US TO 1865
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Date Created: 10/13/15
History 10272010 111 Major issues of Jackson s administration A Sunday mails B Indian removal C Land sales D Tariff E Intemal improvements 1 The issues 2 Maysville Road veto 3 Veto of Clay s distribution plan 4 Overall F The Bank IV Jackson and the problem of sectionalism A Debate over nature of the union B Nulli cation crisis C Mail controversy V Political developments after Jackson A Van Buren B Harrison C Outcome of Whig Democrat debate 1 National level 2 State and local level Jackson had the whole era named after him A couple of new parties emerged to ll the void the democrats 1828 to elect Jackson to of ce and the Whigs 1830 created to oppose and impede him They disagree on land sales The democrats want a nation of small independent farmers moving west across the nation into the territories to increase America s size so they want to sell the land to help the farmers They do a number of things to help people by land they lower the parcels that you are required to buy from 600 acres to 80 acres Jackson signed a bill that allowed for preemption meaning that if you re a farmer you can move on to uninhabited land improve it build a farm and you can buy it later when you have set up your farm Don t have to have the upfront payment How would the Whig s attack this Jacksonian policy By arguing the fact that this is the government not being neutral in the economy bc it helps the small farmers and hurts land speculators They accuse Jackson of being hypocritical In the south the tariff is hated by those with political power bc it makes the cost of manufactured goods go up and doesn t bene t the south at all Jackson is a southemer and does not like the tariff either When he took of ce he was expected to lower it or abolish it but he ends up doing nothing about it because it is the govemment s prime source of income He wants it to fund a big army and navy The Whigs are all about using the gov to better the infrastructure of the US The democrats are suspicious of this and think the state government should handle internal improvements Maysville road road in Kentucky The Maysbille Road bill approved by congress and vetoed by Jackson bc it was passed by his political opponent Henry Clay Jackson veto alarms people and they make the Whig party in response He also veto s clay s distribution plans The Whigs want to use the money from lands sales for internal improvements and improving education They also want to use the money to send exslaves back to Africa The Whig party emerges in this period The second bank of the US drove jackson crazy he hated banks It has a 20 year charter It is a private business that does government business It pays the governments bills and issues currency Other banks also issue currency about 1500 banks that issue a variety of currency There is no gov oversight of the banking system at this time Jacksin got burned by the different currency he was paid as a lawyer He wants everyone to use gold and silver bc it always retains its value All debts to the US have to be paid back in US bank bills He believe the bank is funding his political opponents because there are many whigs in congress that are friends of the bank hennery clay It is owned by people in the northeast who are making money by giving loans to the south and west It helps the north more than the south and north To Jackson it is the monster bank The emerging Whig party see an opportunity in 1832 on the eve of the presidential election There charter will expire in 1836 so they decide to try to recharter now to make a big the bank a big issue for the upcoming election Jackson vetoes it However the bank was not as big of an issue as the whigs had hoped Jackson decides to kill the bank by pulling government funds out of the bank Jackson ask many people to do this and gets three no s before he gets a yes That person puts the money in small state banks They are called Jackson s pet banks by the whigs Those state bank with these new deposits see a golden opportunity to loan money out and this causes an economic depression 1 What was the highest average amount of alcohol a typical American consumed in the period from the 1790s to the 1830s Who were the typical consumers Alcohol consumption peaked at nearly 4 gallons per capita Everyone consumed alcohol but men were the heaviest drinkers at this point the average adult male was drinking nearly 12 a pint a day 2 What were the numerous reasons for whiskey emerging as the most popular form of alcohol after the American Revolution The decline of the rum industry led to the rise of cheap and plentiful whiskey The success of whiskey was due in part to the fact that many Scottish and Irish grain distillers had immigrated to America during the last quarter of the 18Lh century and had the skills to produce large amounts of high quality liquor The American whiskey industry also benefitted from the technological improvements made on stills that allowed them to produce higher quality whiskey and enabled small scale whiskey producers to compete with large scale manufactures Westerners had a surplus of grain and making it into whiskey was a way to market that surplus pro tably Americans believed was healthy 3 According to Rorabaugh what were the various