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by: Edna Boyle


Edna Boyle
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C. Lewis

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C. Lewis
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This 108 page Class Notes was uploaded by Edna Boyle on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2057 at Louisiana State University taught by C. Lewis in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/222476/hist-2057-louisiana-state-university in History at Louisiana State University.


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Date Created: 10/13/15
History 2025 Wednesday August 26 2009 Reconstruction 18651877 0 O O O O O Rebuilding south after civil war ended in 1865 Amount of money spent on the war was 11 times greater than it had ever been spent Areas of south had been burned to the ground Million of people had been displaced Thousands of people had been killed from the civil war Reconstruction is a huge process Wartime Reconstruction O O O Proclamation of Amnesty and reconstruction 1863 Wendell Phillips makes the negro s freedom a mere sham Bureau of Refugees Freedmen and Abandon Lands Pardon really good deal would have the right to vote got their property back the only people that were excluded from this pardon was the highest ranking officers 0 O O O O O 10 perecent of the men had to swear their allegiance and say that succession was wrong and once they accepted that the slaves were free they could get back to their lives There was no guarantee of the slaves rights or that they be included in the plan and the slaves were not offered any help This was a plan for quick action By April 1865 4 states had taken him up on this offer but congress did not accept some of these people Congress was mad because thousands of people had died because those people didn t want to be a part of the government and now they were just being accepted back They were not the only people angry Freedom would have very little meaning The slaves needed the back up from people There were areas of land set aside for some of the slaves Bureau of Refugees theirjobs were to bring food to the most poor and to take abandoned land and were going to divide it to the 40 acre plots and then they were going to rent it and with the intention of later selling it to them Millions still remainded homeless or stuck living on the plantantion where they were before slaves Presidential reconstruction 0 Andrew Johnson becomes president while Congress in recess in 1865 After Lincoln is shot He was sympathetic to the southern mind set He remained loyal to the union Started as a Taylor and work your way up He himself was a slave owner His interest in congress was towards lower white class All the citizens of the state had to renounce the right of succession They were saying the states did not have the right to do so He said that the United States was not responsible for the debt that they I No mention of black voting rights or any ambition of wrong doing 0 States continue to protest I Even after all the great deals 0 Johnson does nothing to enforce terms 0 South feels empowered black codes I In affect the black codes put constrictions on the blacks and what not which still looked like slavery 0 Congressional Reconstruction 18661877 0 Reconvenes in Dec 1865 o Of 80 reporting members from south 51 had been loyal to CSA 0 Republicans have a 31 majority over Democrats 0 Political war within Congress and with president 0 14 h amendment 1868 0 Makes anyone born in the US or naturalized a citizen 0 Prohibits from passing laws that restricts the rights of citizenship implication that includes voting 0 Prohibits states from withholding their equality 0 Life liberty due process of law 0 Tennessee was the only South state that ratified that amendment and the refusal of the southern states was a huge tactical era they were counting on Johnson to help them but he did not have the power to do that anymore 0 Military Occupation 18671877 0 Military Reconstruction Act creates 5 division I All of the south except for Tennessee and each was given a military commander I They were to treat the south as if they were enemies and to use military force to handle the south 0 Military leaders oversaw political reform I Voter suffrage registration was to guarantee black men I This was not punish the south but to enforce law 0 But still no land redistribution I Although it helps with voting it does not help economically 0 Reconstruction continues 0 15 h amendment ratified 1870 I Makes women mad because they were not included 0 White response violence 0 Ku klux klan Act 1871 I Started to grow in strength and boldness and in response they made the kkk which authorized law to not interfere with voting rights and that the federal gov could step in 0 Civil rights act 1875 outlaws racial discrimination in transportation public accommodations and juries I Was not enforced aggressively so segregation continued 0 The nation wearies of reconstruction I A lot of the people that were really angry mostly died off or retired I Others were tired of hearing about black civil rights when the entire nation was struggling in the depression I Grant was president at the time o Redemption o 1874 midterm elections democrats regain control of house I For the first time in 18 years 0 Redeemers I White southern democrats that were struggling to regain control I This was a period of extreme economic depression and the democrats used that to regain power I They promised to redeem power 0 Socially o Economically 0 Night riders I Started racial violence in 1870s 0 Cartoon Thomas Nast 1874 white league and kkk create conditions worse than slavery for African Americans in Louisiana Friday August 28 2009 0 Presidential election of 1876 0 Samuel Tilden governor of New York D I Wins the popular vote but loses the electoral college by one vote 0 Rutherford B Hayes R governor of Ohio 0 Tilden wins popular vote Hayes wins in electoral college by one o 3 states undecided I South Carolina I Louisiana I Florida 0 Congress must decide I The house is controlled by democrats and the senate is controlled by republicans so congress itself is divided In the end the congress decided that Hayes was the winner even though he did not win the popular vote o Hayes becomes new president Democrats are mad Redemption the moment when democratic people started to take control of their homes They started to reinstate home rule They felt it was time to redeem themselves and this started in the late 1870s by 1876 they had been successful in reclaiming o Compromise of 1877 0 Democrats decided not to make a block of the new president and they promised they would deal fairly with the freed African Americans in the South and in return Hayes would end federal troops in the south and he would provide the southern states with substantial funds to rebuild the south 0 A lot of people were not happy about this but they were glad t 0 Deal Hayes inauguration will be uncontested south will deal fairly with blacks o Hayes ends military occupation of the south promises federal funds for internalimprovements 0 Cartoon Thomas Nast 1877 llAnother such victory and lam undone quoting king pyruths After Emancipation What did it mean for the blacks after emancipation What is freedom Is it the bare privilege of not being chained If this is all then freedom is a bitter mockery Garfield o Defininf freedom 0 End to injustices of slavery I Escaping the long hours in the fields Escaping the beatings I Escaping the separation of families Not being sold like an animal Being able to get an education 0 Rights and obligations of citizenship Sharing in the rights and opportunities of the united states Henry Adams If I cannot do like a white man lam not free 0 What could they do They could travel without a pass They could look for their own jobs I Looked for missing family members 0 Rebuilding families 0 1865 llEvery mothers son seemed to be in search of his mother every mother in search of her children I Trying to find family was not an easy task some people walked hundreds of miles 0 Family and community After emancipation the relationships between men and women black families in the family start to change Men begin start using more power and authority in the family The women started to not want to work outside anymore They wanted to take care of their own family Planters are complaining that they can t get women to come in and work in the field The men found it as a good thing that their women didn t have to work in the fields Everyone in the black community was very poor so a lot of the women would go and work anyways but it was and ideal that they understood Men worked and women took care of the family 0 Power and authority of men as family patriarchs 0 Separate spheres 0 Strengthening Communities 0 Religion Independent black churches host schools social events political gatherings During slavery the whites used the Christian bible to show that they were doing the right thing with slavery After emancipation the blacks abandoned the white church and started their own It became a safe place for them host schools social events and political gatherings About 250 black ministers held public office during the reconstruction era 0 Educational all levels from basic literacy skills to universities 0 Land and Labor Education was another thing they utilized They said that freedom was the best thing and the second best was to be able to get an education African Americans of all ages started flocking to schools Their were some missionaries but also once one black person learned they would begin to pass the message along This is when black universities started to pop up as well 0 Land ownership and economic independence remain elusive Most people thought that getting along on their own meant getting land and starting their own crops A lot of the blacks came to the conclusion that they had worked their owners land and so because of that they believed that they owned it 0 Most remain landless enter into sharecropping for survival The blacks started to seize the land that they thought was theirs from their old owners They were actually encouraged by government people Even the land that was set aside for them and with the land that they had seized it was eventually mandated that all the land had to be returned to the old owners Because of this many of the people had no land and still worked and lived on the same plantations that they had worked on as slaves They became involved and pulled into a system called sharecropping o Sharecropping 0 System of rental credit and shared profits I Sharecropping enabled the whites to have someone to do their work for them I For the blacks it gave them a tiny opportunity to get ahead 0 Wage labor I Had the blacks rent land from the whites and then they had to divide the crops 0 Growing black middle class but even they were limited in opportunities and status I Every year it seemed like they were selling the crops for a little bit less then they were before I The people that owned the land were often the same people that owned the store so when the blacks needed to buy something they would go to the store and buy something on credit and so the whites were lowering the amount of money they would get I The blacks barely ever had the chance to get ahead I Many poor whites were actually also in this same system I Their were some people that could buy their own land and set up their own independ land Other people gave up crops and started other jobs Black women took positions as cooks and maids men could work in a factory or some other manual labor despite that most people were stuck in sharecropping it is good to realize that there was a substantial middle class of blacks Even among the black middle class they realized that no matter how hard they worked they couldn t rise in the social class I The jim crow laws restricted people even more 0 The Black Codes and Citizenship 0 Guranteed some rights marriage property denied many more voting must be contracted to work I Although people were free their labor could still be auctioned off if they were doing something quotwrongquot 0 14 h and 15 h amendments target black codes I These transformed the constitution and secured and protected various rights of citizenship 0 Constitution becomes mechanism for protecting securing civil rights I Women started using the 14 h and 15 h amanedment to demand for their right to vote I People if color start to demand their right of civil rights 0 After Redemption no mechanism to enforce compliance Monday August 31 2009 Indian Removal Reform and the Reservations 0 The plains lndians O O O Cheyenne Comanche Kiowa Crow Lakota Sioux I In the 18 h century the spread of horses lead to a shift from farming and hunting on foot to the mountain hunting especially buffalo New lndians migrated and started taking advantage of the new hunting techniques I People started to integrate and started the five great tribes listed above As whites settled violence grew Most of the white travelers before the civil war encountered very little hostility and actually traded with the Indians The problems began when they stopped just passing through and would start using the land that the Indians were using After the war the official policy after the civil war towards the Indians was supposed to be peace In reality the US military went out to destroy the Indian foundations They destroyed villages killed horses and killed buffalo Buffalo I The whites started to kill buffalo which were already diminished I With the whites doing this they made the buffalo almost completely extinct By 1886 they were having a hard time finding 25 buffalo This was a crucial turning point for the Indians 0 They used almost every part of the animal ChiefJoseph and the Nez Perce 1877 o The end of reconstruction o Troops pursued the Nez Perce on a long chase 1700 mile chase 0 They were trying to get to the Canadian border because they wanted to get away from the whites 0 They were finally caught and forced to settle in a reservation in Oklahoma 0 ChiefJoseph condemned the policy of freedom I He wanted to have equal law to be free 0 The government eventually moved the nez from Oklahoma to Washington state 0 In a way his words were heard and he continued to fight with words for freedom until his death Resistance 0 Battle of little bighorn Lakota and Cheyenne V US Army June 1876 I The warriors were defending land that had been reserved for them just 8 years earlier in a treaty I The treaty said that the land was theirs until the grass was no longer green I Gold was discovered there though and so tons of white settlers flooded into their to try and pan for gold I The Indians started to fight back 0 Custer Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse I The battle was leas by these 3 people I Custer was killed here 0 Southwest Geronimo and the Apache I More lndians that were continuously moved around I They also started to fight back I Did not surrender until the mid 1880s 0 1865 1890 8 new western states I Means lots of people were settling here 0 Railroads I Started going across the land 0 Remaking lndian Life 0 Sitting Bull llThe life my people want is a life of freedom I Starts as an act but also gets to talk about his people and their history I The problem was that the freedom that the Indians wanted was to continue as they always had as best as they could on their native land with all of their culture I Which would have been fine except it conflicted with the white people I Almost all of the people thought that they needed to force the Indians to give up their lands and exchange their religion land gender roles etc for what the white people do 0 1871 Congress abandons treaty system I Eliminated the treaties I The federal government had negotiated with the Indians but now it was eliminated o This was supported by the railroad companies because they found it inconvenient because they had to negotiate with each individual lndians reservation o The republicans also felt that this contradicted the we are one 0 Bureau of Indian Affairs boarding schools I They took the children away from their parents were given new names they cut their hair short I The kids were educated in all manners of white ways I The whole thing was to get the kids not to participate in the old lndian ways 0 Dawes Act 1887 I The passage of the Dawes act broke up the land of all the remaining tribes Broke it into small sections and gave it to families I Whatever land was not given to individual families was available to be auctioned off to whites I Indians who accepted the farms and who while they lived on the farm adopted the ways of llcivilized ways became full fledged Americans 0 This idea was giving up tribal identity o This was something that they really wanted to keep I This policy actually ended up being a disaster 0 As their children were being taken away the traditions was eroding away 0 For the Indians this was horrible for the whites this was perfect I There were 172000 acres divided into farms for Indian families I 500000 acres were sold to white people I The land rushes 500000 white settlers poured into Oklahoma in one day to claim 2 million acres 0 The Ghost Dance and Wounded Knee 0 Religious movement I The Indians started to have this religion of the ghost dance which promised that they would be free of misery and such I This spread very quickly I Very scary to the white people 0 Wounded Knee Massacre December 291890 I US soldiers opened fire on lndians dancing the ghost dance I This marked the end of resistance I 150200 people 0 1900 Native population fell to 250000 I Had been in the 710 million people I Now it was only 250000 people Wednesday September 02 2009 Settling the West 0 The Middle Border o More new land cultivated between 18651895 than in previous 2 V2 centuries o Homestead Act of 1862 I Offered 160 acres of free land eligible for people if they were willing to live on the land and had to plant and be a homestead I Single women were also eligible to do this I Sometimes people engaged would each get acres first anf then have double the land I Even more people bought land from railroad companies and as the Indian reservations were being divvied up I Some people would buy land and then turn around and sell it for a profit 0 Middle Border population 300000 in 1860 5 million in 1900 I Wheat corn I Kansas north Dakota I These farm families were actually very diverse people 0 African Americans coming from out of the the south 0 Included immigrants from all around the world 0 The most diverse state I The most multicultural union in the late 1800s was North Dakota 0 The Kansas Exodus 0 Many African Americans joined the western migration From 18791880 it is estimated that 4060 thousand african Americans left the south to go to the north 0 This was called the exodus which was supposed to be an example from the bible 0 They made fliers posters etc to make Kansas look like a great place 0 An individual famer would need about 1000 dollars to buy seed oxen tools etc even if the land was free 0 The birth ofJim Crow 0 For about a generation black men were still allowed to vote and hold public office and find ways for upward mobility Even as that is happening white southern democrats were slowly making there was back into office and did that by using llblack rule fears to threaten Slowly but surely they regained control They are so successful in playing in these fears o The point of jim crow was so that whites had the upper hand 0 Restrictions on voting I 18901906 almost every southern state prevents black men from voting I That was the whole point of the 15 h amendment 0 Start using literacy tests 0 Has to pay a fee 0 Have to interpret some obscure part of the constitution o Grandfather clause I This got the white people out of this I If you could demonstrate that your grandfather could vote then you wouldn t have to worry about those rules I This was how they made it clear they didn t want the black people to vote 0 Segregation I Segregation by law and custom spreading through out the south I Segregation was becoming the law 0 Plessy v Ferguson 1896 I Says it is okay to have segregation as long as everything was equal 0 But it was skewed and not look after by law so eventually the whites thing got worse I By 1900 there was no high schools for black students 0 Lynching I Those people that fought back by demonstrations ofjust saying no or even just voicing their opinions were met with direct physical violence I Appears to keep especially black men in their place I 18831905 every year 50 people were lynched 0 Mostly black men 0 Sometime white organizer trying to get black people motivated 0 Chinese Exclusion o From single men to family groups I Men coming here to get a job 0 Mainlyjobs white people didn t want to do I Most of their money they are sending back to china 0 1875 Chinese women prohibited from entering country I Congress prohibit Chinese women from coming to the united states because they didn t want entire Chinese families coming here I Used the excuse that there was a rise in prostitution from the Chinese women 0 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act I Said that Chinese people were not allowed to immigrate to the united states I Lots of people celebrated this I First time that a race was not allowed to come to the united states 0 105000 people of Chinese descent remain I There is intense racism towards them 0 The homesteader s life 0 Realized that this was not exactly what they thought it was going to be It was very hard work Many families that had limited resources and many of the families would live in sod houses or a shack Would squeeze in house of 810 foot shack people to sleep cook and eat in this tiny house In the winter would bring the chickens of cow in with you 0 Many homesteaders did succeed and looked back and thought it was worth the sacrifices 0 Many did not make it because of bad farming or did not survive o For the most part the west was dotted by small family farms 0 More and more often the small family farms are growing one type of thing and selling it in a far away place 0 At the same time there are the railroads bringing other foods and cloth so the farmers don t have to do that on themselves 0 The farmers are becoming more and more dependent on loans 0 World wide expansion on selling food so prices go down but for the farmers selling this is very badcan t make loans small farmers are starting to really feel this depression in agriculture Friday September 04 2009 Midterm exam will have a short document analysis but there will also be termsomaha platform will def be in the midterm exam There will be extra credit who was the subject of doctor ewsis honors thesis when she was an undergradJanis Joplin The populist movement and the election of 1896 o How they tried to take political action to meet their needs 0 The Plight of the Farmers 0 Global decline in agricultural prices I Good for people that are buying cotton but really bad for small farmers o Other consumer prices rising 0 Cycle of debt I Many people that had small farms were thrown into large amounts of debt because of this 0 Farmers blame high shipping rates high interest rates and the gold standard I Farmers were buying their food seed plow all on credit I But the cropt prices would drop so the farmers got less money for all of their goods and had less money to pay off their debt and often times the farmer was a sharecropper and the owner of the store was the same person that owned the sharecropping so the farmers would have to give everything to the main man The price of manufactured goods are going up even though farming goods were going down Bank would foreclose their land Just in Kansas almost half the farms had fallen into the hands of the banks 1894 Farmers believed that there was some specific things that were going on that was preventing them from getting ahead such as high rate rates excessive interest rates and gold standarad 0 