THE US 1865 TO PRES
THE US 1865 TO PRES HIST 2057
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Charles K Caldwell 1 16 13 HIST 2057 Reconstruction Wartime Reconstruction 18621864 Experiments with reconstruction started during the war The constitution does not answer two questions is the Union perpetual and can slavery continue indefinitely Emancipation Proclamation 1863 It ended slavery in southern controlled states Proclaimed all those enslaved in Confederate territory to be forever free and ordered the Army and all segments ofthe Executive branch to treat as free all those enslaved in ten states that were still in rebellion thus applying to 31 million ofthe 4 million slaves in the US P 39 39 of Amnesty and Reconstruction10 Plan Lincoln s plan to reunite the Union Lincoln s plan does nothing for black civil rights Many republicans in Congress disagreed with Lincoln s plan saying it was too lenient Radical republicans wanted legislation to protect free black men as well 1 Pardoning confederates who signed an oath of allegiance to the Union Excluded government and military leaders 2 Recognition of any southern states government provided that 10 of the state s voters pledged their allegiance to the US then that state could hold a constitutional convention create a constitution and be readmitted to the Union 3 Return of political rights and land to the confederates 4 Protection of lower ranking confederates from trial and execution 5 Prosecution of confederate militarycivilian official who left the Union would be prosecuted Confederates who had committed torture or executed Union soldiers would be prosecuted Who should be in charge of Reconstruction Wade Davis Bill a bill proposed for the Reconstruction of the South written by two Radical Republicans Senator Benjamin Wade of Ohio and Representative Henry Winter Davis of Marylandn contrast to President Abraham Lincoln s more lenient Ten Percent Plan the bill made re admittance to the Union for former Confederate states contingent on a majority in each Southern state to take the Ironclad oath to the effect they had never in the past supported the Confederacy Radical republicans wanted to disenfranchise confederates and appoint military Union governors Also civil rights and voting rights to blacks Emancipation and then What Land redistribution A Free labor system 0 The army redistributed land to give black people land to farm The government also gave mules to freed men The Freedmen s Bureau Rented land to African Americans who would then be able to buy the land The church is very important to the black community literacy is also important Black and white teachers established schools in the south for black students Presidential Reconstruction 18651866 Andrew Johnson Lincoln is dead and his Vice President Andrew Lincoln is appointed The war is over and at first it wasn t clear whether Johnson would continue Lincoln s policies or adopt different policies Johnson was born in Tennessee and was raised poor and had a disdain for wealthy southern plantation owners Like Lincoln he believed that the Union was perpetual and he would also fight to reunify the nation Johnson adopted a mild reconstruction plan milder than Lincoln Johnson told southern states to hold conventions and they only had to abolish slavery to be readmitted to the Union Johnson also left out anything for former slaves on voting rights Black Codes Laws in the United States after the Civil War with the effect of limiting the civil rights and civil liberties of blacks Even though the US constitution originally discriminated against blacks and both Northern and Southern states had passed discriminatory legislation from the early 19th century the term quotBlack Codesquot is used most often to refer to legislation passed by Southern states at the end of the Civil War to control the labor migration and other activities of newly freed slaves All black men had to sign labor contracts which tied them to an employer they could not own land and any African American accused of vagrancy could be sentenced to hard labor on chain gangs Whites could physically abuse blacks without fear of punishment President Johnson ordered the freedman s bureau to return all confiscated land to southerners and blacks who had settled on that land were evicted Congress was outraged Congress wants a more active federal government in the south and protection for African Americans The Freedman s Bureau Bill Extended the life of the agency and also increased its authority to help freedmen Civil Rights Act of 1866 a United States federal law that was mainly intended to protect the civil rights of AfricanAmericans in the wake of the American Civil War The Act was enacted by Congress in 1865 but vetoed by President Andrew Johnson Granted citizenship to African Americans safe guarded civil liberties ME Amendment One of the Reconstruction Amendments ts Citizenship Clause provides a broad definition of citizenship that overruled the Supreme Court s ruling in Dred Scott v Sandford 1857 that had held that black people could not be citizens of the United States Congress and President Johnson are at war with each other and many in the South did not take kindly to the Civil Rights Act and the 14th Amendment Riots erupted in the south and the Ku Klux Klan was founded in 1866 by Nathan Bedford Forest There is a need for radical change Voters will turn to Radical Republicans Reconstruction 11813 1 Radical Reconstruction 2 Ulysses S Grant and the 1868 Election 3 Grant and the 1872 Election Radical Reconstruction 1867 1St reconstruction Act 0 Military reconstruction Act Divided the south into military control zones 0 Tenure of Office Act President is unable to dismiss politicians who had been confirmed by the senate The president cannot remove any politician he does not like 0 Command of Army Act Military orders go to a commanding general not the president 2nd Reconstruction Act the army was in charge of voter registration gm Amendment prohibits each government in the United States from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen s quotrace color or previous condition of servitudequot for example slavery It was ratified on February 3 1870 0 Southern states were forced to ratify the 15th amendment in order to reenter the Union Congress decides to impeach President Johnson because he violates the tenure of office act and the slander of congress Carpetbagge White people from the north who came south for financial opportunity Scalawag Whites native to the South who supported reconstruction and the Republican party after the civil war The Republican Party is diverse with poor wealthy white and black people Because of this it is hard to unite the Republicans Some Republicans embezzle funds in the South or take bribes Republicans built roads prison and built homestead exemptions to protect farmers They abolished slavery and the black codes Violence Posed a serious threat to African Americans in the South from the KKK Many whites in the North feel like Radical Republicans have gone too far Some in Northern states are not happy with blacks voting President Johnson still encouraged white southerners to resist radical reconstruction 1868 Election Issues of the Civil War dominated and the Republicans run Ulysses S Grant V Horatio Seymour Grant is popular and acted as a reminder that Republicans had won the war Grant said quotlet us have peace in his acceptance letter Violence Southern Democrats tried to prevent blacks from voting Scandal and Corruption characterize his two terms in office Grant was an honest man but was unable to control others and surrounded himself with people who were not honest Grant had little political experience 1872 Election Liberal moderate Republicans Left the party because they don t agree with the reconstruction policies Radical and Liberal Republicans nominate their own candidates Horace Greeley is the Liberal Republican Candidate Democrats nominate the same candidate Greeley opposed the presence of the army in the south and wanted to end reconstruction Despite scandals and corruption Grant is reelected in 1872 Reconstruction 12313 1872 Republican Ulysses Grant is reelected Panic of 1873 a financial crisis which triggered a severe international economic depression in both Europe and the United States that lasted until 1879 Banks failed businesses cut back on employment and a downturn begins Grant and the republican government refused to intervene As the nation turns its attention to labor unrest the Republican commitment to radical reconstruction disappears In 1874 midterm elections are won by the Democrats Economic Depression Labor Unrest Civil Rights Act of 1875 guaranteed African Americans equal treatment in public accommodations public transportation and prohibited exclusion from jury service The Supreme Court decided the act was unconstitutional