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Louisiana and Reconstruction 18621877 Outline Wartime Reconstruction and Lincoln s Ten Percent Plan 18621864 Andrew Johnson Becomes President 18651866 Radical Reconstruction in Louisiana 18671871 Corruption and Riots 18721873 Politics and Violence Merge 187 41875 End of Reconstruction 18761877 EIEIEIEIEIEI Lincoln s Ten Percent Plan 18621864 El Recognition of any southern state government provided that 10 percent of the state s voters in the election of 1860 pledged their allegiance to the United States El Pardoning of exConfederates who took oath of allegiance Louisiana reforms state government 1864 Republican James Madison Wells 18651867 Constitutional Convention of 1864 Voting Rights Johnson becomes President 1865 Andrew Johnson becomes President Moderate Position 13th Amendment Readmits all Confederate states into the Union by Dec 1865 Prematurely declares Reconstruction over The Black Codes 1865 I Regain control over the former slaves labor I Restore preemancipation system of race relations I Former slaves are bound in annual contracts I The convictlease system 1866 El Carpetbaggers El Riot of 1866 El Radicals are outraged U N 9 9 p m J a 8 ml 9 B l Q q B u 90 9 El 1866 Constitution Convention want change Radical Reconstruction 18671871 First Reconstruction Act The South divided into 5 military districts governed by a Union general in charge of the Reconstruction process 15th Amendment guarantees that all black males had the right to vote Second Reconstruction Act Places Union troops in charge of voter registration In Louisiana Constitutional Convention of 1868 The Constitution of 1868 EX WE z hNt Ir matunlu x sum n Oscar J Dunn and 29 African American delegates to the Louisiana Constitutional Convention of 1868 Political Success Violent Reaction The Knights of the White Camellia The Ku Klux Klan Republican Henry Clay Warmoth 1868 1872 Gubernatorial Election of 1872 Both Democrats and Republicans claim victory Republican William Pitt Kellogg is elected governor Corruption is rampant Riots Republican William Pitt Kellogg Democrat John McEnery 18731877 The Colfax Riot 1873 Gathering the dead after the Colfax massacre in Harper 39s Weekly May 10 1 8 73 Politics and Violence Merge 1874 The White League The Coushatta Massacre 7 Marshall Harvey Twitchell The Battle of Liberty Place 1874 Several hundred members of the White League clashed with the racially integrated Metropolitan Police in New Orleans 187677 El Disputed Presidential Election of 1876 El Compromise of 1877 El In Louisiana Republican Stephen B Packard vs Democrat Confederate General Francis T Nicholls III The Nicholls administration takes over El End of Reconstruction 1877 June 30 2010 LOUISIANA UNDER BOURBON RULE 18771900 The Compromise of 1877 and the end of reconstruction 1 Bourbon Rule 2 Conservative US Supreme Court Rulings 3 Centers of Power Under Bourbon Rule 4 The constitution convention of1879 5 Classical Bourbonism 18811888 PRESIDENTIAL OF 1876 political crises of 1877 compromise of 1877 2quot Repub Hayes v Demo Tilden gt 2 one ofmost disputed elections in US history gt tilden won the popular vote but he lacked the eXtra electoral vote to become president gt a results in electoral college were disputed in 3 states Louisiana Florida south Carolina gt b involved corruption and violence gt 4 demos and repubs tried to work it out resolve the dispute gt agreed to let Hayes become president in exchange for complete withdrawal of federal troops in the south gt a consequence of withdrawal marks the end of reconstruction b repubs had power if they were backed by federal troops Now that troops are out democrats will seize power in the south 1877 1 Consequences of compromise on La a repub Packard v demo Nicholls gt Nicholls seizes power b 1876 gt demos and repubs both claimed victory i both had legislature and ii both had elected a governor happened in 1872 also gt c the demos finally win control of the state gt d we will see a century ofdemo control in LA gt e the beginning ofbourbon rule A U39l BOURBON RULE 1 Critics of the demos called them bourbons a name from France the bourbons were royalty restored to power after French revolution 1789 want to come back to how things were in the past conservative and reactionary 2 They want to go back to how things were before the civil war 3 Old sugar and planter elite of LA and the wealthy merchants of NO 4 Romanticized the antebellum south and romanticized the war and Ch confederate lost cause a literary and intellectual movement that sought to reconcile the traditional white society to the defeat of the confederates portrayed the confederacy s cause as noble marked by honor b condemned reconstruction and opposed to radical repubs during reconstruction What they want a reestablish control over state government b restore white supremacy wrong to free slaves and resented giving equal rights to freed men did everything they could to revoke these rights enacted conservative and fiscal tax policy men ofproperty and hated taxes preferred small government did little to promote public institutions avoid federal intervention fed intervention changed the old order gt fed blamed for destroying their old way oflife most of the fixation of race stems on this ideal 0 SD first step was to suppress black economic and political gains couldn t deny right to vote so they let blacks register and tried to prevent them from actually voting for example intimidation violence murder lynchings especially north LA parishes with most blacks had the most votes for democrats US SUPREME COURT RULINGS CONSERVATIVE 1 they feared fed intervention but would diminish over the years supreme court will become much more conservative 2 US V CRUIKSHANK stems from Colfax massacre of 1873gt failed to protect the civil rights of freedmen turned a blind eye to white supremacy 3 US v Reese Kentucky 4 Iosephine DeCuir and Steamboat Segregation 18721879 limiting federal expansion 5 the 15th amendment was basically not enforced in LA as a result oflack of federal troops and the court rulings CENTERS OF POWER 1 Edward A Burke and quotthe ring 2 The Louisiana lottery 3 the James gang 4 Governor Nicholls was moderate in his approach battled openly political corruption and spoke against racial violence and battled against the 3 centers of power S Burke was a former confederate soldier gt attach himself to the local democratic hierarchy win office within the demo party and became really powerful had the backing of the quotthe ring dominate political machine in NO existed mainly to win and hold office corrupt group 6 quotthe ring was succeeded with the LA lottery 1 other southern states had lotteries to create state revenues 2 LA was the largest lottery in the south 3 In the end it will be the only lottery company in the south a Monopoly b Extremely powerful company 4 Most of the lottery tickets were sent via special train that carried tickets to all over the country a About 90 were sold to people living out of the country b Use mail to purchase tickets c Monthly prices could be as high as 600000 5 Unfortunately the lottery was accused of corruption and bribery 6 Lottery controlled the press and their lawyers worked with quotthe ring The James Gang 1 a group oflegislators who sought to promote the convictlease system a prisoners leased out to private companies 2 head of the system was Samuel James in charge of running the convict lease system in La 3 system was very profitable mortality rate among convicts was 20 THE CONSTITUIONAL CONVENTION OF 1879 Nicholls was unpopular tried to get rid of the charter In 1879 bourbon and lotteryring legislators joined to pass a resolution to call for a constitutional convention gt constitution will re ect bourbon thinking too to preserve the status quo gt reduce taxes enhances the governor s power The 1 poll taX overtly to fund education true purpose disenfranchise poor voters and black voters write the lottery company into the constitution bourbon rule doomed public education in LA opposed to public education regarded education as a personal matter preferred to private education which was only available to the elite in the 70s they slashed the public education s budget especially black children suffered gt LA would fall further and further behind US mainstream without education its much easier to control people gt with implementation of constitution Nicholls is kicked out Louis Wiltz is put in filled with corruption and bribery CLASSICAL BOURBONISM Wiltz term disenfranchisementblacks and poor people white and black corruption and bribery Era of total corruption McEnery is elected These governors don t have much power because its held in the 3 centers of power RETURN OF NICHOLLS 18881892 Tried to fight the centers ofpower and was unsuccessful gt lottery and the james gang continued on After reconstruction demos reasserting white supremacy in LA they are helped by the federal state in reasserting their power in LA gt courts abandoned raical equality in the south and LA june 23 2010 LOUIAISAN AN THE CIVIL WAR 18611865 talk of succession in LA soldiers war at home and fall ofnew Orleans quotCiviliansquot and the enslaved free people military campaigns surrender and damage 9 5 324 1861 LA was moderate when it came to succession thought it was too radical lot to lose economically LA was vulnerable geographically the election of lincoln did not necessarily mean the end of slavery the vote for succession with a convention and delegates was close by a margin of 11317 Thomas overton Moore was happy when LA seceded ort jackson and port st something gt ports important strategically Why secede wanted to keep slavery and Reverend Benjamin M Palmer said that seceding from the the union was God s will as was holding slaves talked about southern honor cultural cornerstone based on premise that southern culture was perfect and must be defended LA met with other southern states in Montgomery Alabama and join the confederacy military forces in all parishes Notorious group of soldiers were the Tigers gt known to be pretty rowdy and good on the field became a part of the batallion commanded by Major Wheat gt name given to all LA troops commanded by Robert E Lee State of LA gave many noted officials and generals Benjamin served as secretary of state and war john slidell was sent to france to work an alliance with france for the confederacy but it obviously didn t work Iefferson Davis was the president of the confederacy The men in wind parish were opposed to secession wnad refused to serve in confederate army a few of them became unionist and some fought with the union William Sherman first superintendent of LOUISANA military academy founded in 1860 in Pineville la Sherman decided to side with the union he was from the north 1862 the Richmond government passed the conscription act of 1862 gthurt poor people the most because it exempted wealthy planters and owners act was unpopular gtthus LA fought on both parts of the con ict frist significant battle manasses gtfar bloodier than anyone expected after batlle of Shiloh 1862 reality ofwar did come home from the wounded and bodies of soldiers were coming to new Orleans gt showed the city that the war would not be easy for two weeks wounded and dead soldiers arrived in new Orleans union intended to take NO at the time it was the largest city of the south huge part of the economy vulnerable to attack from the gulf and miss River confederacy had no navy to defend LA 1861 union forces blocked access to mouth of miss River gt confeds can t get supplies or send them gt the blockade remained throughout the war LA depended on coastal defense gt prevent union from invading new orleasn strengthen forts Jackson and st phillip below NO thought these defense wuld be enough gt they were wrong and union passed these forts man in charge of the navy was fereget and takes NO gttroops land and occupy city ofnew Orleans man in charge of major gerneral Benjamin butler as commanded by the confederacy Butler s administration showed great firmness and severity citizens were