Farmers decided they wanted to change these factors 0 Wanted to get involved in politics 0 The farmers alliance 0 Northwestern farmers alliance I Very active in Kansas Nebraska 0 Southern farmers alliance I More radical 0 Because the leadership which was a white organization worked very closely with the colored farmer s alliance I Started in texas and spread very rapidly I Very successful I Attracted 20000 new members a month I By the 1890 s had more than 3 million members 0 Colored farmer s alliance I Had very close inter racial interaction with the southern farmers alliance I This is right around when the Jim crow laws were coming out o Coops I The farmers cooperative I Made of the farmers alliance I Recognized the problem with the farmers in debt 0 Wanted to end that cycle of debt 0 Started to get people together and buy things in bulk 0 Like sams club makes it cheaper I Saw this as a way to break free 0 llwe are going to get out of debt and be free and independent people once more I Promised to end the cycle of debt I This is a quote from the farmers of the coop o The people s Party 0 Unite all llproducing classes I Called the populist o Varied success in uniting white and black farmers I Were also miners and industrial workers in this group I Major people were the cotton and wheat belts in the south I Worked very hard to combine both races I The success in getting both people to work was not sure 0 The blacks were afraid to leave the republican party which had been Lincoln the guy that was for them in the first place 0 Many whites were unwilling to work among the blacks o Socialists Mary Lease ll care not I Were criticized for being a socialist I Mary lease said she didn t care who called her what but that there are great inequities and then people with very very rich people I Message was very powerful and successful I Populist parties gained control in Kansas and Nebraska I Gained congressional seats I In the south the populist had its most effective if they were a wing of the democratic party 0 Omaha Platform 1892 o Reject laisseZfaire policies I Laissez faire hands off I The idea that the government should not intervene in the economy and in social affairs I Says the hands off is brining everyone down 0 They wanted these things I Direct election of senators I Graduated income tax O 0 There was no federal income tax and it was more like this is what everyone pays and it doesn t matter how much you make Right to unionization 0 Workers have the right to band together for demand better wages hours holidays sick days Government control railroads telegraphs Land distribution 0 Looked at the way that the railroads got all the land and the farmers wanted their land to be put to use and wanted it to be taken away from them and give it to the sharecroppers for a good price Currency reform bimetallic standard to replace gold standard 0 Very complicated 0 Know the us had been on a bimetallic standard In 1873 the gov took us off the bimetallic standard and put us just on gold standard Farmers believed this was part of what was driving down what they were getting for their agr goods and making the manufactured goods 0 Alliance wanted to be back on the bimetallic standard 0 Part of the reason why the miners are on the populist standard 22 electoral vote in 1892 For a first time party the populist did very well 0 Election of 1896 O O O O O 0 Currency reform hot issue William Jennings Bryan delivers cross of gold speech Dems and populists both nominate Bryan 4 out of 5 voters go to polls 95 of people that could vote did so McKinley wins both electoral college and popular vote as bryan voters split People s Party crushed The party made a mistake because they picked a different vp then the democrats o Legacies of the populist movement 0 O O O O citizens Set domestic agenda for next decades Direct election of senators Graduated income tax Workers right to unionize Greater expectation of government to act in defence of the economic wellbeing of Need to get notes for the gilded age Wednesday September 9 2009 Friday September 11 2009 0 Extra credit general hospital her secret favorite tv 0 Fighting for the workers 0 Great uprising of 1877 Nationwide RR Rail Road strike ends in violence I Happened when the 4 largest railroad companies got together and decided to cut their workers wages o The wages had been being cut all along in the middle of the depression The Baltimore and Ohio people went in to strike first the ED Workers were trying to fight for better hours and what not and would use strikes to do so where they would not go to work Strikes would end in violence President Hayes brought in troops to stop the strikes The state militia opened fire on the workers that were striking and 25 people were killed 0 This was the first nationwide stoppage the first ever 0 By the end of the stoppage 100 people had been killed and the wages still were cut 0 Knights of Labor inclusive organizing of all workers an injury to one is the concern of all Even though the workers did not get what they wanted they did all work together despite races classes etc This is also the strike that the farmers sent food so there was even cooperation from them too Knights of labor was a union founded in 1869 organizing skilled and unskilled workers men as well as women and color and noncolor workers 0 At the peek 18 they had nearly 800000 members and millions more helped out Wanted broad goalsncluded not just wages but public ownership with the railroads wanted an income tax that would be put to use for various citizens wanted equal pay for women this extraordinary and wanted to abolish child labor 0 Haymarket square 1886 I Standard work day was 1012 hours 6 days a week so the knights were leading a movement to work 8 hours a day 6 days a week They did a strike and the employers fought back by getting the courts and law enforcement on their side In May of 1886 police killed four people Later there was a meeting to go against people being killed8 police killed 4 workers killed when a bomb goes off in Haymarket square 100s were injured Because of this 4 people were put to jail and then executed even though there was no evidence Clearly done to set a point I Knights of Labor was really weaken because of this and by 1890 it was only a fraction of what they were before 0 American Federation of Labor I Founded in 1886 by Samuel Gompers I Became the major organized body but only organized skilled workers I They used collective bargaining negotiations between the employers and workers I It left out the unskilled laborers African Americans and women I 1890s violent crackdowns 0 Law enforcement continued to side with the employers 0 People were being sent to jail I Pinkertons 0 Private police people 0 This is really what escalated the violence I Homestead strike 1892 0 Steel workers in homestead went to strike and the employers sent the Pinkertons and the workers fought back and it was a huge battlemany people were killed and ultimately the workers did not get what they wanted I Overall this violence confirmed to working and middle class Americans that something was going on that politicians judges police united against the workers 0 Gospel of Wealth and Social Darwinism I People were poor because they didn t work hard enough 0 Gospel of wealth said that helping the poverty would not help and also said that the workers didn t work hard enough so that s why they were in poverty 0 Gospel of wealth was a llsocial Darwinism I 1859 Darwin Origin of species llsurvival of the fittest o This idea was taken and applied to humans by the social Darwinism 0 They said that wealth reflects fittnis and that poverty was weakness 0 They said that poor people were not fit for modern life so it sucks for them they should be allowed to die and that s best for human kind I Any government or private intervention unnatural I Philanthropy not charity 0 Carnigy devoted millions of his dollars to libraries music halls but he wasn t willing to give money to his workers at the homestead 0 Classical Liberalism I Laissez faire I Government should only act to protect business interests o The liberalism felt like freedom and liberty and felt that the gov should not be in the business of protecting individuals or groups I Government not responsible for ensuring the material wellbeing and individual rights of the people I Same era of plessy v ferguson 0 Separate but equal was okay I Sherman antitrust act 1890 o Outlaws monopolies o Says that businesses could not get together like the rail roads did by putting set wages and such 0 Did not go after the big trusts out there 0 By 1900 the gov had only struck down 6 trusts but had knocked down the unions 0 Still significant because people were realizing the gov had to get more involved 0 The Middle class and consumer society I White collar jobs the suburbs 0 They would live in the suburbs and use the railroads to go to the city to work at their white collared jobs I Electricity indoor plumbing and telephone 0 Nicer I Mass production and marketing mean lower prices 0 Previously the women had to produce their own candles weave their own cloth kill their own food I Consumption becomes women s primary role I Children attended public school I Leisure time 0 Family plays together and takes vacations and trips and this concept becomes very important Monday September 14 2009 Immigration and Migrations Late 19quot early 20 h century 0 This was a period of unprecedented world wide movements 0 The United States was not the only country getting a lot of immigrants people were moving to places like Canada etc 0 Between 18701920 more than 25 million people came into this country 0 Before civil war most people came from northern Europe 0 Most of the new immigrants came from southern and eastern Europe Greece Italy 0 Also immigrants from Mexico and Asia and there was also people moving inside of the US 0 Old world backgrounds o Motives for leaving I People were looking for available lands I Japanese came because there was a even more intense land shortage I Mexicans came to work on the farms and cotton field I Most of the people tended on returning to their country in about 2 years with more money 0 Pogroms I Russian Jews were having religious persecution and America offered an escape the violence of the pogroms 0 They did not plan on going back to their country 0 Mostly young men I Russian jews went as families I Most of the people were young men coming to make money and then go back to their country to make a family 0 Most work in industry I These immigrants were the massive amounts of people willing to work for low pays 0 1900 Gender balance in immigration 0 Chain migration I The immigrants were deciding to stay in the US and so they start sending for their families to come here and this is calle chain migration Because of this by 1900 there was a gender balance 0 The Neighborhood 0 People tended to settle in the same neighborhoods as their own type of people Yet they were not just their people The exceptions are china towns but they would even overlap with other neighborhoods 0 Within the neighborhoods the people maintained their own culture religion I Churches were more than just a place of religion it was also a social place where they could learn the new culture but stay true to their old traditions o The Job 0 Economic independence and upward mobility I Wage labor was thought of as the way out of the ethnic neighborhoods into upper places back to home or starting your own business here in the states 0 Job depended on individual skills local economy local discrimination 0 Working the system Japanese in LA Greeks in Chicago I Mexicans started working on the railroads but were set to only work on the railroads some exceptions for agricultural worl The Chinese that are remaining are forced to work only in the Chinatowns The Japanese were coming to LA in 1900 they were permitted to sell only fruits that they have grown from their own garden 0 They slowly start to buy plots of their own land and by 0 They buy tons of land and prosper I Greeks in Chicago were made to only work in food places and get ahead and they started their own restaurants 0 Women worked as domestics or in factories o The ultimate goal was to save up enough money to eventually work for themselves and open their own businesses There were some people that could get ahead but most of the immigrants had few skills and even then they had to face the racism 0 Nativism 0 Scientific racism pseudoscientific I False science I There was a belief that there was a higher race I There was any where from 3675 different categories of races and they existed in a hierarchy and the top was the English at the bottom was black 0 Director of US census immigrants llbeaten men from beaten races I Was warning that the other races were not good and that if immigration was continued to happen then if we keep letting them in there would be race suicide I White native born was dropping which meant they were in danger of becoming a minority o 1907 women lose citizenship if marry foreigner I Did this to prevent pure whites birth rate to go down I This continued to 1915 o Eugenics and sterilization laws I Eugenics scientific belief of improving your stock 0 People thought to use this theory with people as well 0 People were encouraged to look at charts this Is were the IQ test came from 0 Negative side is the sterilization laws 0 Said that people were deemed unfit by local and state police could be sterilized I Could be that people had certain illnesses I People that were having premarital sex 0 Adolf Hitler heard about this and took it a step further 0 1892 Ellis island opens I This is a way to screen people coming into the country I On the west coast there is Angel island to do the same thing I The most people to suffer were the Chinese but others did as well 0 quotAmericanizationquot I Most immigrants believed the more American they became the less amount of racism would go down 0 Becoming quotwhitequot I Most people European would take in the whiteness and used it to gain entry into dominant society I This was especially the case as black people started to move in towards them 0 Before The Great Migration o 90 blacks still in south in 1900 0 18801900 migration I 1892 there were 235 lynches for blacks o Motives Jobs escaping Jim Crow 0 Job opportunities tight residential discrimination I They were competing with immigrants forjobs and in most cases they lost because the immigrants were embracing their quotwhitequot side 0 Black middle class provides services voice to the community I Found themselves restricted to living in segregated communities These districts were very diverse poor working rich generations from north and south Struggled to make things meet like the immigrants yet it was even harder for them Black women had to leave the home 5 times more frequently than white women to find work The blacks started to build their own places to unite and have better places and things to do and the black middle class would be instrumental for this and also became the leaders that challenged the laws that went against them Wednesday September 16 2009 The Progressive Era 19001916 0 By the 1890s everyone agreed that something had to change Agreed there were a lot of problems that needed to be solved in America 0 Defining Progressivism o No unifying organization central leadership or consensus on goals I There was just this impulse or idea that we needed to change things Makes some changes They disagreed about what to change but agreed that something needed to be changed There were 4 common convictions when looking at progressives o 1 fixing the problems caused by industrialization and urbanization required new ideas and methods 0 2 rejected the ideology of individualism and embraced notions of social responsibility 0 3 faith in expertise organization and efficiency o 4 believed the government should address social and economic problems 0 This is a huge shift Origins of Progressive Impulse O O O 0 End to complacency for middle class I Many middle class Americans began to question the social Darwinism and the laissez faire I Began to reconsider the question what the government was doing I Began to think about their own responsibility Lewis Hines and child labor I Southern cotton farmers were hiring 7 year olds to work 12 hours a day I Coal mines were paying 12 year olds 30 cents a day I Lewis Hines took pictures of the child labor making the pictures visible Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire 1911 I Teens20s immigrant girls making shirtwaist in llsweat labors on the 8th floor fire breaks out and women were on the edge and had the option of burning to death and the other option was to jump to their death None of the women that jumped lived 146 workers died that day mostly women I The images of this horrified peoplethat workers were working in these horrible manners The people realized because of these things that they had to start making changes Spreading the Word 0 Social Gospel Movement combine religious ethics with industrial relations social activism I Began to get churches involved and get them to get people to take responsibility I Really gave progressivism a strong drive Sociologists rational planning and government intervention I Challenged the laissez faire Darwinism I Used the information that they gathered for planning and the government would be part of that plan Professionalism efficiency expertise I This scientific act brought the middle class and upperclass in because they liked to hear that they were hearing from expertise Muckracking journalism I Upton Sinclair the jungle 0 These types really sent home and inspired people to take action The city and reform O O Settlement House Movement I Offered services Hull House Jane Addams 1889 offered a variety of services to 1000 people each week I They provided health clinics safety for women being abused classes etc I They went out and got people in as well instead of waiting for people to come to them I Jane Addams got the garbage off the streets and started regular garbage picked up By 1900 there were nearly 100 settlement homes by 1900 I This seems like a practical good idea I Jane Addams realized that they could no allievate these problems all on their own and that the problems would not really be solved The only way to really solve these problems was to have a top down Government Action 0 Tom Johnson D Mayor of Cleveland municipal ownership of utilities He made the city take over the public utilities Made the street cars affordable for everyone to actually use for transportation He made the city taxes fair And he put into place voting reforms so that people could help out with problems mroe 0 Robert la Follette Gov of Wisconsin first state income tax Brought scientists into his administration as policy makers Lowered the railroad rates and charged the railroads more for taxes Put the first state income tax Progressivism Was a bipartisms movement Presidential Progressive TR 0 1901 Theodore Roosevelt Rep 0 llBully pulpit o Nationa He used the office as a means to push through a variety of reforms l parks trustbusting labor mediation o 1908 Taft takes office ineffective He didn t do too much like TR 1910 democrats sweep the midterm elections and started putting in a variety of reforms while taft sat on the sidelines and this disappoints TR 0 1912 Progressive Party Election of 1912 Held their own convention and bind together Most progressive since Omaha platform Platform end child labor woman suffrage minimum wage social security federal income tax They knew that they could not win the election TR and knew they could push Taft o 4 candidates Wilson Dem Debs Socialists Teft Rep TR Prog 0 TR llNew Nationalism 0 WW new freedom I Wanted to get rid of the big corporations by having a stronger legislation of anti trust I Wanted to follow through with the laws that were already in place and said with that you could help out small businesses I He did something to help farmers and such but did not want to go down the road of regulation so he restored the conditions of unity I Laissz faire wasn t bad it was that the corporations got to big and took advantage of everything I Wilson was the clear victor 0 Presidential Progessive Wilson 0 Federal income tax Federal Reserve Acr 1913 National banking system Federal Reserve Board Federal Trade Commission 1914 Republicans push Wilson further on reform 0000 Child labor laws 8 hour work days for certain industries Louis Brandeis to the Supreme Court 0 Legacies of Progressivism o Progressives willingness to use the power of the government to regulate business and to achieve September 18 2009 American Imperialism o The White City 0 World s Columbian Exposition Chicago 1893 0 White City symbolizes international trade as marker of American strength I White city celebrated the achievements of American business is what was known as the global trade or market I One building housed a canal that connected to niquerwagua I One exhibit attracted 20000 people a day and had a mock ocean liner I Celebrates the brilliance of American trade 0 The Midway o Symbolized distinction between civilized Americans and uncivilized peoples of the world I Exhibits of uncivilized people from other countries as amusement for civilized people drew a line from Americans that were industries and then foreigners that were intriguing but uncivilied I World pagents of beauty 0 40 ladies from 40 lands parade in their costumes I Most popular was little Egypt 0 Performed a traditional middle eastern folk dance which we would call a belly dance now but they called the hoocie coochie o Fredrick Jackson Turner frontier thesis I Suggests that the frontier for Americans in this continent has disappeared I The united states had completed the task of filling up the vacant space in the continent by 1893 I His larger point was that the frontier made Americans American Transformed us from Europeans to Americans 0 Required hard work and no one had more advantage than anyone else 0 In the process of that it encouraged democracy which meant no one was ever stuck in a certain social class and people could always move on and find some place to set up a far 0 Frontier acts as safety valve that encourages individualism and democracy 0 Need new frontier I Need a new safety valve and new land I New markets I Chicago worlds fair demonstrated was that the united states was ready to pursue this new frontier We were ready to become a global power 0 Aglobal mission 0 Protestant missionaries 0 Early 19 h century focus on West and Indians 0 After Civil War focus on foreign lands 0 More than gospel ie schools medical care job training I Thought people should get an education even if that meant coming to the united states to get it I Played an important role in generating interest in learning about people in other places before the Chicago fair I Also paved the way for american economic expansion 0 llcommerce follows the missionary I Missionary goes into an area makes connections with the people over time the people will become more inclined to hear about American business 0 The quest for Empire 0 18701900 US exports triple o lsolationist only in regards to European affairs I We were only concerned on what was going on here 0 True in relation to what was going on with Europewe had a hands off approach to Europe 0 Conquered the West 0 Alaska 1867 Canada Mexico 1848 I When bought Alaska we though that we would sometime buy all of Canada I The same was true of Mexico 0 1890s shift from manifest destiny to economic necessity I There has already been several years of depression I The united states needed new markets to sell its goods and new resources 0 Trade empires not settlement I We don t want to conquer the land we just want to trade with them I Great idea by tricky to make it happen without military intervention 0 But military might usually required to protect economic interests I In order to protect American business it was necessary to bring military support on a