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War amp Politics in the North Thursday March 17 2011 1043 AM Introduction Why Politics Mattered to the War 0 Clausewitz on War I War stripped down is a tool by which governments compel their opponents to do what they want them to do 0 Political Objectives of the Civil War I Union Objectives I Wanted to compel seceded states to submit to government I Confederate objectives I Wanted to compel the north to recognize southern independence I Both are intrinsically political goals 0 Politics as an Instrument of War I In order to wage a successful military campaign they had to have public support for the war effort Both Union amp Confederacy were democracies I If the support collapsed the fall of the government would follow I Both North and South attempted to erode the support for the other side I Abraham Lincoln39s Political Vulnerability O Apparent Political Security I Rebel attack on Fort Sumter amp administration running the war Early Patriotic frever benefited the Union I Most democrats supported Lincoln39s war efforts 0 Underlying Political Vulnerability Unanswered questions I Political divisions in the north had been papered over I Unity could last only as long as focus remained on winning the war I Unity was bound to diminish as soon as questions were asked I LincolnGOP try to avoid these questions I Minimized questions by insisting that the only war aim was to restore the Union I July 1861 Congress passes Crittendon Johnson Resolution I With a large majority resolution stated that the wars only purpose was to defend and maintain the constitution and to preserve the union I Majority of GOP amp Lincoln were moderately antislavery I Radical wing was a minority but held key positions within congress O Slavery Issue Emerges I quotRadicalquot GOP faction agitates slavery issues I Argued that slaves were valuable to the south I Slavery enabled the white males of the confederacy to serve in the war I It became impossible to ignore the military rationale about slavery I Slaves push the issue too I Very often by running away I Slaves were listening to the rhetoric 0 Early Congressional Legislation on Slavery March 1862 prohibited army officers from returning slaves to their masters I April 1862 law passed that outlawed slavery in Columbia I July 1862 all slaves in revel states who fled to union lines would be assumed their masters were rebels against the US I Lincoln39s Dilemma 0 Caught in the Middle War Dems amp Peace Dems I Loyally supported the war effort in the beginning I As war progressed many democrats rethought their support to lincoln39s policies I War Democrats I Those who continued to support most aspects of Lincoln39s war goals I Ex Mongomery Blair served as Postmaster General Ex Senator Andrew Johnson becomes VP I Ex George B McClellan I Peace Democrats Advocated a swift end to the conflict and a negotiated peace with the south I Many deluded themselves into believing that once Lincoln was removed from power the south would voluntarily rejoin the union I Some actually talked about creating a Northwest Confederacy I Ex Clement Valandingham congressman from OH I Nearly all democrats agreed that they should oppose emancipation I Wanted to restore the old union and not mess with slavery in any way I Deep seated racist belief that was common among many whites blacks were inferior and none fit for political freedom Fear that freed blacks would come north in mass and end up competing with white men for jobs I All democrats criticized Lincoln for any movement on emancipation Republican Critics I Called Peace Democrats quotCopperheadsquot implied like they were snakes in the grass waiting for an opportunity to strike I Radicals had 2 main problems Wanted Lincoln to move faster toward emancipation I Some blamed any defeats on the Lincoln administration directly I 1862 Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War Initially formed to oversee conduct of war I Ended up in much witch hunting 0 Lincoln Sides with Emancipation Made his intentions clear with the preliminary proclamation in Sept 1862 I War effort was now extremely related to slavery issue 0 MidTerm Elections of 1862 I Democrat gains Republican Losses I Reflected disappointment with war and general uneasiness concerning the emancipation issue I Repub lost 23 seats dropped from 60 to 40 I Democrats gained 28 seats A defeat for Lincoln but not a Disaster I Could have been a lot worse I Attained control of senate and control of south The 1864 Elections and Aftermath O Developments prior to 1864 Election I Favorable Changes in the War I In 1863 union army won a number of significant military victories I Port Hudson LA I Vicksburg MS Defeat of Robert E Lee39s army at Gettysburg I Summer of 1864 Union had a number of new successes I August Federal fleet under Farragut captured control of Mobile Bay I Atlanta captured many railroads under Tecumshe Lincoln Consolidates Control of His Party I Democrats lost all of the races I Peace democrats lost by huge margins in OH amp PA I Optimistic mood allowed Lincoln to consolidate control of Republican party I Nay opposed Lincoln39s plan for reconstruction I Radicals thought policy was too soft Lincoln faced 2 challenges within his own cabinet I Chase thought that he would do a much betterjob than Lincoln I Followers began a whispering campaign about Chase being a better president than Lincoln Chase got embarrassed and requested to resign but Lincoln denied his resignation I Democrats Struggle to Unify I Struggled to find an acceptable candidate I At the Democratic National Convention they settled on George McClellan for their candidate McClellan was a war democrat I May have the only candidate to disagree with his party39s platform during the election I Talking out of both sides of their mouths during this election Lincoln basically won the entire north along with the three new western states 0 1864 Presidential Election I Democrat Disarray I Democrats are deeply divided message was incoherent nominee was saying one thing amp platform said another I Northern Confidence I Willing to wait out the war I Soldier Vote I Lincoln and Republicans carried the vote of the union army by massive margins I Many soldiers were allowed to go home on furlough to cast ballots I Conclusion 0 A Fight to the End 0 Public Support Essential to the War Effort 0 Northern Public Opinion Solidified Opposition to the War Tuesday March 22 2011 1039 AM Introduction the Myth of Wartime Unity 0 Myth of American Unity in War I On many occasions Americans have been able to unify to deter external threats ex Pearl Harbor 911 I National Unity is easily squandered by politicians who take it for granted 0 Reality of Dissent I Almost every American war dissent is right below the surface Opposition ranged from critiques on certain policies ex conscription to outright resistance to the war effort I Ability of a government to eliminate dissent became a key part of the overall war effort 0 Managing Dissent I Both sides had many strategies from persuasion to imposing martial law Overall the North suffered less than the south from internal dissent I Opposition to the War in the North 0 Opposition to Government War Policies Most opposition fell under 3 main categories I Military consctiption I Suspensions of habeas corpus Emancipation of slaves I Democratic Party provided the most opposition I War Democrats supported most of Lincoln39s War Policies Wanted to see a military victory Peace Democrats wanted to cease fire amp form negotiations with the south I Urged revoking emancipation proclamation because they thought it was prolonging the war Strongest in southern midwestern states OH N L because many of the residents were of southern lineage I Strongest in large northern cities where the working class populations especially poor feared the economic competition from black laborers I Gained many seats in congress amp control of a couple of state legislatures in IL in 1862 Copperhead controlled legislatures posed a real threat I In both N amp L peace democrats began drafting bills that pulled all of soldiers from their states out of the war Richard Yates amp Oliver P Morton were strong unionists O The Unionist Response Yates adjourned the legislature outright in IL Morton told the republicans to hide out so that the legislature could not be held I Paid for expenses with loans from banks and RR Also paid with 25 million dollars of subsidies Copperheads were running antiwar news papers also agitated against conscription and if you were drafted they encouraged you to desert the military Secrets Societies of the war Met in secret amp used special handshakes I Purpose was to organize opposition to the republican party I A few decided to assist the confederacy in various ways Provide shelter amp organize a northern secession movement which would take several midwestern states out of the union I Worked in tandem with confederate agents I Number of copperhead democrats involved was small amp actions were rare I The fact that such groups even existed provided the republican party with a useful tool to skewer their opponents quot quot ofall39 tobe I 39 39 I Ex General Joseph Holt estimated that there were outrageous numbers of these groups in certain states National