required to take an oath of allegiance to the us Butler s act no 28 procovated by women if women don t respect the officer of the union she would be a prostitute gt unpopular act among women gt the order did not work as well as hoped Until the end of the war NO was a union city Status of slaves during the war Butler declared 1861 that slaves would become contrabands of war if they came within uinon lines March 1862 forbids returning fugitive slaves by congress Lincoln decides to emancipate slaves held under federal control in 1862 emancipation proclamation tok effect janurary 15 1863 gt allowed these freed men to join us army and navy The LA native guard first black regiment to be in the army By end ofwar 24000 black LA fought in the union Two military campaigns Siege ofport Hudson may 1863 control of the Mississippi river 1 general banks moved against Hudson and lasted 50 days 2 after hearing Vicksburg fell the confeds garrison surrendered 3 gave union control of the Mississippi river 4 first time black soldiers were used in major civil war battle Red River campaign 1864 won by confeds 1 banks made several strategic errors by treating all the way down to Alexandria and confeds held the red river for the remainder of the war 2 last victory for the south 3 too late to help confederate cause confeds surrender in june 1865 LA troops didn t fight in anther battle after LA governor henry Watkins allen lost office when confederacy collapsed in 1865 In LA suffered the most lost war 3 years of commercial production war limited the growth of food crops June 24 2010 LOUISIANA AND RECONSTRUCTION wartime reconstruction and Lincoln s ten percent plan 18621864 Andrew Johnson becomes president 18651866 Radical reconstruction in Louisiana 18671871 Corruption and riots 187273 Politics and violence merge 7475 End of reconstruction 7677 shynewzwe Butler public works program to prevent yellow fever in the city reorganized schools closed all confederate schools and reopened them with teachers who had taken oath Emancipation proclamation LINCOLN S TEN PERCENT PLAN The us would recognize would recognize who voted in election in 1860 the ten percent who pledge the oath of allegiance to us States could develop new state government and new state constitution The pardoning of exconfedrate members who took an oath of allegience excluded govrnment and military leaders Wadedavis bill oppose Lincoln gt appoint provisional governors in eXconfederate state disenfranchised all eX confederate leaders Although congress passed this bill Lincoln thought it was too radical so he refused to sign it so it died LA REFORMS STATE GOVERNMENT Many resisted changing the constitution NO people were the most stubborn James Madison wells was elected governor of LA republican Consitutional convention was to be held Group ofnon confedrates non planters pro union take this opportunity to seize power Convention in 1864 to write a new constitution Main point voting rights Agree to abolish slavery without compensation for masters they also decide not to give the vote to black men black men did not get the right to vote in 1864 black men who were literate fought in the war and had property could vote Republicans in the north were outraged by this measure LA would further antagonize northerners when wells was reelected after the war and he appointed eXconfederates Repubs in the north who supported rights for blacks are called radical repubicans RR outraged by LA constituion in 1864 OHNSOM BECOMES PRESIDENT He was a former tenn Slave owner Adopted a moderate position Rr and Johnson fought a lot over legislation for freed men In his attempt to stay moderate he had rebel states ratify the 13th amendment to get back in the union So by dec 1865 all confederate states were readmitted in the union Iohnson declared reconstuction over THE BLACK CODES 1865 The confeds in LA dominated the state legislature Version of the old slave codes gt attempt to limit the rights and liberties ofblack Blacks experienced increased regulations over their private lives Included a vagrancy law Convictlease system People in state penitentiaries were leased to work on railroads and mines and stuff to private enterprises they suffered brutalities Iohnson created a freedmen s bureau help south transition from slave to free labor did not have much in uence in the south agents acted mainly as moderators rather than reformers due to restricted resources gt not much beneficial impact in LA RR outrage again by black codes passage 1866 RR thought Johnson was being way too lenient they used this sentiment to press for change Carpetbaggers coming from north tried to improve the situation in the north gt get involved with the politics in the south did not cease power and were not overwhelmingly elected into office Black codes radicalized opinions in the north try to get around the 13th amendment RR decided to call a constitutional convention gt decide to recall the delegates of the 1864 and make another one This angered white democrats who thought they were pushing black civil rights way too far A group ofwhite citizens aided by the NO police attacked the delegates in the hall and their supporters Federal troops were called in to stop the violence but when they got there 37 people were dead and 145 were wounded gt one of the bloodiest riots in reconstruction period gt The RIOT OF 1866 The news of this riot and one in Memphis angered the rads Thought Johnson had failed miserably Congression rads tried to push Iohnson aside by trying to impeach him Congress ultimately passed civil rights act of 1866 which defined the rights that all citizens were to enjoy equally without regard to race Rads also passed the 14th amendment safe guarded balck citienship rights reduced congressional representation that denied the black male vote So the race riots in NO and Memphis and other stuff gt Iohnson could not be trusted gt congress gets most republicans in election of1866 take over HOR and senate gt marked the beginning of radical reconstruction RADICAL RECONSTUCTION 18671871 One of the first acts was the first reconstruction act gt congress carved the south into 5 mil Districts were eeach governed by a union general in charge 15th amendment is also ratified guaranteed that all black males had the right to vote 1870 another act was the second reconstruction act placed federal troops in charge of voter registration constituional convention of 1868 gt ne wconstituion for LA is written then gt first time in LA S history it had a bill of rights that protected the civil rights of all exteneded rights to all black males also establishe establishes a free integrated public school system also guarantees equal access to public accommodations the black codes 1865 are eradicated property qualifications for holding office are gone too and the constituion disenfranchised all former confederates THE CONSTITUION OF 1868 Blacks are elected to offices donaldsville elected its first black mayor and the entire us Oscar I dunn became black It governor of LA About half of delegates in constituion in 1868 were black Black leaders during reconstruction were very different from the people they tried to represent gtfinancially secure and extremely literate Political success of 1868 created violent backlash on the part of former slave holders and eX confederals POLITICAL SUCCESS VIOLENT REACTION Used violent intimidation to keep freed men from voting Several terrorist organizations were created in LA The knights of the white camellia1888 modeled after KKK 1868 Obtruct implementation ofpolicy and white supremacy Whites many of them democrats joined the terrorist organizations Violence became widespread around the state and lynchings and murders became common alternative to politics in LA Constituion did little to end racial discrimination Henry clay warmouth republicangovernor of LA 6872 failed to take firm stand on these issues and left the radical cause and refused to enforce desegration in LA and appointed democrats to office Elections in 1872 repubs and demos both claimed victory and established dual governments Kellogg technically elected governor corruption was high as well as fraud and intimidation gt many say the repubs stole the election Repubs had created the returning board would have final say in any election to decide who was the winner of the election gt in the end repubs came to steal the elections themselces thanks to the returning board RIOTS Colfax repubs black and white feared that local demos would seize power gt claimed courthouse for repubs gt after 3 weeks defense repubs succumbed to white demo assault gtkilled everyone gt those who escaped were executed POLITIC AND VIOLENCE MERGE 1874 Kellogg supported black civil rights tried to get rid of corruption and rivalry gt he fialed Reconstruction was very violent Te white league paramilitary group targeted both blacks and white who supported black civil rights gt Marshall Harvey twitchell promiment repub leader gt in NO he the Coushatta massacre THE BATTLE OF LIBERTY PLACE 1874 Police in NO repub militia clashed with the crescent city white league quickly defeated the metro police in NO and deposed Kellogg republican government Fed troops come in to restore republican government in NO JUNE 30 The Compromise of 1877 and the end of reconstruction 1 Bourbon Rule 2 Conservative US Supreme Court Rulings 3 Centers of Power Under Bourbon Rule 4 The Constitutional Convention of 1879 5 Classical Bourbonism 18811888 PRESIDENTIAL OF 1876 political crises of 1877 compromise of 1877 1 Repub Hayes v Demo Tilden gt 2 one of most disputed elections in US history gt 3 tilden won the popular vote but he lacked the extra electoral vote to become president gt a results in electoral college were disputed in 3 states Louisiana Florida south Carolina b involved corruption and violence demos and repubs tried to work it out resolve the dispute gt agreed to let Hayes become president in exchange for complete withdrawal of federal troops in the south gt a consequence of withdrawal marks the end of reconstruction b repubs had power if they were backed by federal troops Now that troops are out democrats will seize power in the south 1877 Consequences of compromise on La a repub Packard v demo Nicholls gt Nicholls seizes power b 1876 gt demos and repubs both claimed victory i both had legislature and ii both had elected a governor happened in 1872 also gt c the demos finally win control of the state gt d we will see a century of demo control in LA gt e the beginning of bourbon rule m l BOURBON RULE 1 Critics of the demos called them bourbons a name from France the bourbons were royalty restored to power after French revolution 1789 want to come back to how things were in the past conservative and reactionary 2 They want to go back to how things were before the civil war 3 Old sugar and planter elite of LA and the wealthy merchants of NO 4 Romanticized the antebellum south and romanticized the war and confederate lost cause a literary and intellectual movement that sought to reconcile the traditional white society to the defeat of the confederates portrayed the confederacy s cause as noble marked by honor 5 6 b condemned reconstruction and opposed to radical repubs during reconstruction What they want a reestablish control over state government restore white supremacy wrong to free slaves and resented giving equal rights to freed men did everything they could to revoke these rights c enacted conservative and fiscal tax policy men of property and hated taxes preferred small government did little to promote public institutions avoid federal intervention fed intervention changed the old order gt fed blamed for destroying their old way of life most of the fixation of race stems on this ideal first step was to suppress black economic and political gains couldn t deny right to vote so they let blacks register and tried to prevent them from actually voting for example intimidation violence murder lynchings especially north LA parishes with most blacks had the most votes for democrats 57 53 US SUPREME COURT RULINGS CONSERVATIVE 