factors that led to Americans consuming so much alcohol between the 1790s and 1830s Between 1790 and 1830 the United States underwent a period of unprecedented and extremely rapid change The primary reason they drank so much was to relieve the anxieties of their lives at this time 4 What were the distinct ways in which Americans drank alcohol in the period between the 1790s and 1830s Two distinct drinking patterns They drank small amounts frequently with daily regularity or they communally binge drank 5 Why according to Rorabaugh did Americans in the period between the 1790s and 1830s prefer strong alcohol over other options They strong taste of strong alcoholic beverages overcame the blandness of their food They believed at this time that strong liquor aided in digestion Also food supply was erratic at this time and strong liquor like whiskey could provide a substantial part of daily food requirements 6 Why according to Rorabaugh did alcohol consumption in America decline beginning in the 1830s Temperance leaders made a moral argument against alcohol instead of a scienti c one Clergymen joined the temperance movement and warned that the drinker was damned Temperance leaders had two techniques one was to advocate religious faith as a way for people to ease the anxieties that led them to drink The other was to make drinking itself the source of anxiety and the agent of the deVil 9192010 54000 PM Early Invasion amp Non English Settlement I Columbus A Accomplishments B Problems with interpretation C Why start with Columbus He s the point man of the invasion Arrives and initiates Spanish incursion Relatively educated but came from humble routes His brother a highly educated math major helped him navigate a western route Columbus started sailing at a very young age Everyone knew the world was round by this point but no one quite knew what was out there Problem They thought the earth was far smaller and easily sailable They predicted it was 2000 miles away it is actually 12000 Had Columbus not hit America he would ve starved along the way What was the impetus of the venture Asian trade Silk spices opium gold etc o Seaward trade was much more efficient need for a water route to Asia Problem for Columbus He doesn t have the money for ships and crew In 1492 he was able to sell this idea to the Spanish crown under the presumption he will uncover easier route for seaward trade Half of the money comes from Spanish crown other half comes from investors 0 Columbus is promised 10 of wealth and title of governor of lands 0 Ship names 1 Nina 2 Pinta 3 Santa Maria 0 Very small vessels 39 crew members Takes Columbus 5 weeks to get from Canary Islands to Bahamas His crew is on the verge of mutiny but luckily for Columbus he hits land in the Bahamas St Salvador He appoints himself governor He thinks he is actually in Indonesia Moves on to Cuba Dominican Republic Haiti areas Names the native Arawak people Indians thinking he s in Indonesia Columbus wrote the people were primitive unarmed and ignorant His deliberate goal was to subjugate them and seize gold Columbus returns three more times under the pressure of the Spanish crown this time with heavy weaponry and more men for a military invasion to confiscate gold Entirely different venture not to find water route but to find Gold Spanish tortured Arawaks to try and find gold enslaved and raped them Eventually Columbus hit central America He also ship wrecked in Jamica for a year But he NEVER hit present day United States He died believing he had found the Indonesian islands Popular notion Columbus was on a God sent journey Today we ignore the real goal of Columbus and simply say that he found America Problem It is a completely Euro centric view There were already 50 to 100 million inhabitants in America 0 There s pretty solid evidence Vikings hit North America and Newfoundland 400 500 years before Columbus Columbus didn t really discover America he was the point man that led to the invasion and later settling of the new world Founding of New World shifts focus of Western Civilizations from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic D Columbian Exchange Transfer of plants animals people and diseases between the Western and Eastern hemispheres 0 Ex The Potato came to Europe and led to a huge population boom 0 To Europe Corn tomatoes nuts turkey pumpkins squash 0 To North America fruits sugar cane honeybees onions olives coffee horses cows sheep etc The most tragic acquisition was foreign diseases Europeans lived in close proximity to their cattle and other animal related infectious diseases chickenpox smallpox the monks etc New World inhabitants never domesticated animals so they had no immunity to these infectious animals diseases spread like wild Within 100 years of Columbus more than half of the native New World inhabitants died of disease or some other proximate cause Columbus s men brought a virulent strain of Syphilis and other STD s back to Europe from having sex with the natives II Spain The First Empire A Spanish Approach Very different approach from other empires 0 No desire to start settlements or colonies GET GOLD Their goal is to incorporate the natives they conquer and establish a bureaucracy of a few men to enslave and rule over natives Very successful at mining gold and transferring