regular basis 0 The SpanishAmerican War 0 We wanted to help the Cubans get away from spains grasp and what happened was we had imperial power 0 Cuban revolt against spain 1895 I 13 of Cubans population died when spain rounded them up and put them into harsh places 0 Public outcry in US against Spain and in favor of intervention 0 Battleship Maine 1898 I Went to cuba from America I There was a mysterious explosion that killed all 266 crew members I Source of explosion was unclear but said that it had to have been the Spanish 0 US destroys Spanish fleet in Manila Bay I 5 days later the US navy destroys the Spanish fleet in the filipines 0 TR and the Rough Riders I Victory and the Spanish surrender to us I Over night the US had territorial possessions that stretched around the globe 0 US gets important territorial gains monitors Cuban independence Guantanamo Bay I We get a navy base and 99 year interventions 0 Filipino resistance takes 7 years for US to assert control I They launched a violent resistance movement when they realized that Americans were just taking spains placein the Filipinos I We had a 6 week war to get the fillipeans and then 4 years to gain control 0 The Open Door 0 1890s China internally weak 0 Britain Jpan Germany France and Russia start divvying it up 0 John Hay Sec of State writes open door notes 18991900 I Meant everyone would have equal trade access in china I Even if someone has set up a whole system then everyone else can trade 0 Maintain Chinese sovereignty but also ensuring trade access 0 Open Door becomes key doctrine of US foreign policy no permanent settlements but must have trade access I They soon realize that we need to have a military backup again o The Big Stick 0 llprogressive diplomacy commercial expansion backed by military presence I We are going to increase our economic and commercial interest and back it up with military back up I Ensured American commercial expansion and to do that with a foreign policy that is coded with the language of moralism and maintain order 0 Doing this for a llgreater good 0 Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine US as international police power in Western hemisphere I Roosevelt believed to maintain and increase the US economic and political cloat on a global stage than we must have a military backup 0 This view became known as the corollary to the Monroe doctrine I If one country is unstable than it threatened our stability therefore we had to act as an international police power 0 We used this many many many times to intervene 0 Dollar Diplomacy 0 Trade Big Stick for business investment I Thought if we put investment into these places I Dollar diplomacy required military might o Assumes that political influence would follow increased trade with and investment in foreign cou ntires 0 Required military enforcement 0 Wilson the interventionist o Wilson most interventionist president I We are done with the imperialism but quickly became the most interventionist president I Was convinced that the US had to expand the exports o llMissionary diplomacy Latin Americans in need of guidance from the US I Brings racism into the mix I Thought that the latins were inferior and needed guidance I He gets the nickname llmissionary diplomacy 0 Elements of both Big Stick and Dollar Diplomacy I Still maintain both of these 0 Haiti 1915 I Sent troops into Haiti to restore and has power till 1934 I It improved educational system I But had forced labor program which produced wide spread resentment Monday September 28 2009 The great migration and racial violence 0 WW1 Make the world safe for democracy 0 1910 1920 12 million African Americans leave south in Great Migration Africans thought that if they joined in the war then they would have a better chance of being equal The men were actually segregated They were station in Europe but not in combat They were coming into contact with the Europeans that were having blacks right next to them Very eye opening The African people walked side by side with the Europeans in their victory walk 0 Hopes V realities The hopes were diminished but the war did release social changes Increased war production Immigration has come to a virtual halt because they are afraid to get on a boat Opened thousands of industrial jobs opened up to African Americans for the first time This inspires the African Americans to migrate even more outside of the south 0 12 a million African American moved toplaces like Chicago Detroit tons of places in the North 0 The African American population in Chicago seemed to double over night They seemed to get rid of lynchings they thought there kids would have better schooling thought jim crow laws would not be in progress in the north Thought things had to be better in the north Reality African Americans were excluded from unions segregated lines in neighborhoods violence made it clear no part ofthe country was free of violence and 0 Race Riots 1919 215 people die in combat over racial tensions in the north Washingron and Du Bois o Booker T Washington accommodation Advocated economic self help as a route into the middle class o 1895 Atlanta Compromise I Urged blacks to adapt to segregation I Told them to focus on their own class and try to move up as they are 0 WEB du bois quottalented tenth I Urged African Americans to press for equal rights I Thought they should use their education to fight back I Tackle this from a variety of fronts in order to be successful 0 1909 NAACP I Mostly white reformers who were shot where there was a lynching ofa black man I NAACP launched a long struggle for the enforcement of the 15th and 14th amendment 0 These are the two leading visions of leadership in the black society 0 Graveyites 0 Silent protest Parade 1917 I March in silence carrying signs that say Mr President why not make America safe for democracy I Just one example of the war vs race relations in the country 0 Universal Negro Improvement Association I Held colorful things that was for black identity I They attracted world wide 1 million memberships 0 Marcus Garvey I In 1923 this is when he was saying this I His ideologies as garveyions 0 Self determination for all people of African descent I Found guilty of male fraud and was deported back to Jamaica where he was from I He taught them to admire that black is beautiful 0 Self determination and black nationalism I Said by Marcus Garvey and the people that followed him 0 Harlem Renaissance 0 Cultural production I Celebration ofa distinct black culture I Was firmly rooted in the folk culture and the daily experiences of African americans 0 Political ideology I New leaders and associations began to appear to challenge the racism that had been to persistent in the American society I Get their start in community work 0 quotslummingquot I The vibrant people in Harlem started to draw a lot of whites I In the 1920s slumming became a fad for white Americans where they would come to Harlem to visit the black culture I They were also looking for alcohol I The Harlem of white imagination where whites could let go I Was exploiting the people of Harlem economically and sexually Most places in Harlem ended up being owned by white people 0 Immigration restriction 0 Immigration Act of 1924 quotAmerica must be kept American I The impulse to use scientific racism really fused with the immigration act I The new law set immigration quotas 0 Based on stats before massive immigration boom of the late 19th century I Sets quotasony allowed to have a certain amount of people from certain countries Not equal Once you ve met the quota no more people I The people that had come before all of this were okay but the new immigrants are still going to be clinging to their own culture 0 Asians excluded except Filipinos I There was a law where people were not allowed to come here and Asians were one of those types of people I In 1922 the court ruled that Japanese were no longer allowed to come here I Filipinos were allowed 50 people to come here every year because they were part of our rule 0 Western hemisphere excluded I The law did not restrict these people from coming here because farmers in California had become dependent on those people 0 Border patrol I Doesn t begin until 1924 I Our first illegal immigrations were coming in from Canada 0 1927 Buck V Bell I Decision where the supreme court upholds the state of Virginias very tough sterilization law for the protection and health of the state Those determined to be unfit to reproduce were people of low quotIQSquot history of premarital sex people with pre existing health Wednesday September 30 2009 The Red Scare a short lived of political intolerance that was inspired by a post war strike wave And inspired by the social tensions and fears that wer egenerated by the Russian revolution 0 Russian revolution leads to creation of USSR in 1922 I 1917 and 1918 there were a series of violent revolts in the Russian empire where the Zhars family is murdered Ultimately we get the USSR o Anti communist hysteria in US I When strikers went the US said that they were being disloyal they must be communist I Middle class thought this too and turn against the working class I Believe the demands are not made out of real issues but that it is part of the world wide communist conspiracy I Unfounded fears o 4 million workers strike I 1919 participate in labor strikes 0 Include 8 hour day 0 Better wages 0 Right to unionize 0 Nothing new by this point Many have been granted during world war 1 But dissolved after the war I Met with unprecedented employers government 0 Say they are disloyal because of what is going on in Russia 0 Palmer raids I There were bombs being sent I State and governmental people decided to put an end to these bombing this is the red scare I Justice department brings people to ransack immigrants I Were overseen by the radical justice j Edgar Hoover 0 He began not just doing these raids but he also started to compile files on thousands of people who were suspected to having radical ideas dangerous 0 Alien act I Any immigrant and you were some how connected to what the government thought was allowed to get you deporated I 500000 people were looked at 249 were deported o 1920 American Civil Liberties Union formed I Formed as a group of activists that want to start defending civil liberties ACLU I Only have a few successes at doing this 0 Sacco and Vanzetti I Trial and execution of these guys I Italian American immigrants I Trialed and convicted of robbing a shoe factory and then killed a security guard I Neither men had a criminal record but they were radicals I Very little evidence I Judge referred to them as bastards I Were convicted and sentenced to death by electric chair I 50000 mourners convinced they had died because they were immigrants and radicals and not because they had actually done anything I Native born Americans two men symbolized the threat that was there 0 A Decade of Prosperity 0 Short postwar depression followed by economic boom I 1922 continues through the remained of the 1920s 0 Wartime profits used to mechanize and modernize I The huge wartime and post war profits provided investment capital 0 Brought in better technology and assembly lines 0 Mass production increases efficiency and profits I As mass production spreads we have standardized parts that are made and these increase efficiency and production so you increase profit 0 Nation doubles capacity to generate electricity I This helps to further bolster this modernization process so that factories cut cost and improve I People at home can go out a buy more things now because they have electricity as well I Less then 1 in 10 farm familys had access to electric power but most other families did by 1929 0 Means washer machines 0 Radios 0 Fordism 0 Auto industry drives economy I Every year they were producing more and more cars I Employed millions and millions of workers I Stimulated other industries Creates a huge new market for the petroleum market Oklahoma texas Louisiana Launches new businesses Services stations Gas stations Spread out so you can go farther Need roads to drive on Suburbs start to grow even more New churches schools groceries stores fuels construction industry HUGE ripple effect 0 Henry Frod s Model T Eve of world war 1 1925 Model T was turning out ever 10 seconds 0 quotFive dollar day Twice the regular wage in Detroit at that time Slashes the work week from 48 to 40 hours He enables them to actually buy the cars they are building making them move upward This vision is visionary this is what America stands for This 8 hour shift is an improvement but still tedious Plus he said to increase productivity no talking singing chewing gum so on so on Ford aso banned unions 0 Open shop and welfare capitalism o 1921 National Association of Manufacturers quotthe American Plan Open shop is the American plan Forced their workers t sign contracts saying they would not join a union Businesses start to use boycotts Refused to sell steals that employed people that had unions 0 Welfare capitalism aids 5 of the workforce Very paternalistic view towards their employees General motors offers medical services insurance pension plans and vacationsal of these were not mandated by law this is in the 1920s Established sports teams this is not just your work this is your family Only included 5 of workforce Were skilled male workforce 0 Union membership drops Spies were infiltrating the unions I Drops dramatically Workers faced with increasing problems I Workers suffer from stagnant wages I Wages actually started todrop and lose jobs Appeared to be prosperous o quotsick industries I Started to drag on the conditions I Things were getting worse I Coal industry reached 30 unemployment I Thousands were starving to death I Farmers start to get forclosures again 0 Mass consumer culture 0 National consumer consciousness 0 Advertising targets women I Middle class women I Home became a site of consumption I Middle class women would buy irons toasters vaccums I Working class women would buy ready made clothes and meals I Wives role was consumer more than ever I Better to buy then save 0 1928 majority of household goods bought on credit I Better to buy then save 0 Personal debt rises at twice the rate of income I Debt is rising faster then income 0 Leisure and entertainment people are listening to the same things and watching the same things Tying the country together in a new way 0 Movies 0 Radio and phonograph 0 Professional sports 0 The new morality 0 Saw significant differences in morality Sex became a increasing subject to talk about and it was ok Clara bow had sex appeal Divorce rate cigarette consumption hem lines going up as respect goes down Welcomed the freedom of cars this is when dating started 00000 New morality was neither as new or wide spread a scritics believed much of what we describe really had originated in the working classes and by the 1920s had worked their ways to the middle class Monday October 05 2009 The great depression worst economic problem yet 0 What caused the great depression 0 Economic weakness visible in 1920s I Extremely unequal distribution of wealth o WageSalary gaps 0 quotSick industries I Their wages were falling o Overproduction and under consumption I Rise in productivity had encouraged over consumption and that starts to hurt the industry I Agriculture as well no longer has as many people to sell to 0 Credit boom I As Americans are buying more stuff on credit they were not saving any money 0 80 families had no savings I The elderly were not saving money for their retirement I Unexpected unemployment I Families were thrown into poverty over night 0 The Bull Market and the Crash 0 quotEveryone ought to be rich by buying lots of stocks even on credit I Less than 3 of Americans owned any stocks 0 Many of that 3 were already wealthy but a good bunch of them were people that bought stock on credit 0 1928 price of Chrysler stock more than doubled 0 10291929 Black Tuesday I Peaked in September and then everything started to go downwards I On Monday October 28th the DOW average price of the stocks for the largest industries measure of how well the economy is doing dropped 28 points and lost 13 of their value I Black Tuesday the bottom falls out 16 million shares are traded Double the previous record A lot of people had nothing left to trade People were trying to I These people have all these debts that they can not possibly repay by mid November of 1929 BILLIONS of dollars has been lost 0 Some people were putting their own money back into the market trying to bailout the money JP Morgan 0 Market loses 67 of total value The political leaders down played all of this They are telling people this is a normal part of the economic cycle They did not realize that this would be a decade of depression Manufacturers started to cut production When you cut production you lay of workers Now people cant buy things anymore because they have lost their jobs If people are not buying goods then we still have a overproduction problem so they lay off more people Big huge horrible cycle 0 Unemployment rises A good portion of the peoples banking funds and the banks started to fail People started to go to the banks and take out all of their money 86 percent plunge in agricultural prices American farmers who are already suffering it gets even worse for them We started to see huge amounts of unemployment 0 Mass unemployment o Reliefto local state or private agencies Could not keep up with the increasing need They lacked the money resources or the staff to deal with the problem Philidelphia could offer a family of 4 550 a week Detroit only offered 60 cents a week before they ran out of money 0 1930 9 out of work 0 1933 over 25 out of work 0 Psychological effect Takes a severe psychological toll on the people who were brought up to believe that you are poor because you want to be poor Undermined the traditional theory of the male bread winner Women got paid less because the idea was that they would only be working temporarily They got paid less Women were more likely to work in service industries Women actually found it easier to keep their jobs in the depression Married women were often fired Single women found they could keep their job Many couples delayed getting married Women are keeping their jobs and becoming the main financial support in a time when men were told it was their duties to provide for the family 0 Men started to withdraw from their families rise in domestic violence rise in alcoholism rise in suicides rise in men abandoningtheir families o Teenagers realized they were a drain and started to ride the rails and looking for jobs Primary motivation was so that the parents could take care of younger kids 0 Impact on families 0 President Hoover Responds 0 Reconstruction Finance Corporation RFC 1932 I He believed that people needed to be willing to help each other for the public good but even though he felt personal anguish in this situation he really lacked the political skills and the initiative to turn this into a larger thing He worried intensely that if the government took any action it would forever undermined individual consequence When he did take actions he really focused his plan on restoring business confidence RFC designed to make government credit available to banks railroads and other businesses in order to stimulate economic productivity 0 Most businesses were not interested in expanding their business 0 quotTrickle down economicsquot I Pump money into the economy at the top and in the long run the people in the bottom will see some of it 0 Emergency Relief Act 1932 I July congress says I know you don t want to do this but we have to We use RFC funds lend it to states that have exhausted their relieffunds I Hoover signed the bill but was not happy about it I By 1933 only 10 ofthe money had actually been put into use 0 Federal Reserve tightens credit I Now people cant get loans to get through the hard times 0 Smoot Hawley Tariff I In 1930 this was passed which raised inmport duties to the highest ever Thought that American farmers would be protected but then other countries raised their stuff as well and so it back fired and hurt the farmers even more Wednesday October 07 2009 The great depression continued 0 The global crisis 0 International cash flow from the US to Germany to Great Britain and France to the US stops I Highly unstable I Traces back to the 1919 peace settlement that brought world war 1 to an end Germany was saddled with billions of dollars of war reprimentations We loaned money to Britain and France Took the money they were getting from germany and used it to pay the US back In 1920s American banks actually lent money to Germany Germany was using the money that it was borrowing from us to pay Britain and france and they were using that money to pay us back Big circle After the crash banks stopped lending money And then we stopped giving money to germany and then they couldn t give money to Britain and france and then they couldn t give us money Large circle 0 Fewer overseas markets for American goods I International trade was slowing to a crawl No one is importing our goods No one is buying anything at home Virtual stand still 0 The people respond 0 March 1932 Workers protest at Dearborn in violence I March 7th ford plants in Michigan Teargas and bullets were put on the workers from Ford after protesting wage cuts I 40000 people attended the funerals of4 workers that were killed during the protest 0 Bonus Army heads to Washington DC I Bonus army took its name from Congress promis that it would pay every living veteran of world war 1 a 1000 bonus But they wouldn t get it until 1945 They realized they needed it now Veterans started to spread the word that they wanted it now 20000 veterans and their families set up camp at Washington DC because they wanted immediate pay The house passed a bill that would pass it right away but the senate said that we couldn t afford 0 July 1932 General MacArthur uses tanks troops to oust WW1 veterans from the capital I A lot of veterans gave up but about 2000 remained hoping the senate would change their mind I July 1932 hoover authorizes troops to forciably evict the veterans and their camps These men had been the heroes ofthe war I The people were horrified o The election of 1932 o FDR R pledgea new deal for the American people I Was vague Stressed that the situation demanded that the government try something different With the depression getting worse everyday the people would have voted for anyone besides Hoover Was a mandate against Hoover and also a vote for this idea of trying new things 0 FDR sweeps the electoral college and the popular vote 0 quotthe only thing we have to fear is fear itself In FDRs inaugural speech he said Americans roll up your sleeves and get ready to work hard in order to get out of this crisis Very importanthe said that the American government should and would help the people 0 Franklin Delano Roosevelt 0 Early career Only president to be elected to 4 terms Democratic dominance for many many years Has a lot of political history Summer of 1921 he was stricken with polio and was never able to walk without help 0 Really impacted how he felt about politics 0 Bad things happen and sometimes people need help getting back on their feet 0 NY governor 1928 o Reform measures in the early depression He responds quickly to his situation in new York with the market crashing only a year after taking office as governor o Strengthens child labor laws 0 Tax relief for farmers o Pensions for the elderly Was determined to abandon the laissez faire views 0 The first 100 Days 0 Bank holiday 4 day holiday for the banks in order to stop people from getting their money out to prevent a collapse of the nations financial o Beer Wine Revenue act Put tax on beer and wine this is 1933 0 Makes the sale of beer and wine legal and he puts a tax on it which lets the government make money on it which helps to ease the depression in multiple ways I In the 1920s we were a dry nation