Union League counterweight to democrats I Republicans intended to fight fire with fire I Intended to gain support for the war effort I Participated in politics helping to elect republican candidates to office GOP dominated congress I Passed various pieces of legislation I 1862 Conspiracies Act penalties for people who plotted to overthrow the government I 1862 Treason Act second confiscation act made any person who aided the rebellion in any way subject to charges of treason amp if found guilty would be punished to death or prison terms of various lengths I Made slaves of people subject to confiscation by the federal government For the most part the federal government rarely relied upon such statues to prosecute its war effort largely because the Lincoln Administration didn39t want to bring prosecutions against people in civil courts I Weren39t entirely sure if laws would be upheld Civil trial could give these people a soap box to preach on I Could create political martyrs Federal Government relied upon the President39s wartime powers Lincoln suspended the rid of habeas corpus in MD in 1861 Sept 1862 Lincoln issued a proclamation all persons found discouraging enlistment or guilty of disloyalty were subject to martial law trial by court marshal in a military court Over 5300 people in north were imprisoned because of this proclamation I Usually fined amp given a warning I Few were actually tried in military courts I In most cases people arrested caused very little public controversy or outcry I In a few cases the government39s use of martial law did generate a great deal of publicity O The Merryman Vallandigham and Milligan Cases Merryman I Maryland man leader of a pro secessionist drill company I The potential for anitgovernment subversion was there Military authorities had Merryman arrested I Chiefjustice Roger Tawney issued a rit of habeas corpus I George Cadwallader refused to grant Tawney39s command Vallandigham I Keys locked and I didn39t get this part I General Order 38 warned all copperheads to stop what they39re doing I Vallandigham delivered a speech in OH that many believed went to far Argued the war was to free the slaves and to condemn white people I Encouraged people to resist the draft amp other military policies I Burnside had him arrested Criticized Lincoln administration as tyranny I Vallan got revenge by taking the next ship to Canada and ran for governor of OH in 1864 Lost election overwhelmingly I Became a judge I Died in 1871 in course ofa murder trial in which he was trying to demonstrate that his client was innocent amp accidently shot himself while demonstrating how he thought the man committed suicide I Milligan Cases I Gathered several of his knights to free people from camps in Indiana amp with his fellow copperheads I Groups were thoroughly infiltrated with spies and sentenced to death I Court overturned the death sentence because martial law could not be enforced O Lincoln39s Political Leadership I Lincoln defended his polities by citing the critical nature of the crisis facing the government 1st in practice he didn39t use his powers in a dictorial way I Tolerated most forms of political dissent as long as it wasn39t subversive of government Tolerated most criticisms of his administration I Generally urged moderation on the action of his subordinates I Generally allowed freedom of the press 1864 two newspapers published a bogus story in which they claimed that Lincoln had issued a second call for conscription This was viewed as the war was not going well Opposition to the War in the South 0 Alienation of the Southern People I Hardships at Home I Women and children were forced to do hard manual work in the fields Were forced to manage slaves I Rampant inflation amp food shortages I Federal blockade cotton exports declined I Negative war enthusiasm Southern women found it impossible to support themselves and families I Many farms fell into disuse I Moved away from south amp took refuge with northern relatives Many encouraged men to desert from military I The fact that so many men were serving they couldn39t protect women amp children Southern Unionists I Grew bold in antiwar efforts I Opposition centered on conscription which many believed was specifically tailored to suit the interest of wealthy amp slave owners Referring to the 20 Negro Rule I Conscription amp Desertion I In many parts of the south it became impossible to enforce conscription Many dodged the war I In Brookhaven MS Local physicians evaluated 1100 men amp only 300 of them were fit to serve in the army Desertion became increasingly common as war progressed I Deserters combined to form outlaw gangs I There were so many in north AL it became dangerous to travel openly there Requisition of Supplies I Since the confederacy lacked the capacity to produced food amp clothing amp other necessities as the war dragged on the army enforced requisitioning of local farms I Some farmers refused to plant instead of having crops stolen I Some converted all of their corn into whisky instead of giving corn to the army 0 Peace Societies 0 Opposition from the States I Conscription amp Martial Law Joseph E Brown I Zebulon B Vance 0 Limits of Confederate Political Leadership I Conclusion impact of AntiWar Opposition in the North and the South 1863 Year of Turning Points Tuesday March 29 2011 1135 AM I O O O Siege I 0 Turning Points in the West Months of Futility Final Attempt and Capture of Vicksburg Yazoo Delta was marsh terrain and was impossible for a large army to traverse Only way to approach the city safely was from the West Task of taking over the city was supposed to be Nathaniel Banks Task fell to Ulysses S Grant Campaign against Vicksburg was considered Grant39s finest accomplishment but the operation didn39t look like a success at first Before coming up with a winning strategy he tried 6 that failed 1st attempt December 1862 tried to go down through north Mississippi Didn39t work because the Confederate Cavalry leader conducted brilliant cavalry raids behind Grant39s army 2nd attempt Federal plan to build a canal to enable the Union fleet to bypass Vicksburg amp land south of the city Fail because they hadn39t anticipated engineering Over 4 months they tried 3 or 4 other approaches and none worked Grant demonstrates persistence and tenacity though this campaign 1863 Grant39s bold plan Federal river fleet to run past the defenses at vicksburg to get as many ships as possible through the narrow gap so they could ferry soldiers in On April 16 federal troops make their attempt On the night they chose to attempt the operation it was dark amp cloudy with no moon Only 1 ship sunk amp the rest make it intact 10 days before Grant was on a landbased operation Built corduroy roads of tree trunks to navigate the swamp Requisitioning allowed Grant to move without any communication lines for the confederate cavalry to cut Grant defeated Johnston at Jackson May 16th Grant met up with Pemberton39s force amp defeated them there won a second battle the next day amp arrives in vicinity of Vicksburg around may 18th Pemberton decides to pull all of his troops back to the confederate defense around the city Grant initially intends to take the city by storm Seiege of Vicksburg Pemberton39s men held out in the hopes that a reliefarmy would come to drive grant39s army away from the city but there was none Hunger and disease began to take tolls Reduced to eating horses and mules then dogs and cats then shooting and eating rats Reports that various residents resorted to cannibalism Around the end of the month rebel troops petitioned to surrender if they couldn39t find a source of food amp eventually complied with wishes on July 4 Port Hudson Smaller city was surrendered on July 8 Captures bring widespread jubilation to the North Chickamauga amp Chattanooga I Chickamauga was the culmination of a campaign under General Rosecrant to push the rebel forces out of eastern TN amp for the most part it is successful Successful in capturing the RR hub of Chattanooga I 10 days after Chattanooga is captured the 2 armies meet up south of the border around Chickamauga creek I Sept 1920 fight a desperate confusing unorthodox battle Confusing because the terrain prevents the individual units on each side from operating effeciently I Confederates won largely because ofa political blunder Rosecrant received word that a hole opened up somewhere on the federal line amp sent another division to close the quotgapquot but created a real opening in the center of his line Confederates made an attack where Rosecrant39s line opened up I George Thomas Rosecrant39s corp commanders I Outcome was a complete defeat for the Union I Most of the army of the Cumberland has to take refuge in Chattanooga where they are basically trapped I As they flee into the city Grant39s forces follow them amp the whole army of the Cumberland trapped Bragg didn39t charge the army because he believed that he could wait it out I Lincoln gave overall command to General Ulysses S Grant I Grant arrives in Chattanooga in late October amp immediately begins work Makes General Thomas the overall commander of the Cumberland I Builds a pontoon bridge to cross the TN river to resupply I Bragg foolishly decides to sent some troops west to Knoxville TN to capture the