wealth to Spain 0 Secondary mission convert natives to Catholicism Spain soon made its way into Central America and Mexico Despite having heavy numbers the Aztec empire was very quickly conquered by Cortes by a technology b disease and c enlisting the aid of rival tribes It is suspected that nearly half of all Aztecs died from smallpox very quickly After the Aztecs were conquered the Spanish moved to south America and took over the Incas for the same loot Gold Same diseases and weapons led to their swift victory This begins the largest transfer of wealth in human history Gold out of central and south America back to Spain making Spain remarkably wealthy but leading to heavy inflation and financial instability B Area s that became US i Florida 0 Ponce De Leon discovered Florida in 1514 likely looking for Gold 0 St Augustine Pensecola 0 One of the main reasons they settled Florida was for military protection against France and Eng land to create a buffer zone ii New Mexico and southwest 0 De Soto sails up Mississippi Valley region finds no gold but claims the Mississippi River for Spain though no one cared o Coronado explores the Southwest finds Pueblos but no Gold 0 One thing they do in the southwest is start Missions all over the southwest Desired to capture and convert the pueblos 0 San Diego revolt pueblos revolted and destroyed missions killing some of the Franciscan monks Spain is later more active in Texas and LA Entire Spanish empire spread from the SW USA all the way down through 0 0 South America 111 Other Empires A France Colonized portions of present day Canada down to the Ohio River Valley They are there not for gold but to trade with the Natives for beaver pelts and furs that were very popular back home It was a Trading Settlement 0 Trading Post and Forts were most common also tried to convert indians to Catholicism Jesuit priest come over and live with Native Tribes Formed a military alliance with many of the Indian Tribes to protect themselves from Britain colonies nearby FrenchBritish hostilities make their way towards New World B Dutch and Swedes Dutch 0 New Netherland 1609 founded in Hudson River basin New Jersey 0 Control Manhattan Island erected trading posts and forts 0 British later take over New Amsterdam and rename it New York Swedes 0 Very small settlement in the Delaware River Valley 0 Lasting legacy innovators of the log cabin Native 39 39 39 quot of the New World I Theories of original settlement Most popular Bering Land Bridge between Siberia and modern day Alaska 0 Idea is that Woolly Mammoth hunters followed them into North America eventually they began to migrate southward 0 Once the landmass connective the continents was submerged the native people were isolated from the rest of the western world Archeologist have also discovered artifacts much older than the artifacts left by people that came across Bering land bridge Theory is that they were fishermen who eventually drifted on to modern day Alaska in boats 25 50000 years ago Both theories could be accurate could have been 2 migrations one 25 50000 years ago the other 12000 years ago II Status of settlement in 1492 A Numbers 0 50 to 100 million inhabitants in North and South America around 1492 Americas turned out not to be very sparsely settled contrary to fiction Most of the population was in Central and South America North America 1 to 10 million It takes another 300 years for the United States to reach that population 0 The numbers were important because the justification for European settlements was that it was a barren land they could easily take over B Diversity 0 Perception was that the natives were all the same very untrue 0 Many different tribes much like different countries in Europe 0 There were probably 200 different tribes in North America 12 different language groups 3 Primary Groups 0 Pueblo Tribe lived in Adobe homes cliff dwellers live off corn 0 Lower Miss Valley tribes mound builders small villages farmed corn 0 Northeast Coast tribes woodland villages farming hunting and fishing C Impact on environment 0 Dramatically altered landscape cleared lots of land for farming o Burned the underbrush of forest around their settlements to keep pest away create more grazing land and increase Visibility 0 Problem Once Natives clear land and deplete nutrients they simply move on to another area they don t stay put for too long This is very hard for Europeans to understand think Natives were lazy because they did n t conceptualize the idea of owning land III Differences with Europeans Relation to land property and ownership 0 Native were Nomadic they did n t stay put in one place kept moving with hunting and new farming lands 0 Natives don t have a land scarcity Europeans on the other hand have a very high density population and have a land shortage Thus they see all this abandoning of perfectly good fields as inane and unproductive How they organized power 0 Natives had a communal system no concept of property and ownership 0 Europeans had a hierarchical system society is based on ownership Relation to nature and religions o Natives were closer to nature in their deities o Europeans see nature as the enemy that had to be conquered they tried to shape it with roads farms Similarities 0 Both live in small villages 0 Both groups economies are