it was illegal to buy alcohol but the end of the 1920s most Americans were ready for repealing it 0 Special session of Congress I From march to June of 1933 FDR was on his own to handle this financial crisis He calls a special session of Congress in order to deal with the banking crisis and to deal with unemployment and farm relief I He pushes through an extrodinary amount of things 0 quotbrain trusts o Providingjobs o Civilian conservations Corps CCC I Created as an unemployment relief program I Provided jobs for men in protecting natural resources road contruction plant trees flood control I Workers received room and board and 30 dollars a month and a portion of this needed to be sent home to their dependents family I Hiring rates were better but the camps were still segregated I Most employees were men were a handful of women but were mainly tokens to appease the womens right 0 Public work administration PWA I Builds roads buildings and a variety of construction projects throughout the country I The idea for both the CCC and the PWA was to prim the pump 0 Provide jobs that would increase consumer spending which will stimulate the economy I Spent 4 million dollars building things that remain today 0 FERA 0 Federal Emergency Relief Administration I Huge amount of money given to local administration and states 0 Direct relief to states I Huge departure from Hoover 0 Local administration 0 Agricultural Adjustment act 0 The AAA was set up to provide immediate relieffor farmers o The federal government got into plans for price settings 0 Subsidy I Farmers received a direct payment for cutting their productivity I Idea was to cut the surplus that was bringing down the prices Raised total farm income and it helped the farmers out Land lords often failed to pass on the money they were receiving from the government onto the tenants that were taking care ofthe land 0 O 0 At the same time millions of people were starving in the country were disturbed by the farmers not selling their foods 0 Tennessee Valley Authority TVA 0 One of the most unique and contriversal 0 Independent public corp o Built dams and power plants and finally brought low cost electricity to people through out the south Many people saw this as a dangerous step towards socialization But it was a success and it stood as a model to how careful government planning could be successful and could not be harmful and could be beneficial Friday October 09 2009 EC Showing purple and gold was a big deal because of her high school colors Sport earned varsity lettercheereading The great depression continued again 0 Funding the new deal 0 Slash federal programs I Slashed money where they could to shift money to new programs 0 Raise taxes I Graduated income tax 79 tax on incomes over 5 million 0 I For wealthier people it was extreme amounts I John D Rockafeller had the highest 0 Deficit spending I Moment when balancing the budget goes out the window I This is new 0 Critics of the New Deal all these were having simplistic ideas for a huge problem In 1935 FDR was going to have to deal with these larger problems 0 American Liberty League I Conservative business men I 1934 Attacks the administration and are attacking them for what they see as an attack by FDR on property rights and personal liberty In general they are not happy how the government is intervening in the private sector Not silenced but very little that they can do 0 Upton Sinclair EPIC End poverty in california Entered the 1934 race for California as governor Ran on the democratic ticket even though he was a socialist Monthly pension of 50 dollars for ages over 60 Also championed a government take over of many industries that he said would be revamped He did very well in the primaries which was shocking Conventional democrats are starting to worry because he really is a socialist Moderate democrats started to join with republicans Then he lost He was a threat to the new deal 0 Francis Townshend Old Age Revolving Pension Also won a large following with the senior citizens He wanted payments of 200 dollars a month to all people over 60 as long as they spend all the money in 30 days This would be financed by a 2 sales tax on everything Meant that more than half the national income would be spent on 110 of the population Had nationwide attention by 1936 o Heuy P Long Run the race for governor in LA Called for a radical redistribution of money Improved roads education Won the loyalty of farmers and industrial workers Went to Washington with national ambitions and wanted to become president He initially supported FDR but he thought the new deal was too slow and broke from him in 1934 Share our wealth plan 0 Going to take this money from the rich and redistribute it o No one could have over 1 million dollars Meant that everyone could have a home worth 5 thousand dollar home and a good income Economics a little fuzzy Touched a nerve with the people that were struggling to get by Democratic party seeing people getting all worked up about him they did a secret poll and if he ran for president he would have more than likely win I Long was assassinated in 1935 solving the problems for democrats The second New Deal really started to focus more on long term reforms Making big changes making sure we are never in this situation ever again 0 Welfare state I Comes out of 2nd new deal Millions of millions of people listening to the critics and wanting their senators to go further I A safety net under the lives of ordinary Americans I Direct relief continues in the new deal 0 Works progress administration I Starts thousands of new jobs and expands the types ofjobs that are being spread around I Artists historians writers lunch programs in schools funding for public housing I Continues the relief efforts that was created in the first new deal 0 Social security act 1935 I Direct response ofthe critics long townsmen Sinclair I Pensions for old people I Also created unemployment insurance for all Americans I This idea of old age pension Pay roll tax put on workers that created a fund that once someone reached 60 then they could get a monthly pension from the government Focused on the future did not cover those already past the age or the ones that were paying right then Initially excluded certain workers also excluded from unemployment as well I Long term it established the idea that the federal government ofthe economic well being of its citizens Labor in the welfare state 0 Wagner Act 1935 I Guaranteed the right of American workers to join unions I Also said they have the right to engage in collective bargaining for things like better wages conditions hours ect I Prevented employers for firing workers for engaging in union activity 0 Fair Labor Standards Act 1938 I Set the first minimum wage 35cents an hour I First time there is a federal guideline 40 hours a week I In 1932 less then 3 million workers were union workers A decade later in 1942 over 10 million workers were in unions Huge boom I This is a key event in the depression era permanently changed the work lives and economic status of millions of workers Changed their lives at work income levels quality of lives this was huge 0 Elections of 1936 I FDR carried every state except Maine and Vermont I Pulled 61 of the popular vote I Democrats increased again their majorities in the house and the senate I The democratic party pulled millions of new voters into the political process 0 New deal coalition I Women African Americans workers I People that had been long affiliated with Republicans switched because of the new deal I Faced significant challenges I His rapid response struck a powerful cord with the American people By 1938 the reform worldwind is going to be over Conservatives start to regain ground that they have lost Aided by the rooservelt recession of 1937 and 1938 which saw unemployment once again on the riseThe biggest cause is because FDR has slashed the budget He was really nervous about the growing deficit He panics and starts to cut spening Cut relief rolls Virtually haults spending on the working camps In 1937 the economy collapsed compared with the early part of the depression A program to build ships The bigger truth is that the new deal has never done enough to fully turn the tide of the economic depression Many of the critics had started to have success in undoing what FDR had pushed through More conservatives are being elected in 1938 Things are starting to slow down Between 1933 1938 the new deal changed the nation It strengthened the government in peoples lives and created the expectation that that presence was just beginning and that it would be a part of daily life Also made Washington dc and the executive branch ofthe government more important in economic power Ways in which it changed American society in just 5 years Coming of WWII that gets us out of the depression but also expands the government behind the dreams we even had Monday October 12 2009 World War II o The roots WWII O O O O O WWI peace settlement I Rapped up world war 1 created a set of small new nations Lots of vulnerable nation I To aggression by much larger nations Germany and soviet union Italy and Japan grumbling I They thought that the treaty of versigh had not recognized their stature or their contributions Germans felt betrayed Worldwide economic crisis Fascism Authoritarian government usually a one party dictatorship that prioritizes the nation or the race above the individual I All ofthis combined causes the fascism in Europe 0 Hitler and the Third Reich 0 O O O O O Adolf hitler 1933 National Socialist Workers Party Nazis I Determined to start a new empire Eliminate radicalism and purify Germans quotracequot I All people he deemed undesireable I Anything bad in germany he blames on the Jews I 1935 Nuremberg laws Targeting Jewish community I935 Nuremberg I Started to go against the Jews took away their homes started to put them into the concentration camps Concentration camps Defy terms of Treaty of Versailles I Dismantle military he begins to rebuild the germany navy and army 1938 Austria czechoslavakia I Annexed Austria took over I Turned his attention then to the Czech Allowed them to annex the German speaking part of Czech I Britain and France trying to avoid war said okay 0 Appeasement I Britain and France appeased to Hitler with the understanding this is where the line would be drawn I Britain and France had lost almost and entire generation in the last was I Within 6 months Hitler broke his promise and ceased the rest of Czech 0 War in Europe 0 August 1939 Germany USSR sign nonaggression pact I Weird pact They have always hated each other 0 Poland I September of 1939 I A week later Hitler invaded Poland I Britain and France who are allied with Poland are then forced to declare war on germany and come to their defense I Then the svoets also invaded them in 1939 and they conquer it and split it in half with germany o Blitzkreig lightning fast invasion of northwestern Europe 0 June 1940 France with Italian help I By months later Hitler has also taken over france and Italy has joined up with Hitler 0 Battle of Britain I Refuses to sureander I Hitler launches the battle of Britain and nazi bombers pound them and then boats watches the waters so Britain cant get any supplies 0 American solationism o Neutrality Act of 1939 quotall aid to the Allies short of warquot I Passed to permit the US to sell weapons to Britain and France I The president says quote above 0 Military draft 1940 I This is technically peace time and we are not at war but we start to draft men into the services I We are starting to build the military up 0 quotA great arsenal of democracy I FDR says this in a speech I We are not going to be in the thick of it but we will give them everything they need to defend democracy in this world o Lend Lease 1941 Congress enacts this program which allows the president to sell trade or lease military equipment to any country that he says needs it We are going to send it to them whether it is a tank or food 0 War production ends the depression Almost immediately after the lend lease we are getting out of the depression because we are building giant factories to make more guns and bullets sending food making tanks and airplanes and ships this industrial production This is what pulls us out of the great depression 0 August 1941 Atlantic charter Japan Hitler just throws the non aggression act out and invades the soviets and so the soviets decides to work with Britain and france so now we are supplying them as well In the summer of 1941 FDR says to sink any ships we think are for hitler This is an undeclared war in the north atlantic When American destroyers are said to sink another countries submarines on sight that is war AUGUST of 1941 FDR secretly meet with British prime minister to map out goals and strategies if we were to get involved in the war How would we fight it and what outcomes are we looking at o This is the atlantic charter 0 They agreed that the defeat of Germany was their first priority 0 Japan would be the secondary priority because they are fighting on the side of germany 0 Was hoping things would continue as they were with us supplying everyone or was he already seeing the writing on the wall and knew it was a matter of time before the US had to get involved physically Was he just waiting for public opinion Most likely he already knew that we had to get involved in the war 0 After he signed the atlantic charter I am waiting to be pushed into the situation 0 Greater East Asia Co Prosperity Sphere They wanted to create this sphere in which Japan would call the shots in Asia Other Asian countries would follow the Japanese 0 1937 Rape of Nanking Japanese attack the Chinese I Thousands of girls were raped In the streets I Thousands were killed I Through out the late 30s japan comes down hard on areas of Asia similar to what hitler is doing to Europe 0 US freezes assets I We restricted our exports to japan such as steel I Japan realizes we are not happy with them and now we are building up a pacific fleet I July of 1941 Japan takes over French indo china Vietnam I FDR responds by completely freezing assets to Japan 0 Cut of trade frozen assets in US and building up fleet in the philapens I Looked to japan that we were getting ready to go to war in the pacific at the same time we are making plans IF we were getting to war 0 US expected attackbut not where it came I Clear to japan that ifthey wanted to conitue taking over they needed to act fast I We knew by November that the Japanese were going to attack but we thought it would be in the philapense 0 Pearl Harbor 1271941 I In Hawaii I 2 bombing strikes by Japanese I Lost numerous equipment I 2400 people had been killed 0 US declares war on Japan GermanyItaly declare war on US I Asked for declaration of war the next day I Moosalini declares war on us because we declared war on japan 0 January 1 1942 No separate peace I The us soviets Britain and 23 other smaller nations that had also signed on to the atlantic charter the countries that had signed pledged to not sign another separate peace We were going to defeat the 3 of them together The US Enters the War 0 Germany stronger than Japan 0 Soviets struggling on Eastern Front I The big military question is when would the US and great Britain open a 2 front war like we had in world war 1 I Soviets were desperate for this because ethey had been taking the brunt of this war I 90 of german casualties came from the soviets efforts I Really doing the grunt workin the war 0 May 1943 reclaim North Africa invade Italy I The allies Us reclaim much of north Africa and launch an invasion into Italy I meanwhile 0 July 1943 Soviets force german retreat I The end of the german offensive I Clear that germany will not be able to win this war I When not if 0 Victory in Europe 0 D Day June 6 1944 I The western allies land in northwestern france 0 August 25 1944 liberate Paris I Germans begin to retreat back towards germans 0 April 25 1945 US and Soviet troops meet on the Elbe River I Nazi empire collapse in the spring of 1945 I A few days later Hitler commits suicide 0 May 8 1945 Germany surrenders Wednesday October 14 2009 WWII continued 0 Holocaust o Appalling evidence ofthe true evil 0 Concentration camps were turned into forced labor camps with I Starvation I Anyone the Nazis classified as being sub human Fall of 1941 right before US is thinking about pearl harbor Hitler decided to go foreword with the complete destruction of all ofJewish community 0 0 Efficient extermination of at least 6 million Jews and many others that did not meet the German race 0 Genocide I American found 10000 bodies in 1 camp alone and 3200 people starving I Gas chambers as big as barns I Huge ovens found to cremate bodies and huge piles of bodies stacked like wood 0 Late 1930s we started to hear about these so it was actually not a huge surprise 0 1939 American gov turned away 150 Jewish refugees that were seeking help and we said no we sent back the people 0 15000 Germans and Austrians that were already here and we allowed them to stay 0 Did not lift immigration policies 0 We refused to pass a special bill that would have allowed jewish children to take temporary refuge 0 We did allow English to take temporary asylum 0 Most Americans were thinking about the propaganda of the Germans so people said they thought everything was being exaggerated Created situation We were worried to falling victim to propaganda but we couldn t deny that scientific racism was still being used 0 The Pacific War 0 Philippines I Not doing well in the first 6 months of 1942 I Japan attacks us and destroys our air force there I Our troops are now isolated because we need to rebuild ships in pearl harbor o Bataan Death March 1942 I 78000 american and Philippine troop I Largest surrender ever I Thousands died in the forced death march 0 Battle of Midway June 1942 I Things started to turn around I Americans sank thousands of their ships I 1943 44 we reclaimed numerous places and savaged the Japan economy 0 We effectively put a halt on their trade 0 Spring 1945 capture wo Jima and Okinawa I By the time this happened Japans position had been hopeless I When not if they would surrender o Hiroshima and Nagasaki o FDR died in April 1945 Harry Truman new president I Truman inherits a plan in the making this is the plan to use the brand new weapon atomic bomb 0 Atomic bomb military diplomatic decision I The people urge Truman to use atomic bomb I Policy makers think if we use this bomb we can end the conflict quickly I If quickly then we wont have to share anything with soviets and british and we can keep Japan our own I Also we can intimidate Stalin the leader of soviets I By the summer not using the bomb was not an option we wanted to do it quickly and to show the world what we have 0 August 6 1945 Hiroshima I Dropped 2 of the 3 bombs we had I Killed 80000 people instantly and poisoned many thousands more 0 August 9 1945 Nagasaki I Killed another 40000 instantly 0 August 14 1945 Japan ceases hostilities 0 September 2 1945 Japan surrenders I With this WWII is totally over 0 Legacies of WW 0 Yalta 1945 divide Germany share Berlin I French British Americans and soviets occupied the zones I Agreed to divide the city of Berlin I Soviet army already controlled most of eastern Europe 0 Soviets install sympathetic governments I As the soviets liberated the governments from Nazis they put in communism I Controlled Poland I Western gave up the I Soviet army was occupying those countries I Soviets deserved the countries they fought a lot of the war on their own I Much of eastern Europe is communist now I Alliance between soviets and us was because we had common enemies I Now that the enemies were gone there was not much to hold us together and now the old lack oftrust and hostilities is coming back 0 Sets stage for Cold War Friday October 162009 extra credit will be on Monday The Home front 0 1938 we were on the tail end on the Roosevelt recession Promps more conservatives 1939 something else was going on By the time the Us enters the war the federal gov had already been pouring a lot of money into our industries After pearl Harbor our gov pours an unprecedented amount of energy and what not We needed to convert seemingly ever Biggest economic boom ever in our history Farmers were faced once again with the opportunity to feed Europe once again American agriculture is once again getting a boom By the time troops are being sent to the war 1942 the great depression is over Massive mobilization for world war 2 in our industries Mobilizing for war Ag rligii can it igsl c mini 5 ti quot gmlw i g was I Censored all the news created new agencies violated the civil liberties of Americans seized foreign owned property awarded gov contracts without competitive bidding 0 Massive expansion of federal government and reorganization ofthe economy I WWII takes over daily life in the US from what they can buy in the stores to the draft of their husbands FDR created a federal board to make sure resources were used for war 0 Cadillac made tanks instead ofcars 0 Automobiles came to a hault Prices controls were set on a national level Prices are not allowed to go up In order to hault inflation Federal gov mediated in labor disputes In order to keep production moving for the war effort Directed the mobilization of military Federal government was involved in their lives daily 0 250 million a day I Cost to fight the war I The government spent twice as much during the war then it had in the entire history of the country 0 Funding cut New Deal raise taxes war production I The war was funded by taxes going up slashes where we couldpeope bought saving bonds and war bonds I American people also helped to fund the people It was patriotic to get an American war bond I Quickly getting out of the depression Unemployment has disappeared over night I Not enough MEN 0 Creating the armed forces 0 16 million serve I Provided them with steady pay checks benefits and vacated their jobs back home 0 1939 only 200000 I Their primary job was to watch the Mexican border I As the war loomed our policymakers start to get nervous I October 1940 all men had to register for the draft ages 21 36 I Once in the war age lowered to 18 I After pearl harb o Segregation I African Americans volunteered more than most people I Poorly equipped units and commanded by white officers I Only towards the end of the war when there is a shortage of white infantries that blacks were assigned to white jobs 0 350000 women draft nurses I Womens army corps and waves women s navy I Better educated and better skills than the average man I Couldn t be in combat but not protected from danger I Got paid less then all men I All women volunteered I lEElfll y WWW 5 rn 2i lm 39 but the war ended right before this was needed 0 400000 die 600000 wounded I For Americans this casuality count was only second to the civil war I Devastating to the people at home 0 New Workers 0 Unemployment not a problem I Not enough workers for all the jobs that needed to get done I When the 16 million left they left their jobs I Created spaces for various minorities to move into those jobs Blacks Hispanics Asians and women African Americans found a greater variety ofjob opportunities in these 4 years then they had had in the 7 decades since the end of the civil war I Navaho code talkers recruited into the military to use their language about troop movements 0 New opportunities for some groups 0 Bracero program I The border with Mexico had become tightened in the 1930s I 10s ofthousands of Mexicans were re patriated encouraged and sometimes forced to go back to Mexico I In the 1940s we have a labor shortage so we turn to Mexico to do our agricultural work because now we needed them 0 Female labor force grows by 50 I Rate of growth especially high for white women over the age of 35 started going to work in greater numbers compared to women in other demographics First time white women married were working African American women