1 2 3 4 5 they feared fed intervention but would diminish over the years supreme court will become much more conservative US V CRUIKSHANK stems from Colfax massacre of 1873gt failed to protect the civil rights of freedmen turned a blind eye to white supremacy US v Reese Kentucky Josephine DeCuir and Steamboat Segregation 18721879 limiting federal expansion the 15 h amendment was basically not enforced in LA as a result of lack of federal troops and the court rulings CENTERS OF POWER 1 2 3 4 Equot 9 PNE P 5quot Edward A Burke and quotthe ringquot The Louisiana lottery the James gang Governor Nicholls was moderate in his approach openly battled political corruption and spoke against racial violence and battled against the 3 centers of power Burke was a former confederate soldier gt attach himself to the local democratic hierarchy win office within the demo party and became really powerful had the backing of the quotthe ringquot dominate political machine in NO existed mainly to win and hold office corrupt group quotthe ringquot was succeeded with the LA lottery other southern states had lotteries to create state revenues LA was the largest lottery in the south In the end it will be the only lottery company in the south a Monopoly b Extremely powerful company Most of the lottery tickets were sent via special train that carried tickets to all over the country a About 90 were sold to people living out of the country b Use mail to purchase tickets c Monthly prices could be as high as 600000 Unfortunately the lottery was accused of corruption and bribery 6 Lottery controlled the press and their lawyers worked with llthe ringquot The James Gang 1 a group of legislators who sought to promote the convictlease system a prisoners leased out to private companies 2 head of the system was Samuel James in charge of running the convict lease system in La 3 system was very profitable mortality rate among convicts was 20 THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION OF 1879 Nicholls was unpopular tried to get rid of the charter In 1879 bourbon and lotteryring legislators joined to pass a resolution to call for a constitutional convention gt constitution will reflect bourbon thinking too to preserve the status quo gt reduce taxes enhances the governor s power The 1 poll tax overtly to fund education true purpose disenfranchise poor voters and black voters write the lottery company into the constitution bourbon rule doomed public education in LA opposed to public education regarded education as a personal matter preferred to private education which was only available to the elite in the 70s they slashed the public education s budget especially black children suffered gt LA would fall further and further behind US mainstream without education its much easier to control people gt with implementation of constitution Nicholls is kicked out Louis Wiltz is put in filled with corruption and bribery CLASSICAL BOURBONISM Wiltz term disenfranchisementblacks and poor people white and black corruption and bribery Era of total corruption McEnery is elected These governors don t have much power because its held in the 3 centers of power RETURN OF NICHOLLS 18881892 Tried to fight the centers of power and was unsuccessful gt lottery and the james gang continued on After reconstruction demos reasserting white supremacy in LA they are helped by the federal state in reasserting their power in LA gt courts abandoned racial equality in the south and LA July 1st Outline La s economy at the turn of the century The Thibodaux Massacre of 1887 The Alliance Movement and the People sPopulist Party The Gubernatorial Election of 1892 The 1893 Depression The Populist Party a viable 3rd part Gubernatorial Election of 1896 LA s Economy 0 Sharecropping o Landowner allowed tenant to use land tenant would share crop wlandowner 50 to landowner They don t work for wages Landowners would furnish all tools clothes food and sometimes expenses 0 Sharecroppers were in debt to their landowners sometimes if there was a natural disaster and if production was low 0 Tenant farming o Tenants usually furnished the equipment seeds and had more autonomy than sharecroppers o Croplien system 0 Loanmortgage 0 Farmers would use credit to buy what they needed Farmers have a contract wlandowners and merchants 0 Problems I Farmers are dependent on the value of the crop If the price of the crop went down it was hard to pay their debt I Farmers were charged high interest rates I The landowner dictated which crop could be grown I Farmers weren t allowed to move away if their debt wasn t paid this was usually the case I Landowners and merchants basically took advantage of the farmers I Farmers had few rights They re basically reduced to slavery I Sugar and cotton produced in LA were sold in all over the world LA would buy manufactured goods from the North LA s economy is again dominated by a culture like it was before Reconstruction I Minimal amount of industrial production in LA I Corporations came in and did business in LA but wouldn t invest in production here I 1890s bourbon rule was common in the countryside I Most farmers are trapped in a cycle of debt which pisses them off 0 The Thibodaux Massacre in 1887 0 Knights of Labor and sugar cane workers go on strike about 10k farmers I They want elimination of scrip a kind of fake money and an increase in wages and they want to be paid biweekly I Went on strike at harvest time when their labor is most needed I Landowners attempt to evict them but it s unsuccessful so they call on the governor 0 State militia sent in I 2 militia companies come in to break the strike Gets messy o Vigilantes Some whites take matter into their own hands and end the strike but 2 whites are fired at which pisses the white people off So they go through the neighborhoods and start shooting at people 0 Clash 30 black strikers dead Result 0 About 100 are wounded and about 1k lose their homes Farmers start to organize themselves into organizations 1881 La Farmers Union is formed 1887 they join the TX State Alliance 0 The Alliance Movement 1880s and the People sPopulist Party 1890 O O I O I The Alliance Movement End the croplien credit system Protect the farmers from their capitalistic and industrial powers of monopolies 0 They want their own stuff stores banks etc Bourbon democrats fear biracial coalition They were worried white farmers would unite wblack farmers People sPopulist Party created in 1890 in Winn Parish Tries to unite them who s them Governor Nicholls tried to keep the revolt confined to the dem party 0 Appoints head of the farmers union the state sec of agriculture 0 Creates the AntiLottery League 0 Gubernatorial Election of 1892 and the AntiLottery League 0 Efforts to keep the farm revolt confined to the Dem Party which he s successful in doing The union is split in two so the union dies Dems O O 0 Murphy J Foster antilottery Samuel McEnery prolottery People s Party Robert L Tannehill Foster wins new governor but this election doesn t change anything for the farmers He was a Bourbon Dem too 0 On a national level the Populist Party also nominated James Weaver for presidential election He did pretty well Weaver carried 4 states Grover Cleveland D ends up being elected pres of the US though His presidency is rocky o The 1893 Depression 0 I 0 Panic of 1893 Amt of money in circulation drops Deflation 0 Price of cotton and sugar fail Interest rates go up Banks closed Business failures Unemployment Populist Party membership surges they re pissed Didn t like all these big corporations in the first place so now they re super pissed More and more Dems leave the Dem Party to join the Populist Party Lots of people will join the Populist Party o 1890 Sherman Silver Purchase Act I Passed in response to the growing complaints of farmers I Farmers wanted this passed to boost the economy and lower inflation I Many investors Traded silver for gold which ultimately depleted the gold reserves so the gov t was going bankrupt They didn t have enough gold to back the paper currency that was circulating 0 President Grover Cleveland is unpopular I 1893 He repeals this act Populists are freakin pissed 0 Foster is unpopular I Bc he was a Dem like Cleveland 0 The Populist Party a viable 3rd party 0 Dems flock to the Pops Populist Party 0 The Pops are active in the N central parishes o LA s black voters transfer their allegiance from the Repubs to the Pops o Wealthy white sugar planters the Bourban Dems transfer their allegiance to the Repubs due to the WilsonGorman Rariff 1894 I Removed gov t protection from industries and withdrew subsidies o Bourbons are in trouble 0 Gubernatorial Elections of 1896 o The Pops and Repubs unite both nat l and local level 0 Members include disgruntled farmers sugar planters and AroAmericans 0 Murphy J Foster D current governor runs again vs John Newton Pharr Repub but hold mainly Pops views so he s popular among the Pops I Dems are worried the control of the state was at stake They put everything possible into the campaign so that the PopsRepubs aren t elected I Used fraud violence intimidation and bribery to get votes 21lynchings are reported in 1896 I Resorted to blatant racism to get white voters on their sides 0 Death of the Pops Party I Foster wins the election 0 Backlash against black voters I Against those who d supported the PopsRepubs July 2quotquot Outline Separate Car Act 1890 Challenging the Separate Car Act Plessy vs Fergusun 1897 The 1898 Constitution and Disenfranchisement Jim Crow laws Race control and violence Segregation existed before Bourbon rule Under their rule though segregation will be ordained by law and laws will be enacted Ex segregation by practice Separate Car Act 1890 0 Railroad law 0 Enacted by Foster 18921900 who is now a Dem Senator 0 1st segregation law or Jim Crow law requiring blacks and whites to ride in separate railroad cars 0 Jim Crow s origins a minstrel show whites painted their faces black and make fun of Africanamericans Distorted portrayal Show was performed in 1832 not a person o If railway companies didn t comply they d be fined and imprisoned Challenging the Separate Car Act Plessy vs Ferguson 1896 o the Comite des CitoyensCitizens Committee is created by Louis A Martinet and Rodophe L Desdune 1891 0 created to rally to repeal the Separate Car Act 0 thought it was unconstitutional o Albion W Tourgee o Lawyer appointed by the Committee legal rep 0 Outspoken Radical Repub from Ohio 0 Known for his denunciations of lynching disenfranchisement segregation 0 1st rep of the Committee 0 Homer Plessy 0 Also appointed to the Committee He was the person to test the case Born in 1863 in Nola a descendent of fpc s Involved in negotiations dedicated to reforming education in LA The test setup He was to board the train and be thrown off the car for violating the Separate Car Act He boards a train to Covington and sat in the white section identifying himself as black Railroad Co agreed to cooperate wthe Committee bc it was expensive for companies to add a separate car for blacks When the train pulled out of the station he told Plessy he had to move to the llcolored carquot He refused to move and the conductor asked the engineer to stop the train A detective hired by the Committee told Plessy he was disobeying the law and he was arrested and sent to the police station A bond was set for 500 The Committee and Tourgee hoped the Court would find the Separate Car Act inconsistent wthe 13 h and 14 h Amendments a point which he argued in court Tourgee thought he had a strong case bc Plessy could have passed for a white guy He and Plessy went to court 0 John Howard Ferguson 0 Judge of the criminal district court for Nola parish o Ruling against Tourgee and Plessy saying that he is not being denied public accommodations 0 Case goes to the Supreme Court 0 1896 Supreme Court ruling The llseparate but equa state gov ts is constitutional o 7 Justice majority against Plessy only 1 dissented Plessy has to pay the fine 0 Said it didn t violate the 14 h Amendment 0 Case helped to cement the quotseparate but equa o Ends