in 1883 Redeeming the South Their goal is to bring back the South to Democratic control By 1876 only three states have governments controlled by Republicans The election was disputed heavily Compromise of 1877 Democrats agree that Republican Hayes would become president with the withdrawal of federal troops in the South The Democrats now control all southern states in the South The Democratic party in the South becomes the only viable political institution The New South Redeemers romanticized the antebellum South and the Lost Cause The redeemers don t want government intrusion and they did not focus on things like education or industry The Lost Cause an interpretation of the Civil War from the perspective of the Confederacy They sought to present the war in the best possible light Sharecropping a system of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crop produced on the land eg 50 of the crop It is considered wage slavery Crop Lien System A system of credit A way for farmers to get credit before the planting season by borrowing against the value for anticipated harvests Local merchants provided food and supplies all year long on credit when the cotton crop was harvested farmers turned it over to the merchant to pay back their loan Jim Crow Laws state and local laws in the United States enacted between 1876 and 1965 They mandated legal racial segregation in all public facilities in Southern states of the former Confederacy with starting in 1890 a quotseparate but equalquot status for African Americans Disenfranchisement the revocation of the right of suffrage the right to vote of a person or group of people or rendering a person s vote less effective or ineffective Disfranchisement may occur explicitly through law or implicitly by intimidation or by placing unreasonable requirementsLegally African Americans have the right to vote but redeemers set up many obstacles to stop the black vote Differing Viewpoints Booker T Washington More compromising WEB Dubois Less Compromising Plessy v Ferguson 1896 Separate but equal the Separate Car Act in New Orleans LA The law required segregation within trains The civil rights group hired Plessy to be arrested for sitting in the white section of a car in order to challenge LA separate but equal laws This case goes to the Supreme Court in 1896 Plessy s lawyers argued that the separate car laws violated the US constitution In May 1896 the court ruled against Plessy and said that the separate car act did not violate the constitution under the Equal Protection Clause This case laid down the foundation for Separate but Equal Laws The West and Indian Polic 12513 1 Settling the West 2 The Western Economy 3 Destruction of Indian Life and Culture Anglo American Migration The Homestead Act 1862 several United States federal laws that gave an applicant ownership of land typically called a quothomesteadquot at little or no cost The societies ofthe West Native Americans 0 Sioux Indians were the most powerful tribe in the West They were unable to unite against white aggression and vulnerable to diseases Hispanics the Spanish had controlled the southwest ofthe US for generations Chinese Immigrants came to California for the gold rush Destruction of Indian Life and Culture Manifest Destiny Reservations Wars Dawes Severalty Act 1887 Battle of Little Bighorn Wounded Knee l Iquot 5 Industrial Development in the USA Late 1800s Early 1900s Contributing Factors The Rise of Big Business A New Social Order Railroading will become a highly profitable business and will form the cornerstone of the new industrialized economy ofthe USA Natural Resources raw materials in the form of coal oil lumber iron etc were abundant at this time in America Large growing labor supply which meant more people working in factories Domestic market for manufactured goods is expanding because more and more people are moving to the cities It is the birth ofthe consumer culture Technological development also explains the growth of the nation Steel production in places like Pittsburgh Detroit and Chicago As steel production spreads new machines and transportation systems emerge as well For example new and more powerful steam engines are created The oil industry also boomed The creation of gasoline of course leads to the creation of automobiles Airplanes are also built The federal government was eager to assist the growth of business Rise of Big Business Horizontal ntegration a type of ownership and control It is a strategy used by a business or corporation that seeks to sell a type of product in numerous markets Vertical Integration a company owns all levels of production Vertically integrated companies in a supply chain are united through a common owner Andrew Carnegie Wealthiest and most famous industrialist in the US John D Rockefeller Owned Standard Oil Co JP Morgan quotRobber Baronsquot a derogatory term applied to wealthy and powerful 19th century American businessmen By the late 1800 s the term was typically applied to businessmen who used what were considered to be exploitative practices to amass their wealth New Social Order Class Divisions 0 The Very Rich 0 The Middle Class 0 The Working Class Social Darwinism an ideology of society that seeks to apply biological concepts of Darwinism or of evolutionary theory to sociology and politics often with the assumption that conflict between groups in society leads to social progress as superior groups outcompete inferior ones The Gospel of Wealth quotThe Gospel of Wealthquot is an article written by Andrew Carnegie in 1889 that describes the responsibility of philanthropy by the new upper class of self made rich The central thesis of Carnegie s essay was the peril of allowing large sums of money to be passed into the hands of persons or organizations ill equipped mentally or emotionally to cope with them Charles K Caldwell 1 30 13 Labor and Immigration 1 Industrial Workers in the New Economy a Loss of Control b Poorly Paid i Poverty among the working class 20 centshour c Child Labor 2 Unions and Strikes a Unions i National Labor Union 1866 1873 1 Middle Class did not like Unions and associated the members with radicals ii Knights of Labor 1869 1890s 1 Welcomed everyone skilled unskilled African American white women 700000 members Collapsed due to unsuccessful strikes ii American Labor Federation AFL 1881 1 Will become the most importantenduring labor group in the USA They did not include everyone urban skilled workers only b Strikes i Railroad Strike 1877 ii Bombing of Haymarket Square 1886 iii The Homestead Strike 1892 1 Pittsburgh Carnegie made cuts to wages and Carnegie hired Pinkertons to put an end to the strike iv The Pullman Strike 1894 1 Chicago Wage cuts Eugene Debs Socialist was the leader of the strike 3 Immigration and Cultural Problem a The Ethnic City i 87 of the population is foreign born in the late 19th century Millions of immigrants came to the cities b Americanization c Nativism Bill the Butcher Charles K Caldwell 2 1 13 Urban Landscape Creation of Public Spaces ReBuilding and Planning 1893 Columbian Exposition Housing Tenement Buildings shitty small apartments for immigrants to live Urban Transportation 1870 NYC opens first elevated railway Chicago experiments with cable cars Richmond VA Electric Trolley Hundreds of cities will adopt the electric trolley 1897 Boston opens the 1St subway The Skyscraper Buildings were no more than 5 stories high in the olden days Strains of Urban Life Great Fire of Chicago 1871 Fucked shit up Environmental Degradation Was visible but not known in the time There was improper disposal of human animal and industrial waste Poverty Settlement Houses ex Hull House a reformist social movement beginning in the 1880s and peaking around the 1920s in England and the US with a goal of getting the rich and poor in society to live more closely together in an interdependent community Its main object was the establishment of quotsettlement housesquot in which volunteer middle class quotsettlement workersquot would live hoping to share knowledge and culture with and alleviate the poverty of their low income neighbors Crime and Violence The police departments of many cities evolved to fight the growing crime demands The Political Machine It was a party organization headed by a single boss or small autocratic group that commands enough votes to maintain political and administrative control of a city county or state Replacing the city government Bosses Patronage corruption Helped immigrants vote Mostly rish Mass Consumption and Leisure Rise of Mass Consumption People don t make things they buy them Department stores and chain stores are on the rise This will afford women with more opportunities like jobs as salesclerks at a store or waitresses Important Changes in Popular Culture Americans have more time off now and begin to search for new forms of