started to find higher paying jobs instead ofthe low paying jobs with white people As late as the summer of 1942 the department of war advised businesses to not hire women until all men were hired Once they were hired they were completely reminded that this was only temporary I Labor wages went up 0 Labor unrest 1919 I Most wild cat strikes are from men refusing to work with black men 0 The Home Front 0 1940 1943 million more marriages than expected I People rush into marriages I Million more for married then would have if there was not a war I Economic boom helped this women felt that if they got married they would lose their jobs men felt that the couldn t take care of their families but now there is this boom 0 Marriage rate peaks in 1946 divorce rates climbs I People were getting married setting up homes I War time wages allowed them to stock up on consumer goods 0 Started to be nothing left to buy 0 Rationing I Shopping for food was difficult I Certain amounts of coupons which meant you could only have a certain amount of food I Hard to find time to buy food when working 10 hour shifts and having kids 0 Overall health improves I Peopled started tog o to doctors and dentists because they had all this money I Because of rationing families started to grow their own fresh fruits and vegetables Health improved so much that if we exclude battle deaths 1 lmcl in 39ilT l 0 Life expectancies rises by 3 years and infant deaths dropped by a 3rd Monday October 19 2009 The Home Front Continued 0 Japanese American Internment relocated to concentration camp Thought that all Japanese people were loyal to Japan over us 0 ssei not citizens I December 8th 1941 Day after pearl harbor their financial assets were frozen their banks Everything is frozen I Supreme court ruled they could not become naturalized citizens I Their children are by birth right citizens I Wanted to remove all people of Japanese decent o Nisei citizens but many under 21 I Nisei name ofthe children that are Japanese decent but were born in the United States 0 Executive Order 9066 interns 120000 23 native born citizens I February of 1942 I Bans allJapanese Americans from military areas I Given 1 weeks notice to pack everything upbusiness you need to close it house you should close it Pack what you can carry I Transported on trucks and overcrowded trains I Remote desert areas some in Alaska Washington very remote areas with extreme harsh conditions I Many lived in stalls tried to set up schools for the kids I August 1942 virtually every person that had 1 grandparent that was japanses would be interned I Japanese american citizens league said it was racial and not military 0 Korematsu v United States 1943 I Said this is ok in moments of extreme military necessity it is ok to violate the civil rights I 1943 gradual release program if they could somehow prove their actions Also ifa young man under 18 wanted to do be in the war they would release them 0 Last center closes in 1946 I March it closed I By this time Japanese people had lost homes and businesses that was at least 5 million dollars I 1988 was when the people were finally rewarded apologies reparations 0 Double V Campaign 0 A Philip Randolph March on Washington I Rally expected to be at the Lincoln memorial in July of 1941 I The demand ofthe march was equal employment opportunities in the defense industry I Agrees to call off the march if FDR makes the 8802 executive act 0 Executive Order 8802 I Bans racial discrimination in the defense industries and in the government 0 Fair Employment Practices Commission maybe in 1942 I Comes in the wake of 8802 I Task of hearing complaints where people are feeling they have been discriminated against and they will investigate it 0 Congress of Racial Equality CORE I Form in 1942 target segregation by having sit ins in businesses and stores that have racial discrimination I Sit ins Chicago Detroit places that are in the north by custom more than law to force the changes I Particularly at places that refuse to serve African Americans 0 NAACP members grows I Has 9 times the membership that it had before the war Part of the reason why people are starting to mobilize is because they were encouraged by the government Their situations had changed More than 1 million African Americans left the south to take war time jobs As they moved out ofthe south they had experiences of disappointment I Now they have the federal government saying they would be backed up I Summer of 1943 there were nearly 300 conflicts in cities throughout the nation 0 One race riot the black population has grown by a 3rd o In 1 race riot 25 blacks and 9 whites were killed and 75 injured The 1950s Affluence and Anxiety 0 The making of the Affluent Society 0 Household incomes rose during WWII o Substantial savings I People have no choice by to save your money I Nothing for them to buy I In 1945 there are millions of Americans with substantial savings that they really wanted to buy things I By 1948 the nation was back on track for their economic boom I The federal government actively took action to make sure the economy would continue to grow and boom 0 1944 G Bill of rights servicemen s Readjustment Act I The federal gov remembered what happened with the bonus army I They decided that they needed to help the millions of G s get back into civilian life laid out a plan to reward veterans for their service and to help ease the transition back into life I Provided low interest loans to the returning veterans 0 Also offered money for school 0 1947 12 all college students were veterans Wednesday October 21 2009 Postwar life 0 The postwar family 0 1950 Average marriage age 20 for women I Lowest it has ever been 0 1958 more women marry between 15 19 than any other age group I o More babies born between 1948 1953 than previous 30 years I The era of the baby boom 0 Each woman was having more kids and more women were having kids then ever before o 5 year period more babies had been born then had been born in a 30 period of time o The New American Dream 0 Postwar housing shortage Estimated 3 million couples that were not able to find a place to live because of the house shortage in the first 3 years after the war 0 Levittown First suburb in 1947 Built by levit new York builder During the war he had built military barracks He created a development on long island that included 2000 houses This neighborhood got the name of levitown The houses were small very basic good houses and quickly built Very rapidly purchased 17000 homes by 1951 Became the model suburb that all the other builders immolated Cookie cutter houses come from Levittown because in the 1950s this was the model suburb Suburb idea became the symbol of the American dream in post war 0 Economic factors 0 As well as social factors 0 End of 1940s 55 Americans own their home Majority of home owners were white 0 Red lining O 0 Practice of redlining 0 banks would deny loans to people who wanted to buy in older or more urban neighborhoods 0 used to keep out the traditionally blacks or other ethnic neighborhoods being racist the black man in the service he came home from the war to buy homes in Levittown realators would not give them the homes flat out denied o If they could finance their neighbors would make it clear that they were not welcome and the neighborhood would ask them to rethink it o The Consumer Society Increase in consumerism People didn t just buy houses 0 They filled their homes with tons of stuff 0 Vaccums 0 Play sets 0 Swimming pools o Knick knacks People had been saving up all of their money but now that the war is over the factories are making more things and everyone went on a shopping spree Spent more on their health continues Kids got braces saw psyco therapists Got vaccines Despite all of the spending Americans also saved for the future 0 Wanted to send the kids to college think usually only of sending girls to college Save to buy second car for suburbs In order to afford all of this stuff for the 1950s it required 2 incomes 0 We often think of world war 2 of being a unique time because men were at war and women worked myth 0 50s were not a golden age where women didn t work 0 Most women stayed working they just did so in different jobs secretary 0 Women are going to continue to stay in the wage labor force 0 As women get married they are going to jobs as well For the first time the lower class women are going to push their families into middle class with their wages 0 While most white middle class wives women employment is going up For white women their employment is scattered don t work consistently o All groups of women were working for wages and the women we think of being the most mythology that group of women is more and more going to work for wages The Atomic Age 0 A bomb H bomb War comes to an end because of these two bombs We were the only people that had these bombs and we were testing them all the time By 1941 the soviet union also had the atomic bomb I A few years later the hydrogen bomb which is 10 times worse was 0 Nuclear arms race I The soviets and us racing to have more bombs then the other I Never a question of if it was more when 0 Federal Civil Defense Administration I Americans learned that they should always have stock piles of canned food extra gas battery powered I Many families built underground shelters o duck and coverquot I Children had drills to duck and cover in case ofa bomb Friday October 23 2009 listen on recorder to this The cold war very few cases where it gets hot Where there is no real battles It is a war of ideologies Face off of the world s two big powers after the war During the war we were actually allies Really we were only allies then because we had the same enemy The reason for this is because the political and economic foundations of the soviet union was diametrically different from us They were communist and we are a democratic republic The systems don t work very well together Even as world war two was coming to a close and we were still allies with the soviets The soviets was beginning to exert their political and economic plans on Europe and the east The united states wanted to halt the soviets spread we didn t want it to get any bigger than it already was we wanted to create a world system that was like our economy We wanted more capitalists that wanted to trade with us Great Britain agreed with us March 1946 Winston Churchill warned that the We wanted a western response which really meant an American response Containment we are not going to try and attack the soviet union We are not going to invade We are just going to stop them from spreading their influence to anyone else We want to contain the communist threat 3 policy statements that are the foundations for foreign policy that set our agenda for the cold war the first is the Truman doctrine o The Truman doctrine 0 Greece I We thought if Greece fell it would mess up all of the mediteranean area 0 fateful hour I We must help free people stay free 0 Economic support Asked for 400 million dollars to fund the Greece fighters and also money to turkey in order to resist the communist in those countries The ensure democracy and really to restore the stability of the mediteranean area Congress agrees We give economic support to people who are having their freedom threatened by communists Give Greece money to fight the soviets o The Marshal plan 0 Meanwhile Germany was destroyed during the war Much of germany is close to famine Most western countries are bankrupt or close to it Spread of diseases What happens is people are suffering and the people start to blame the government Communists start to talk to those people about communism in france and Italy and germany Not a hot war but a war of ideas 0 0 Secretary of state George Marshall In response to this he announces the European recovery plan European Recovery Plan 2nd plan which everyone quickly calls the marshal plan 2nd policy that brings the cold war It commits the US financially to rebuilding Europe in a 4 year period we spend 13 billion dollars on rebuilding Europe 0 We give funds to builds roads hospitals factories farm land everything Europe needed we provided Helps fuel our economic boom Catch to all ofthis if we give a country some money we needed to know they are resisting communist influence in favor or accepting our ways So they needed to choose between us or the soviets Needed to be careful and make their loyalty to the united states Give money to rebuild o Nsc 68 the soviet union increased its control on eastern Europe They were technically separate countries but their governments took direct orders from the soviets o 1948 Berlin blockade Soviets blockade Berlin was located in the middle of the eastern germany and they were fighting over control of east and west berlin Soviet union bloackaded traffic from their section of berlin to the other half At this point the blockade fails but it terrifies the western powers 0 1949 China I Communist take power in china I By this point the united states had been intent on trade relations with china Now all ofa sudden china is a communist government Huge blow I Now we have 2 huge government powers as communists soviet and china 0 National Security Council Paper 68 I April of 1950 I Describes a world divided between slavery and freedom To defend civilization the united states needs to use as much force as needed in order to resist communist expansion everywhere No price was too high to defeat the soviets I NSC 68 raises taxes to build up a better army which includes having a military draft Defense spending tripled in this time The us prepares itself to be the worlds policeman In order to defend freedom against the evil of the soviets 0 Korea 0 Korean War 1950 1953 I The out break of war in Korea in 1950 confirms that not only was communism a real threat but that it is actually a military threat as well I Confirms the policy recommendations of NSC 68 We need to be ready to go militarily I The Korean peninsalua is close to japan As we divided germany we also divided korea between north communist and south us between soviets and US Technically korea is its own country 0 38th parallel I Temporary border that would eventually be removed Korea is important to the us because it is the only point of confrontation with the soviets with literally physically being faced off to them I Late june of 1950 north korea attacks south korea and this begins the war as the south Korean army collapsed Truman committed real people to do it He didn t go to congress to declare war He goes to the united nations and he got support from the united nations 0 UN support quotpolice actionquot not war I United nations going to war as a police action I Lead by US generals Made up of primarily american troops but technically all other people are helping I Exhausted northern retreats after out second attack China says that if we continue to go towards them then they will feel it is necessary to step in the US said they couldn t pretend like this didn t happen so the United states and southern korea begin to go north and are drawing closer to the border of china This is in the late fall And we we started in june China attacks and pushes us back We didn t think that china ever really would get in it but they did For 2 years we kept things strong at the 38 parallel China soviets the us didn t want things to escalate As no one wanted to back off Summer 1953 a peace settlement was made that gave each side what they had before 0 54000 Americans died During the police action Confirmed the ideas that underlined the NSC 68 0 Us needed to expand the military and lead an alliance in the world Korean war was the first time that African Americans and white people fought together side by side Monday October 26 2009 JFK and the New Frontier Domestic side to containment We thought about containment at home We believed that communist were not just trying to take over the world we also truly believed that communist were trying to sneak into the united states and they were going to subvert our political system to break us down Very real fear that the communist were really already with us and they were undermining our values Authority figures began a program what we called cosmetic containment We were oing to identify them and we would try and illuminate them wherever we could o Containment at Home 0 Truman signs executive order creating loyalty board Established loyalty board that was on the direction of the general Identify and fire federal employees who were expected of having communist sympathies or connections Thousands were fired and thousands more resigned to not have the federal general wouldn t snoop in their lives o Investigated on their sexual behaviors as well 0 The assumption was that gay men were somehow prone to being more likely to be communist because Americans felt communist were femmine or they believed because of the intensity of homo phobia if they could hide that then they could also hide being a communist They did not hold back Because of that many more people resigned because they didn t want to have to put their friends and family through the personal searches of their past 0 HUAC McCarran Committee Congress also did their own loyalty board Together these two committees invested everyone from Hollywood actors to public school teachers The people being investigated were asked to name names which led to more investigations 0 Alger Hiss Former state department Convicted of pergery o Lying under oath Huac claimed he was a soviet spy Very sketchy evidence Historians point to this guy to show how crazy everything was We now know that he actually was a spy This was disturbing because he seemed like the perfect american He was well educated ood looking had a family This really shook up the nation 0 Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Trial went on and on and on Convicted of being spys Belief was that they were spys for telling other people about weapons Julius was obviously guilty Ethel was not Both were put to death in the electric chair At the time people didn t really know what was going on with Ethel so they now thought that a housewife was trying to take them down from the inside out 0 Joseph McCarthy Best participant in the 2nd red scare n wheeling west virgina febuary 1950 Says that he has a list of 205 people that were communist and still working in the government He didn t really have a list but he sacred all the people because they believed him His colleagues in the senate knew he was just trying to et some attention and get re elected The general american public started to demand their representatives to take action and to respond with mcarthys claims In 1953 joseph mccarthy wants to start holding congressional committees to look at people in agencies He finally over reached himself He was investigating the military communism He accused a high generals wife on live television People realize he is irrational People start togo against him Although people don t believe him they do believe mccarthyism and they still believed it 0 Makes dissent un patriotic ulken Anyone who says they don t believe what everyone is saying and on board with then they are unpatriotic It encouraged consensus Anyones views that were different were now outkasts People begin to move towards the right 0 Dwight Eisenhower President enters in 1953 Hero of WWII 0 quotmodern Republicanquot Described himself as modern republican He meant he was looking for a middle ofthe road approach He recognized that voters wanted peace most voters wanted the welfare state remain the image that America is good Promised to alleviate the world of communism in peaceful ways 0 He meant he would rely on taking cold war out of the eye 0 The budget for the CIA went way way up then 0 But he slashed the defense so it looked good on paper but he is just lying 0 New Look for defense He invests american dollars in the nuclear arsenal program Looks like he is down sizing the weaponsnot so much I Build nuclear arsenal 0 He was not eager to use nuclear weapons He threatened to put nuclear war heads in japan we were still in the Korean war and it is going to be this threat that takes the korean war goes down 0 Preserving welfare state I A solid floor that keeps everyone from falling in a pit in the floor I Increased money that goes to social welfare programsthis is ironic I Does not just preserve it he also expands it I Increases spending on agriculture He cut spendin in some areas and he raised taxes It helped that the economy was strong I Wages went up iflation was low and the economy continued to grow while ike was president For most Americans the 1950s were prosperous times I Because people felt their lives were getting better it encouraged consensus o Consensus continuity and containment I Reinforce containment of dissent I For minorities for the working poor for the elderly for them poverty just festered and things did not improve for them The anxiety for people also included that poverty remained high Ike left some big problems unresolved o The New frontier 0 John Fitzgerald Kennedy V Richard Nixon I If listening on the radio then Nixon def won If watching on Tv then JFK def won He was young and fresh Nixon was sweating shirt wasn t right I Was a popularity contest I Race was still tight But he did win 0 ask what you can do for your country I As if he was empowering the American people to step up and be a part of their nation I The president is saying they need to give back to their country Liberal domestic agenda Peace corps Presidents commission on the Status of women Equal Pay Act of 1963 0000 Wednesday October 28 2009 o The New frontier 0 Liberal domestic agenda I Help for the elderly I Raised social security I Federal aid for housing and education I Anti poverty measures 0 Peace corps I Bringing younger people into the political world I Sent younger people for 2 years into underdeveloped countries to get them involved 0 Presidents commission on the Status of Women I Lead by Eleanor Roosevelt long time activist on civil rights ad women s issues I First time federal government took notice to women s unequal rights and began to investigate them I Documented the very real tangible discriminations faced by the American women in the work place and the legal system I Women could not even get credit cards in their own name I No laws against beating your wife or raping your wife Could not get certain jobs The job ads had separate columns for men and women Men and women could be working at the same place and the men could make a considerable amount of money First time anyone has said that it is time someone does something about it I Inspired many women 0 Equal Pay Act of 1963 I Revolutionary Mandated equal pay and work in certain work places 0 Kennedy and the Cold War 0 Nearly triples defense spending I Between 1960 1962 I The way they spent the money didn t really change I Kennedy relied on CIA operations in 3rd world countries places that were up for grabs o Covert operations 0 Cuba Batista Fidel Castro Revolution 1959 I After Spanish american war for 50 years we have a very strong economic hold in Cuba Had a lot of We controlled all ofthe oil companies nearly all ofthe mining businesses controlled nearly half of the sugar and cows We had tourists in Havana Also had gambling prostitution and drug trade Americans shared all earnings with the Cuban leader Batista Lead by middle class student but most of the people involved are mostly agricultural This is a revolution Fidel has good ideas and has a lot of followers January 1 1959 the rebels entered havanah and they ceased power from batista The people of Cuba were very pleased with this We were glad to see the end of Batista But now we don t like Fidel either US withdraws economic aid He goes to the soviets for help At this point Eisenhower severs ties with the Cubans Kennedy inherits a plan for a US invasion of Cuban island CIA had drafted the plan The assumption was once the US lead this invasion the Cubans would go on our side and invade Fidel