the Citizens Committee 0 O O O In provision of public accommodations by In provision The 1898 Constitution and Disenfranchisement 0 Led by governor Murphy 0 Literacy tests 0 Voters must be able to read and write 0 At the time only 40 of the population could do so 0 A llgrandfather clausequot 0 Allowed white men who couldn t read and write to register to vote if they can prove that their father or grandfather had voted in LA before 1867 I Why Bc in 1867 blacks weren t yet able to vote 1868 is when they were able to 0 Property ownership 0 Had to own a significant amt of property to be able to vote 0 A 1yr poll tax and show poll tax receipts for the current yr and the previous yr 0 Had to show these in order to vote 0 After this Constitution the number of eligible black voters decreases significantly yr by yr Murphy is an asshole o This began the One Party Rule in LA 0 Bourbon Dems had no one who could challenge them in elections anymore This will continue for a few decades until Huey Long comes a little ways down 0 Also called the WhiteOnly Primaries o AfricanAmericans are excluded from the political process Jim Crow laws touched every aspect of everyday life between 1900 and 1952 0 Public carriers 0 By 1902 all public streetcars were segregated o Railwaysstreetcar companies and their employees are fined for noncompliance wthe law 0 Miscenegation o Prohibited o Imprisonment for noncompliance by law 0 Residentialhousing 0 Also prohibited 0 Different neighborhoods 0 Public accommodation 0 Couldn t eat or drink at the same places as whites 0 Couldn t go to the same showsentertainment 0 Education 0 Different schools 0 Health care 0 Different hospitals Race Control and violence 0 Lynchings most extreme form and there were a lot obviously much more blacks than whites 0 Lots of violence due to enactment of all this stuff o Italians included racial discrimination against them bc they weren t considered white 0 Lynchings in both rural and urban areas More in urban that rural LA ranked 2nd after MS in lynchings So apparently MS is more of a bunch of pricks than LA Go figure July 6quot Progressive Reform in LA A reform movement Reform in LA Limitations Progressivism o What 0 A reform movement belief in progress and in improving society economy and politics 0 How 0 Change from lltoptobottomquotrather than bottomup direct intervention through expertise 0 Who 0 A diverse group of ppl I Middle and upper class men and women political leaders journalists writers etc 0 Focus on 5 themes 0 Democracy they want regular ppl to directly participate in the gov t o Efficiency They apply scientific methods createreorganize agencies create boards create quotmanagerquot position You have people that are trained to perform a specific task so that things run smoother o Regulate giant corporations they re afraid of big business so they want to get rid of monopolies in business by regulating them 0 Social justice child labor laws limited work hours protect workers 0 Prohibition Reform in LA 0 Education 0 Education is a disaster low salaries no schools in some places very limited academic year sometimes only a month poorly built buildings and no teaching standards Only 59 of white children and 37 of black children attended school 0 Newton C Blanchard 19041908 I Governor Bourbon Dem of LA at the time I Bourbon Democrat I Championed education in LA I Legislature invests more money in LA 0 James B Aswell I State Superintendent of education I Appointed by Blanchard O O I He was an educator and a gifted public speaker I Became pres of LA Tech I Wanted state and local gov ts to support building and financing schools I Had 200 schools built during his tenure 19041908 T H Harris I Aswell s successor I Continued Aswell s work I Rural schoolhouses were common I They secured funds to build new schools and improve existing schools and raise teachers salaries I State high school inspector in charge of high schools I Lots of boards are created to make sure things are running effectively and efficiently 0 Want trained teachers adequate facilities uniform rules and education standards Mayor Martin Behrman I Mayor of Nola I Embraced education cause in LA I New schools were built in Nola teachers were better paid enrollment in schools increased Legislature local and state gov ts improved the schools I Also outofstate groupsppl funded the improvement of LA s education including Andrew Carnegie 0 Agriculture 0 Seaman A Knapp I Pioneered agriculture education in LA 0 Farm demonstrations 0 Agricultural agents are sent throughout state farms to educate farmers to improve their farming methods including the best way to grow crops I Secures money from different boards to fund agriculture I Female farmers are also educated through farm demonstration agents 0 Child Labor Laws 0 O 0 Wanted to keep kids out of the workplace Also wanted to limit kids work hours At the time about 2 million kids worked in various occupations throughout the US taken from 1900 Census Women played pivotal role in passage of child labor laws I Jean Gordon 0 Gathered data drafted proposals lobbied state legislatures for about 10 yrs 1906 Child Labor Act is passed in LA I Also allowed women to serve as factory inspectors I Lots of kids left the workplace significant decrease I Jean Gordon also worked to improve kids conditions in playgrounds and launched a juvenile work system 0 Settlement Houses 0 Settlement Movement set up these settlement houses I These are houses located in poor urban areas of the state I Volunteer middle class workers lived there and worked towards improving conditions in the neighborhood Also hoped to share culture and knowledge wtheir neighbors and wanted to eliminate poverty In some ways they were the original social workers 0 Eleanor McMain and Kingsley House I Main person involved in setting up these settlement houses in Nola I Offered social activities night classes a nursery public health unit etc I President of the Women s League 0 The Women s League I Organization of female reformers I Campaigned for new child labor laws as well as public health services education etc I Very organized group 0 St Mark s Hall I Activities very similar to Kingsley House 0 Public Health 0 Also rallied for by McMain and other women reformers 0 Yellow fever was very common at this time o Cleanup Campaigns I Wanted to find ways to get rid of all these diseases malaria yellow fever etc 0 Better city services I By 1909 filtered and treated water is available just about everywhere in Nola I 1920 Sewer system is established in Nola I This as well as the Cleanup Campaigns Helped wpreventing the spread of diseases in Nola Shreveport and other cities 0 Dr Oscar Dowling I Head of State Board of Health 0 Women s suffrage Main mission of board was to spread knowledge mainly about hygiene Launched major campaigns to spread this knowledge about preventing epidemics 0 Women want equal rights including the right to vote 0 Kate Gordon and the Era Club Equal Rights Association I Lobbied for years for women s right to vote I Gordon was very effective She became the national corresponding secretary for NAWSA involved both locally and nat lly o The National American Woman Suffrage Association NAWSA I The nat l women s rights organization I They gather info and rally for support for suffrage I Limitations Main problem in LA was that white women involved in the movement didn t want AfricanAmerican women to have the right to vote Kate Gordon was a white supremacist and decided to oppose the federal amendments bc she didn t want AfricanAmerican women to be able to vote The association became split over this issue 0 LA voted against the ratification of the 19 h amendment which granted women regardless of their race the right to vote 19 h amendment was in the end ratified on the nat l level 0 Regulation of big business and conservation 0 John M Parker I Followed Theo Roosevelt s footsteps I Was an Advocate for a tax on oil and gas corporations oil industry in LA is developing significantly at the time 0 Parker worried that this growth would dominate the economy of LA 0 Advocated this tax mainly to fund education Limitations of Progressivism 0 Few improvements for the poor 0 Schools still lagged behind other major American cities 0 Few educational opportunities for African Americans 0 The few improvements rarely reached African Americans 0 Black schools weren t funded and were left in bad conditions 0 Limited to no more than the 5 h grade 0 Segregated schools 0 lliteracy still remained The llWhite Primary 0 Voters elect the candidate of their choice in direct primaries but the only ppl that can vote in LA were white men and there was only one party in LA the Bourbon Dems so nothing changes here Reforms manipulated by special interest groups 0 The city machine The Choctaw ClubThe Old RegularsThe Regular Democratic Organization RDO and Mayor Martin Behrman 0 Alliance of rich Dem men 0 Head of the Choctaw Club was Mayor Martin Behrman 0 Used violence fraud patronage to get votes a lot like The Ring who dominated the political system which limited the efforts of reformers I Ex they didn t support women s suffrage especially black women 0 CONCLUSION A certain number of reforms were enacted in LA but they were severely limited and LA cities lagged far behind other US cities July 7 2010 The Great Flood of 1927 Outline Early exploration and importance of the MS River Attempts to control the river and flooding Federal gov t involvement llit started raining and it just never did stop The levees broke Statistics Political outcome Early exploration and importance of the MS River o It was important for navigation trade etc It is the nation s most important asset but it s a very dangerous place 0 LA owes its existence to the MS River 0 The river is one of the nation s building programs Flooding and early attempts to control the River 0 The river had always been a threat o It flooded a lot and there were 4 major floods before the huge one in 1927 o No systematic levee building program o In the Colonial period it was a very primitive levee system 0 The Colonial period the gov t enacted laws for landowners to build and maintain their own levees 0 There was competition between the planters to build levees and sometimes planters would damage other planters levees to protect their own property so the flood would go somewhere else I Maintenance was erratic depended on the planters o 1816 Nola was flooded for a month after a major flood I There s a false sense of security from the levees that the gov t built after this flood o Wealthy people would settle on higher ground and the poor would settle on the edge of the back swamp Social inequity in LA Federal gov t involvement 0 1879 MS River Commission MRC 0 Mission was to maintain and improve the River in terms of navigation and flooding 0 They want to promote trade and commerce 0 Created by a response to a dispute from o The Army Corps of Engineers 0 James Buchanan Eads 0 Civil engineer 0 Andrew Atkinson Humphreys 0 Chief of the Army Corps of Engineers 0 Disputes between these two guys causes the creation of the MRC 0 Regarding the control and maintenance of the MS River 0 Disagreed on what the best way to do this was O The Army Corps of Engineers wouldn t listen to the MRC they the Corps dominate and control what s going on Leveesonly policy O 0000 O 1885 The two MRC and the Corps reach a compromise Implement this policy They rely exclusively on levees to control the flooding The two also decide to close off natural outlets that drain the water Not a good idea Policy remained uncontested for about 40 yrs They thought the levees would be able to contain the rush of water and keep from flooding Didn t work like that The water level rose which required building higher and higher levees 1850 one that was 7 ft had to be raised to 30 ft The force of the water also grew stronger so the volume and the growing strength of the MS will cause the levees to break 1926 They publish a report saying that everything s going well and the levees are withstanding everything llt started raining and it just never