entertainment Sports and movies become popular as people want more entertainment Charles K Caldwell 2 4 13 Intellectual Developments Literature 0 Writers who criticized society Upton Sinclair Art Ashcan School 0 a realist artistic movement that came into prominence in the United States during the early twentieth century best known for works portraying scenes of daily life in New York s poorer neighborhoods Darwinism o The widespread acceptance of the Theory of Evolution Religious Revivalism Dwight L Moody 0 An American evangelist Billy Sunday 0 an American athlete who after being a popular outfielder in baseball s National League during the 1880s became the most celebrated and influential American evangelist during the first two decades of the 20th century Legislate Morality Comstock Laws Anti Polygamy Laws Anti Gambling Laws Divorce Laws Anti Liquor Laws Anti Abortion Laws NRA National Reform Association Charles K Caldwell 2 6 13 Gilded Age Politics 0 Party Politics 0 Stable Party System 0 Huge Voter Turnout 0 Local Political 0 Presidential Politics 0 Grover Cleveland I Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 I Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 0 Benjamin Harrison 1888 1892 I McKinleyTariff Act 1890 I The Sherman Anti Trust Act 1890 The Rise of PopulismI 2 8 13 HIST 2057 1 Trouble for Farmers a The railroads b The Tariff i McKinley Tariff hurt farmers c Overproduction and Foreign Competition i Southern cotton competing with India ii Western wheat competing with Russian wheat 2 Farmer s Organizations a Difficult to organize farmers because of geographic reasons They are also very economically independent b Organizations i The Grange late 19th century 1 Social self help organization It had its origins in Post Civil War America quot Oliver Kelley toured the South and was appalled by the conditions in which farmers lived He left the government and founded the Grange 3 Goals bring farmers together and create a sense of community The Grange also taught farmers new scientificAg techniques 4 The grange formed Co ops They urged for cooperative political action by electing state legislators They worked within existing parties but also ran their own candidates In the 1890s the Grange lost membership due to mismanagement ii The Farmer s Alliance 1 Cooperation Education Economic Policies 2 National Political Alliance a Ocala Platform National events in which they called for more money in circulation 3 The People s Party known as the Populist Party 3 The Populist Party a Omaha Platform 1892 i Single term presidents Rise of Populisml 2 15 13 1 The Crisis of the 1890s a Panic of 1893 Economic Depression i Prosperous corporations declared bankruptcyfailed Together these two companies triggered a collapse ofthe stock market b Social Unrest i Coxey s Army a protest march in Washington by unemployed workers from the United States led by Ohio businessman Jacob CoxeyThey were barred from entering the capital and Coxey is arrested c The Money Question i Crime of 1873 Coinage Act of 1873 embraced the gold standard and demonetized silver Western mining interests and others who wanted silver in circulation years later labeled this measure the quotCrime of 73quot ii 1890 Sherman Silver Purchase Act repealed 1 Required the government to purchase silver and pay for the silver with gold iii Goldbugs v Silverites The Silverites were members of a political movement in the United States in the late 19th century that advocated that silver should continue to be a monetary standard along with gold as authorized under the Coinage Act of 1792 The Silverite coalition s famous slogan was quot16 to 1quot that is the ratio of sixteen ounces of silver equal in value to one ounce of gold a ratio similar to that established in the Coinage Act of 1834 2 quotA Cross of Goldquot a William McKinley b William Jennings Bryan In the address Bryan supported bimetallism or quotfree silverquot which he believed would bring the nation prosperity He decried the gold standard concluding the speech quotyou shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of goldquot Bryan s address helped catapult him to the Democratic Party s presidential nomination it is considered one of the greatest political speeches in American history i Bryan s Cross of Gold Speech c Birth of Modern Campaigning 3 The Conservative Victory a 1896 Presidential Election i Death of the populist party Imperialism The Manifest Destiny Overseas Reasons 0 Closing of the frontierFrederick Jackson Turner I People were scared that there were no more resources within the country and the US has to look elsewhere to find them 0 An outlet for frustrations I Focus people s frustrations out ofthe country 0 Commercial Growth 0 Compete Internationally I Compete Britain and France 0 Social DarwinismThe White Man s Burden 0 Alfred Thayer Mahan His concept of quotsea powerquot was based on the idea that countries with greater naval power will have greater worldwide impact it was most famously presented in The Influence of Sea Power Upon History 1660 1783 1890 o Venezuelan Crisis I The quotOlney Extensionsquot to the Monroe Doctrine Asserted US hegemony in the western hemisphere I 0 Hawaii Samoa 0 Monroe Doctrine f European powers enter the Americas SouthCentral then it was viewed as an act of aggression War with Spain 0 Yellow Journalism 0 The Lome Letter USS Maine 0 Cuban War for Independence against Spain 0 Teller Amendment 0 Rough RidersTheodore Roosevelt o Platt Amendment I Gave the US a permanent military base at Guantanamo Bay 0 The Philippines The US fought the Spanish and took the Philippines as a territory 0 Imperialists v Anti Imperialists I Carnegie and Jennings Bryan were anti imperialist Laborers and farmers were also worried about the people that would flood the labor force from other countries The Open Door 0000 China John Hay Open Door Notes The Boxer Movement Roosevelt Becomes President 1900 ProgressivismI a broadly based reform movement that reached its height early in the 20th century and is generally considered to be middle class and reformist in nature It arose as a response to the vast changes brought by modernization such as the growth of large corporations and railroads and fears of corruption in American politics In the 21st century progressives continue to embrace concepts such as environmentalism and social justice Social progressivism the view that governmental practices ought to be adjusted as society evolves forms the ideological basis for many American progressives The Nature of Progressivism o Reform Movement I Muckrakers targeted corporations and the government political machines to find corruption I The Social Gospel Fusion of Christianity and social welfare along with issues such as racism The opposite of major conservative religious groups today They cared about poor people I The Settlement House a reformist social movement beginning in the 1880s and peaking around the 1920s in England and the US with a goal of getting the rich and poor in society to live more closely together in an interdependent community Training ground for many women Eleanor Roosevelt was a social worker for this movement 5 Themes 0 Democracy I The secret ballot The key aim is to ensure the voter records a sincere choice by forestalling attempts to influence the voter by intimidation or briberyThey used other aspects of o Efficiency Knowledge and Expertise along with Professionalism Removing the untrained and incompetent and replacing them with trained people 0 Regulate Large Corporations Louis D Brandeis 0 Social Justice Triangle Shirtwaist Co 1911 Progressives want to stop child labor and limit the hours of work for women 0 Prohibition Women and Reform Progressivisml Theodore Roosevelt 42 when elected 0 Trust Buster I He revived the 1890 Sherman Anti Trust Act to limit monopolies 0 Labor Policy I Department of Commerce and Labor 0 Square Deal I Hepburn Railroad regulation Act 1906 I The Meat Inspection Act 1906 0 Required federal inspectors to examine meat to eliminate diseases I The Pure Food and Drug Act 1906 o Restrict the sale of ineffective medicine and bad food I Conservation and Preservation o Believed trained experts in forestry and resource management should be supported William Howard Taft 0 Trust busting o The Tariff I Payne Aldrich Tariff a bill lowering certain tariffs on goods entering in the US 0 Ballinger Pinchot Controversy o Taft v Roosevelt and 1912 election I Progressive Party of 1912 I TaftRoosevelt split the Republican party when Taft is picked for the GOP Roosevelt forms the Progressive party which takes many votes away from Taft Roosevelt and Wilson offer two types of Progressivism O o Roosevelt v Woodrow Wilson D I New Nationalism v New Freedom I New Nationalism Roosevelt enable social justice minimum wage laws I New Freedom Wilson Wilson did not champion the use ofthe federal