Kennedy decides he doesn t want to send airforce planes because he feels that s too much 0 Bay of Pigs 1961 April 16 1961 Landed at the bay of pigs on Cuban coast The Cuban army quickly subdued them Really revealed that blinded The people liked the Cubans and Fidel was not a puppet of the soviet union CA tried to assassinate Fidel at least 8 more times October 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis 0 Khrushchev Ordered soviet ships off their course to stop going to Cuba This way they would not be bringing a challenge to the Us They also agreed to take the missiles back as long we would not go back to the island They also said if we removed similar weapons in Turkey The crisis passed Here Khrushchev looked weak here Some said he looked like the hero but on the other hand he looked like he was weak 0 Missile silos We noticed the missiles At this point many advisors demanded a immediate bombing of the missiles Others said we just need to send who ever we have and invade Cuba Kennedy was worried if he did not take action he would appear weak He thought very carefully and he did not bomb or invade Instead he went on national television he announced that he knew about it and also that he wanted them to be removed Then he said all soviet ships will be taken downbasicaly said that if the soviets don t back down there will be a nuclear war I Any missiles launched from Cuba to anywhere We wont take it out on the Cubans and we will retaliate against the soviet union 0 June 1963 reassess policies I Kennedy called for a new thinking of cold war ideas I Built a hotline between the white house and the seat of power in the soviet 0 August 1963 Limited Nuclear treaty I The Us soviet union and London signed this treaty Prohibited above ground outer space and underwater nuclear testing I Used to stop the testing ofthe nuclear weapons 0 November 22 1963 0 Kennedy was killed 0 Shocked the nation Even people that had disagreed with him had come to admire him 0 Either way the nation respected the presidency 0 He quickly was sent into martyr 0 As the nation came together in a very public mourning it symbolized the end of an era 0 LBJ used this to his advantage He said that although this was an end to an era we should let the his goals move a new era Friday October 30 2009 LBJ and the Great Society 0 LBJ took office in inauspicious Kennedy had been shot and LBJ took office on a plane BJ had always wanted to be president This was not really what he had in mind He was an awesome politician People generally have very strong feelings about him He knew politics very well and knew how to work the people Very few people have been the politician that he was He was a fearless cold warrior White southern democrat Opposed the literacy tests that hurt the African Americans Publicly endorsed desegregation A man that named his children wife dogs LBJ Had people follow him into the bathroom Did not let the opportunity pass him by His plans were still going to be put into action His years were some ofthe most turbulent in the countries We see agitation from civil rights Students protest Tens of thousands of men come back from Vietnam America changed during LBJs presidency 0 Fighting Poverty 0 1955 quotA Program with Heart 13 pt agenda for reform Includes expanding social security to federal funds to build hospitals and schools He made this his vision and he worked endlessly to get these programs implemented 0 Limits of consensus Moderation of republicans and democrats in the senate Especially southern democrats who thought they were going to be pushed onto civil rights when they didn t really feel that way Moderation from Eisenhower 0 Pushes through JFK s agenda tax cuts Civil Rights Act Economic Opportunity Act LBJ used physical appearance literally bullied people into doing what he wanted He had enormous amounts in the congress JFK had been a nobody Watched as kennedy floundered At the time of Kennedys death he his civil agenda had been dead 5 days after the assassination2 days after the funeralLBJ made his first presidential address to the nation He vowed to make JFKs plan continue oneven though that JFK had ended the process LBJ had really worked the system fthey voted against what JFK had then they would have looked like a jerk In 6 months several features had been passed into law 0 Civil rights act 0 Tax cuts 0 Economic opportunity act 0 Created a variety offederal funded things First work study grants Provides legal counsel for the poor Aids to small farmers Loans to businesses 0000 Created a program called CAP I Sent professional organizers into poor communities to help residents mobilize themselves Helped teach the people how to do things in their neighborhoods Not to wait for somebody to do it for them but to get the people to go after it themselves I People that were usually excluded from the government now had the opportunity to act on their own behalf and work on their leadership skills I LBJ used the circumstances to work on the war on poverty 0 Just 3 examples 0 1964 Presidential Election 0 Barry Goldwater wins 5 southern states I Presidential republican candidate I Really represents a fringe to the right I Most republicans in office were still more ofthe modern republican like Eisenhower so Goldwater really seemed like an extremist I Attacks the welfare state What really made him seem like an extremist he also proposed using tactical nuclear weapons in Vietnam I quotin your heart you know he s rightquot republicanhahaha I quotin your guts you know he ls nuts democratichahaha I Not a surprise that he had won the 5 southern states 0 They had been furious with the civil rights acts were aweful o The fallout was that many conservative democrats went to the republican side 0 LBJ gets 61 of the popular vote I LBJ winsYAY I Democrats won house and sentate I Liberal democrats could enact the domestic plan without it mattering I The path was clear for LBJ to push ahead with his domestic agenda 0 Huge democratic majorities in Congress 0 The Great Society 0 Amazing list of new programs laws I Seatbelts laws to pollution I Head start to student loans I Endowments for arts I Medicare medicade I Student loans I Made pbs kids 0 Poverty drops from 20 in 1960 to 13 in 1968 I Infant mortality dropped by a 13 because of improved nutrition better access to healthcare o Spending on social welfare doubles but most benefits do not go to impoverished I Despite how long lasting some of these were overall the great society failed I It did not end poverty forever I Barely scratched the service I Spending more than doubled on social welfare I Roughly 3 quarters of the money did not go to the poor people I Largest sums went to medicade expansions on social security raising the benefits expanding unemployment I Black unemployment was nearly twice of what the whites unemployment was I This was because of racism I Unemployment only 4 for the entire nation 0 Many people that were employed were underemployed 0 Low paying jobs because they didn t have the education for those jobs 0 A lot were in the service sector I He had to realize that he raised the bar too high unless there was going to be a drastic redistribution of wealth Unless he was willing to raise the I taxes on the people meant that this could not be a reality I The flood of reform dwindlesrepubicans started to get back into deats in 1966 0 Many Americans started to be mad that their money was going to the poor 0 Vietnam I Started to devour the tax dollars I The united states could not fund the war on poverty and the war of Vietnam 0 Civil Rights Legislation I Civil Rights Act of 1964 public accommodations employment federal spending 0 Most significant pieces of legislation since reconstruction o Prohibited on the basis of race sex sexual origin in hotels city swimming pools banned discrimination in employment federal funding and it offered financial aid to districts that were working towards desegregation o The law force is supposed to go out and look for where the laws were not being upheld o The jim crow laws were now illegal and things had to change I Voting rights Act of 1965 o It made it illegal for the colored blind laws that were put into place in redemption All of the things that kept African Americans that kept the people from being able to vote now it was illegal o In Mississippi alone the voting for blacks went from 7 to 61 I Civil Rights Act of 1968 housing and jury service 0 Banned discrimination in housing and jury service 0 These federal laws did not end racism but it gave equality with the backing ofthe federal government Monday November 02 2009 Civil Rights Era by the 1950 the Jim Crow south has become an embarrassment As technology is booming these images of segregation is being broadcasted around the world It makes us look silly because we are the land of freedompoiticaly embarrassing Hard to be the world policemen when all the soviets had to do was point at the photographs This is the context that the civil rights era ofthe mid twentieth period emerges Broader cold war context that brings a lot more meaning to it Between 1954 1957 4 key events that really signify that we were entering this new era in which things were going to change Not just that they should but that they were going to o 1954 Brown Vs Board of Education The hope was to make segregation to hard to maintain f lawsuits keep going then they would stop and just integrate They wanted to frustrate financially to integrate There legal charges were for the equal part Ok fine Separate but equal Success 0 1939 University of Missouri law school I Ruled that Missouri law school had to either admit African American students or they had to build an equally good law school for the Africans Americans It would have to be just as fancy Just as well educated faculty members They began to start using better institutions Overall there was no sweeping statement about plussy v fergusen Yah you have to abide by the separate but equal 0 Thurgood Marshall I Ready to make a direct attack on the separate bu equal doctrine I Wanted to say Plessy V Fergusen was ridiculous O O O I 5 cases 0 Oliver brown wanted to overturn Browns 8 year old daughter was bused around town even though there was a school that was in walking distance This is the brown of the case Case really offered the example of this Topeka case Showed that segregation was not just a southern problem 0 Argued that separate facilities by definition denied African Americans there civil rights as american citizens o The court agreed with him YAY 40 children in South millions in North attend segregated schools I Millions of children on top of this were educated where segregation was with housing In the north no laws but there were the residential patterns I White and Black children rarely went to the same schools May 1954 Earl Warren I Unanimous decision I Segregation of children did break civil liberties I The very concept of separate but equal was illogical Schools must be desegregated I This struck a severe ideological blow at the heart ofJim crow I The court in saying this did not give any timeline of when to end this 1955 quotall deliberate speed I Desegregation must follow with all deliberate speed No time line No steps No enforcement madnate Schools would need to desegregate but nothing to keep it going First event to suggest things are changing o 1955 Emmett Till O O O O A few months after this the nation was face with the image that went far beyond separate schools He was from Chicao but her family lived in Mississippi She thought it would be a good idea to get him out oftrouble in the city Money Mississippidiscrepencies in the story We know he was with some cousinshe had gone into a store that was owned by the rant family The wife of the store owner was there Something happened between the two She said he whistled and said bye baby Mom says he had a nervous tick and whistled Her husband and his friend went to Tills home and dragged Till from his bedroom and he was never seen again until several days later his body was found in the river 0000 O O O O O Insisted that the casket be opened Once she saw what happened she insisted that it be a open casket funeral because she wanted the world to see what was done to her child Thousands of people stood in line to see the body and show respect His murders were brought to trial and found not guilty Later confessed in a very boastful tell all interview Tills murder shocked the country Showed how brutal Jim Crow was Found several other bodies when they found Tills For African Americans this was a reminder that they could never truelly escape this Tills mother had left the south to get away from this His own mother said 2 months ago I had a son good job when I saw what happened in the south I said that s them not me Many Americans came to this realization This was not about segregated school this was about something very wrong Black news papers showed thisnot the whites 0 1955 1956 Montgomery Bus Boycott O Rosa Parks I A seamstress and activist Promptly arrested and jailed Whole community rallied to the cause I Boycott city buses I 11 months later the city was ordered to desegregate the bus system I This inspired people across the country I City s began to demand I Women had been waiting for a long time to do this boycott on the buses Women were the main people Many women had refused to give up there seats Flyers were already made Women started to go to the different ministers in town Wanted to find a minister that would let them have their meetings A guy that was also willing to talk for them All the ministers said no way jose This will cause all types of problems but this new dude MLK Basically bullied him into take up these causes 0 Martin Luther King Jr I He very quickly realizes what he can bring to this movement He may have been reluctant but he very quickly became the symbol ofthe civil rights movement He was an inspiring speaker and a politically savy leader 0 Southern Christian Leadership Conference SCLC I Coordinate protests o 1957 Little Rock 0 Southern Manifesto 1956 I 100 members of congress I The outhern manifesto was a statement by the US congressmen urging the states to refuse to comply with desegregation Forget brown we wont do it States don t follow federal law The supreme court was unconstitutional because they said they had no right to medle with state rights issue I don t believe you can change the hearts of men with states right issues ike I This encouraged white southerners that ifthey refused to comply with Brown then they would have the support of their representatives but also the president 0 Central High I Little rock was beginning to comply and 9 blacks were accepted into the school I White segregation groups began to stir up the community I Governor of Arkansas ordered the national guard to turn the new students away Because he thought it would cause a race riot Screaming crowds They terrorized the students but the guards made the students not attack I Then after 3 weeks the guards were not there And the students got in but the crowds were so loud they had to be sneaked out I Eisenhower had to take action and the students were escorted to school everyday I Eisenhower said he had no choice He didn t think that segregation was wrong he was only acting because the governor had defied the law I 1968 only 6 of black students went to school with whites These 4 events inspired African Americans throughout the nation Even adter king made the sclc there was no step foreward Wednesday Novermber Sit Ins O 0000 February 1 1960 Greensboro North Carolina July 25 1960 18 months 70000 participate Spring 1960 Ella Baker 0 Student Non violent Coordinating Committee SNCC quotsnickquot o quotbeloved community 0 Birminham 1963 0 April 1963 0 quotLetter from a Birmingham Jail 0 Eugene quotBullquot Connor 0 George Wallace 0 August 28 1963 March on Washington 0 Freedom Summer 1964 o SNCC Mississippi voter registration drive 0 Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party 0 June 1964 Schwerner Goodman and Chaney O Test 3 notes The Student Movement the New Left And Vietnam 0 The New Left 0 The New Left I Not communist I Were not like the liberals of the new deal era such as LBJ I Talked about the way they felt o Talked about feeling isolated alienated and powerless o Felt that society had become to organized like a corporation that the individual was lost 0 Not the Old Left I Tended to have ties to the communist party 0 Desire for an authentic life I Wanted to celebrate diversity I Going to a university was not just about getting your degree it was supposed to be about the bigger experience of growing up and learning what was the best choice for us Because of these feelings the student movement from various background was possible This idea was very popular amoung the 7 million students attending college in 1960 Got involved in various social movements and many more would focus on making changes closer to home In particular in college campus 0 College life I Very strict dress code business casual attire I Students were subject to very strict behaviors on campus I Curfews I Rules about visitors in dorm rooms I Living off campus apartments were part of the university and your apartment was searched I Classes would be very large couldn t talk to professor very structured life 0 Protesting I Started to protest against these school rules and other thigns 0 Students for a Democratic Society 0 SDS founded 1960 I Started their own movement I Instead of going with the mother group 0 Port Huron Statement 1962 I Held their first convention I 60 students adopted a document Captured the mood and beliefs of this generation of student protests 0 They were really inspired but what they were seeing with the students in the civil rights movement Students thinking very broadly about what civil rights might mean Thinking about all Americans and the relationship of citizens to the state Devote 45 of the text to criticism 0 Militaryindustrial complex I Used a lot in the 1960s I Refers to the defense industry I Under president Ike Government poured money into industries and much of the research for defense industry took place at the universitys I Ike coined this term 0 Recognized he was responsible for the creation of this situation Warned that this immense military and federally sponsored research used for military purposes really endangered american liberties The students really heard him Same students really heard kennedy say ask what you can do for your country 0 Participatory democracy I In general it suggested a step away from the elite that had started with the progressive era I Says that the people should know what it best for the people and for the country Power should not reside with the experts but the power should rest with the peopleLets enable people with what is best for them I Education and training does not make someone an expert life makes someone an expert I This idea for participaroty democracy really becomes the frame work for a variety of social movements 0 What it would mean in the workplace 0 What would it mean in the government 0 What would it mean in industries I 1964 events at Berkley provided an even broader thing 0 The Free Speech Movement 0 Berkeley Fall 1964 I Spark that set student protests new rule that said that a certain part of the campus was not allowed to use free speech Was where they generally put there free speech alley No campus group could talk about anything that was remotely political Students responded by creating the free speech movement Wanted that space back to do the political things that were important to them Then expanded to a critic to the entire structure of the university which made them seem like they were working in a factory By the time that this was over As a whole the student movements shattering the consensur of the 1960s 0 Mario Savio Throw our bodies against the machines And make it stop Became one of the leaders of this movement Compared the university to a factory Thousands were very in to the protests which went on for months and months America in Vietnam by the early 1960s many people in the unites states did not really know anything about Vietnam Many people misunderstood the war in Vietnam We saw it as one of the dominoes in the cold war We saw it as a place where the soviets were trying to take hold They had immense support through out their country The soviets were not in ltrating The entire country were in agreement that this was the direction of the their path 0 French Indochina Century of freedom struggle with the French After WWII trumen and Ike helped the French to keep control of vietname 0 French defeat 1954 0 Us violates Geneva accords Sets up the steps to make Vietnam free US steps in Pro american government in Vietnam By the 1960s the US was committed to the survival of this corrupt thing Kennedy inherited the problem and did not want to lose 0 17000 advisors Training the south Vietnamese military Offered advise that was often ignored Various efforts that were aimed at poltin the effort to halt the expansion of communism A lot of time their voice was not heard and then there were people revolting against them Complex Us is there By 1963 much of south Vietnam had been lost to the communist It wasn t working Right before Kennedy passed he was questioning the wisdom of the situation Friday November 13 2009 Much of Lyndon s great society just zzled and died He really came to the presidency with very little experience with foreign relations He was worried about sending American troops to ght Worried that if they sent the troops to Vietnam then they may not be able to get out At the same time he was a cold warrior He knew what happened with Truman when we lost china to communism and this is why trumen was not reelected LBJ said he would not be the president that lost Vietnam They thought that if Vietnam fell then it would be a dominoe effect and all the countrys around them would fall to communism o Lyndon Johnson s War 0 Gulf of Tonkin incident and resolution august 1964 North Vietnamese perhaps red amongst American troops Not exactly clear what happened but the united states believed that our ships had been attacked by north Vietnamese in the Gulf of Tonkin LBJ seized this opportunity to say the Vietnamese had used aggression Passed resolution authorized LBJ to do whatever he needed to do to protect American troops not a formal war declaration Virtually a unaminous Passed without any debate about what out goals in Vietnam was Was a blank check to the president to get him to do whatever he wanted Johnson said that even after Tonkin he did not want to send troops to Vietnam This is the really big election year though and is almost desperate to get reelected Make it or break it year Very much thinking about how to work the political system Through out the election he is really playing down what he will do in the war 0 1965 huge airstrikes 80 approval rating Right after the election in November Viet Kong southern region of Vietnam that were on the side of the North Viet Kong attacked an American base in February With this he starts to send troops over seas and we start to bomb the north At this point polls showed that 80 of Americans supported LBJ s actions in Vietnam They agreed he should start sending troops over and start to bomb the north 0 Destruction of Vietnam American dropped more tons of bombs on Vietnam mostly on the north but south as well then both sides together had dropped in the entire duration of WWII Americans started to drop bombs that would destroy forests Started to drop napalms Pursued the Vietnamese in search and destroy and sometimes couldn t tell who was on what side O I Had no other way to measure success then to know how well to do other than death counts 35000 drafted each month I People started to go to college more so that they couldn t get drafted I Doctors would make them fail their physicals so they wouldn t have to go I The poor wouldn t need to go because they didn t know how to read or they were not