did stop The levees broke 1926 It rained so much that the levels of the river are rising dangerously and it s filling to capacity April 1927 rained a lot 15 in in 18 hrs about 1 in an hr The water made its way to the gulf and the levees broke bc the water had no other outlet for the water to go anywhere In some areas the water spread as far as 100 miles The South was affected AR and LA most significantly affected 32 major crevasses 120 levee breaks along the MS Refugee camps had to be made bc they couldn t stay where the flooding was obviously O O O O 0 Set up by the Red Cross Segregated Conditions were bad esp in black camps no food animals that had died in the flood were floating in the water it was cold outside Ppl stayed up to 6 months Some were actually set on the levee Dynamiting through the levee to create an artificial crevasse at Caernarvon St Bernard Parish LA 14 miles below Nola Citizens Flood Relief Committee 0000 O Formed by some businessmen just a bunch of citizens that came together Decided what to do about the flood and how to prevent Nola from being flooded Had no legal sovereignty They plan to dynamite the levee so that the water spreads elsewhere and doesn t flood the city They ask the state and federal gov ts permission to do this and are granted permission I 30 tons of dynamite at Caernarvon I Had to pay the ppl they evacuated for the loss of their property I Floods St Bernard and Plaqueman Parish I Ppl file claims that end up reaching 35 million dollars I Granted only 29 million that sucks for them Statistics 0 August 1927 water s receded and everything s pretty much over 0 Human loss of life 246 o Displace ppl 700k 0 Financial loss 347 million in 1927 44 billion dollars in 1993 0 Structural damage 137k buildings including houses destroyed or damaged 0 Flooded are 27k sq miles Political outcome 0 Calvin Coolidge 0 Herbert Hoover 0 Secretary of Commerce 0 Sent to the river and worked with the Red Cross 0 Very effective 0 Flood is one factor that pushed Hoover into the presidency o 1928 Flood Control Act and Federal Intervention 0 Army Corps of Engineers charged wmaintaining the river and building levees o The longest levee every built is the result of this act This time they include all the drainage system to their policy 0 Gov t invests 325 million first time feds directly intervene changed the way Americans viewed the role of the federal gov t Americans turned to the gov t for relief from this point on 0 Robert Russa Moton and the Colored Advisory Commission CAC 0 Head of the CAC part of the Red Cross 0 An AfricanAmerican educator and author 0 CAC in charge of reporting how things are going in the refugee camps I Says that the conditions suck I Works out a deal wHoover He promises SOMETHING 0 Early 1930s Hoover goes back on his promise o Consequence Moton and influential AfricanAmerican friends help to shift the allegiance of AfricanAmerican from Repub party to Dem party 0 The Great Migration o Tens of thousands of blacks decided to move north after the flood Sharecroppers tenant farmers etc 0 Major consequences in the economy bc these were the laborers that made the planters wealthy 0 CONCLUSION ppl view the gov t differently after the flood Exposed and intensified social divide Altered the economy and politics One man will rise at this time HUEY P LONG takes responsibility of doing something for the ppl poor ppl especially July 8th 0 The city machine the Choctaw club the Old Regulars 0 Rural 0 Little infrastructure 0 Few improvements for the poor 0 Schools still lag behind and literacy 0 Poor white disenfranchisement 0 Black disenfranchisement Postwar Depression 0 Hard on farmers o No need for everything that they produced so they re in debt and can t sell their product During the war they had to produce a lot to feed the locals as well as the soldiers and now they can t do any of that o mpoverished o Worse than before o In debt 0 o In a rebellious mood 0 They want aid schools regulation of corporations 0 1893 Born in Winn Parish in the town of Winnfield born into a wealthy farmowning family wealthy by the standards of Winn Parish probably the poorest parish in the state at the time 0 There were no public schools in Winnfield so Huey was homeschooled 0 Age 11 went to a public school He was very bright and knew exactly what he wanted to do in life 0 11 h grade completed it at the time 11 h grade was senior year but at that point the school board added the 12 h grade He was pissed He started a petition to end this 12 h grade issue and he got expelled from school 0 This didn t stop him He was very articulate and ambitious o Winn Parish o Ppl here opposed secession Was not a Dem stronghold 1880s became the stronghold of Populism Quite different from the rest of LA Also supported Socialism 40 of the parish supported it in the presidential election of 1912 o Huey s family were Dems but his father still ran for a seat in the legislature on the Pop platform 0 Ppl complained about the corrupt state gov t were considered outsiders bc they didn t like the Dem s crap All this affected Huey and his policies will be greatly influenced by this 0 They were appalled by corporations exploitation of the common ppl 0 O O O Early Career 0 After Huey was expelled he spent the next 4 yrs as a traveling salesman all over the state cooking goods medicine canned goods 0 While selling he learned how to advertise speak dress to impress draw a crowd and in direct contact wthe ppl 0 Went to their homes discovered how they lived the poor ppl 0 Also helped him realize that you could go broke at any time so he had a lot ofempathy for the poor and ppl who lost everything 0 He later attended University 0 15 Baptist university in Oklahoma Mom wanted him to be a preacher He didn t want to do it thought he wasn t made for it o Came back home and went to Tulane Law School I Problem he didn t have a high school diploma or a college degree I Didn t stop him He didn t officially enroll but he took some classes Convinced the board to let him take the bar exam and he passed at 22 yrs old 0 Goes back and opens a practice in Winn Parish in Shreveport I Defended the common ppl against corporations and industries Entering Politics 0 1918 Campaign for the Railroad Commission 0 Was a regulatory agency 0 Had jurisdiction over railroads natural gas and oil pipelines regulated these big businesses 0 At the time it was weak and ineffective o Huey Long in a campaign card for his 1918 campaign for railroad commissioner o quotI was born on a farm am a common man and my sympathies have always been wthe masses I am opposed by the privilege seekers and profiteers I respectfully ask your vote for Railroad Commissionerquot 0 His main competition is the Standard Oil Company probably the largest oil company in the world they were exploiting LA s natural resources 0 To Huey this company was the 39 quot poor 0 Used posters and circulars traveled to rural places and meetget to know ppl ofbig 39 taking 39 U ofthe 0 He won and became head of the Railroad Commission 0 His first step into the political world Was a stepping stone to more ambitious goals 0 Used this position to promote his Pop st message to support the common ppl and take down the big corps 0 Was a stepping stone to more ambitious goals 0 His dream was to be governor then a senator then president of the US 0 1924 Decides to run for governorship o Opponents think he s on the crack pipe that he wasn t a serious candidate and didn t have a chance 1924 Gubernatorial Campaign 0 Needed to unite voters 0 At the time LA was divided into 3 different regions 0 Ppl in the north don t want to unite wppl in the south of la bc of different religions o Ku Klux Klan o Is a problem 0 A new one in 1915 o Antieverything catholic jewish socialist communist etc 0 It s a national organization notjust local 0 Very powerful o Revolutionary campaign methods 0 Decides not to address the problem wthe Klan o Focuses on his usual platform of attacking big business corps 0 Does his usual campaign methods traveling etc o Revolutionary message 0 Used sound trucks and the radio to broadcast his speeches one of the first politicians to use these First Democratic Primary January 15 1924 o Hewitt L Bouanchaud 84 162 0 From Acadia catholic French speaker 0 At the time was Lt Governor of LA 0 Henry L Fuqua 81 382 0 Had the backing of the Old Regulars in Nola o Huey P Long 73 985 0 Long lost obviously o Won all the northern parishes but not in the south or in Nola so he started thinking about how to get their support for the next election Runs for governor in 1928 1928 Campaign 0 The New Regulars o Dissident organization 0 Didn t support the Old Regulars 0 Gets some support by them in Nola 0 Robert W Ewing o Influenced voters a lot as a prominent newspaper editor in Nola o Backed Long 0 Robert Maestri 0 Very wealthy man later became mayor o Backed Long as well 0 Long secures campaign funding from this guy and others 0 Builds his reputation in South LA by backing Catholic candidates in different elections various state elections in order to get their vote later and campaigns on their behalf 0 Makes it clear that all voters in LA have something in common poverty This is why they should all unite and support him llEvery man a king but no one wears a crown 0 Flood was a major factor in his campaigns bc it caused a lot of poverty and a lot of loss 0 Education funding ex free textbooks 0 Healthcare ex public hospitals 0 Public works ex road improvements and free bridges Modernize LA s infrastructure 0 Campaigning against the corruption and wastefulness of previous administrations o A new LA 0 Wants to create this in which the gov t listens and responds to the pp 0 Uses radio and sound trucks again several speeches again all his old methods and he attracts huge crowds becomes a political threat Democratic Primary January 17 1928 o Huey P Long 126 842 votes 439 o Riley J Wilson 81 747 votes 283 o Oramel H Simpson 80 326 votes 278 0 General election April 17 1928 o Huey P Long D 92 941 votes 9614 0 Etienne J Caire R 3 733 votes 386 0 At 34 yrs old Huey becomes governor of LA Managed to unite voters from north and south New political division in LA prolongs progressive supported his reforms and antiLongs planter class Old Regulars big corps conservatives So What 0 A realignment with politics 0 A new division proLongs vs AntiLongs July 9quot Governor of LA Enacting his programs How did Long pay for his programs Impeachment 1929 Senator 19321935 Long began a number of reforms as governor He met stiff opposition by the AntiLongs wanted minimal taxes minimal state spending and Standard Oil Company He used persuasive tactics to get his bills passed He would write his own laws to enact his programs rather than break laws already established Reforms 0 Education 0 Thought education was every child s birthright 0 Had schools built in every community in LA o Pushes bill through legislature to provide free textbooks for children Before that parents had to buy their kids textbooks in order to go to school which was difficult for parents so not many kids went Also provided free bussing for kids to attend school Enacted an adult literacy program I Vocational schools I Night classes for adults to learn to read and write 0 Wanted high school graduates to attend college higher ed I Expands LSU it was small not a lot of educators not a lot of students He started this massive expansion of LSU bc he wanted it to be a topranked university in the south 0 Lowered tuition o nstituted scholarship programs 0 1936 enrollment at LSU tripled and became one of the state schools in the south Established the LSU medical school 0 Expanded LSU band loved LSU football cowrote the LSU fight song 00 Healthcare 0 Created free health facilities clinics etc 0 Provides immunizations throughout the state 0 Modernized health care equipment 0 Did a lot for patients and mentally ill patients 0 Provides modern healthcare in LA Public works 0 Modernized the infrastructure of LA 0 Constructed the LA State Capitol and a new governor s mansion these are symbols of his contributions to