heavily based on farming 0 Both accept an extremely high level of violence torture rape etc 1V Shift in Balance of Power When Europeans arrived in New World there was a relative balance of power European Advantages 0 Technology 0 Written Language Natives Advantage o Knew the land and most importantly how to survive But as time progressed European s advantages showed itself A Disease 0 Europeans had immunity to cattle carried diseases 0 Psychological trauma and initial shock of European arrival B Disruption of Native culture 0 Disease undermines religious orders and disrupts Native population 0 European technology Natives want these items so they have to learn how to trade mainly furs and pelts To trade for technology Natives start slaughtering like wild for trade They overhunt killing off species and corroding society Alcohol Europeans brought alcohol to the west diluted their minds Religion Franciscan monks Jesuits Protestants were all devoted to O O converting Natives to Christianity C Dependence o Native s desire for European goods leaves them vulnerable for exploitation 0 Dependence on European manufactured goods causes them to loss land V Patterns of interaction A Conflict o Arises mainly from misunderstanding of each other s cultures Ex ownership of land Capturing members from each side as ransom etc Enslaving Indians in colonies doesn t work too well often times hostilities O broke out between the two sides 0 EnglandFrance use tribal allies to fig ht proxy wars B Accommodation o Blending of cultures intermarrying of races when trappers ventured to frontier Praying Towns religious communities that allowed converted Indians 0 to adopt European culture and traditions Captivity native s had a long history of capturing foreign tribe members 0 they did the same with Europeans having them adopt an Indian name and marry an Indian wife The fact that so many captured Europeans would return to their Native American captors was startling 9192010 54000 PM Overview of British Empire 1 Differences with Spanish Empire Different Management 0 Spanish government had direct control over conquered lands 0 British government chartered land and allowed for proxy authorities daily management of the colonies is up to the Private Companies who were chartered Different Goals 0 Spanish mine gold and enslave Natives 0 British want to transfer population to North America due to overcrowding Britain had a large floating population of non land owners 11 Differences with British Colonies Motivation behind New England colonies is purely religious 0 Very communal Motivation behind Jamestown was to make money economic o Individualistic centered around trade Jamestown amp Chesapeake Bay Early Background Not long after Columbus English sent John Cabot who claimed NE in 1497 Not much interest in colonizing in 16th century no interest in competing with Spanish dealing with Natives dealing with diseases etc 1 Failure of Roanoke Island colony First attempt to create an English settlement in the New World Founded by Sir Walter Raleigh member of Queen Elizabeth s court Motivated by prospects of gold and profits granted a charter by Elizabeth 0 Also thinks he can raid the gold from the Spanish fleets Beyond granting Raleigh a charter the crown provides nothing no ship men Named Virginia after the virgin queen Elizabeth Raleigh recruits investors under Private company In 1585 first group of English settles embark for New World Settle in outer banks near coast of North Carolina Initial colonists were all male soldiers entirely unprepared o No way to get food didn t get along with the Natives returned home Two years later 121 colonists mostly families settled in Roanoke s second attempt 0 Led by John White a great artist who depicted Natives but bad governor 0 Again it was a disaster for the same reasons Lost Colony II Jamestown A Background first permanent English settlement in Americas Begins with the failed attempts to settle Roanoke Island 0 First attempt 75 soldiers no families 0 Second attempt was the infamous Lost Colony in 1587 Families led by John White a great artist but poor leader Eventually things get so bad White returns to England to get more supplies and bring more experts u White s daughter had the English New World s first child Virginia Since England is at war with Spain John White cannot get a ship to sail back on It takes him 3 years to return When he returned the colony was deserted The word Croatane was etched in the fort Most scholars believe that the settlers gave up on White s returning so they went off to live with the Native Croatoans Unfortunately John White was never able to search for them Another theory is that the settlers tried to sail back but drowned Next attempt takes place in Jamestown Virginia 0 At the time Brits called the entire continent Virginia 0 Jamestown was a private for profit venture They have the notion gold is everywhere in Virginia They also seek to make wine produce crops etc 0 Located on small island in the James River near the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay Very swampy No drinking water 0 Why did these people pick an island Fortification Protection 0 They were nervous about both the natives and Spanish attacking 0 Indians thought they were crazy for settling in such a lunatic area 0 English send