city 2nd flanking attack was supposed to come from Joseph Hooker Supposed to attack federal position at lookout mountain I Psychology may have played a roll in the accidental attack Troops making the faint were the same soldiers who were battling in Chickamauga and may have felt that they were entitled to payback on the rebel soldiers I Grant is taken completely by surprise when he sees Union troops moving up the hill He angrily asked Thomas who ordered the attack I The attack completely surprises the confederates I When the union troops start climbing up the ridge the rebels begin to panic I Rebels placed their main line of trenches along the top of the ridge rather than the military ridge several yards lower I This blocked the line of fire in places I Yankee troops were able to find dips in the crest to shelter themselves as they made their way up the hill I As a result of these events the Union won I Union colonel from KS recalled that after the battle general Granger rode up Missionary Ridge where some of Thomas39s men were resting and began to yell at them I Conclusion The War After 1863 0 Significance of Union Victories in 1863 Vicksburg I Gettysburg I Chattanooga 0 The War After 1863 Southern Economic Troubles I Pressures of inflation declining cotton exports loss of southern property I Waning Southern Enthusiasm I Recruiting goes down amp conscripting can39t replace the ones that were lost Draft dodging increased I Lincoln Finds His Generals I Victories of 1863 helped Lincoln identify those who would help win the war Grant thomas sherman Civil War Generals Thursday March 31 2011 1042 AM I Introduction The Role of Generals in the Civil War 0 Southern Generals I Robert E Lee I Thomas J quotStonewallquot Jackson What did these men do to delay defeat I Bitter controversy among the ranks of former confederate generals as to who had done what to cost the Confederacy the war 0 Union Generals I Perceived as having inferior staff officers I Stemmed from long list of generals who met defeat I McClellan Pope Burnside McGreggor I Shortcomings of these generals should not taint the rest of the generals I Northern Generals tended to do a lot better a lot earlier I Ulysses S Grant William Tecumseh Sherman I Major Confederate Generals Lee amp Jackson 0 Robert E Lee Background I A quintessential southerner Schian of prominent family in VA Son of Revolutionary War hero Graduated from West Point in 1829 2nd in his class Served as Superintendent at West Point Veteran of the Mexican War After the 7 Sisters began receding Lee resigned because he would prefer not to fight at all When VA seceded he volunteered for military service to defend his native state Personality I Deeply reserved amp admirable man I Latent aggressive tendencies that he would allow to come out during battlefield events Strengths I Charisma could inspire people to do more than what they39re asked of I Aided by support of southern people and soldiers in his command I Soldiers considered him an IdolHerogod I Great instincts ability to size up a military commander and guess what that individual was going to do in a given situation I Victory at Chancellorsville divided his army because he sensed Hooker39s own indecision I Tactdiplomacy had the ability to handle prickly personalities I Jeb Stewart amp George Pickett I Lee got along with Confederate President I Was able to avoid Davis39 antagonisms I Reinforced Davis39 trust in him by his dignified manner I Consciously modeling himself after George Washington I Audacity amp Aggression could produce stunning successes I Weaknesses I Risk taking I Preference to bring the fight to the enemy39s homeland I Ultimate Napoleonic Commander I Assumption that it was actually possible to destroy the Union39s army At no point in the civil war was there an instance of an entire army being destroyed in one battle I Casualty statistics rank among the highest I Some argue the confederates adopted a Fabian strategy you retreat ahead of enemy amp don39t give battle until you know there can be a win Bad idea to give up territory 0 Thomas J quotStonewallquot Jackson I Man that Lee relied upon I Lee amp Jackson forged one of the most successful miltary partnerships in American History Background I Did not come from a prominent or wealthy family Father died when he was 5 mother died a few years later Rudimentary education Farm laborer then school teacher Graduated from West Point Served as and artillery officer Served as an officer in the Mexican War 1851 resigned commission in US army and taught at Virginia Military Institute Not a good teacher I Method of teaching was to memorize his lectures I Students called him quotTom Fool Jacksonquot I Personality I ntensely religious I Calvinist believed in destiny I Natural predisposition for fatalism I Could remain calm in battle because he knew the time of his death was already appointed I Strengths I Intelligence strong memory could process large amounts of information I AnticipationInstincts Ability to anticipate the moves of other generals and decisiveness to counteract those moves I Weaknesses I Was willing to take big risks amp heavy casualties Tolerate huge losses among men Health suffered from a variety of ailments Many were psychosomatic I Suffered from depression like Lincoln I Suffered from dyspepsia chronic indegestion Not very likeable Harsh disciplinarian I Not afraid to punish men Respected because he led victories on a consistent basis Major Union Generals Grant amp Sherman Ulysses S Grant I Battle of Cold Harbor ordered assaults that threw away the lives of many of the men under his command In early days didn39t have many more men than his opponent Some of the negative perceptions stem from the fact that he is usually linked with Robert E Lee I Was in many ways the antiLee I Background amp Personality I Not from a prominent family I Not dignified a bit ofa slob rumpled clothes unkempt Attended West Point because he had no other means of education finished 21st of 39 students Only excelled at mathematics and horsemanship Became an Infantry officer Got married Served during mexican war amp won promotions for bravery After war he had to leave family to serve in desolate western outposts that led to depression amp became an alcoholic during this time Binge drinker tendency to binge when he was depressed or lonely Resigned comision in army in 1854 and entered civilian life I Rumor that he was forced out because of drinking Failure in civilian life I Tried to start a farm I Tried to operate a real estate business I Literally reduced to selling fire wood from a cart in St Louis Accepted a job from his dad in his leather business I Strengths I Independence never conventional or concerned Understood the need to have someone in Washington to watch his back I Persistent I Vicksburg spent months trying to get across the river I Understanding of Total War I Unlike Lee Grant understood the nature of the Total War they were fighting I Weakness I Offensive instincts Arrives at Vicksburg and orders frontal assaults that result in large casualties among his men I Alcoholism During the war he kept his drinking under control I Rumors of his drinking persisted William T Sherman I Grant39s righthand man similar to LeeJackson relationship Background amp Personality I Born in Ohio more priveliged than Grant I Son of lawyer who died when he was 9 I Sherman went to live with one of his father39s associates amp lawyer I Graduated from West Point finished 6th in his class I Behavior problems I Served as an artillery officer in Mexican War I Left service for civilian life I Moved to San Francisco to try banking amp failed I Witnessed the vigilante episode left an impression on his personality I Believed vigilantism indicated that the US needed discipline I Took a superintendent job in a school in Louisiana in pineville LSU I Eventually became one of the most widely detested men in the south Didn39t like the south in spite of living there for so long I Didn39t like the climate people customs slavery I The southerners picked up on his disdain and reciprocated it He burned through a sizeable sloth of the south during the course of the war I Strengths I Good relationship with Grant I Shared Grant39s views on total war I North should target not just the southern army but the support systems I Shrewd grasp of politics I Had to have political backing to be a good general I Weaknesses I Harsh rhetoric he used didn39t always match his actions I Preferred flanking to frontal assaults I Failed to press the attack when he should have done so I Criticized for the weak attack at Chattanooga Overall he functioned better as a 2 than 1 39 Great at being Grant39s righthand man not so great at operating independently Conclusion Decisiveness I Successful commander was one willing to make difficult combat decisions and is willing to follow through Moral Courage I Type of courage that allows people to make difficult decisions I Not everyone had that quality eg Burnside Adaptability I Willing to adapt to tactics and decision making to the situation as needed War and Politics in the South Tuesday April 05 2011 1042 AM Introduction Northern and Southern Politics Compared 0 Story of Northern Politics During the War I Unity amp Cohesion 0 Role of Lincoln I Used his unique skills