modernization 0 Created a modern highway system expanded it to 16k miles of paved roads originally 300 miles of it Builds more than 1k bridges in LA I This encourages commerce I Quality of life increases A new democracy 0 Gave them the right to vote for free Wants to eliminate the poll tax the poor couldn t pay it or show receipts I This was a democratic revolution The Bourbons worked to keep the poor from voting but he beat them I 1935 the tax would be repealed and it would double the electorate in LA Economic reform 0 Long shifts the public s perception of what they should expect from their gov t I Gov t pays for textbooks roads bridges etc I Positive consequences ppl save money and have the opportunity to rise socially and economically o Enacts the Homestead Exemption I Eliminated taxes for property that were valued at or less than 2k I With this exemption most of the ppl didn t have to pay this property tax I Still have this in place today 0 Had car license fees slashed I Eliminated property taxes on cars 0 Had all utility rates reduced 0 Enacts the Debt Moratorium Act I Served to protect ppl s property when they faced foreclosures I Made it easier for ppl to regain their property after it is seized from failure to pay property tax How did Long pay for his programs Long shifts the burden from the poor to lg businesses 0 Taxes them especially oil companies Uses the money to pay for his reforms like free textbooks Pisses off the businesses 0 Also funds his programs wbond measures Questionable means 0 His opponents thought he was corrupt and was misusing funds spending too much They called him a powerhungry dictator 0 Long used patronage to support his funds true He installs allies in all levels of gov t legislature state offices and uses threats intimidation I He said the end justified the means 0 He built his own political machine which he was the head of to take power away from his opponents Pretty much did the same thing the old guys were doing o In spite of his means he did provide services for the ppl and ran a pretty tight ship fiscally He didn t put the state in debt 0 Corporations are enraged o 1929 Huey calls a special session of the legislature to enact a 5barrel tax on refined oil Pisses off Standard Oil Co I Moved to impeach Huey Long Impeachment 1929 Charges ranged from misuse of funds abusive language etc He fights back claiming that there s a conspiracy going on in LA Said his opponents want to remove him from office using false charges against him in order to take over the state gov t Total of 19 charges brought against him 8 of which passed in the House So he s impeached in the House Faces possible conviction in the Senate He tries to get Senators on his side persuading them of his good nature and against impeachment Used maybe intimidation favors etc The Senators end up siding with him so there s not majority enough to impeach him After this he s more determined to crush his opponents Said he used to say please to get things done but now he s going to dynamite them out of his path making it impossible for them to defeat them He receives death threats Target of a driveby shooting in Nola His opponents thought he was evil talking about killing him was common So he gets a lot of bodyguards Following impeachment AntiLongs try to block some of his reforms especially the major roads initiative He decides it s time for him to run for Senate Senator 19321935 o 1930 Runs for US Senate 0 Thinks this will ensure no more opposition 0 He does become Senator in 1930 0 Doesn t vacate governorship right away afraid his opponents are going to retake power now that he s elected Senator o Clash wLt Governor Paul Cyr 0 He becomes governor o Huey s not too happy He fights back He hadn t yet taken the oath of office for Senator so he was still legally governor He calls the National Guard to have him vacate his office and claims that Cyr has deserted his position as Lt Governor The courts agreed President of State Senate becomes Lt Governor of LA 0 Alvin 0 King becomes Lt Governor 0 Friend of Huey s 0 Oscar K Allen becomes governor of LA 0 Childhood friend also from Winn Parish of Huey s Loyal supporter of Huey o Huey s political succession is assured in LA so he takes the oath of office of Senator in 1932 and moves to Washington He still dominates politics in LA governing through Allen 0 Allen completely supports everything Long wants done 0 Long the quotKingfishquot o Meant I m a small fish here in Washington But I m the Kingfish to the folks down in LAquot July 12th The dictatorship of Huey P Long 19331935 The Great Depression Long in the Senate and Franklin Delano Roosevelt Breaking with FDR Share Our Wealth and the Share Our Wealth Society The politics of race Opposition Continued control over LA Long Walmsley and the 1934 city election Enraging AntiLongs The Great Depression 0 Long believed the depression was the result of the inequality between the rich and the poor Blames capitalism Long in the Senate and FDR o Huey was a strong supporter of FDR and campaigned throughout the country for supporters He and FDR had the same idea of redistributing wealth 0 Supported Hatti Caraway a Senator friend s widow she was appointed to finish her husband s term Long campaigned for her she was a senator in AR 0 1932 Roosevelt was elected and won by a large margin He took the Progressive stance believed the gov t was supposed to serve the ordinary ppl He enacted a number of reforms to improve things for the ppl All of his reforms were called llthe new dealquot Breaking wFDR 0 Long thinks FDR s llNew Deal is inadequate o Thinks he s not being radical enough and has no intention of redistributing the country s wealth He begins opposing Roosevelt s policies 0 FDR s reforms a sellout to big business 0 Ex Long opposes NRA National Recovery Act the centerpiece of FDR s program and GlassSteagall Act I The NRA stimulated production inflate prices have leaders of corps enact fair codes of competition give minimum wage wmax work hrs labor unions GlassSteagall Act was passed to regulate banks control speculation regulate interest rates protect savings deposits Long thought this act favored lg nat l banks over state banks Long made speeches in the Senate criticizing Roosevelt for all of this He had his own plan to deal wthe Great Depression Share Our Wealth o Nat l program 0 Income redistribution scheme 0 Targeted millionaires I Taxed millionaires and gave it to the poor I Proposes to cap personal fortunes at 50 million dollars about 750 mill today through a federal tax code and capped the annual salary at 1 mill and family inheritances at 5 mill 0 Guaranteed minimal annual income for families I Social benefits for households 0 Free higher education and vocational training 0 Pensions for the elderly 0 Veterans benefits and health care 0 30 hrs work week 0 Federal assistance to farmers Public works projects Greater gov t regulation of the economy Denied that his program was Socialist like Karl Marx Said it was derived from the Bible and the Declaration of Independence He was afraid of civil unrest in the country and thought his plan would prevent this by reconstructing the economy and erasing wealth inequalities o The Senate didn t support it Share Our Wealth Society 0 Breaks wthe Dems to create this organization 0 llevery man a king 0 Was very popular wregular ppl 0 Organized a network of clubs throughout the nation 0 Reverend Gerald L K Smith 0 Nat l organizer of the society 0 Minister from Shreveport 0 Very effective in drawing crowds and public speaking 0 His Senate office received 60k letters a week 0 1935 27k Share Our Wealth clubs and 75 million members 0 At the time there were about 120 million Americans so there s a lot of ppl joining the organization 0 Ppl were attracted to him bc he was very charismatic was entertaining and bc he changed LA by enacting a lot of reforms to help the poor 0 Anyone could join his clubs Therefore it was free for AfricanAmericans to join as well AfricanAmericans actually created and ran Share Our Wealth clubs in LA The politics of race 0 Long uplift the poor both white and black 0 Long a racial liberal o Depicted as such by historians for a long time He was unbiased and also said he was quotcolorblind I One of his major supporters was T Harry Williams a history professor at LSU o Wrote a biography of Huey Long and won awards for it o Claimed he wasn t a racist he was a racial liberal I Not all historians believed this way Some said he was no different than the other guys and that his sympathy for blacks was opportunistic and expedient 0 We can t say he was a racial liberal but he did some stuff for blacks in LA Opposition o Labeled a quotcommunistquot a quotradicalquot a quotdemagoguequot and a quotdictatorquot o llHe was one of the two most dangerous men in America FDR o Often compared Long wHitler and Mussolini o Unpopular in the politics and the media 0 He said that ppl were hired to depict him in a negative light in the papers and he d counter the attacks by making nat l speeches on the radio He criticized both Dems and Repubs and Roosevelt s administration 0 FDR s administration polled the ppl s views and it said that Long was taking Dem votes from them FDR didn t like him 0 FDR decides to cut Long out of distribution of federal funds in LA 0 Also supports Senate inquiry into the election of Long supporters in order to discredit him Long was charged welection fraud and voter intimidation o Launched investigation into Long s finances to uncover where the money s coming from so they get the FBI on him They fail to find anything 0 All of Long s proposed bills and resolutions were rejected in the Senate Continued control over LA 19321935 0 Governor Oscar K Allen o Influenced by Long and practically did everything he told him to do 0 Long continues to draft and press bills through the LA State Legislature 0 Even though he didn t have the authority to do so since he was a Senator now 0 Alliance wThomas Semmes Walmsley mayor of Nola and the Old Regulars 0 To put Long supporters in power 70 of the vote for Allen came from these guys in Nola 0 When ppl opposed him he used his network of patronage to remove ppl from office 0 This is why they call it the dictatorship of Huey P Long I Even though he doesn t have authority in LA he still dominates the politics here Long Walmsley and the 1934 election 0 Old Regulars and Walmsley decide to sever relations wLong during this election Pisses Long off Political crisis 0 Long cuts Nola funds bc of this 0 He strips municipal gov t of its rights 0 Walmsley tries to rally ppl against Long Averting armed confrontation 0 Long sends the National Guard to the voter registration office and declares martial law 0 So Walmsley sends policemen to City Hall 0 In the end Walmsley and Long work out a truce and get the Guard and the police to leave 0 Long starts investigation into Walmsley s administration and continues stripping the municipal gov t of all of its powers Nola now basically has no power Enraged AntiLongs 0 Long consolidates his already tight political control over LA 0 Long punishes his political enemies Long now dominates politics in LA 0 The media is again against him Long starts taxing lg newspapers who are against him and publish bad stuffagainst him Said the tax was lla tax on lyingquot He surrounded himself wbodyguards and feared for his life but he strengthened the Long faction in LA But it won t end well for him July 13quot The Fall of All the King s Men 1935 Long and presidential ambitions Outmaneuvering the Share Our Wealth movement Increased tensions in LA Assassination Material legacy Ideological legacy 1935 last yr of Huey s life Long involved in presidential ambitions and dealing whis opponents Long and presidential ambitions 0 Long keeps his political options open 0 Journalists asked what his plan was His answers changed depending on his mood Sometimes he said he d support whatever candidate as long as the candidate was Progressive even if it meant crossing party lines He planned to have a Share Our Wealth ticket in the election 0 He said he may or may not