government to regulate the economy httpenwiltinerlia nrgwikiNew 39 quot quot39 quot httplenwikipediaorgwikiThe New Freedom Wilson Woodrow Wilson 0 Tariff Reform I Underwood Simmons Tariff 1913 0 Banking I Federal Reserve Act 1913 0 Trust Busting I Clayton Anti Trust Act 1914 I Federal Trade Commission Act 1914 EXAM 2 The United States as a World Power Roosevelt and quotBig Stick Diplomacyquot o Roosevelt and Civilization I Was a social Darwinist and imperialist and thought there was a clear difference between civilized and uncivilized nations Civilized White industrial countries Uncivilized Non white supplied raw materials I Civilized nations had a duty to intervene in the affairs of uncivilized nations Once they industrialized they could join the ranks of civilized nations 0 Protecting the Open Door in Asia I The Great White Fleet o Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine 0 Panama Canal I Hay BunauVarilla Treaty 1903 Taft and quotDollar Diplomacyquot Wilson quotMissionary Diplomacyquot Charles K Caldwell 3 1 13 The Great War The Road to War 0 O O O O Franz Ferdinand is assassinated by a Serbian nationalist Wilson wanted US neutrality but he will eventually side with the interventionists as tensions with Germany grow The sinking of a US passenger ship helped the US get involved Pacifists v Interventionists Wilson Reconstructing a New World Order The Zimmerman telegram forced the US into the war The telegram was from Germany to Mexico telling them to attack the United States The Russian Revolution is Russia replaces the monarchy with a Republican government so the US thought it was okay to ally itself with Russia and join the war The United States in World War O O O O Naval assistance Selective Service Act 1917 The American Expeditionary Force AEF General John J Perishing Second Battle of Marne 1918 The War and American Society 0 O Mobilizing the Economy I Liberty Bonds New Taxes I The war industries bond the national war labor board Economic and Social Gains I 19th Amendment I The Great Migration 3 4 13 History World War One Wilsons 14 Points League of nations The Paris Peace Conference 1918 The Treaty of Versailles 1919 Germany lost its colonies and paid billions of dollars of reparations Wilsons Ordeal In the US and the US senate there was opposition to the Treaty 0 They were afraid the US would be committed on an international level Wilson embarked on a speaking tour for the Treaty and become sick then succumbed to a stroke A Society in Turmoil Labor Unrest Racial Tensions Chicago Race Riots NAACP Black NationalismMarcus Garvey The quotRed Scare Comintern The American Communist Party Palmer Raids Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti Charles K Caldwell 3 6 13 The New Economy New technologies 0 Cars are cheaper Economic organization Workers and Welfare Capitalism Farmers A Modern Culture Consumerism 0 Makeup cars etc The allowed for the growth of a quotyouth culture as teens could be freer from their parents Advertising 0 Now used to persuade and not convey information 0 Bruce Barton called Jesus a great salesman The Movies Impact of Black Culture 0 Jazz 0 The Harlem Renaissance Emergence of the quotNew Woman The New Deal Banking regulation 0 Emergency banking relief act 0 Glass stegall banking reform I Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Regulate the Stock Market 0 Securities and Exchange Commission SEC Help Farmers 0 Agricultural Adjustment Administration Regional Planning 0 Tennessee Valley Authority Reduce unemployment by hiring local workers to construct dams Launching the New Deal Growth of fedral relief 0 Money to the states I Federal emergency relief administration FERA o Create Jobs I Civil Works Administration CWA I Civilian Conservation Corps CCC 0 Mortgage relief I Farms credit act I The home owner s loan act Industrial Recovery The national Industrial Recovery Act NIRA 0 National Recovery Administration NRA 0 Public Works Administration PWA The Indian Reorganization Act Critics of the New Deal Critics from the Right 0 Al Smith and the American Liberty League 0 BB Critics From the Far Left 0 Francis E Townsend 0 Charles Coughlin o Huey P Long I Share Our Wealth Program The March Towards War Disarmament The Washington Conference of 1921 0 Five Power Treaty I US FrenchJapanese British Italian 0 Four Power Treaty I US Japan British and French I Required them to respect the boundaries of each other s boundaries in the Pacific 0 Nine Power Treaty I Open Door Policy in China pledged by several nations to respect China s territorial boundaries Kellogg Briand Pact of 1928 War Debts and Reparations France and Britain borrowed money from the US for WWI and they had to repay those loans The Dawes Plan 0 The Allies occupation ofthe Ruhr industrial area contributed to the hyperinflation crisis in Germany The plan provided for their leaving the Ruhr and a staggered payment plan for Germany s payment of war reparations Because the Plan resolved a serious international crisis Dawes shared the Nobel Peace Prize in 1925 for his work By 1932 all European nations stopped paying back the US and it reinforced the isolationist mentality of the US Americans wanted neutrality and isolationism The Rise of Fascism in Europe and the Crisis in Asia Italy and Benito Mussolini 0 Italy took over a Albania and Mussolini withdrew from the League of Nations Germany and Adolf Hitler 0 Economic crisis in Germany helped Hitler rise to power in Germany and the Nazi party appealed to many Germans at the time Nazis pointed out the injustices of the treaty of Versailles of 1919 They also blamed the troubles on the Jews Spain and Francisco Franco 0 Spanish Civil War Japan 0 Second Sino Japanese War 1937 American Initial Response Neutrality The Johnson Debt Default Act 1934 Reciprocal Trade Agreement 1934 Good Neighbor Policy The Rise of Isolationism The Nye Commission Neutrality Acts Cash and Carry Policy Anschluss Sudentenland Czechoslovakia Poland The Munich Conference World War II From Neutrality to Intervention Neutrality Tested Neutrality Act of 1939 allowing for arms trade with belligerent nations on a cash and carry basis The Blitzkrieg In France the Vichy government is established Hitler Wanted to invade Great Britain The Burke Wadsworth Conscription Act Selective Service Lend Lease Policy The law that started a program under which the United States of America supplied the United Kingdom the USSR Republic of China Free France and other Allied nations with materiel between 1941 and 1945 It was signed into law on March 11 1941 a year and a half after the outbreak of World War II in Europe in September 1939 This was nine months before the US entered the war in December 1941 Formally titled An Act to Further Promote the Defense of the United States the Act effectively ended the United States pretense of neutrality The Atlantic Charter The pivotal policy statement first issued in August 1941 that early in World War II defined the Allied goals for the post war world It was drafted by Britain and the United States and later agreed to by all the Allies The Charter stated the ideal goals of the war no territorial aggrandizement no territorial changes made against the wishes of the people restoration of self government to those deprived of it free access to raw materials reduction of trade restrictions global cooperation to secure better economic and social conditions for all freedom from fear and want freedom ofthe seas and abandonment ofthe use offorce as well as disarmament of aggressor nations Pearl Harbor Tripartite Pact and the Axis o a pact signed in Berlin Germany on September 27 1940 which established the Axis Powers of World War II Trade Embargo Pearl Harbor December 7 1941 War Containing the Japanese 0 Battle of Coral Sea 0 Battle of Midway o Guadalcanal Holding off the Germans North Africa 0 General Rommel Desert Fox 0 General Dwight D Eisenhower He landed troops in Algeria and Morocco Stalingrad Sicily Italy World War III Part 2 The peoplein wartime The retreat from reform and the 1944 presidential election The People in Wartime Prosperity production brought about prosperity ended the great depression Labor No Strike Pledge Smith Connally Act the president has the power to seize and let the government operate a facility in wartime If there is a strike Stabilizing the Boom Anti inflation Act and Office of Price Administration Rationing Program The War Effort The War Production Board Taxes and War Bonds African Americans Tuskegee Pilots NAACP Double V Campaign for victory at home Equality and victory in war The Fair Employment Practices Commission They investigate unfair hiring policies for blacks Roosevelt authorized the relocationinternment ofJapanese citizens in America The Retreat from Reform and the 1944 Presidential Election World War III Part 3 The Defeat of the Axis The allies launch a series