to maintain a powerful and broad coalition of northerners united in determination to win the war Included members of republican party as well as many war democrats I Peace democrats were opposed to Lincoln 39 Through political patronage appointing people to military and government 0 Different Story in the South Southern political elites proved incapable of cohesion and unity I As the war progressed the leadership proved incapable of dealing with the new nation39s problems I Problems of Confederate Politics 0 Absence of a TwoPa rty System Existed in the south prior to the collapse of the Whig party This absence created difficulties that are more extreme than political partisanship ever could I Partisan politics has built in advantages I Party discipline members of the party in power have an incentive to cooperate because if they don39t they can be voted out of office Political Alternatives the minority party also has a built in incentive to cooperate with one another To defeat the majority they have to provide alternatives to what the majority is trying to do Voter Choice the competition between parties gives voters real practical choices Effect of party politics is to contain political dissent Makes groups feel like their voices are being heard As long as there is an outlet for dissent people rarely risk political violence or rebellion 0 Short War Mentality I The war was likely to only last a short while amp didn39t require all of the resources of the south to sustain it I This mentality seemed to last a lot longer and was more resilient than in the north I May have resulted from the initial victories of the south in the beginning of the war 0 The failure of the confederate congress to pass taxation legislation until halfway through the war 0 South is traditionally an antitax region and politicians were afraid to tax any more than they absolutely had to do 0 Congress funded the war by printing money and selling bonds which led to rampant inflation and widespread economic turmoil 0 Congress eventually passed a taxation bill that included many new taxes 8 tax on many consumer goods sales tax I 10 profits tax Excise taxes I Tax on licenses I Tax on produce Graduated income tax 0 Problem was that by this point large sections of the country had already been overrun and the government didn39t have a collection mechanism States collect revenue but collect it in unsupported state currency I New tax law raises only 119 million which is far less than needed 0 Confederate Politicians O The Blame Game Criticism of war effort centered on Confederacy39s President Jefferson Davis 39 Criticism came from all directions jealousy people who felt the administration had gone to far or wasn39t doing enough Wigfall took hard war position gov39t needed to do more to win the war He was an early supporter of conscription I Newspapers got in on the act and they became vigorous critics of Davis I Failures of the Confederate Congress 0 Obstruction in Congress I Confederate congress men proved more adept at stopping important legislation to be passed I Ex Legislative session of 1853 congress spent months of key issues and ended up adjourning without ever passing anything There were a lot of politicians who felt that it was okay that the south didn39t know what their congressmen were doing 0 Disorder in Congress Ex 1863 senator Benjamin Hill of GA got into a vicious shouting match with Senator William L Yancy Hill threw an ink bottom that hit Yancy square in the head I Ex Congressman Henry S Foote of MS got into a number of fist fights with fellow members and carried various weapons to meetings Ex April 1863 the journal clerk of the House of Rep shot and killed the Head Clerk on the street 0 ProDavis vs AntiDavis Factionalism In the absence of political parties the congress broke down into those who supported the president and those who opposed him Davis had strongly encouraged the development of a nonpartisan political system I He believed that partisanship led to the disunion of the country As a result he found himself to be the focal point of a new type of a political factionalism The confederate constitution limited him to 1 6year term in office I He had no real incentive to create any political organization in support of his administration I His opponents had no reason to fear him because he couldn39t be reelected Lacked the institutional support needed to carry out a successful war effort 1863 congressional election antidavis doubled in the House of Rep A narrow majority in both houses supported Davis39 policies Politicians had different reasons for opposing Davis but drew its greatest proponents from the States rights I Joseph Brown amp Vance amp Foote opposed Davis because of his expansion of the power of the Central government I Anti Davis came from the anterior South David Administrations39 strongest supporters came from areas earlier occupied by union troops Confederate elections were impossible to hold in these districts I Representatives had an incentive to support Davis39 plan because that was the only way that they could go home I Problems of Presidential Leadership 0 Flaws in Davis39s Leadership Style Pride I Ex after the war was over Davis turned down any gifts of money that his former supporters tried to give to him Quarrelsomeness I Quarreled with the majority of his generals and members of congress I The only 2 major exceptions were Robert E Lee and Judah P Benjamin Detail Oriented I Spent a lot of time on petty issues and tasks I Wanted everyone to follow procedural guidelines Situations during a crisis have to be improvised O Flawed Military Policies Refused to establish a unified southern command structure I Implemented a departmental command structure I Each department had its own general and chief I Didn39t have any General Staff that oversaw the whole nationwide war effort 39 South39s only big picture decision maker was Davis amp he insisted that all major military decisions would be run through him and didn39t have the advantage of advisors 0 Changes in Davis I Prior to the war he was considered one of the most prominent politicians in the south and didn39t display the stubbornness as he did in the confederacy Dual traumas of secession and civil war produced a severe psychological blow to Davis I His entire career fell apart and it shook his confidence in American institutions and the character of the American people I As a result of Davis39s change he couldn39t take anything less than 100 from anyone else under him Couldn39t tolerate any flaws in his subordinates Considered failure to support the confederate cause as a betrayal I Conclusion Sources of Southern Political Failure Absence of a TwoPa rty Political System Tradition of State39s Rights Tradition of Obstruction Lack of Effective Political Leadership 0000 The Civil War Soldier Thursday April 07 2011 1046 AM I Introduction Basic Objectives and Arguments 0 Previous Topics 0 Objectives of Today39s Lecture 0 Basic Argument In contrast to stereotypes Northern and Southern soldiers were fundamentally very similar I During the war they shared similar experiences A Profile of the Civil War Soldier 0 Age I Overwhelmineg young Median age was 2324 I 40 were under 21 I Required age for enlisting was 18 but we know that many lied to enlist amp recruiters had little incentive to investigate the age I 100000 in Union army were 15 or younger I Younger men made the best soldiers I Their bodies were more resilient I They were less wise of the dangers amp braver 39 Ex 1918 during WWI US congress was debating to limit the number of men 18 amp 19 year olds entering the military 0 Occupation I Both sections were predominantly rural and agricultural I Before the war half of all union soldiers and 60 of confederate worked in agriculture I Farmers or farm laborers I Unskilled Laborers I Broad categories I Slightly higher of union soldiers than confederate 0 Race amp Nationality Most born outside of the United States I 175000 from germany 150000 from ireland 100000 from england and canada 75000 from other countries Even though someone is foreign born doesn39t necessarily mean they were foreign I Most spent their adult lives in America as citizens I 10 of all southern troops were born outside of the US I 10 of union troops were african american most enlisted after the war most of these served in all black units with white officers I Navy had black seamen serving from the very beginning Near the end of the war the confederate war began debating the enlistment of blacks and slaves I Davis amp Lee were receptive to the idea but most southerners opposed the concept of accepting black soldiers O Enlistment Status I The overwhelming majority of soldiers volunteered to enlist I In the north conscription was used mainly as a threat to increase enlistment rates I Confederacy had to rely more on conscription because of limited resources 20 of troops were conscripts 74000 union troops enlisted as substitutes amp a similar number of confederates I Conscripts and substitutes make up a minority of the troops in the armies The Soldier39s Life 0 Motives for Service I Patriotism I Common denominator I For Southerners country meant State They enlisted to protect their home state I For Northerners country meant the entire nation Sense of nationalism