run wasn t sure Kept his options open Any chances o Other critics of the New Deal 0 Father Charles Coughlin I Catholic priest who strongly opposed FDR I Lots of support 0 Dr Francis E Townsend I Doctor I Had his own plan for reducing poverty and ending the depression 0 These guys Coughlin and Townsend form the National Union for Social Justice and even have one running for president 0 Huey was the most dangerous candidate bc of his Share Our Wealth program I Lots of ppl wanted him dead 0 Share Our Wealth s mushrooming popularity 0 By 1935 75 million members in the Share Our Wealth society lots of support in both North and South 0 New Dealers worried he d run for president 0 FDR 0 Long is a serious threat to the Dems 0 Thought Long would steal his votes and create an upset in the nation Even though he couldn t win the presidency he wouldn t have enough votes he did have some power and was able to change things and create something different due to his widespread support He d have serious impact on the election of 1936 Outmaneuvering the Share Our Wealth Movement 0 Public criticism 0 Federal investigation 0 Loss of patronage o FDR removed some of Long s supporters from office and puts quotAntiLongitesquot into office He funded Long s enemies in order to get rid of him 0 Legislation 0 FDR stole Long s ideas and reforms by enacting some of Long s reforms Ex Social Security 0 During this time Long started preparing his campaign for the presidency He visited places gave speeches gathered funds from various ppl etc Increased tension in LA 0 Rumors of multiple plots to assassinate Long o Threats driveby shootings at his home 0 The threats actually strengthened his resolve to crush AntiLongites 0 Square Deal Association January 1935 o Paramilitary group civilians arming themselves including Walmsley and 4 governors 0 Storm the BR Courthouse and take the Courthouse I Governor Allen declares martial law and bans public gatherings of 2 or more person and forbids the publication of criticism of state officials I Square Dealers forced to leave Courthouse o Long s tight control over the state 0 Passes laws removing AntiLongites from office and appointing his supporters instead Assassination September 8 1935 0 Dr Carl Austin Weiss soninlaw of Judge Ben J Pavy 0 Long opponent 0 Long was threatening to remove Pavy from office 0 Stormed the Capital and shot Long 0 Weiss was shot immediately 61 times by Long s guards 0 Still rumors that Weiss actually wasn t the one who essentially killed him Rumors that one of his bodyguards did it o No one really knows his real reason for storming the Capital 0 The funeral was at the Capital 0 More than 200k mourners at his funerals 8x the population of BR at the time o Rose Long s wife took over his office as US Senator from LA Second woman to become US Senator Material legacy 0 Creation of a large activist state gov t 0 Did a lot of stuff for the ppl and helped them economically Ideological legacy 0 Created expectation that the state should provide tangible benefits for the ppl 0 Pushed FDR to the left 0 Long had a strong impact on the election and FDR gradually adopted policies to regulate the economy and provide for the ppl Social Security Veteran s benefits Medicareaid housing assistance 0 Enhanced the state s reputation for corruption 0 Created the state s main political division 0 After his death the state remains divided along proLongAntiLong lines 0 CONCLUSION to some he was the common man s person To others he was a dictator that needed to be taken down July 14 h CORRUPTION AND REFORMS 19361948 Successors Te LecheLong ticket 1936 and llThe Second Louisiana Purchase The llLouisiana scandals Governor Sam Houston Jones 19401944 GovernorJames Houston Davis 19441948 New Orleans politics P P PS JE Jquot Antilongs are going to come to power after his assassination For the next 30 years proanti longs are going to battle each other Most of these politicians are going to borrow his style social programs speaking style SUCCESSORS A OK Allen dies January 1936 and James A Noe becomes governor a Noe was the president of the senate b Noe was a strong Longite c He succeeds Allen as governor for a few months B Earl K Long a HPL s brother b 2 years younger c Also had ambitions to become governor one day C Longites had to unite if they wanted their faction to remain in power a Got together during the 1936 election b They did not choose Long or Noe c They chose Richard Leche THE LECHELONG TICKET 1936 1 Leche isa NOjudge 2 They campaigned on HPL s martyrdom a They called the antiLongites ticket the assassination ticket b They promise to carry on HPL s legacy i Social benefits mainly c They win the election in record breaking landslide i Swept all stateside offices and 5A of the state legislature ii Longites are still in power 3 Leche becomes governor a Born in NO b Degree from Loyola University Law School c He d always supported HPL had managed HPL s campaign for the senate seat d HPL had appointed Leche as Allen s secretary e Leche continued HPL s programs i Free schools supplies ii Builds roads hospitals schools f They were far less committed to wealth redistribution 39 At first he supports corporations and big business Seized a tax on oil Granting tax exemptions for new businesses iv One of the most corrupted LA governors g He reconciles with FDR in exchange for political favors i Deal Leche had to stop the Share Our Wealth program which FDR detested and support the New Deal in return FDR dropped investigation in the Long machine and restores patronage to LA 1 They called this the second LA purchase THE SECOND LA PURCHASE 1 Millions of federal funds arrive in LA a Share Our Wealth program disappears b Leche does much for LA with these funds c Expanded LSU d Build and modernize infrastructure e Implements pensions for the elderly increases school teachers paychecks creates a teacher tenure law creates a teacher s retirement f Leche is going to steal a lot of this money 2 This wave of corruption would be known as the Louisiana scandals of 1939 The llLouisiana Scandals of 1939 1 Journals expose these scandals a Exposed state officials including Leche 2 Federal investigation took over a Longites in alliance with the mafia 39 Frank Costello Struck a deal with HPL for slot machines in exchange HPL would get a share of the mob s profits iquot Hundreds of prominent were indicted iv James Monroe Smith was president of LSU at the time embezzled half a million dollars b And millions of dollars had been stolen 3 Leche was indicted and had to resign the governorship in 1939 and sentenced to prison for 10 years 4 Earl K Long was Lt Governor and is now governor a EKL was never implicated in any of the scandals The 1940 election is coming and EKL runs The LA scandals of 1939 didn t look good on EKL even if he had not been implicated it didn t help him with his campaign i Speeches from rural areas ii Used his brothers style 9 Attacking his opponents big business newspapers promising to carry on his brothers policies iv He lost to Antilongite who campaigned on a reform platform Sam Houston Jones GOVERNOR SAM HOUSTON JONES 19401944 1 For the first time in 12 years an AntiLongite is in power 2 Did continue several of HPL s programs a Funding state colleges b Aid to the elderly and the mentally ill c Providing free lunches for school children d Raising school teachers pay 3 Enacted several policies to remove the Long political machine and abolish laws that had been passed a Abolished the deduct system b Voter registration roles were to be investigated regularly c Creates several boards d His main goal is to remove longites from power i Yeah some of them were just straight up fired ii Enacts civil service legislation based on antiIongiteness partisan politics 4 The antilongites choose James Houston Davis to be next governor GOVERNORJAM ES HOUSTON DAVIS 19441948 1 Country singer form Shreveport 2 Campaigns for peace and harmony a Promises to get rid of the Long faction 3 EKL also campaigned in 1944 a Dreamed of Longites in power again b He campaigns on a HPL platform c He fails to secure the support of the old regulars in NO 4 Davis is also a reformer like Jones a Asserting the antiLongite dominance 5 Very popular in rural areas especially in the north 6 Did some positive things for LA a Established a state retirement system b Funded a lot of things public improvements throughout the state c Appointed a prominent antiLongite Cecil Morgan had led HPL s impeachment to LA civil service commission NEW ORLEANS POLITICS A HPL s relationship with Walmsley a Hated each other state of things after HPL s death B Leche wants to reconcile with old regulars NO a Strikes a deal Walmsley was to resign and Leche would replace him with a trusted supporter in exchange Leche would give back power to NO b Robert Maestri prolong C Maestri becomes Mayor of NO a He would be mayor for the next ten years b Mayoral elections had to happen in 1938 Leche passed an amendment canceling the municipal election until 1942 c Not very educated but very shrewd politician d Started the reintegration i Starts by reorganizing the fiscal structure e Developed a popular style i Conduct open sessions f Also used his relationship with the long machine to bring funds to NO g Of course he solidifies the longite control over the city using patronage etc h Reelected in 1942 D Maestri s second term a He let corruption and favoritism spread within his own administration in NO b Illegal gambling with the slot machines flourishes in NO prostitution flourishes c The citizens of NO are outraged d He is the mayor during WWII i Increased illegal activities in NO e The old regulars had had enough E 1946 municipal elections Maestri is out and they choose a reformer DeLesseps S quotChepquot Morrison a He is a young veteran b Promises to clean up the corruption in NO c Promises to remove Longites from power F Morrison was very popular in NO a Put a lot of efforts into developing in NO 39 Turn the city into a growing progressive city He attracted private investment into the city He had new industrial plants built iv He had oil industry corporate offices established in downtown v Enacted a huge public housing program a whole plan for urban renewal vi Building better and safer streets over and under passes eliminating railway crossings within the city limits viI Makes international connections 1 Has the support of Latin American presidents promotes trade with Latin Americans b He passes a law to limit the power of the mayor and makes his administration more efficient c Fires all Longite supporter gets rid of Maestri s administration d He created his own political administration modeled after the old regular machine the Crescent City democratic Association CCDA e Morrison would be elected 3 more times 1950 54 58 July 15 h Earl K Long and the Return of Longism Outline 1948 election Governor Earl K Long Opposition Control over LA and feud wMayor Morrison Corruption alliance worganized crime Attempt for Constitutional Convention 1950 Long counterattacks 1948 election 0 ProLong Earl K Long vs AntiLong Sam H Jones 0 Obviously was proLong 0 Jones had the support of antiLong Morrison mayor of Nola o EKL ls platform was llservice to the people 0 He described Jones platform as lldo nothingism 0 Jones won in Nola but didn t do well in the state Long won most of the parishes winning wan overwhelming majority all but 2 parishes 0 Jones said the people had to make a choice between progress and depravity and they chose depravity 0 Long becomes governor 0 His campaign was funded by organized crime mafia and the Old Regulars in Nola 0 Used humor tales anecdotes during his campaign 0 Earl A llrepresentative of the common man and a master campaigner 0 Background I Went to LSU and got his law degree from Loyola I Entered politics working in Huey s campaigns 0 He rep d the common man and dressed the part I He said vote for a man that looks and works like you and smells like you on Saturdays Very simplistic in his tactics very simple and not sophisticated in his manners and in his speeches I He was very