over tons of skilled artisans who weren t able to work the land Also had soldiers gold miners and farmers No women Aldonquin Tribe surrounded Jamestown area Chief of roughly 15000 0 natives surrounding Jamestown Powhatan Powhatan was not too worried about the new inhabitants He did n t feel 0 they were there to stay They had no women terrible location and were starving within a few months Not really seen as a threat First attempt in Jamestown was a failure Artisans failed to work for food 0 and shelter The group was too civilized The colonists survive mainly on the fish and game they catch 0 We also know that they underwent a massive drought B First Winter Originally 105 people had settled Jamestown By the end of the Winter it dwindled to 35 One third of the settlers didn t make it Finally John Smith emerged He was a mercenary who fought numerous wars was a slave in Turkey escaped and later found his way to the New World after signing a contract with the Virginia Company in 1607 o Smith s first rule He who doesn t work doesn t eat 0 Quickly the colony unites and starts to progress Captured and sentenced to be executed by Powhatan before he was rescued by Powhatan s daughter Maraoka Pocahantas o Other folks in the group were executed though 0 Biggest problem with this story He wrote about it twenty years later Right around the time 400 new settlers arrived from the Virginia Company Smith had to return home following nearly fatal gun powder wounds When he returned he wrote a lot about the New World Once Smith returns to England the colony begins to deteriorate again Colonists got so desperate they ate horses and dug up dead bodies C Company Rule Military Rule 1611 hard military policy designed to restructure settlement Made lying theft rape of natives killing domestic animal punishable by death Around this time Powhatan realizes the colonists are here to stay Occasionally colonists would kill natives and vice versa Colonists later capture Pocahantas as protection against an attack by Powhatan While in Jamestown she was converted to Christianity and later married one of the colonist John Rolfe Pocahantas travels to England in 1616 contracted smallpox and died in England Despite massive militant reforms the colony was still waning 90 of the inhabitants died within first 20 years from starvation or other causes 11 Source of changes A Way to make money Tobacco Cash Crop John Rolfe brings seeds to Virginia and it grows like wildfire It was harvested dried out shipped back to England and very profitable When Tobacco takes off people move out of James Fort to find more arable land This is the era where the colonists ventured out into new lands By 1629 15 million tons of Tobacco were produced making colonists rich Even though colonists were getting rich Virginia Company realized it would have to relax rules to attract new settlers B Company Reforms 3 1 Relaxed Laws and made legal system more like England s 2 House of Burgesses 1619 representative body created for colonists to advice the Virginia Company 3 Head right policy 0 if you pay your way over to the colonies you ll get 50 acres of land that you can turn into a plantation 50 more acres if you bring a servant On Good Friday in 1622 Natives commanded by Powhatan s half brother attack outlying settlers They kill 350 settlers capture 20 women and spark outrage Attack was sparked by increasing land usurpation of tobacco growing Jamestown had received word of the attack ahead of time and was saved but all surrounding areas were destroyed C A Royal Company After the Indian attack the crown took over the reigns of Jamestown after a string of negative publicity King James revokes charter from Virginia company In response the colonists launch their own reprisal attacks to confiscate land and property from tribal lands They decide coexistence is impossible and extermination or removal is the only way forward He does allow the House of Burgesses to exist but only as advisors King sends a governor consulted by House of Burgesses but not liable to them 1V Emergence of a new society A Boom Tobacco demand in England is high and colonial production is highly demanded Problem It is an extremely labor intensive crop There was a labor shortage First solution to labor shortage Indentured Servants I I B Bust Low class workers who would sign a contract to work for a planter for a 0 set period of time 4 7 years His way to the colony would be paid and he would receive food and shelter but that s all At the end of the agreement they get some land Great opportunity 0 Problem with system Ripe for abuse virtual slavery 0 Second solution to labor shortage Slavery emerged later 16305 the tobacco boom goes to bust Planters start to diversify their crops C New Mig ration Migrants sense they will only be in colonies for awhile Goal was to return to England with wealth Civil War in England between King and Parliament ended with King being executed In 1640 Supporters of the King the Royalist flee England and end up in Virginia These are much different colonists They are older aristocratic More importantly they intend on staying in colonies not merely there for temporary work V Characteristics of Virginian society 4 By 1650 there were only 15000 English colonists in Virginia By that time agriculture is diversified They are