was reinforced by military service I Social Pressure I Men eligible for service who didn39t enlist were regarded as slackers or cowards and could end up being ostracized by their friends I In some cases your friends would give you a white feather to call you a coward if you didn39t enlist I Excitement I They wanted to do something different new and exciting 0 Material Conditions I Food Neither side39s men were satisfied with rations Northern soldiers had to rely on a spartan diet on hard biscuits and salted pork or beef other rations included baked beans rice peas dried fruit potatoes molasses Were kept supplied with raw coffee beans Northern troops liked to mock the hard tack they called them quottooth dullersquot or quotworm castlesquot Southern diet consisted of bacon and corn meal molasses peas carrots Sometimes tobacco or rice Because of the closure of ports most didn39t get coffee with rations In the south pickets will exchange coffee for tobacco when the north and south met Southern rations tended to be a lot less nutritious largely because wheat and beef tend to pack a bigger nutritional value per ounce than corn and pork Southerners tended to get less food because of supply problems This is why they enforced the requisitioning policy I Clothing amp Equipment I Medical Care Typical northern soldier wore a wool uniform a bayonet canteen blanket roll sometimes a poncho Northern factories kept union troops well supplied with uniforms shoes and canvas tents quotdog tentsquot Southern uniforms and equipment were less standardized I Short waisted jacket or trousers made of jean cloth dyed by differen methods either gray or brown Nickname quotbutternutsquot after the nut that was used to dye the uniforms Less well equipped but tended to make up for it by stealing Union supplies Ended up wearing a lot of Union clothing Greatest killer was disease Since the majority of troops were farm boys they tended to have a lot less exposure to communicable diseases than did people from urban areas For most military units they would be hit by two different waves of disease I 1st was composed of childhood maladies measels mumps chicken pox 2nd wave was campaign disease specific to soldiers disentery diarrhea malaria Biggest killer was disentery Medical care in the 19th century was very primitave The most common treatment for infection of limbs was amputation Mortality rates were very high for those with disease Many times people responsible for medical care ended up being women There was some resistance to using women in battlefield instances because of morality questions Dorthea Dix attempted to quiet public fears about the moral impact by stipulating that the only applicants to apply were not to be pretty women Confederacy were slower with adopting white women as nurses 0 Religion Many relied on faith for support Wide array of army chaplains and revivalists to hold services Chaplains Union army had around 2000 they were supposed to have 1 chaplain for every regiment Confederate had 6001000 Late in the war there was a surge in evangelical revivals in camps Many believe the effect was to encourage them to hold off southern defeat prolonging the war Northern conceptions A lot of northerners interpret their success was a sign of God Impact of War on the Soldier 0 Impact of Combat Common Combat Experiences I mpac Hours of boredom and seconds of terror Most of what soldiers do is not actually fighting Most civil war soldiers remember the fighting and it has the most impact By looking at letters there is a common combat narrative that most experienced I 1st phase Anxiousness Period before the fighting begins I Many report worrying not just about fighting but what the experience will do to them I Afraid that they will prove themselves to being a coward 2nd Phase Calm I Once the fighting starts they get into a calm more focused state of mind Some also report experiencing a heightened state of ferocity during combat quotBattle Madnessquot Deciding factor of not cowering was the opinion that their peers would have of them if they did t of Combat afterward Not a lot of knowledge then about the effects For a lot of soldiers the impact of the experiences was severe Reports of soldiers going out west amp working in ranching and mining to keep them as isolated from other people as much as possible In letters soldiers write things expressing what they were experiencing PTSDlike symptoms I Memories flashbacks recurring nightmares avoidance of situations 0 Impact on Soldiers39 Identity War was defining moment of their lives Veterans Organizations I To relive amp revisit what they were going through I Most prominent Unioion organization The Grand Army of the Republic I Planning memorials upkeep of cemeteries reenactments I Active in politics pushing for veteran39s pensions amp huge supporter of the political party Confederate veterans got in a lot later 1889 United Confederate Veterans was founded I 160000 members in 2000 local chapters I Vigilantism The generation after the civil war vigilantism reaches its high point 34 of largest groups in history I In many groups veterans take leading roles EX Ku Klux Klan 1st klan I Nathaniel Bedford Forrest began it I Main goal is to supress black voting and to end reconstruction in the south I Cracking down on horse theft I Defends itself using the language of vigilantism I Clan was needed to crack down on black crime EX AntiHorse Thief Association I Founded in northern Missouri by David McKey I A detective society main purpose to track down and apprehend horse thieves I EX Bald Knobbers I Active in sw Missouri Union veterans take a leading role in the organization I Conclusion 0 Fundamental Similarities between Civil War Soldiers 0 Some Superficial Differences 0 Many Shared Experiences Confederate Nationalism Thursday April 14 2011 1039 AM How did the confederacy attract so much interest where did it come from amp where did it go I Southern nation was intended to resist the agents of the future who wished to create an industrial society in the north South protesting against finance capital industrialization wall street rise of corporations I For southerners whose aim was to preserve the south39s orders they saw the only way to protect their institutions was to resist this modern trajectory Southerners prior to war resisted the growing power of fed govt 0 Legacy had a profound impact on the way they view the government 0 Fear in SC that the govt39s power is threatening Fed govt has the power to abolish slavery ntersting because they are going against John C Calhoun their own statesman I Best refuge for south rests in the constitution Calhoun hoped to create a dual presidency that basically waas created to give each region a veto power I With secession was a way to safeguard southern liberties Only then could the south could enjjoy prosperity 8 economic independence there would be no tarrif bias in trade culture Abolitionists arguments O O O O O O In 1850s slavery is recasts as a postitve social good I Was christainizing amp was justification for perpetuating insitution Slavery allows equality among white pople All of this is a response to abolitionist Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote Uncle Tom39s Cabin Was the best selling novel of 19th century I Sold 300000 copies in the first year alone I Novel made its way to england Henry Wadsworth Longfellow said there was never such a literary coudemaine as this I It39s a novel with a clear agenda amp moral I Was the most popular traveling show as well I South is growing against this portrayal of southern slave owners LA Senator Judah Benjamin took to the floor to oppose the idea that he was a cruel and harsh master I South took these portrayals very seriously It leads to a cultural response in the south I Trying to churn out enough cultural counterarguments to this to drown this out Southern colleges and universities feel the need to attest to the southern agenda South believed that the confinement of slavery geographically constituted the greatest moral threat I 1850s slavery as an institution was prospering amp southerners were convinced that slavery would have to geographically expand to survive Had to go west to get more people to defend the institution I Doe faces northern men with southern principles I Ex James Buchannan friend of Jeff Davis Phenomena Filibustering I Men like William Walker rose to fame in 1855 after taking recruits from San Francisco and heading south to Nicaragua where they conquered the country I Started a new nation that would be sympathetic to the south I Hints that slavery is going to be enacted there I Eventually is thrown out 3 different times amp on the 3rd time he is killed I Walker39s exploits demonstrated the frustrated concerns about the future of slavery I Dream of a social ordinance that makes slavery safe Chief Problems for southerners on preserving slavery O 0 North and South are very similar Both north amp south practiced democracy both regions are mostly protestant same religious affiliations economically both regions are essentially capitalist societies The literature of N amp S are basically the same imitation of English literature I Sir Walter Scott is Scottish Idea of distinction come to create a Southern identity I South wanted distinction