intelligent and a very crude politician despite how he presented himself to the people 0 First politician to seek the black vote since the Reconstruction If you show colored people that you re their friend you ll be able to talk to them I He equalized the pay for white and black teachers I Wasn t necessarily a racial liberal even though he did help improve life for blacks Governor Earl K Long o In 1948 became governor 0 Carry on his brother s programs 0 Builds roads schools hospitals asylums o Focuses on employment job training education higher salaries old age pensions veterans bonuses charity hospitals and equalizing blackwhite teacher pay 0 To finance all of this he raised taxes in the beer gas tobacco liquor big business slot machines and increased severance tax on oil and natural gas I Taxes doubled at the time o A shrewd politician o Opponents said he was a dictator but he said he was improving people s lives 0 Promised opposite things to different groups about the same subject 0 A keen and intelligent sense of humor 0 He antagonized a lot of voters and had opponents but he still had a lot of support Opposition o Investigated by the IRS but they never found anything 0 Heavily criticized by LA newspapers 0 Said he was using convicts as free labor at his farm 0 Said his administration was stealing money to finance their own projects 0 They dislike his policies and his persona Sometimes he d spit and curse during his speeches which the press hated Control over LA and feuds with Mayor Morrison 0 Control of state agencies and abolish Civil Service 0 Wanted to put Longites back into power 0 Punish his opponents 0 Reduce the power of Mayor Morrison 0 EKL really didn t like him It was similar to HueyWalmsley s relationship 0 Removed many essential functions and resources in the city enacting antiMorrison legislation 0 Wanted him to be reduced to a regular Councilman 0 Popular support for Morrison 0 Morrison launches a counterattack he writes to state legislature archbishops and others 0 The press publish negative Long articles local and nat l newspapers 0 Leads a delegation of Nola citizens to BR to talk to EKL to express their grievances but Long refuses to see them Long said Morrison was a boy in a man s job 0 Morrison fails to prevent the passage of this antiLong legislation 0 1950 Morrison reelected in Nola by overwhelming majority I Long decides not to oppose Morrison and restores home rule in Nola I Long passes a Constitutional amendment giving Nola the right to choose their own form of city gov t and to adopt a city charter that can t be altered by the state Nola s free from Long Corruption alliance worganized crime 0 Huey Long Frank Costello and the slot machine business 0 Huey allowed Costello to put slot machines in LA even though they were illegal at the time 0 Carlos Marcello Costello and Marcello are two of his crime allies Friends wthe governor and Senators and state and federal judges in LA they d accept bribes o Controlled the head of the state police and the state dept of revenue 0 500k dollar contribution to EKL s campaign for governor o Prostitution and illegal gambling flourish 0 Long receives regular kickbacks and payoffs from mobsters OO Attempt for Constitutional Convention 1950 0 Long adopts a more moderate posture o Stopped increasing taxes sort of forced to o Buried the hatchet wMorrison 0 Long attempts to write a new constitution for LA o It would vastly increase governor s power 0 Opposition by antiLongites 0 Main opponent Morrison 0 Long repeals his call for a constitutional convention o Forced to and failed to write the new constitution Long counterattacks o Creates the Regular LA Democratic Assoc n proLong and antiMorrison I Enacted several bills such as the highway bill Every parish received the same amt of money to build their highways which Nola didn t like bc they thought they should get more 0 Refused t I install statewide voting machines I support big business in the state I reorganize state gov t o Fails I Morrison was popular and had a lot of support so in 1952 governor s election Long faces Morrison not as candidates but each back their own candidate for governor Morrison s candidate will win Long will fail to curb Morrison s power 0 July 16 h quotJust Plain Crazyquot Earl K Long and the End of Longism Outline 1952 Gubernatiorial Election Governor Robert F Kennon 1952 1956 1956 Gubernatorial Election Governor Earl Long Part II 19561960 Fighting with Leander H Perez and the Dixiecrats The Race Issue The Clash over Voter Registration 1959 quotJust Plain Crazyquot Death and Legacy 1952 Gubernatorial Election AntiLongite Robert F Kennon vs Longite Carlos Spaht Spaht was a judge E Long thought he would be able to control him once he was governor Long39s opponents called Spaht quotEarl39s Boyquot Kennon was a former attorney and general in the national guard In 1948 he ran for a senator seat and ran against Russell Long Huey39s son They think Kennon will be a good candidate Other Candidates don t need to know William J quotBillquot Dodd was a Longite He said he was the only true Longite in LA Hale Boggs he was an antiLongite James McLemore was a pharmacist and Dudley Joseph LeBlanc Kermit A Parker was a Pharmacist and first African American to run for governor Lucille May Grace first woman Kennon wins l During the first primary Spaht is leading but at the runoff Kennon wins the election He gathered almost 62 of the vote Political observers at the time that the election was a clear rejection of Longism Kennon becomes governor in 1952 he wanted to take a civics book approach he started to reestablish the states civil service system and restored the merit system upon which civic service system is based He makes sure that state employees cannot be fired He passes a law that at requires a 23 vote of the legislature to make any changes in the state so the state employees are protected from political harassment and dismissal Kennon also thought to reduce the power of the Governor Robert F Kennon 1952 1956 quotCivic39s book approach Civil Service system Reduced governor39s power Supported home rule for NOLA Focused on state finances Earl Long enacted heavy taxes but Kennon works to decrease the tax burden on the people and corporations And it now requires 23 vote to raise taxes Funded social programs Fought organized crime along with Franxis C Grevemberg Chief of Police Brown v Board of Education 1954 segregation in education is unequal Kennon becomes governor in 1952 0 he wanted to take a civics book approach 0 started to reestablish the states civil service system and restored the merit system upon which civic service system is based Makes sure that state employees cannot be fired Passes a law that at requires a 23 vote of the legislature to make any changes in the state so the state employees are protected from political harassment and dismissal 0 Also thought to reduce the power of the governor 0 He and Grevemberg destroyed slot machines and there were many raids on illegal activity casinos were shut down 0 Worked on getting rid of narcotics also getting rid of prostitution rings He obviously cannot get rid of everything but he did a good job on cleaning it up 0 A major event during his term was Brown vs Board of Education 1954 overturned Plessy vs Ferguson 1856 Brown vs Board Kennon refuses to oblige to the decisions made by the Supreme Court He supports segregation Kennon was a segregationist He was a reformer and enacted many social reforms which was good because it was cleaning up much of the corruption in the state In 1956 governors could only run for one term since he couldn39t be elected again so he supported Fred Preaus 1956 Gubernatoral Election Fred Preaus a car dealer Earl K Long runs again on his same platform Delesseps Morrison also campaigns Francis C Grevemberg head of the state police chief of police runs on the platform of his integrity James McLemore campaigns and he and campaigned in the last election and he said Kennon wasn t being tough enough on the segregation issue Long wins Long uses the same tactics he had used during his first term He had the backing of many corrupt rural sheriffs and local politicians He especially hated Morrison and often made fun of him and called him quotDelasoup Storytelling Morrisonquot He says that Morrison is too sophisticated and doesn t know anything about ruralcountry politics and used that against him to win the rural vote Long also made fun of his other opponents Made fun of Preaus being a car dealer and Grevemberg if you want to vote for a pretty man Long had won the first Democratic primary and that had never happened before not even with Huey and no runoff was necessary Governor Earl Long Part II 1956 1960 Bitter attacks upon Morrison and the NOLA press plus economic improvements for the city he enacts a series of bills Old Age and Welfare benefits highway construction funding raising teacher39s salaries grants for college students His programs high taxes fast and loose spending and spoilssystem politics is blocked He is unsuccessful because Kennon had prevented anyone from doing this without 23 votes Earl is not able to due what he used to as he first had like just firing employees and putting his supporters in their place State revenue increase due to the continued growth in oil and gas production Although he couldn t increase taxes he benefitted from the oil and gas production in LA Funds social programs public works programs etc The first three years of his term were good but in 1959 things change and Long goes quotcrazyquot Fighting with Leander H Perez and the Dixiecrats Perez Democratic quotpolitical bossquot of Plaquemine39s and St Bernard Parishes States39 Rights Democratic Party commonly known as the Dixiecrat Movement I It was a short lived segregationist and socially conservative political partymovement t tries to enforce segregation and is a breakaway from the democratic party These guys were determined to save the southern way of life and opposed the government They wanted Jim Crow Laws to remain In 1948 they actually nominated their own presidential candidate The Dixiecrats swept LA in 1948 Morrison supported the Dixiecrats Leander was a prominent opponent in segregation He opposed racial integration The White Citizens Council and the Louisiana JointLegislative Committee on Segregation oppose racial integration Leander Perez started this Long remained republican Long had sought the black vote during his first term and always shown good race relations and equalized the pay of black and white teachers and he saw all of them The White Citizens Council Perez Morrison as attacks on African American39s civil rights The Race Issue The Clash over Voter Registration 1959 State Senator Willie Rainach and segregationists seek to purge the rolls of black voters Long39s opposition and outcry in 1959 Long in May of 1959 he started a speech on the floor of the legislature verbally attacking the legislator39s and yelling at them The next day he started ranting and raving or two hours and he really looks like he has gone crazy Long goes crazy quotJust Plain Crazyquot Earl is flown to a mental hospital His family is so worried they fly him to a mental hospital in Texas and is later transferred to a hospital in NOLA and then he calls the guard and gets released and goes back to BR His family then sends him to a mental hospital in Mandeville He followed the members of the hospital of the board so that he could gain his freedom and leave the hospital He starts traveling in the nation and talking to reporters Psychotic behavior Long suffers from severe bipolar disorder symptoms Harassed by reporters one of the titles was quotJust Plain Crazyquot He had pulled a pillow case over his head so that reporters could not talk to him and many pictures were taken His opponents say he is a humiliation from the state of LA and they demand his resignation Death 1960 Election seeks the lieutenant governorship on a quotticketquot headed by James A Noe Nominated to the United States House of Representatives Has a heart attack and dies on September 5 1960