peoples His idea of spreading democracy 2 freedom of the seas One of the main sticking points throughout Americas neutrality Open and free trade 8 open diplomacy world free of secret treaties and secret alliances And in particular wanted open diplomacytested and worked out in A League of Nations wanted a peace without victory the allies would not inflict on the defeated Versailles 1919 9 where peace conference was held Outside of Paris 0 imposition of the war guilt clause 9 Germans were forced to accept full responsibility of the conflict If anything the Germans were helping out their allies Austria Hungarian empire within its boundaries 0 Financial responsibilitiesreparations 9 they weren t only responsible for the war they also had to pay for it o Protectorates 9 Wilson had to go home in 1919 to get the treaty agreed on Wilson was an academic leaves the republicans out of it entirely Republicans don t want the US involved in Europe united states whose president starts the league of nations refuses to ratifythe treaty The Fallout from War the conflict generates and sets in motion one of the great social movements or movements of people in American history The Great Migration 9 19151916 1930 0 about 4 million African Americans and black southerners will leave and head west 0 driven by the panic in 1914 bythe panic in the cotton 0 many sharecroppers are pushed off the land 0 beginning 1915 9 America becomes the arsenal for great Britain Jobs begin to open up in the north 1919 Strikes and Race riots 0 period of great labor unrest at the end of the war 0 begins in the shipyards around Seattle 0 throughout 1919 there are over 3500 strikes around the nation involving something like 4 million workers 0 in 1919 the Boston police dept went on strike and led to the national guard coming in 0 leads to what is known as Americas first Red Scare Palmer Raids o IWW Wobblies O Cultural Foment in the 19205 7511 1101 AM 1920s 9 First time in American census that Americans are more urban than rural American Progressive Gone Awry The 18quotI Amendment prohibition passed as a war measure 9 Woodrow Wilson signs the ban of alcohol as a war measure He doesn t sign the actual legislation till afterthe cease fire is over prohibition is sold as an all American thing to do wayto impose a moral order Waspish 9 The Emergence of the Second Ku Klux Klan societal uproar several million new immigrants from southern and eastern Europe not of the protestant faith don t come from western traditions perceived to be more radical in their political beliefs 1919 labor strikes ad race riots lead to the second klan in the 1920s came into existence in Georgia 1915 Started with the lynching of Leo Frank Respected member of society Accused of a murder of 13 yr old girl institution of the second klan in 1916 White Anglo Saxon protestant second klan 9 birth of a nation 9 one of the first blockbusters in terms of popularity Told the story of the south during the civil war and reconstruction period Portrayed African Americans as barbarians out to rape white women Then 1860s klan drives these black soldiers away not simply limited to the south goals are sort of nebulous 100 Americanism Against immigrants and against Belief of America as a Christian nations protestant not Catholic klan mushroomed in the The Native Origins Act 1924 Ku Klux Klan almost com pleter disappears bythe 1940s anti masking legislation 9 could not wear masks in public except mardi gras supported by klan Restore Christian America that they cherished and believed to be the right course for the united states puts a tremendous hole in immigration Limits immigration into the country to 150000 a year the percentages for each country are set at that countries numbers that were here in 1890 Birth of the Consumer Society release of tension that was built up during the world war years American society went in all sorts of directions Revolutions in Mobility and Technology efficient distribution systems Opens more people up to getting electricity 0 first passenger and cargo planes chemical industries in all manor of different aspects of that tremendous period in American history All the new technology enables production to go through the roof American industrial production more than doubles in the 1920s 0 workers pay increased 40 hour week came into vogue First at Henry Ford s river rouge plant Institutes Five day work week40 hour week Wages are generally good during the 20s vacation and leisure time begins to circulate into American mind Instead of people working six hours a week they are working 5 days 0 corporate welfare 9 some start insurance plans 0 Automobile went from 8000 in 1900 to over 3 million bythe end of the 1920s 0 travel tourism mobility can go out and do different things 0 require gas mechanics roads 0 50 and 60s get interstate system Providing highways for people to move from one place to the other Huey Long ran on 1 Infrastructure and 2 Education when he ran for governor radio 9 opens up the mental landscape Can be in backwoods LA and listen to opera from Philadelphia or new York Came on the scene in 1934 People see it as a cutting edge technology Explodes onto American scene Provides entertainment sports The Expansion of Advertising birth of a marketing revolution and consumer society Increasingly advertising is about providing a lifestyle than about functionality Advertising taking over radio 0 going to move to take over tv later The Revolt against Victorianism emerging of modern sensibility post wwi you saw sort of release of tension of the war years 19171919 Sort of rigid hard years things start to pick up after 1921 Largely it s a revolt against all the constrictions of the Victorian period Queen Victoria 9 proper formal distinct separation of classes black and white view into the world Man needed to conquer his women were generally seen as being hysterical or prone to emotion Men could suppress emotions and continue on through which ever challenges were there Women were prone to let their feelings get in the way of business the modern woman or man sees things as much more ambiguous if we could pinpoint anything in the 1920s it would be ambiguity and anxiety out of this comes a whole wave of new conception of the world in a lot of different groups were more interested in fulfilling their own interests and desires than fulfilling others fulfillments sexual professional Freud The New Women 0 0 called the flapper age the jazz age of the 1920s marked by ambiguity she s not like her mother clothes and style of hair all about style and glamour clothes symbolized mentality suffrage amendment 9 women have a role in society Person pride and investment in society that wasn t there prior to being able to vote self expression and self fulfillment The New Negro O O O O 0 James Weldon Johnson new movement for racial understanding and racial pride Harlem Renaissance 9 based out of NYC Product of migration into the north Arna Bontemps portray African Americans as real people To paint their life as being just as good and just as rich as white life and white society UNIA Marcus Garvey cultural relativism 9 own cultures had their own culture orders Had their own moral orders Odom 9 recorded jazz music Music and Literature 0 O 0 takes off in the 20s as well because of radio and birth of modern music louis armstong 9 recorded lots of music 1920s saw the first recording of country music First recordings of jazz in southwest Hispanic music Mexican brass bands because of expansion of record players all this music come son the scene in 1920s jazz country black music blues white dance parties at jazz clubs being played by black musicians Cultural Relativism and Its Critics Einstein s Theory of Relativity The Scopes Monkey Trial 1925


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