of powerful attacks that led to victory in Europe and the Pacific The Tehran Conference Stalin Churchill and Roosevelt The Liberation of France Operation OverlordGeneral Dwight D Eisenhower D Day June 6 1944 0 Poor landing conditions logistical errors and German MG positions The Battle of the BulgeGeneral Omar Bradley 0 Only real resistance after D Day that the allies received in the Belgian forests Hitler s Final Solution The Holocaust The Pacific Offensive 0 Gen MacArthur and Admiral Nimitz o Island HoppingCampaign I Battle of Leyte Gulf near the Philippines is a major Naval battle Kamikaze Pilots The Atomic Bomb The Manhattan Project 0 Secret bomb project created by Roosevelt at the behest of Einstein Dr J Oppenheimer 0 Head of the Research team Alamogordo NM 0 Trinity test site UnconditionalSurrender o Arguments for and against the atomic bomb Some critics actually worked on the Manhattan project B 29 Bomber Enola Gay Hiroshima and Nagasaki Mending a Divided Nation Reconstruction 18651877 82613 1 Abraham Lincoln and Reconstruction a D39 D e Andrew Johnson and Reconstruction a II D39 C 110 of the voting population of a succeeded state has to take a oath of allegiance to the country for that state to form a new state government The voting population is usually less than the actual population and only 110 of them have to take the oath So it s a very lenient law It s much more concerned about reunion rather than equality for the freed slaves The new states have to i Accept that they must abolish slavery ii repudiating succession can t succeed ever again Louisiana is the first state to be admitted back to the union after following this law Lincoln made laws while the war was still happening Johnson is much more lenient than Lincoln he appoints governors to states that have not been admitted back into the Union By the end of 1865 all states but Texas were readmitted to the Union under Johnson s policy Texas followed in 1866 Also by the end of 1865 the thirteenth amendment was put into effect Abolishing Slavery throughout the United States i Black codes laws that prohibit African Americans from doing certain things Even though these southern states don t have slavery they are passing all these laws to restrict African Americans from being equal Northerners Republicans are very upset at southern states are doing this because they feel that the whole point of the war is wasted iv The same people that were in charge before the Civil War are the same people in charge after the Civil War they have greater power after the war though because African Americans now are counted as a person Before they were counted as 35 of person This means the southern d D III 039 states have larger populations This means they get more delegates to represent the state This means they get more people elected BUT who s voting them into government The only people who can vote The white land owning men who don t like African Americans to begin with Freedman s Bureau created to help free slaves become better citizens It taught them how to be good citizens within their communities Fourteenth Amendment You cannot take the rights away from someone simply because of their race African Americans gain citizenship Doesn t give the right to vote to African Americans because only white land owning men can vote anyways BUT if a certain group is forbidden to vote then that group that cannot vote is not counted into the population of that state Either way Republicans win Their main concern is that they can attain control of congress It s not really about the African Americans as people 1 If African Americans are able to vote then they will vote republican But if southern states don t let the AA vote then they don t get to elect as many officials iv Andrew Johnson encourages the southern states not to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment Radical Republican Reconstruction a Johnson and Lincoln s policies weren t working so they decided that they would use brute force Start from the beginning and treat the South as a conquered country Reconstruction Acts of 1867 i Occupy the south with the Union forces and control how these states are reorganized force them to do what Republicans want ii Appointing military control to these southern states 5 military districts in the South iii Southern officials would have to go to these military officials and draw up a new state constitution to be readmitted as a state in the United States 1 They had to include black suffrage 2 Ratify the 14th amendment c Tenure in Office Act i In fear that President Johnson would stop congress from doing what they want to control the south they want him to have less control ii If a person had to go through a confirmation process to be hired then they have to go through a confirmation process to be fired iii Commander of the Army act The president cannot directly give orders to a military to kill or stop certain people iv Johnson fires secretary of war so congress moves to impeach him v Senates votes to impeach him falls one vote short so he does not get impeached d Election of 1868 i Republican Party Ulysses S Grant ii Democratic Party Horatio Seymour 1 Both republicans 2 Grant wins the election e Fifteenth Amendment i You cannot deny someone the right to vote simply based on race ii Increases the votes of the Republican Party ii Grants African American men the right to vote iv Ratified in 1870 IV Interpreting Reconstruction a By 1877 Democrats started to gain control and it was not the same democrats that were in control before the Civil War It was still southern democrats but they were not of the same class They are no longer the Agricultural Planter class in control Did Reconstruction succeed Now on the track to the business industrial track which is what needed to happen Probusiness before it was between the men who wanted to stay on an Agricultural track or to go towards a more industrial track Pquot Reconstruction succeeds puts the nation on the probusiness track So in that way it succeeded But if the point of Reconstruction was to give African Americans equality then it failed untion and the F J 82813 o 1 Transformation of War Aims 0 Major war aim Abolition ofsavery Southerners wanted to do all they can to keep the South how they ve always had it with slaves Northerners wanted to take that power away from them and use the freed slaves to their advantage o Southerners even ask Britain to aid their cause but they had already abolished slavery on their soil 0 The Emancipation Proclamation 1863 With this Abolition became the main war aim o Set the southern slaves free o Initial impact was limited Gave them the chance to fight banning together to create Black Regimes 0 Especially in the Union o Gave them a chance for equal rights o 11 AfricanAmericans in the War Effort 0 With the Emancipation Proclamation in place Black regimes formed 10 of Union force is AfricanAmerican Provides a better image for AfricanAmericans in the Union o 111 Black Suffrage 0 Whether or not AfricanAmericans have the right to vote Even if they ve been given citizenship without the right to vote they have no representation 0 Even those who wanted Black Suffrage in the North were a minority It was passed for pragmatic reasons instead of ideological reasons 14thamp 15th Amendment On paper they are equal In practice it s not the case o IV Failure of Reconstruction 0 Reasons Why it doesn t work Lack of support for equal rights o Election 1876 ends reconstruction 0 Samuel B Tiden D Wins popular vote but not enough electoral o Rutherford B Hayes R Not enough electoral votes due to three disputing states not making their decision o Compromise of 1877 o All of the remaining southern electoral votes will go to Hayes because he promises to remove the Federal troops from the South Troops made sure that AfricanAmericans could vote he sacrificed their rights for the vote Condition of Freedman o Freedman population is not educated o Concerned more about how they survive than the right to vote o No assistance since the Freedman s Bureau ended in 1870 o Only jobs they can land are the ones they used to have at a much lower wage since they ve got no other choice Lack of Republican Support o Even though they were the ones who wanted to help them in the first place for the sake of their vote o But they will vote Republican because their former masters were Democrats White Southern Resistance o Ignoring ignorant and violent 0 Start of KKK etc Rightful Clubs 0 Stop AfricanAmerican voting by intimidation Violence eventually dissipates and segregation takes its place since violence is no longer needed o V Segregation 0 Clear patterns of separation due to race Restaurants theaters schools water fountains etc 0 Slow process eventually until written down on paper and set into law Both white and black communities want to be separate from one