very fit There was a situation where the people being excepted to be drafted was not the people expected It was sons of blue collars Can t afford to go to college but have the minimum requirements Average age of soldiers was only 19 in WWII it was 26 Young boys would miss their senior proms because they turned 18 before they even graduated By the end of 1967 over a million Americans had been drafted served a year and then sent home The cost of the war was over 2 billion dollars a month Despite these sacrifices the Us could not break their opponents desire to keep going We knew by 1967 that if we left then Vietnam would fall to communism but we were not sure what cost would let us stay in We were not sure how long we wanted to stay in We had no plan to get out or to stay in o The Antiwar Movement 0 O 0 By 1968 the war had side tracked much of the great society It had torn families democratic party colleges all of those apart It seemed like everyone in Washington DC seemed to be on board with Vietnam Many college students started to think about ending this war in Vietnam They had lost all confidence in the system Opposition to the war became the theme of America This brought a whole new movement bringing all types of people together to unite in disagreement People from various backgrounds coming to hate the war SNCC wrote a thing about how much they hated the war MLK was speeking very publicly against the Vietnam war Said it was a drain on resources No public debate April 65 SDS invited opponents of the war to assemble A lot showed up Way more then they thought would come Really gave the first hint that this is the much more popular view They had the makings of a movement that could change federal policy They were not just a bunch of students They could not just be dismissed They were people from all backgrounds protesting against their governments war 1968 world changing events that occurred back to back Begins in Januray when the viet kon and north Vietnamese launch an uprising Completely surprise 0 Tet Offensive I Viet kong and north Vietnamese attack us unexpectantly I The united states drove back the offensives Technically we won but at the same time we really lost I The war is on the television and everyone can see and there is a body count from that days ghting 0 Democratic primaries I Really shatters poor poor LBJ He had been telling Americans don t worry victory is right around the corner Then Tet Offensive happens and the people don t believe him McCarthy antiwar and the people like this and he shows good things Robert Kennedy announced that he would seek election and that he would also do it on a antiwar 0 Johnson announces he will not seek reelection I Stuns the population by letting them know that he would not run again for election I His reason was that the war was so bad that he would not have the time I It is also implied that he knew he would not get reelected MLK and RFK March of 1968 MLK was organizing a poor peoples march April 4 MLK traveled to Memphis to do a strike for garbage collectors While he is there organizing the strike he is murdered The greatest out break happens 0 A few months later in June of 1968 Bobby Kennedy was assassinated Moments before he was killed he had won the California primaries and he had done so on the intention of peace As he was giving his acceptance speech he backed away from the podium and then he was shot Chicago 68 o A police riot the rioters in Chicago were the police and not the people protesting o 5 of the radicals were found guilty and the appeals over turned it The judge was 0 O blatanly bias When thinking of the 60s much of it happened in these back to back events of 1968 This is the year that Richard Nixon was elected Counterculture O o The young people that were involved in student movements began to expand their visions to culture freedom as well They began to abandon their parents views and start their own things 0 Every generation rebels against what their parents do but for the first time the rejection to these respectable views really became caught up and collided with other movements The countercultures that emerged Cukltures that are moving against main stream cultures 0 The individual can decide what looks good feels good sounds good Freedom becomes all about what the individual likes o In some ways the counterculture represent the next step in consumerism First gerneration to have an alliance They have money to spend They have resources They have a purchasing All of their clothes and what not to big o By the mid 70s the stuff that had political meaning was just now the groovy fashions of the 70s 0 At the same time the countercultures they really begin to blurr the line of self indulgence self expression and self destruction Always rather thin lines Get very blurred Emphasis on drug use 0 At harvard College professor timothy leery0 becomes a profit of counterculture said that using LSD is the ultimate way to expand your consciesness He says that using the drugs is a political statement 0 They were very much thinking about the mass levels as well They were not protestin they were just going to be there Urged people to turn on tune in and drop out This became much of the theme Many of the young people felt they could not change the system so they would just drop out of it o Thereis more to this counterculture then just this sex drugs and rock and roll This extreme self expression really say that this idea is an authentic life and although they have given up on the whole political system Ironically as we move into the 1970s the hippies world gets cooped The music becomes THE music Everyone listens to this stuff Everything they do becomes main stream 0 0 Things that seemed outrageous really just gets absorbed in the 1970s and becomes mainstream Monday November 16 2009 Silent Majority Richard Nixon was elected in November of l968Husband born maybe Ec Nixon said he was going to restore law and order and he was going to do this with the silent majority Who was the silent majority o The Shifting Center 0 The center refers to what is acceptable to most people What do people agree on as the basics of where people should be The ways in which the line starts to pull back as we head into the 1980s it will never go back to the l9Lh century We will always be further to the left but more in the center o Shifting center how does it fit into political discussions then we hear today Farther left but starting to pull a bit to the right 0 The Libertarians many on the right in the 1950s that reclaimed Developed ideas Thinkers de ned freedom as individual autonomy limited government unregulated capitalism Obvious reaction to the new deal Anti big government This ideas had good appeal to business men This idea of unregulated capitalism These guys wanted to be free of the business 0 Milton Friedman One of the libertarians His recommendations said that all government things should be turned over to other sectors Taxes should be repealed Every person should have to pay the same amount Should have to repeal the social security Government should not regulate the economy and the government should not try and regulate individual conduct Believed they should have free choice in every area of their life I Friedmen is criticzing radicals as well as the new conservatism 0 Limited government 0 Individual autonomy o Unregulated capitalism 0 New Conservatives 0 Moral decay I The united states was rotting from too much freedom and self indulgence and we needed to return to a civilization that was grounded in the Christian tradition I Freedom was a moral condition In order for it to work people had to be virtuous If they could not make those choices then the government needed to step in and pass laws to force them into that conduct 0 Christian values good v evil I Had to get back to real American values Good v evil I Need respect for authority in all areas of life I Did not want government to do economy but wanted them to regulate moral aspects 0 United by common foes 0 Root of division 0 Unrestrained individual choice and moral virtue are radically different starting points to discuss freedom 0 Conservative create free man or the good man I Said that we don t have enough rules for how people should act morally o Libertarian conservative progress Tradition community and moral Too many barriers too many rules in the way people 0 Conservatives and liberals Both supported the cold war but the conservatives condemned the government Conservatives opposed civil rights which they saw a matter to be handled by the states we can see that the conservative population was extremely diverse If they came together to work together they would be a powerful political force The other sixties 0 Young Americans for Freedom YAF Organized in 1960s met at buckleys house in Sharon county in Connecticut The students portrayed youth at being at the cutting edge of the new movement Would make a route for personal freedom Wanted to feel more connected to their world Says government should bestrictly limited Communism was greatest threat and should be destroyed Free market basis of freedom Government should be strictly limited Communism must be destroyed Wanted to take control of the republican party with people like ike who they believed was willing to live with communism Thought he shouldn t work with the new deal 1964 became come of goldwaters supporters 0 Sharon Statement 1960 Link in moodle 0 William F Buckley 0 0 Persons house that YAF met at Limited government personal liberty anticommunism Orange County Goldwater campaign Brought new groups of people to the conservative cause For example this campaign aroused enthusiasm in southern California Orange county became a grassroots center for conservatism Suburban house wives campaigned on goldwaters behalf New industries like oil poured money into goldwaters campaign He did not win the election but established a new base for the republican party These new industries are eager to return back to unregulated capitalism as well as the students In combination with the 5 states that carried gold water which are the states of the deep south 0 southern strategy George Wallace Eventually leads the entire something to the republican party Most conservatives don t speak out about racial inferiority Urban rioting have strong racial tones o The Man of the Hour 0 Richard Nixon Elected in 1968 Ronald Raegan was califomias governor but in 1968 most republicans were still stinging in the elction of 1964 with berry goldwater Many in the republican party were suspicious of those who were further to the right then the center Instead they wanted someone who they thought had a really good chance of winning Thought they would be going up against bobby kennedy Needed someone like Ike Needed someone anti communist antibig government someone who respected private industriesThought Ragan could be but wasn t sure Richard Nixon seems like the safe respectable person that would get the republicans back into the white house Nixon shared the dreams of building a personal quest LBJ wanted to be the president on his own He had already been the VP Nixon believed he had been treated unfairly by the media He retired from politics for awhile Then in 1966 he started his come back He toured the country lending his hand and support in elections In the tour he talked to people He said he talked to middle America and said the conversations made him relaunch his campaign Was listening to the people that were back home trying to get by living and playing by the rules These people were the silent majority of America 0 Create a new majority coalition Democrats this is the moment that the deep south goes from bein maj oritly democratic to republican After 1972 the rep go to white southemers Combine the base from goldwater with this southern whites from Wallace and nixons silent majority This is the new conservative coalition 0 But what was the silent majority Said that the hard working middle class was the silent majority of the nation Who was this Comprised of disaffected democrat People that had been voting democratic since FDR Forgotten by the domestic agenda of the new agenda Disgusted by the privileged college students rioting in the streets Most were blue collar workers Middle class was there too in the silent majority Nixon himself most often spoke directly to the middle class people of America I He said that the silent majority was the 47 year old Dayton housewife 0 Elections of 1968 and 1972 0 Most democrats still voted democrat in 1962 He only won the popular vote by 7 What really gave him the edge was the 5 states that went to George Wallace 0 deep south states Nixon not the man to launch the new revolution and keep it going Sets the nation 0 on a path Wednesday November 18 2009 The legacies of Richard Nixon won a narrow victory but republicans celebrated returning to republican president He seemed like the safe candidate Knew what to expect from him Very quickly Nixon demonstrated that he was not going to live up to the expecatations Echoed conservative reterict In office he expanded the welfare state and made government bigger Rather then continueing anticommunism he actually improver relations with the Chinese and other communist countrys The actions he took often seemed more like liberal actions rather then those of conservatives 0 Domestic Program 0 Expands Social Services 0 Proposed family assistance plan failed I Radical plan that would eliminate aid to family s money to help care for their children I Guaranteed minimum income for families I If you didn t make a certain amount of money when filing your income tax it told you how much money the federal government was going to give you to make that up I Conservatives saw this as a reward for lazyness I Liberals saw the minimum income as that s hardly anything I Failed because liberals and conservatives both didn t like it for different reasons 0 Clean Air Clean water I Took up environmental issues because it was something he could work on that the other candidates were not using Trying to smooth things over with the democrats This is the foundation of our environmental act that we have now 0 Endangered Species Act 0 Environmental Protection Agency 1970 O O I Created this Made sure all these new regulations Earth Day 1970 I First earth day made by Nixon Occupational Health and Safety Act OHSA 1970 I Also responsible for this Required employers to provide their employees with safe work places Nixon championed laws that made rules on businesses Nixon expanded the size and domain and budget of the federal government DETENTE O O 0 Third World Interventions I Continue policy started under LBJ JFK and Ike that undermine countries that seem to be dangerous I Nixon dramatically changes foreign policy in a way that does not make the republicans happy I When he was VP under Ike and at that point president Ike and soviet leader started peaceful coexistence This really became clear once Nixon was the president He returned to his policy s that were made while he was VP Nixon and Kissinger started to look for realism They were willing to compromise onideaologies if it meant mainting power I It s okay we can compromise as long as we feel we are the more powerful nation and we are reaching a point that we need national stability We can step back where we can get to a point where we have a balance That is more realistic then trying to win the cold war I Reopened conversations with USSR and china I Nixon was hopeful that if they could improve relations with the soviets then they could persuade the north Vietnamese have peace as well Realism With USSR and China I Nixon and Kissiner also tried to view those 2 China and USSR were two different nations I Had different concerns and what not I Need to dea with independently of each other 1971 Kissinger visits China 1972 Nixon visits USSR I First president to visit the soviets I Engaged in intense talk I Banned anti defense missals the ones that can go to different continents I Proclaimed a new 1972 Nixon visits China I Sparked a dramatic change in trade The conversation had been started and now they could have a more open and productive relationship 0 Detente cooperation and peaceful coexistence I Would replace the hostility of the cold war Vietnam Nixon kept saying that he had a secret plan to get the Us out of the war Once he took of ce he escalated the vietnarnizations o Vietnamization I Preparing the south Vietnamese to take over their own war instead of having us continue to help them Our plan was shifting They were going to try and strat this process of us pulling out I At the sametime he also resumes the hard core bombing of north Vietnam 0 Bombing North Vietnam 0 Invade Cambodia and Laos I Orders troops to invade Cambodia and Laos I As he is talking about vietnarnization publicly secretly he is continueing the war aggressively I Throughout this the protests for the war continue As the war escalated the protests were building May 1970 when 4 st 0 Kent State Jackson State I 4 students were shot in may of 1970 when the nation nely were brought up to date with what was really going on with the war The 4 students that were shot were actually not participating in the protest they were on there way to class All of the sudden colleges shut down because of this There will be no more classes and no more commencement Public support for the war was diminishing o 1971 Pentagon Papers I Were classi ed report that ha dbeen prepared by the defense department and it told how the presidents had mislead the public about the war It goes back to 1954 Details how the government mislead the american people about the war in Vietnam from the very very beginning A week later the Washington post also printed excerpts from the pentagon paper The pentagon papers showed how the presidents had basically rigged the elections 0 Daniel Ellsberg I Ellsberg leaked the papers I Nixon administration went into damage control Late June the court made a ruling that said sorry there is a freedom of a press issue Press can write about whatever they want as long as they have the evidence for it Even if Nixon was able to stop it The damage had already eben done and all of the sudden npeople wanted to know what else the government had been lying about 0 1973 War Powers Act 1972 Election Says congress should be setting the tone for foreign policy and not the president Required the president to get congressional approval whether or not a war had been declared If soldiers were being sent over seas then they still needed to get congressional approval Compare this with the first war power act which gave the president whatever power needed to help the war They realized there was an abuse of power 0 Despite Americans are reading the pentagon papers there is a landslide Nixon wins This is the moment where Nixon gets those hidden votes This triumph very quickly turns into disaster 0 him Watergate He was obsessed with secrecy and couldn t stand when people didn t aree with o plumbers Were to stop the leaks and to stop them in order to gain the papers and try and disprove Ellsberg Snuck into ellsbergs psychiatrist to look for things Once this group was created he continued to run with it 0 June 1972 breakin at democratic Party headquarters in Watergate complex 4 people took place in a break in Security guard noticed that something wasn t right and the intruders were arrested No one knows what they were looking for This took place before the election and no one latched on to this 0 1973 Washington Post begins investigation Began publishing investgated stories Realized that people close to the white house were involved There is a trail from the break it straight back to the white hosue not hard to figure out 0 Congressional hearings 0 White house tapes I Supreme court ordered the president to give the tapes up and said he wasn t above the law 0 July 1974 House prepares to send articles of impeachment to Senate I Became clear that he did not know in advance about the Watergate break in but he knew and took place after I Voted to recommend Nixon be impeached for abusing the presidency and for ignoring the demand for white house tapes 0 August 8 Nixon resigns I Before the articles could be sent for his impeachment Nixon turned in the tapes I With virtually no political support left Nixon became the first and only president tor esign from office 0 The Legacies of Nixon s Fall 0 Abuse of Political power rampant VP Spiro Agnew I Abuse of power went far beyond any other Mitchell Haldeman Ehrlichman convicted Senate hearings reveal lies and violations Freedom of information Act strengthen I Congress strengthened so that scholars and individuals could see 0 O O o Liberalism shattered I Undermined the foundations of liberalism Belief that the federal government can and should promote Can be the mechanism to promote business Changes should take place through the system Nixons fall and the revelations of years of governmental misconduct helped convince many Americans that conservatives were correct that when to protect liberty they would have to limit government Will begin to rethink notions Friday November 20 2009 The 1970s end of the olden Age 0 End of the Postwar Boom o Invested more abroad than at home I Government urged businesses to go abroad 0 Merchandise Trade deficit Imported more than exported I We were also getting things imported even if we had it at home so that we could support these other countries I This put American companies in direct competition with these over seas businesses I Steal was one of these things we needed steal to build airplanes but in the 50s we were importing too much steal so the American steel companies were suffering Steel is really only one example I In 1971 we imported more goods then we exported I 1980 3A of goods made in America were competing with outside countries I By 1960 38 of american workforce worked in manufacturing Byt 1980s 26 now worked in manufactoring 0 Negative economic growth I Over all American companies were suffering 0 In ation and unemployment soar but wages do not I 19701980 the rate in in ation more than doubles 0 Cars went up 73 0 Milk and bread and butter all went up double the regular amount I Wages failed to go up I Standard of living went down I 1970s is on in only 2 decades where the decade began and by th end of the decade it was lower economically I 1970 49 1975 1980 78 these are the rates of unemployment o Stag ation I Worst recession the united states had seen since WWII in the 20Lh I Stagnant economic growth and high in ation stag ation Ec uncle has bright red afro hair most appalled Looked like Ronald mcdonald Remembers sitting in long lines at gas station Waiting 1 Huge hissy fit because the attending pumped girlfriends gas first 2 Dad screaming at the attending was forgetful because the attending let the gas over ow 0 The First Oil crisis 19731974 0 Oranization of Petroleum Exporting Countries OPEC emb forgeargo I OPEC Retaliated against western support of Israel by reducing oil and then quadrupled the price of the oil and then just at out suspended out oil American oil producers could not meet the demand for fuel By 1973 the Us had been importing 13 of its oil from the middle east and that supply was taken away Over night we have far less oil so people panicked and long lines started To conserve oil the of cials lowered the speed limit to 55 miles an hour that s why they are still at 55 in som places I Every body is trying to go green but we don t know if they are doing it for money or because they really want to go green But people were told to lower their heat Only drive if you absolutely have to I Embargo was lifted but the crisis really did not pass For the rst time Americans were aware how dependent America was on foreign oil I As the oil prices rose and then went down but still were higher then they had been Americans started to change the types of cars they sought to buy 0 Auto industry and American economy I Instead of buying american cars that were usually bigger So