to resist the north The argument is to grant a legitimacy and preserverance of slavery through a political system I Casts negative light on the norht I In trying to create this identity I If the south wants to survive they have to imitate the tendencies of the National government I Chief Problem 0 Later in the war The south39s attempt to estabilish independence was to enable slaves to participate in the army last ditch attempt O Southerners who are resisting are committing a political suicide I Efforts undermine the necessity of the south to accumulate resources necessary for war 0 Most extreme seccenionst weren39t the ones who became leaders in the south I Fire eaters yancies Rhetts Brought in respected leaders I Secession was a desperate act I Aimed at desperately trying to preserve the south as it had been I Not a lot of sympathy or support for rabid nationalism O South39s fear of change trying to hold off the future Idea of the Notion of the Confederacy Dying from Democracy 0 Acknowledgement of an internal conflict tha thas to be addressed 0 When Robert E Lee he thought slavery was wrong but thought secession was illegal 0 Clear lack of cohesion of the confederacy theologically O Politically there is a prevalence of obstruction O Thereare39 39 I 39 of 39 39 quot 0 Failure to inspire nationalism in absence in a strong resistance to Yankee armies I Guerrilla activites were not very prevalent 1864 Sherman was able to string a supply line fron nashville to atlanta without interruption Protesting over a racially equal democratic society was a bigger argument South disappeared as a national concept in 1855 there are no cries for further nationhood or secession lost cause 0 Not a political or military struggle Isn39t a struggle through generations As long as white supremacy there is an aquescance to the outcome of the war Alexander Stephens At the beginning of the war he casts slavery as the reason for war 0 There isnt39 a popular rhetoric to maintain a separate union after 1865 000 Civil war 0 Both N amp S claimed they had a right to protect their political future 0 Deo Vindice God Will Vindicate Italy 0 Attempt to remove italy from the austrian empire 0 Want to restore victor emanuel as king Prussia O Bismarck becomes leading man in creating a united germany 0 People comapre lincoln to Bismarck an unkind comparison Lincoln is creating a nation through the army I Other nations are able to amount to national sentiment but isn39t able to happen in the south 0 South39s resistance owes to reconstruction of racial equality 0 US Sanitary commission representation typifies the world as left behind In future massive organization is going to keep nations together 0 Americans begin to praise discipline At the beginning business owners were fearful Was shows that businesses thrive after war Patriotic rhetoric Americans embrace quotBIGNESSquot Shift is seen in the constitution I 6 of the next 7 amendments starting with the 13th expand power of federal govt at the expense of the states Where did confedreate nationalism go I In 1980 Warren was writing about his thoughts on being a southerner amp notes that jeff davis amp Lee failed to embrase seccession with any entheusiasm some notion of south identity remained however it was not until after that the conception of southern identity bloomed 8930 Thursday May 5 Common Grounds Coffee House Military Campaigns of 1864 Tuesday April 26 2011 1041 AM Introduction 0 0 Most people seemed to believe the war would be over in 1864 Outlook Heading into 1864 Northern Victory Expected Soon I Expectations Disappointed Reasons the War was Prolonged South on the defensive I Could no longer take the risk against Northern armies I Went against the more aggressive instincts of some of the South39s commanders I Helped prolong the war because armies fighting on the defense had a greater tactical advantage than the armies on the offensive I Gives them the ability to inflict much greater losses on the North which helped even up the numerical disparity I Federal Enlistments Running Out I 3 year men volunteered to fight early in the war amp they were due to expire I Confederacy passed a kind of quotStopLossquot amendment which required the vets to reenlist I For political reasons the North couldn39t do the same I North couldn39t replace people as fast as they liked I Held a massive reenlistment drive by offering vets various incentives I 300 bonuses 30 day furlows I For many of the reenisted patriotic motives were at the forefront I Southern Morale Remained High I As the frontlines moved deeper into the south many soldiers felt the desire to defend their homes I Had the advantage of having greater numbers of veterans US War Plans Frustrated in 1864 O Coordinated Attack Strategy to overwhelm southern armies I Northern Virginia I Main focal point where Grant would personally take command of the Army of the Potomac I Objective was to destroy Lee39s army of Northern VA and to occupy the capital at Richmond I In order to prevent the confederacy of its resources the Union would take action in supplementary campaigns designed to sparse the resources I Georgia I Supposed to be led by W T Sherman I Objective was to destroy Johnston39s Army Capture Atlanta amp to do as much damage as possible to the Southern warmaking abilities Louisiana I General Nathanael Banks led a northwest offensive along the bank of the Red River to Shreveport I Objective to capture Shreveport and to use it to prepare for operations James River Campaign I Grant planned to force Lee to divide his forces by sending Gen Benjamin Butler to conduct an amphibious landing around Ft Monroe I Idea is to force Lee to counter threat from North and threat from the Southeast I Shenandoah Campaign I Seageal was to march as far as the City of Harrisonburg I Objective was to destroy all confederate railroads and to prevent confederate troop from being withdrawn to support Lee 0 Failure of Coordinated Attack Strategy Due to the failure of the Generals Grant trusted to follow through with the plans I Ex butler39s army stalled well before Richmond Landed his men on banks of James River had he launched an attack when his army outnumbered the confederate army He moved slowly and ordered men to dig trenches O Grant39s Dilemma I These failures meant that his own army of the Potomac would have to do most of the work against Lee39s army I Grant39s Virginia Campaign 0 Wilderness Campaign First clash I Area was so dense it made it difficult for both armies to move effectively I Neither army gained a definite advantage I Result was a tactical draw North definitely coming out with greater loss South 10000 losses North 18000 losses I Grant didn39t order a retreat I Forced Lee to follow him south I Caused a tremendous morale boots for the army of the Potomac 0 Battle of Spotsylvania I Grant had attempted to seize this point which would force Lee to attack him I Plans were spoiled Results were inconclusive I Union 18000 casualties Confederacy 12000 casualties I Grant wasn39t deterred by high casualty rates 0 Battle of Cold Harbor I Lee managed to get ahead of Grant39s army to build fortifications I Grant made what was probably the worst tactical decision of his career I Ordered an all out assault on Rebel lines on June 3 I Fighting continued over the next 9 days I Federal troops were basically slaughtered I In 20 minutes 7000 casualties I Losses of the Army of the Potomac were so horrendous that Grant admits this is the only attack in his career he wished he had never ordered I Consequences I North39s growing discontent with Grant I A lot of newspapers began referring to Grant as a butcher I Convinced Grant to try a different approach I He ordered army to move south of Richmond to Petersburg Important because Petersburg was a major railroad hub I Was the main supplier of goods into northern VA 0 Petersburg June 15 I PGT Beauregard was the general defending the city until he was I Long Siege I nto early 1865 I Union39s best chance of capturing came at July 30th I Battle of the Crater I July 30th I Blast of the mine destroyed a huge area I Problem was the crater became an obstacle for the union troops I Result when the confederates counterattacked hundreds were massacred inside the crater I War in the Shenandoah Valley 0 Battle of Lynchburg I Hunter was defeated on June 18th I Instead of remaining in the valley to link with Sheridan he withdrew his troops back to WV By pulling his troops out he left Early with no opposition in the region 0 Jubal Early39s Raid I Took his relatively small force on a lightning paced raid in MD that lasted about a month Culminated with him burning the city of Chambersburg I Didn39t have much real consequences I Managed to briefly panic officials at Washington forced Grant to send forces back to the city Caused Grant to dispatch one of his most able lieutenants O Sheridan in the Shenandoah I 50000 troops 2 main objectives I Hunt down Early39s rebel army amp destroy it I Punish Shenandoah Valley39s southern inhabitants for supporting the Confederacy I Sheridan had limited success because it didn39t drive Early out of the valley until 1865 I Laid waste to a huge swath of the valley that his men passed through I Sherman Invades Georgia bright spot of the war plans 0 Invasion of Georgia Early