another o Plessy v Ferguson 1896 0 Separate but Equal is established as constitutional provided that everyone has equal access to those things Very hard to regulate equality o In reality it s not equal whatsoever due to quality o VI Conclusion 0 There are always winners and losers Keep in mind who benefits and who doesn t and why The New South 18651890 83013 o I Sharecroppers Tenants Renters and Landlords 0 Old South was based on slavery and agriculture Economy based on single crop cotton 0 New South calls for the South to diversify everything especially in choice of crops Left with the problem of what to do with the exslaves All they knew was agriculture so plantation owners decide to hire them Less jobs not all freed slaves will be employed Different economic relationships develop 0 Sharecroppers tenants renters and landlords Farm Tenancy o work the land and live but not personally owned How they make a living 0 Arrangements usually favor landowner Sharecroppers o Land owner gives a certain amount of land to a family to cultivate A percentage of the crops harvested are used as payment Tenants o Even less control a pre arrangement with the landowner o Pretty much just a hired hand on farm answer solely to land owner Renters o You rent land Most control You make your own rules Less popular because you have to put money down first Landlords o Allowed farmers to get tools or supplies under credit They d put a lean on their crop to pay back later 0 These arrangements usually ripped the farmers off leaving them with next to nothing or still in debt o 11 The New South Creed Via Henry Grady Editor of the Atlantic Constitution newspaper Stated that the problem with the south is that it can t compete with the north economically because its based too much on agriculture and those who run the south are too busy with who s in political power than being economically successful 0 Need to MODERNIZE our way of thinking and doing things South needs to Change it s priorities Southerners need to see the benefits of work Being successful at it should be the goal Needs to diversify crop wise Move away from agriculture dependence and develop more industries and cities South needs to cooperate more with the rest of the country MUST have harmonious race relationships 0 Whites must control south and blacks must be second class Should not have power equal to their numbers His New South Creed is implemented in the following headers o 111 Railroads in the South 0 Need access to raw materials and market Railroads can get you there Needed for economic advance river access wasn t cutting it 18651880 railroad usage doubles 18801900 railroad usage TRIPLES many railroad companies go bankrupt bringing the country together The railroad would run through small cities because the South only had one big place New Orleans That fact helped all of those businesses going out of business IV Industry in the New South 0 O Industries reaping resources from Earth to help south that don t really develop Forest Products o Lumber main building component 0 Doesn t help create cities but temporary camps who die away once the work is done o Tar Turpentine etc 0 Raw materials that are sent off to be refined elsewhere Generally low paying jobs o No real skills required Mining o A little more stability the bigger it is the longer you can use it o A lot of northern investment in the south with mining o Took iron ore made it into iron and sent it out o One mine is empty jobs go away Not stable Processing of Farm Products o Processing rice and sugar cane o Industry dealing with agricultural goods most successful industry in the South 0 THEY make the final product 0 Less profitable V Urbanization in the New South South is least urbanized region in the country NE 68 lived in cities Midwest 38 lived in cities West 36 lived in cities South gt20 lived in cities o Education system suffers everything suffers because they don t have a Southern economic center o Affects standard of living o Last part of country to get their roads paved VI A New South 0 South is now on the same path as the rest of the country The Closing of the WestI 18651890I Part I 9413 1 State and Territories 0 Kansas Texas California and Oregon Everything in between is just broken up into territories o Doesn t have its own government not enough people c As people move out to these areas they form themselves into a state government and apply for admission to the Union One of the territories was kept in reserve for Native Americans o System ofReservaton Native Americans must give up their land and move somewhere that Americans don t want to live 0 Only for Americans benefit o Separate from us but part of US government Eventually Oklahoma becomes a state o Native Americans shoved off again This is the period when the West goes from being unsettled and unorganized into the configuration we know today Arizona and New Mexico join Union in 1912 o Most recent other than Alaska and Hawaii 11 The Transcontinental Railroad 0 Must happen for Western development 1 US wants to tap trade with China o If American businesses wanted access to raw materials in China and sell goods made they needed a way to get them quickly and safely to China 0 Shipping down around the tip of South America to San Francisco then shipped from there 2 During 18505 where you have mineral rushes gold silver ect are raw materials that American business want access to 3 Government wants to access the cattle market in places like Texas o Most cases by time cattle would be herded there they would die or be weaker o Cattle ranching now made more money 4 Get more people to move out to the West to start farms o Produce goods for East to consume 0 Pacific Railroad Bill 1862 1864 The gov t needed to get private companies to invest proving that it will be profitable Gov t then gave incentives through the series of bills Authorizes two corporations to build a railroad from Iowa to California o For this they will get free of charge the land to build the railroad on o They also get plots of land on either side of railroad tracks each mile of track they get 10 square miles of land They also get loans so they don t have to invest their own money For two years they held out and thought it was too risky second bill o Now everything was doubled o Going on during the Civil War o Iowa Westward recruits Irish immigrants o San Francisco Westward recruits Chinese workers 0 If they can build the Great Wall of China they can do this 0 Found they could pay them less and they could exploit them by doing very dangerous things and working further into the winter than whites 0 Union pacific Credit Mobilizer Hire another company to build the railroad for them They created separate company Credit Mobilizer 0 Central Pacific Credit and Finance Corp They createdCreditand Finance Corp Didn t have to sell their shares They can overcharge companies o Not illegal but not ethical o Made HUGE fortunes but luckily the railroads are good for economy 0 Leland Stanford o 111 Cowboys and the Cattle Kingdom 0 A Boom 18651885 Golden age of the cowboy Same public domain is also land that cattle ranchers are grazing their land o Cattle grazing for FREE 0 Cattle lose their value the longer you cattle drive them Chisholm Trial o Long cattle trail 0 Highways for cows o Where they are all funneled to somewhere they can be put on railroads o Railroads build to minimize these trails James Brisban Beef Bonanza or How to Get Rich on the Plains 1881 o Book that explains to people how to invest in cattle ranching 35 profit on each cow 0 B Decline 18851890 Three years of sever drought Disaster Years o Enter winter weaker from less grass 0 Some of the harshest winters o 90 of all cattle on great plain die 0 Smaller ranchers go under huge ranches survive 0 Big businesses and associations take over and small family ranchers can not compete Wyoming Stockgrowers Association o Maintained control by being politically powerful 0 They have the ability to pass laws c Any unbranded cattle was assumed the cattle of Stockgrowers Association 0 People did not own young cattle too dangerous 0 They would gather all young cattle and take them because unbranded Ella Catte Kate Watson o Main target of Stockgrowers Association o Started as a prostitute o Traded her body for cattle o They started a smear campaign about her 0 Causes a mob to hunt them out and hanged her and her partner Cattle ranchers and sheep ranchers fighting o Sheep eat grass so low it often doesn t grow back much lower than cattle do c As a result you get the Stockgrowers Association to hire thugs to club 3000 sheep to death 0 Get ride of competition Most conflict between cattle ranchers and farmers The Closing of the WestI 18651890 Pt II 9613 o IV Homesteaders o Cattle and Sheep ranchers alike were at ends with homesteaders because they would create a road block for them when they