Americans started to turn to smaller foreign cars Cars like Toyota Honda VW I By the end of the decade Japan had become the worlds leading automobile manufacturer I American auto industry is no longer on top I This had a serious ripple effect on the Us in the 1970s they began to start closing up Moved to the south where they could start to have cheaper wages I By 1980 Detroit and Chicago had lost over half of the manufacturing jobs that they had had 0 To this day Detroit has not come back I Less cars means they are buying less steel tar ripple effect through american economy 0 Federal Responses 0 Gerald Ford pardons Nixon in 1974 I Had become VP after Nixons orginal VP had resigned Gerald Ford becomes president and he appoints someone We have a president and VP and the United States had not voted for these people Ford pardons Nixon because he wants to shield him Nixon could still be charged in a criminal court He would have gone to jail for it Hugely unpopular Most people wanted the president to go to jail and the people were mad with ford for doing this 0 WIN buttons I Buttons to encourage people to I Ford came up with a plan to urge Americans to reduce spending even though he just gave them a tax cut 0 1976 Jimmy Carter wins I After 1 12 years ford loses to democrat Jimmy carter I Carter did not have much luck in reviving america 0 1979 OPEC doubles price of oil I Another oil shock I Members of OPEC took advantage of the situation and raised the price of oil I Doubling happens literally over night 0 Federal Reserve Board raises interest rates I By spring of 1980 the prime interest rate reached 20 I Interest rate for home would be 20 I It has only been about 5 years since Nixon has resigned Most Americans don t really trust politicians right now No one trusted them Intense economic crisis Burned pretty bad and now the economy was pretty bad too 0 Carter crisis in confidence blames American people for self indulgence I This did not help He seemed to be blaming the american people He said they had mistaken ideas of freedom I By 1980 americans are going to be tired of hearing how their poor choices some how drove up the price of milk and gas 0 The American Family 0 Divorce rate doubles o Birthrate declines I Many couples delayed marriage until a later age Also delayed having children which means less children Can t afford to set up their own household I Only 17 children in 1970 o Delayed marriage delayed children 0 Working mothers new norm I Mothers working rise I Many mothers found themselves supporting their children on their own because divorce rate is doubling o AFDC only 10 mothers chronically unemployed I The public welfare systems struggled to respond to this crisis In the 1970s in the mist of this horrible economic crisis only 10 of mothers were using the money from AFDC were chronically unemployed This is when we have this birth of the myth that women get on welfare and keep having babies to stay on welfare but we have the statistics 0 What about the Cold war 0 Carter deemphasiza Cold War and focus on combating poverty preventing spread of nuclear weapons and human rights I Rather then thinking about taking anyone as our ally we should instead focus on preventing the spread of nuclear weapons human rights combating pverty His emphasis and willingness yielded important result 0 Camp David Accords Same year he also resisted calls for o How to translate rhetoric into action Both conservatives realistis severely Critical arms sales to the rest of the world but with billions of dollars in american businesses he did not end it American connection with Iran provedto be carters undoing Monday November 23 2009 The Reagan Revolution 0 Iran Hostage Crisis 0 Shah of Iran was an American ally but also a erce dictator Fierce dictator and an ally of America Popular revolution Khomidi also refered to ayatollah over ran the Shah and it s republic Somewhat democratic rule put in place He exercised real power 0 Muslim fundamentalists opposed to modemizationU S Throughout 1979 Iran continually started to hate Iran Ideaological shift Went from being opposition on the baiss of religious fundamentalism The US was increasingly the model of the modernization of in uence on the middle east US is the symbol of outside threats to the middle east Which has long term results 0 November 1979 Mob storms embassy in Tehran taking hostages Allowed the shah a fierce dictator to come to the united states to get medical treatment Outrages iran Mob comes to the american embassy and takes 53 american hostages and they demand to release the shah or we keep the Americans In April of 1980 the hostages will stay in the hands of militants which is greater danger Carter says we are just going to go in and save our people but if fails misereably Many of the men that go in are injured or killed Added to the sense that Carter did not really have a handle on things This is happening with high unemployment bad economic makes people feel like he can t even keep our men safe I People would tie yellow ribbons around the trees as to say that they want their men to come home but Carter was not going to 0 Released January 1981 after 444 days I Eve of election they reached a negotiation I Ronald Reagan has brokered the agreement I The troops were released literally as he took his acceptance speech 0 Election of 1980 o This is the start ofthe 1980s 0 Ronald Reagan followed an unusual path to the white house I Used to be a huge supported of FDR I Became an Actor I Never an a list star I Was the head of the actor group only union leader as a president I Spoke as the GE of an electric company 0 Promoted unregulated I California took him as the governor I Was in the eye of the population but they gave Nixon the I In 1980 he won 50 of the popular vote and 90 of the electoral votes 0 Really creates the new political alignment 0 When he is reelected it is already cemented 0 Old and new conservatives voting for him 0 Working class ethics anti government crusaders stronger policies libertarians believed in freeing the individual rights and then the religious groups 0 People from all different backgrounds had not seen this since the 1932 election of FDR Pivitol moment 0 Neoconservatives 0 Former liberals I Believed even when the government was trying to help the people that needed help their help really was worse I Despite the statistical evidence they believed it encouraged single motherhood I Believed high taxes drained resources from private companies and therefore sti ed economic growth Continued to believe in the equality of opportunity but argued that it did not mean a quality of outcome 0 Equality of opportunity does not mean a guaranteed equality I Sought to repeal the affirmative action I South to stop expanding the anti poverty 0 Stronger national defense against communism I At the heart was foreign policy They were angered about the loss in Vietnam They felt we did not do everything we could have Wanted a renewed strength I Were richly funded by corporate donors 0 Think tanks ie Heritage Foundation I With donations organized the think tanks I This is when the heritage foundation was founded with the money of course screwing company in 1973 Because of their financial backing and their education programs Most went to graduate school They had good access to the media so they could express their views They were the talking heads on these programs Great ability to effect everything I Very important face of the new right that takes shape in the new right of the Reagan years 0 Religious Right 0 Evangelical protestantism Usually reffered to as the Christian right A particular focus on the 4 gospels of the Christian bible and also coupling that with a crusade a commitment to spreading this word Converting people to their faith Add to the desire of converting Becomes big in meshing policies Third raste awakening In the election of Jimmy Carter he was the first born again Christian Really showed the growing in uence of the evangelicals Most did so as conservatives o Endorsed neoconservative policies I They supported a balanced budget amendment 0 Moral focus I Also took on moral issues for example the relisious rights wanted to return prayer to the schools wanted to stop abortion supported the death penalty always been evangelical leaders that attracted leaders and followers I Amy billy gram 0 Televanelists I Pat Robertson jimmy swagat I Used tv not only to spread their message but also to get funding I 10s of millions listened I Major source of fund raising but also as a mjor source of fund raisin for conservative fund raisin o 1979 Jerry Falwell Moral Majority I Established the moral majority in order to wage a war against sin by election prolife profamily and proamerica candidates I He traveled to convert people to get saved baptized and registered to vote and to vote republican I Became a major political lobbying group I Had 23 million members I Promoted a reduction of government services and increased spending for a stronger national defense I This directly became a political movement Back to the election of 1980 o Reagan was reassuring affable encouraging I People hated Jimmy carter they liked himless then they liked Nixon o Appealed to white backlash against civil rights 0 Platform reverses position on ERA I No longer liked the equal rights amendment I First divorced man I Won the support of the religious right 0 Reagan appeals to traditional Democratic voters as well as longtime conservatives including Religious Right I Knew how to appeal to people on a variety of levels RE Defining American Freedom 0 Political realignment couples with redefining rhetoric 0 Made conservatives seem progressive I Reverse racism started to appear I His excellent speaking skills and he brought these things together to make conservatism seem progressive which is important I Conservative as a political term means looking backwards and restart the status quoa and restore the good old days I But Reagan makes it look like a step forward Frequently quoted a write that says we have it in our power to do over again I Freedom became his watch work Monday November 30 2009 President ronad raegan came into office Great impact he had on politics Political alignment that has not been seen since FDR and the New Deal Era It s also a new alignment with the retirict President Raegan redefined conservatism to make it seem like it is a step forward He actually changed the language and the thinking to make conservative waters seem nprogressive Raegan used the word freedom more frequently than perhaps any other president 0 Reaganomics 0 Economic Freedom curtailing unions dismantling regulations reducing taxes 0 O O Dramatically different then anybody elses view Before him it was meant to combat poverty and helping economically all Americans Fore Reagan it was curtailing unions dismantling regulations reducing taxes I These are completely different then other presidents actions 1986 Tax Reform Act Said that taxation violated to earn your own keep and keep what you earn Said it threatens workers because it takes their money away Reduces the new tax brackets The wealthiest people actually pay less taxes then the wealthy Major change Had a progressive income tax more complicated then needed to be but scores of income categories paying different taxes because in theory we wanted the wealthy to pay more this had been the frame work for thinking about income taxes but after 1964 it completely changes to just 4 categories paying taxes One thing the tax reform does the wealthiest tax payers paid more than the poorest but less than the middle class The assumption was that the tax shift would encourage people to work harder Deregulation I Cut back on the regulations on American corporations I In addition he also tried to promote I Lower taxes for businesses Goal was to expand which would be good with the economy Supplyside or trickledown I The assumption was that the lower taxes would be better because people would have more money to spend they thought that it would be better for the economy 19811982 recession I This is the worst recession since the 1930s I In part because of ford and carter but from the moment that I As these events are set into motion the action that Reagan immediately takes worsen things Manufacturing continues its long term decline Overall after 1983 thins start to turn around but not in manufacturing Deindustrialization 0 In ation drops 0 Stock prices soar 0 Debt climbs o The second gilded age compare the 1990s to the 1890s 0 Richest 1 control 40 nation s wealth twice what it had been 20 years earlier I Rich got richer and they got rich fast I This is where we start to see the problems I Spend their money on luxury goods rather then things that will help the economy Not in investments but in consumer goods which is not something that will bolster american manufactories o Conspicuous consumption realestate speculation corporate buyouts and merges 0 Middle class income stagnates 0 Poor get poorer I 15 of the population 0 Homelessness on rise 0 Making deals not making products key to getting rich 0 Greed is healthy 0 Yuppies I Young urban professional that spent lavishly became a household word 0 Deregulation of savings and loan association ultimately leads to a 250 billion bailout I Had been under federal regulations and those regulations are removed in the 1980s so these banks that generally finance home morgages start toinvest in other things and as the losses piled up they faced banruptcy o Ongoing budget deficit I Military spending starts up 0 National debt triples I During Reagan s presidency national debt triples o Reagan and conservatives o Popularity high but frustrates many conservatives I Took credit for the people that were doing good but make congress look like the bad guys for all of the bad I Many conservatives were very frustrated because they did not like being told that they were the screw ups so even as they implemented economic policies he also disappointing the conservaties o Welfare state intact I Does not do away with social security medicade so on I Many conservatives wanted to do away with everything 0 Social agenda stalled I Abortion remained legal I Us supreme court allowed minority enrollment I In these ways the social agenda of the right was stalling during the Reagan years 0 Reagan and the Cold War 0 O O O O O 0 Evil Empire I Soviet union reffered to as the evil empire Largest military buildup in american history Strategic Defense initiative Star Wars I If another country was going to launch a missle at us then we could intercept it but it was not technologically capable Renewed arms race I Caused wide spread alarm Nuclear fears I Millions of americasn were participating in an anti nuclear war movement I Then Reagan sharply changes his views and softens his reterict He makes r Mikhail Gorbachev I Came to power in 85 and determined to reform the political He was a reformest Reagan reaches out to him He is the soviet leader I The funds that was going to war starts to be redistributed towards agriculture manufacturing I Reagan and Mikhail talk about the cold war and had worked on it more then the previous years I Reagan left with the hostilities between the 2 powers diminished Cold War thaws Wednesday November 2 20009 Reagan intentions of policies were ofte different from what he wished to happen What he did would result in job closes and community closes When plants start to close it is devastating to the community Nothing is more threatening to the family is the insecurity about unemployment Economic and ecurity and stability threatens the people Widening gap between the rich and the poor Reagan s Legacy Contradictions of modern conservatism Economic and social inequality Political realignment and shift to right I One of the most important legacies of Reagan is that he changed the rhetoric of American politics First seen with FDR when he moved the voters to the left We see this with Rega pooling more people to the right now I The effects of American politics further to the right is really seen in the 1988 election 0 Liberal a bad word I Liberal had become a dity word in the politics In 1988 it is one of the things that made Michael doocockiss his presidential race because he did not have an argument against being libral 0 Big Government bad 0 Welfare recipients lazy I Became seen as a drain on taxes they were lazy inmoral and weak I Mind set that came out ofthe 1980s I Should sound like the 1880s 0 IranContra affair I Reagan overall is seen as being a strong leader There is an amnesia around him They forget about all the bad things that happened in the 1980s and focus on the good things I People trusted Reagan and forget about scandal that nearly brought him down which is IranContra affair on moodle I In nutshell e sold weapons to Iran secretly and we took that money to fund a right wing group that was fighting as a right wing rebel group which was against 0 A New World Order 0 1989 Berlin Wall I November 9 Berlin wall had been built over night in 1961 and had gone up to divide the noncommunist part of Berlin by the rest I The noncommunist had the wall around them to isolate them was only 11 feet high had watch towers and barbed wire and crossing into the other part required id A lot died trying to escape west Berlin 0 The wall became a symbol It was the literal iron curtain o 1991 Soviet Union dissolved I Placed with 15 new nations I Celebrated the down of the soviets We were the last ones standing in the cold war and cold war had collapsed I Even china had started investing in American markets 0 President Bush a new world order The Gulf War Over 1215 months the world changes and he talks about the new world order Everyone was celebrating but no one knew exactly what that meant 1991 0 Very quickly see what the new world order was like 0 Saddam Hussein invades Kuwait in 1990 Was afraid that our good friend Saudi Arabia possibly could be attacked and he was afraid of that beause they were a long term allie and helped very much with oil Wanted to attack Iraq in order to gain the freedom of Kuwait and sadi arabia 0 Operation Desert Storm 40 days of air assault 100 hours of ground war 0 Bush s 1992 election Massive attacks that drove the Iraqi army out of Kuwait February 1991 vry intene bombing followed by 100 hours of a ground war Bush said we were not going to fight the war with one hand tied behind his back because he believed that Americans would only agree if it went very quickly The US wanted to replace Hussein without needing to stay in Iraq The 100 hour we spent on the ground inspired the shehights and another group to uprise approval ratings 89 in 1991 We won the first war technically but Hussein won many peoples approval in the muslim world The Americans were very pleased with how quickly we went in and came out victorious 0 Americans believe country on wrong track Happy about the foreign policy issues we liked but other things they were not happy about how the county was doing 0 Clinton social liberalism fiscal conservatism In 1992 clinton won by combining social liberalism 0 Abortion 0 Gay rights 0 Affirmative action Combine with fiscal conservatism 0 Reduce government and to end welfare as we know it 0 Ross Perot 19 popular vote Also entered and attacked bush and Clinton lcking the know how on how to reduce the national debt Many people liked him and at one point he had better ratings than bush or Clinton Really showed that the nation was frustrated with the two party system 0 Clinton Wins 69 electoral vote Humility for Bush Clintons economic policies 0 Goal make economy more equitable domestically more competitive internationally o Slash federal employment 0 Increase taes on wealthy The people that earned the most 12 they were targeted o Earned income tax credit Helped lift working class out of pverty 0 Family and medical leave act Provides up to 12 weeks of leave with new born or family emergencies 0 Failure of comprehensive health insurance Seemed simple at first Wanted 100 ofpeople to be covered In the abstract votrs agreed that something needed to be done Everyone agreed in 1993 that things needed to be don byt the plan was very long and people in every category had something to not like in it Tax payers likd the idea of wider health coverage but didn t want to pay for it By 2000 many people still did not have health insurance Contract with America 0 1994 Freedom Revolution Republicas take majorities in Congress 0 Newt I Gingrich Speaker of the house Promised to reuce the size of the government overhaul the elfare system and to What happens is that things move quickly through the house and then ounders 0 Reduce size government cut taxes and regulations overhaul welfare end affirmative action 0 End of 1995 Government shutdown over budget Republicans refused to authorize spending Literally federal govemmet shuts down This is disaster for republicas o Gingich and republicans get blame Americans had voted against Clinton but did not mean they were voting for the Democrats turned this situation and really used it to reinforce the urning tile against ginrich and republicans o Ending Welfare as we knew it Welfare Reform Act 1996 Temporary Assistance to Needy Families TANF replaces AFDC Must be seeking work or job training Time limits 2001 reduce rolls by 58 Evidence of new political center Clinton wins reelection in 1996 0 00000 First democratic president to be voted for 2quotd term since FDR State of union address backed away from liberalism Wanted all people to have the tools to Friday December 4 2009 Especially after reelection Clinton was re ecting that many of his policies were more in the line of conservatives and still talking about how he re ected this new center in American politics His process was working 0 Clinton s legacies 0 Economy strong Stayed very steady under his presidency Economic expansion 0 Unemployment lt 4 By the year 2000 0 Budget Balanced o Impeac Gas was low and people were happy Wages were stable or going up Household budgets were stable or improving Clinton was able to tackle the budget he balanced the federal budget Under his administration He actually had money going towards our defecit because we had a surplus of money hment 19981999 Did not violate civil rights cover up so on so on He did lie about the affair As the details of his came out the sexual misconduct cost him his reputation In December of 1998 he was tried before the senate to be impeached only the 2quotd president to have this happen o Acquitted I He is not removed from office and aquitted of the charges I Great divide many were shocked and offended by his behavior Right said this shows how far we have come from family values A lot of people just didn t care They didn t care what he did as long as he could do his job as the president As the whole scandal went on polls showed that o Starr Report appalled Americans more than Clinton s actual behavior I Polls showed that the Starr report and it contains details that are borderline pornographic People were more disgusted and appaled by the republicans obsession with this 0 Approval ratings stay 70 and higher I His ratings stayed at 70 and higher He is at risk of being impeached and yet his ratings are so high Historians predict that is Clinton would have been able to run for reelection in 2000 he would have won 0 Americans and 2000 0 People lived longer and healthier lives and lived a material world unimagined o In 1900 people did not have indoor plumbing did not grauduate from highschool I Average age 46 for men and 48 for women 0 In 2000 I Average age 79 and up for men and women I Poverty and income and inequality were considerable higher in the united states then any other economically advanced country I Freedom changes 0 Relationship between citizenship and state 0 Size and purpose of federal government I As we entered the 21st century our de nitions of freedom will continue to shift and change Where will we see improvements It is up to us


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