May Sherman moved his troops into Northern GA I Major Opponent was Joseph E Johnston I Large disparity in numbers meant Johnston could no longer risk a large battle amp he adopted a delaying strategy I Tactics didn39t succeed in stopping Sherman but they did slow him down I Authorities in Richmond eventually got fed up on July 17 Johnston was replaced with Hood Davis appointed Hood expecting him to take a much more aggressive approach I He was prone to taking unnecessary risks I He lost his right leg amp his left arm was badly mangled but his injuries did nothing to decrease his tension to offensive campaigning I 3 Days after taking command Hood hurled his army at the battles I Over the next month Sherman lay siege to the city of Atlanta Capture of the City had numerous consequences I Gave union command to one of the major hubs in the south I Brought widespread jubilation in the north I Ended doubts of Lincoln 0 Burning of Atlanta I After resting for 2 months he ordered civilians to evacuate so his troops could burn everything in the city Began burning the city in November 0 March to the Sea I Next destination was Savannah GA on the coastline Hood took what remained of the confederate army and circled to Sherman39s rear I Over the next month Sherman made his was into the interior of GA I Southerners tried to impede Sherman39s army by destroying resources of their own amp Sherman39s troops took revenge on the civilian population I Bummers mission was to gather food amp supplies for the armies I Often ended up helping themselves to whatever they wanted I Sherman picked up a lot of followers along the way I Many deserters organized themselves into outlaw gangs It was difficult for civilians to distinguish invaders from protectors I By mid December army approached Savannah and marched in on Dec 21 1864 unopposed Conclusion 1864 in Retrospect O The Civil Wara long hard slog 0 Northern Progress Slowed Frustration wish policies and losses I Sherman39s victories in GA put ends to doubts 0 Importance of Sherman39s Victories in 1864 The Death ofthe Confederacy Thursday April 28 2011 1039 AM I Introduction The End in Sight Destruction of the Army of Tennessee 0 Hood Makes a Decision I Could try to follow Sherman39s army amp fight another big battle but didn39t have much prospect to do that I His Army was badly beat up I He could use his troops perhaps by threatening Union held territory in KY amp TN I He decided that he would cross into TN amp KY and try to penetrate as far as the Ohio river then turn east and march into North VA 39 He would have to survive travel through hostile territory I Would have to defeat 60000 troops under George Thomas O Invasion of Tennessee I Trap amp destroy a smaller force near the TN border but plan didn39t work 0 Battle of Franklin There was an invitation for Hood to attack and his advisors told him not to fight and just go around I Hood instead decided to order a fullscale assault I Confederate attackers were slaughtered After the battle the obvious choice would be to retreat but he instead ordered his badly beaten army to advance after Shofield39s army 0 Battle of Nashville Hood built trenches in the hills of Nashville and invited Thomas39 army to attack his I Thomas took about 2 weeks to prepare for the attack A lot of his superiors thought he took too long Dec 15 1864 Hood39s troops fell back to new positions farther south and the next day Thomas39 soldiers attacked again demolishing Hood39s army I Fed troops lost 3000 and confederates lost more than twice that number 2 of the 3 corps in Hood39s army ceased to exist after the battles and the rest of the army disappeared due to desertion It took a commander as stubborn as Hood to have his army destructed during battle I Sherman Invades the Carolinas Sherman Invades South Carolina 0 O O Desire for Revenge on South Carolina I Most of the country felt that it was SC39s political extremism that was the cause for this war I The orders in SC were basically the same from GA Forage freely take supplies clothing and food Destroy anything of military value I Yankee troops destroyed indiscriminately I A lot of the soldiers felt that they needed to punish the people of SC for starting this war Logistical Successes I Admiration for their enemies Capture of Columbia amp Charleston Burning of Columbia I A massive fire broke out in the city and despite attempts to stop it 30 of the city had burned down I Citizens blamed the troops for the city burning down Charleston Humiliated I Surrendered the day after Sherman39s army invaded I Managed to escape the fate of Columbia I Many Union officers amp soldiers thought the city deserved to be destroyed I The citizens had to suffer the humiliation of being occupied by black soldiers I A few months after the capture a number of abolitionists came to view a flag raising ceremony Invasion of North Carolina Early Mach 1865 Army was led by Joseph Johnston Lee had recently been made commander in chief ofall southern armies Only significant decision he was able to make was to reappoint Johnston to leadership of a field army Gave Johnston the job of stopping Sherman39s army from invading North Carolina Johnston made one serious attempt on March 19 he launched a surprise attack However Union troops held on and drove him back Bentonville NC Day after the battle Federal troops captured the RR hub of Goldsboro and entered Raleigh NC a few weeks later Significant for 3 reasons I Sent a political message Like the earlier march to the sea in GA I Sherman39s operations sent the message to the south that they have lost the ability to control what happens in their country Intense destruction sent the message that the rebels needed to submit now or face destruction One of the few reliable places that Lee had to draw resources and troops I When Sherman invaded the carolinas he cut off sources to supplies and new troops Unraveling of the Confederacy I The Final Act Virginia 0 Siege continues at Petersburg Grant extended his lines farther south forcing the Confederacy to do the same By March 1965 it appeared clear to Lee that he could not hold onto Petersburg or Richmond Due to inadequate supplies Lee could not remain where he was much longer Lee contemplated extracating himself from the trenches and joining Johnston and his army Grant understood that Lee was unable to hold out much longer I He was determined to prevent Lee39s army from leaving VA April 1 Grant sent a large force composed of 2 corps and 12000 cavalry on a flanking maneuver O Petersburg Abandoned Battle of Five Forks I This was the most obvious route for Lee to retreat Result made it impossible for Lee to wait any longer Lee issued an evacuation for April 2 before dawn they left their trenches and began marching West Lee39s Objective get the army to Linchburg and to board them on trains to escape on the RR in hopes of linking up with Johnston39s men Union troops raced to get ahead of Lee April 8 a cavalry unit under Sheridan beat Lee by seizing the RR depot which left Lee39s troops with nowhere else to run I Lee was forced to send a message to Grant suggesting a letter of surrender Petersburg Evacuated O Appomattox Courthouse Met at a private residence in a town called Appomattox Courthouse Lee showed up in an immaculate well dressed uniform Grant showed up in a rumpled field uniform Under Terms I Lee39s army would be parolled and disbanded I Officers were allowed to keep their swords I At the request of Lee Grant allowed southern soldiers to take horses and mules home Widely recognized as the end of the war Over the next few weeks and months numerous confederate armies surrendered 0 Richmond Captured I About a week before the surrender at Appomattox Union army occupied Richmond on April 3 Same day that Lee ordered petersburg evacuated they also started pulling troops out of Richmond Troops set fire to military and government buildings and tobacco and cotton throughout the city Most of the business and industrial sections of the city were destroyed Job of putting out the blaze fell to the occupying troops I 5th Massachusetts all black cavalry unit Conclusion Myths about the Civil War 0 The Selfless War I The war was fought for principles and not for gain I There was a lot of patriotism but there was also a lot of selfish reasons and mean spirited acts throughout the war I Ex the widespread practice of trading with the enemy I Througout the war southern planter and officials would cooperate in smuggling cotton in order to make a profit I Practice of men avoiding military service amp desertion O Overwhelming Numbers Thesis I Myth often spread by southern veterans that said the North won because they had overwhelming numbers compared to the south I Reason the myth is there is to make themselves feel better I Wanted to think of themselves as better soldiers and fighters I Yes the north had a huge manpower advantage that played a role I But this was not the only factor of the war outcome North39s society was more well equipped to fight this war with bigger industries I Numbers alone would not have been enough for the North to win A lot of them had superior numbers but still managed to lose at the end of battles 0 Grant the Butcher Idea is that Grant was an unskilled general who only won because he had superior numbers I