needed their herds to graze 0 Were one of the reasons railroads were built Farmers out to the west need access to ship their goods o The Homestead Act 1862 0 Provides US citizens free land in the west Had to be 21 and head of Household One person per family Women could apply too as long as she s head of house Could have never given aid or comfort to enemies to the US no confederates or confederacy sympathy 0 Had to live on land for 5 years to receive title 160 acres free 0 Same year as Pacific Railroad Bill 0 West takes a colonial approach family wise Not a lot of rain in west families decide to pick up and leave via selling to farming companies 0 Bonanza Farms Big farming companies that homesteaders sell or abandon once they are done with their farms 20000 acre farms rural factories o folks are treated as factory workers seasonal work 0 Counters the idea of the Homestead Act and colonial America in the west o V From Frontier to Factory 0 Folks continue to move west 0 Census determines there is no more frontier separation via line across north and south Wilderness determined by people Wilderness 2 people per sq mile 000 O 0 Frederick James Turner The Significance of the Frontier in American History 1893 In reaction to this Argues that American society and culture until 1890 had been shaped by the frontier o Frontier always there to create emphasis on individualism and selfsufficiency for Americans 0 Sign of hope of opportunity If frontier is gone what s going to happen in the future Where will Americans go to express themselves VI Death of a Culture 0 All of this development lead to the decline of Native Americans 0 They were up against the mentality that these white settlers deserved the land and the Indians didn t because They were Christian They actually farmed white settlers didn t think Indians took care of the resources efficiently o Colonel John M Chivington o ANTIINDIAN o Believed that by killing all the Indians they would determine who deserves to live in the West 0 Led series of attacks that let to Sand Creek Massacre o Sand Creek Massacre 1864 o Chivington waited for when the young men went out to hunt to sneak in and kill all the women and children 0 Killed 500 o Standing Bear Poncas 1868 o Poncas decides that the can t fight the settlers and joined the whites o converted white 0 US Gov t saw Native Americans as threat Standing Bear sues saying that he had no right to be forced to live on a reservation and remove him o Court rules in his favor 0 Only exception o Little Big Horn Custer vs Sioux 1874 o 200 US Soldiers fight against 2500 Sioux o Animosity towards Indians skyrocket o Chief Joseph Nez Perce 1877 0 Montana Idaho 0 Agreed to move to a reservation 0 Now white settlers want their reservation land Decides to take his tribe to Canada to get out of their way US army sees this as an aggressive whim and chases them into Canada They then surround them and try to starve them out Chief gives a surrendering speech o Helen Hunt Jackson A Century ofDishonor 1881 0 History of all the wrongs done by Federal government on various Indian tribes o Increases awareness o Folks see Indians as a threat in SW o Geronimo Apaches 1886 0 Indian threat in SW 0 Caputured gov t sees an Indian threat inexistent o Dawes Act 1887 0 Changes policy towards Indians when threat is done 0 Homestead act for native americans Breaks up reservations and gives each native American family 160 acres o Acres earlier that settlers couldn t survive on If they take up all the acres they earn citizenship The Rise of Big BusinessI 18651890 9913 1 Business Before the Civil War 0 Northern Agenda imposed on South and West at war s end Business seen as essential Rights of business take precedent over rights of individuals 0 America was a bunch of little islands local communities and every one is selfsufficient 0 Island communities start expanding and become dependent on one another Depend on nation clothes maker not local tailor National shoe makers not local o Because products can start being mass produced lowering price 0 During the Civil War there was a huge demand for uniforms guns etc came up with organizational structures military precision o Once war ended they took new techniques in large quantities shipping goods all over the country c Also received supplies from other places like cotton 0 Hence the concept of the Corporation The Corporation 0 No longer family owned and operated o Allows business to expand greatly Wealth of a number of individuals becomes a corporation but separate from people in the corporation Transitions from individual rights 0 Laissez Faire economics Circa Civil War to end of century Definition philosophy that the federal gov t should NOT interfere with business o Government s main role is to protect individuals not regulate business o Government should do things that will benefit business 0 Subsidizes transportation building 0 Keep high tariffs to promote business in the homeland o Inheritance Act 1870 Money was taxed heavily because money you inherit is not money you ve earned o Expires not renewed Loss of this income o 1872 Federal Income Tax no longer relevant 0 1890 s ruled unconstitutional o At this time there s no taxes on corporations either 0 Most gov t revenue came from importing goods and property tax 0 As a result there are several wealthy people This economic power translates into political power as well o Made laws that would better themselves Believed that they deserved their wealth sign of fitness 0 John D Rockefeller President of Standard Oil wealthiest man in his time penod 0 Andrew Carnegie The Gospel of Wealth 1889 Owner of Carnegie Steel Wrote The Gospel of Wealth o States that you don t want to give your money DIRECTLY to the poor it will zap them of their own resolve o With their wealth comes the responsibility to provide resources libraries schools etc for those who want to be successful Carnegie was known to open libraries 0 Hebert Spencer Took Darwin s ideas on evolution and applied it to human behavior o Those who are able to make money deserve it and shouldn t use it to help those who don t have money because they don t deserve it don t deserve to be alive It s the law of nature don t help the weak 0 Survival of the fittest o 111 AntiCorporate Sentiment o Corporations scare American citizens because of their immensity and how much power the heads of the corporations have in politics 0 Problems arise when corporations are granted the same rights as individuals 0 1886 Supreme Court rules that the line regarding personal rights in the 14th Amendment also applies to corporations Difference is individuals have physical and moral laws and limits o Natural limits life spans can only be in one place at a time mostly Corporations don t have those limits o Does whatever is necessary to be profitable o Leads to terrible work conditions and exploitation 0 Unlimited in power and unregulated 0 Interstate Commerce Act 1887 Gov t regulation o Covers only businesses that cross state lines otherwise it was for the state s gov t 0 First to regulate railroads since it was the first to cross state lines o Sherman AntiTrust Act 1890 Included large monopolistic or trust dominated industry companies Designed to allow federal gov t to break up large monopolistic companies Urbanization 18651920 91113 o 1 Growth 0 By the turn of the century cities are more important because they determine the shape of the economy and country 1920when more folks live in cities than rural areas o In cities like Chicago New York Cleveland etc populations increase tenfold 0 As cities grow neighborhoods within the cities congregate around one another and become selfsufficient Cities end up dividing themselves 0 Growth possible because opportunities are available Also more mechanisms were being invented that made most agricultural jobs obsolete o 11 Technology and the City 0 Transportation As population grows transportation becomes a big issue o Cities used to only be able to grow and exist next to water ways 0 More sufficient way to travel bridges Limits need of ferry s etc o NYC invented a crosstown steam train on elevated tracks for public transportation 0 Problematic needs better solution o San Francisco developed the cable car in 1870 s 0 Perfect for its hilly landscape 0 Very expensive 0 But still becomes very popular o Richmond was first to come up with updated version running the cable cars on electrical wires 0 Electric trolley cars All of these transportation solutions ended up interfering with old transportation ways by taking up roads o Boston is then the first to move transportation underground with subways 0 Cities now have to get into the business of producing electricity to make sure their citizens can get around Cities gain more responsibility 0 Communication 1876 telephone is invented by Alexander Graham Bell o Invention very popular nationally