Reality a lot of times Grant had only as many men as his opponents I Many of these campaigns he had several terrain factors I Myth doesn39t take into account his tactical genius I He was the only one to beat Lee when no one else could O Sherman the Marauder I Myth says that Sherman39s men committed many war crimes against the civilian population Reality they did commit a lot of destruction of property I But despite destruction of property there was very little loss of civilian lives I 2 major crimes against his army Burning of Atlanta amp Columbia I Were not only Sherman39s Fault I Both sides of troops participated in these acts 0 The North39s quotMercenaryquot Army I Myth says that the northern army was composed mainly of foreign immigrants and mercenaries I Basically just factually wrong I 25 of Northern troops were foreign born I Census of 1860 35 of the whole northern population was foreign born I A lot of these foreign troops did care about the causes of the war I Many foreigners were born overseas but grew up in America 0 The Gone with the Windquot Myth I Idea that in the process of winning the war the North also destroyed the Southern Plantion society and way of life Stems from southern writers after the war who tried to romanticize the south before the war Ex Writer Margret Mitchell wrote Gone With the Wind Reality Plantation society survived the war but in a drastically different form I Many went bankrupt but managed to hold onto their property Rebuilt their earnings by sharefarming Blacks continued on as agricultural laborers but were working for some economic benefit Emancipation and the End ofSlavery Tuesday May 03 2011 1045 AM Introduction 0 I I an 39 of the Civil war 0 1860 Nobody Wanted to Abolish Slavery O 1865 Most Northerners Did Want to Abolish It I The War amp Changing Perceptions of Slavery 0 Moderate Consensus War to Preserve the Union I Corwin Amendment I Would have protected slavery by preventing any future amendments that inhibited anything to do with slavery I Passed both houses of congress and would have happened if Fort Sumter wouldn39t have happened Political Reasons for Moderation I Lincoln wanted to maintain northern political unity during the remainder of the war I Position of the border states These were slave states that Lincoln wanted to keep in the union I Represents a moderate consensus I Problem is that it could survive only so long as the war was brief fought in a civilized manner and with low casualties I As the war grew longer the government had to take a much more harsh stand against the south 0 Consensus Shifts in the North Slavery39s Military Value to the Confederacy I At the time slaves made 40 of southern population I Without slaves the south couldn39t hope to produce food or clothing I A majority of workers in the iron salt and lead industries were slaves Desire to Punish the South I For starting the war in the first place I One way to punish was to abolish slavery Desire to Prevent another War I They had to abolish slavery I Since slavery had caused the civil war the issue had to be settled if there could ever be lasting peace Slow Progress Toward Emancipation Congressional Action Against Slavery O O O Lincol I O O In August of 1861 1st confiscation act seized slaves who were drafted into the military to dig ditches or carry food I The owner39s claim to slaves In April 1862 abolished slavery in DC July 1862 congress passed the 2nd confiscation act I Granted freedom of all slaves of masters that supported the rebellion In the 1st year commanders in the field had to cope without any orders from Washington and didn39t know what to do with runaway slaves Military Action against Slavery n39s Balancing Act Lincoln had to keep his antislavery republican base happy Had to avoid antagonizing majority of northerners who are wary of any actions against slavery Many of his initial actions against slavery were extremely tentative In the early war he was a strong advocate of the colonization movement I Sending freed slaves across the atlantic to their ancestral homeland to Africa Blacks amp whites would fail to live together peacefully amp colonization was the only way to have peace Very few African Americans were in agreement with this colonization idea I Most native born slaves didn39t want to go to a strange land Lincoln stuck with the proposal so that he could subdue Northern White39s concerns if slavery was abolished Emancipation Proclamation Mid 1862 Lincoln finally decided to take a more forceful approach to slavery Battle of Antietam to the northern public it felt like a victory amp Lincoln used this as a triumph to announce a preliminary proclamation in Sept 1862 Larger significance I Turned the war to preserve the union into a war to end slavery I Wherever union troops went slaves would now be freed I Even after the proclamation was issue a great deal ofanxiety remained that it could be reversed when the war was over Antislavery politicians continued to press for the I Pressuring the governments of slave states to abolish slavery on their won An amendment to abolish slavery in the entire US completely Emancipation by States amp the 13th Amendment I 1863 West Virginia drafted a new constitution that required the gradual abolition of slavery 1865 TN passed an amendment abolishing slaver I 2 exceptions to the trend were Delaware amp Kentucky I Refused to take any action against slavery during the war I 13th Amendment formally abolished slavery I Impact of Emancipation 0 Impact on Blacks Selfemancipation I Decisions to run away I Proximity to federal troops most clearly seen in Sherman39s march through GA I Gender I Male slaves were more likely to run than female I Women tended to be saddled with childrearing responsibilites Military service I 1st enlistment began in 1862 in SC I War department officially sanctioned black troops in August 1862 I By the end of the war 190000 blacks had served in either the Army or the Navy I PoliticalParticipation I There were many myths about blacks overtaking the southern government 0 Impact on whites I Economic effects I Loss of 4billion in property and slaves Financial loss crippled many slave owners amp were forced to find new ways to adapt Found new labor systems to replace slaves Share cropping I Renting land from a landowner I Tenant Farming Renting land for cash payments I Wage Labor I Psychological Effects I People had to compete forjobs Resulted economic uncertainty that caused a riff between working class whites amp blacks Most whites were basically racist amp had grown up thinking themselves superior to Blacks I Can be seen in north 1863 Draft Riots I A series of riots where rioters targeted blacks 0 Impact on National Politics I Moderates vs Radicals I Moderates I Led by Abe Lincoln amp later Andrew Johnson Included both moderat republicans and many democrats I Wanted to do everything possible to smooth the transition of former confederate states to join the union I 10 plan I General amnesty for all who fought against the US government provided they would swear loyalty I States which rebelled against the union could be readmitted as long as 10 of voters take loyalty oath I Exslavery states had to accept emancipation I Sufferage for black who were veterans of the war I Radicals I Samon B Chase I Position wanted to punish the south amp to protect blacks against any violations of their new political rights I Didn39t trust southern whites to treat blacks fairly I Way Davis Bill I President would appoint a provisonal governor This governor could summon a new convention only after a majority took a loyalty oath I New state consitutions must abolish slaver disfranchise military leaders I Lincoln killed the Way Davis Bill with a pocket veto I Conflict Over Reconstruction I As long as Lincoln was around it gauranteed that it would be his vision for reconstruction that would prevail I Andrew Johnson was a lot less popular I Tried to follow Lincoln39s plan When the first elections exconfederates triumphed at the polls they were passing black codes I Midterm election of 1866 radical republicans triumphed across the board used new political power to reverse Johnson39s reconstruction policies amp Impeached him in the house causing Radical Reconstruction Final Review Sunday May 08 2011 830 PM 3 essays 2 choices in each section Topics Civil War Generals I Which union general was most effective in victory Which southern general was most effective in prolonging the war Which general was the weakest I Lots of possibilities Comparisons I North vs Confederacy how each handled the war Abe Lincoln39s performance I Jefferson Davis39s performance Foreign Policy How foreign countries viewed the war in the US I How they reacted I How North amp South used foreign policy to gain advantage Role of African Americans I As combatants Role economically amp terms of labor I How they freed southern man power amp produced materials needed for war Details ex For generals discuss details about battles involved Foreign policy won39t need much detail Foreign policy most of information would come from Civil War amp Foreign Policy lecture GOP amp republican Party gt radical wave Democratic party War dems Peace dems Alternate question Did the North Win or South Lose
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