took off immediately 0 Other Inventions 1880 light bulb invented by Thomas Edison o Gave folks the ability to do anything at night for the first time 0 time made for leisurely activities o Allows businesses to extend hours of operation productivity increases 111 Problems of the City 0 No one was prepared for the influx of people in a city No real organization 0 At first everyone was responsible for taking care of their waste Disgusting contaminated water supply etc 0 Once folks caught wind of germs Cities began to set up ways to pick up waste and regulate what can be thrown where etc o Another sign of cities responsibilities 0 Residents have to fend for themselves by fetching their own water for example Folks used to take charge and decide when they were going to wake up etc Now they answer to someone else always o Changes people s mentality o Fundamental shift in how people live People don t care about selfsufficiency anymore more like blending in Obvious changes in nature of the American character The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory o Shirtwaist is a woman s frilly blouse o Good example living and working conditions of this time o Cramped dark little ventilation terrible food cheap living At least it was better than what they had in their homeland o 1911 a huge fire broke out in the factory killing hundreds o Displayed how no one knew how to handle such a disaster On a factory and city wide level Utter chaos no one could get out Amount of death was so great people had to reuse coffins in the morgue 0 Only after this tragedy does action take place on how to improve all the problems Better firefighter equipment fire escapes etc Migration and Immigration Pt I 91313 o I AfricanAmericans and The Great Northern Drive Moving from rural to urban areas not just from different regions southern to northern Begins as civil war ends but doesn t pick up until turn of the century 18901910 From then on the numbers escalate Push reasons to leave and Pull reasons to move on 0 factors o Biggest push factor segregation 0 Why they left Jim Crow Laws reformulated black codes Discrimination of blacks separatebutequal Economic opportunities Few opportunities in rural areas and South More opportunities were in urban North and even in the West 0 Jobs 00 Number of blacks 40 black in big Northern cities like NYC and Cleveland becomes so great that the black population is much more concentrated are better paying up North Even when cost of living is up they still made more than enough Went from 075 to 3 1918 Pittsburg 5 of blacks earned less than 2 a day In the same year in the South 56 of blacks made the same amount Better treatment No institutionalized segregation Did have discrimination there was a measure of segregation but none were written into law Didn t have to act subservient to all white folks 0 Didn t have to say Sir or Ma am when in passing 0 Made African Americans feel more equal Robert Abbot Chicago Defender Robert Abbot is a Black migrant himself 0 One of the largest African American Newspaper 0 Filled with articles about job opportunities and how well the black community was doing social events etc Had a circulation that reached the whole South Included stories from family members and neighbors whose lives took a positive turn by moving Encouraged folks to migrate too 0 Abbot Coined it as The Great Northern Drive 0 O Segregation Faced with segregation in housing To keep blacks out of their white neighborhoods the white folks created associations where everyone had to vote on who could move in Realtors and landlords only let blacks live certain places End up with segregated neighborhoods much more distinctive than in the South Black community now has a low supply of places to live demand is high Prices are much higher for blacks Landlords didn t maintain their facilities as well as other places meaning that blacks paid much more for a home that s worth much less 0 Segregation lead to ghettos Certain race living in an condensed area ethnic neighborhoods 0 Hard to get out of the ghetto because price of living is higher o 11 Immigration Eastern 0 Who Came 1880 British Isles Scotland Germany Scandinavians Insh o Protestant White 0 Came for adventure because they wanted to not forced Not super poor except Irish immigrants due to the potato famine People coming from eastern Europe Population coming because economic situation in homeland is terrible with little economic opportunity Whole families migrate over not just young men Religion is another reason why 0 Jewish folks migrate because in places like Russia and Germany they were being forced to leave Also Catholic Eastern Orthodox 18801910 c over 3 million Italians 1877 o Jewish population was 250000 o 50 years later it was over 4 million o 25 is from Slavic countries 0 Slovakia Slovenia etc 0 Where Did They Go New immigrants end up in cities in the North east 80 of all European immigrants end up in cities of the Midwest North east 1910 75 of population in NYC Chicago Detroit Cleveland and Boston were first or second generation immigrants o What Did They Do End up taking over the hardest unwanted jobs o EX Pennsylvania coal mines 0 Mostly German immigrants in early immigration days 0 Then replaced by newer immigrants Italians who become shop managers and higher elevated jobs Immigrants from the same place end up in the same fields to make it easier to communicate o Also lived in the same ghettos Immigrants in their ghettos see opportunities to open small businesses to cater to their own people no competition o Ex Jewish opening Kosher shops 0 Finally given the opportunity to move out of their ghettos Main distinction between European immigrants and Black emigrants o Black can t break out of their ghetto 0 Less opportunities Can t change that they are black o Europeans can assimilate and move up Migration and Immigration Pt II 91613 o 111 Immigration Western 0 A The Chinese Came as result of discovery of gold in California Minorities congregate from around the world for the Gold Rush Largest number come in 1860 for being recruited to work on Transcontinental Railroads Advantages that you can pay them less because they didn t need as much to live on 0 Given 26 a month per person they had to find their own place to live and food they ended up get 20 a month while American workers got 30 with free food and housing They had the hardest jobs 1200 died from avalanches and job injures o Bowing up rocks with dynamite figured they were kind of disposable When the two sides we finished in the famous picture on opening day there is not a single Chinese face They were not allowed to go to ceremony and they were also not allowed to ride the trains once completed Now 10000 Chinese workers are looking for new jobs and stranded in Utah 0 Start competing for jobs with white workers employers could pay them less so white workers lost jobs to Chinese White workers who went on strike were often replaced with Chinese workers 0 Chinese were taking whites jobs and were so different they could never assimilate and would bring everyone down to there lower level Chinese are a problem in California 0 Thought they have no souls to save and are in essence not people 0 Believed they should not allow them into the US Dennis Kearney Workingman s Party Loudest champ of stopping Chinese immigration Same issues get caught up with not only old AntiChinese feelings but also include fears of Japan as a powerful Asian country Believe that they are here to infiltrate country and create a beefed up super Japanese race because the Japanese are marrying white men Also think that they are all spies trying to learn about weaknesses and ways to take over US Asiatic Exchange League Gentlemen s Arguments 1 9071908 0 Agreements say that Japan will stop allowing workers to immigrate to the US because Japan is doing it to the US 0 In return Japan asks US to protect the Japanese immigrates already in US 0 Allow Japanese immigrants already over there are allowed to bring families and wives and kids 0 They decide to stay and bring families over causing more immigration from Japan US feels betrayed causing many states to take matters into their own hands Allen Land Act California 1913 IV Conclusion Laws forbidding certain people Asians to not be allowed to own land Naturalization laws laws about becoming an American citizen 0 1 Being born in USautomatic o 2 Apply for Naturalization Before Civil War must be white After Civil War included African decent You can not buyown land in California if you are ineligible for citizenship o Eventually extend for owning AND leasing Did not take into account that these Japanese families have children who are born in the US and once they become old enough they can own property 0 People want Americans to be more WASP not Catholic Asians etc
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