growing numerous crops It is still an agricultural based society with dispersed settlement The plantations and homes were very spread out along the waterways like the James River and Chesapeake Bay for easier transportation Very few towns It is a Royal Colony with some level of self government and political autonomy Colonists can elect representatives in House of Burgesses etc Religion in Virginia The Church of England Largely brought during Aristocratic migration in 16405 Everyone in colony pays taxes to fund Church of England By 1650 Virginia starts looking more like England VI Mamland Just further up the Chesapeake Bay It is settled differently initially Set up as a refuge for Catholics but over time protestant population moves in from Virginia and the two colonies start looking almost identical 9192010 54000 PM Massachusetts Bay amp New England Colonies 1 Plymouth Colony and Pilgrims Settlement in NE in 1620 by Puritans 13 years after Virginia Puritanism is a protestant reform movement 0 Pilgrims were a separating puritan sect that believed that England and the Church of England are evil and cannot be reformed The only thing to do then was to escape England They fled to the Netherlands first and then eventually fled to Massachusetts Popular myth 1 Pilgrim 0 Fit into the narrative that American settlers were God s chosen people 0 Plymouth was all about religion not commerce Popular myth 2 They did NOT come seeking religious freedom in New World 11 New England Settlement Massachusetts Bay Colony these Puritans are not seperatiionist They believe England and Church of England are corrupt but can be reformed All puritans tend to be from middle and upper classes that migrate as family units The came over as entire puritan towns from England A Composition of migration Arrive much more rapidly than Jamestown migrants 25000 came in 16205 alone Virginia only had 15000 by 1650 B Nature of the Company It is also a PRIVATELY OWNED STOCK COMPANY Massachusetts Bay Co Massachusetts Bay however brings their charter with them Rather than ruling from England like Virginia they rule from the colonies Far more autonomy C Puritanism 1 Context protestant reformation in 16th century by Martin Luther to purify church They believe the core of salvation is faith alone Try to rid Catholic church of all other obstacles to the faith 0 By Faith Alone 0 Don t like icons religious holidays indulgences 0 Background King Henry breaks from Catholic church and starts Church of England so he could divorce his wife The church of England still looks a lot like the Catholic church though unlike protestant movement o The Puritans however are a rebellion against Henry s decision to keep the Church of England much like the catholic church They want a protestant church that follows the protestant churches in Europe 2 Fundamental Beliefs of Puritans authentic Protestantism 0 Believe in an absolute literal Hell Behold and think of death 0 Also believe in messages from God gortents that show God s anger Acts of nature point to doomsday etc o God is all powerful 0 Total Depravity of Man man is hopelessly sinful Humans are source of all evil 0 Predestination How do you achieve salvation There s nothing men can do Only the elect make it to heaven 0 Problem How do you know you are saved 0 What they find in the Bible is that God makes agreements with people They become very attracted to this idea of a covenant They are extremely attracted to a covenant of grace 0 Members would have to examine their life and prove to Puritan officials that they were part of the elect and in the covenant of grace Only the elect Visible Saint could become church members Only about 12 of puritans ever went forth and tried to prove it 0 Acceptance into covenant was mostly determined by moral behavior and personal well being very much based on works 0 This was a very difficult problem for Puritans to grapple with Constant concern over their eternal destiny lots of self reflection o If you are chosen as part of the elect you are all called on God to do certain things on earth farmer herder etc Success at your calling further validates you are part of the elect 3 Practical applications 0 Apply their beliefs to the world that God not only makes covenant with people but with NATIONS England has a covenant and it is failing o Puritans believe God will destroy England for breaking covenant o Covenant theory applies to communities families etc 4 Extent of acceptance 0 The vast majority of colonists held these beliefs to some degree 0 Puritan church is incredibly powerful in NE D Reasons for Migration They believe England is breaking its covenant and will soon be destroyed Came to avoid God s judgment on England utterly hopeless They did M come to America for religious freedom they did NOT offer religious freedom in their colonies and denied any non puritan religion from worshiping They did NOT come to convert natives often forcibly pushed them out Quakers were deemed heretics and sometimes hung far from freedom 111 Massachusetts Bay Colony as Puritan Commonwealth A Biblical Commonwealth Goal was to establish a religious utopia that England can emulate to avoid God s judgment John Winthrop founder and Gov of Mass Bay Colony when it was founded in 1630 spoke of the city on a hill 1 Government Winthrop brings Mass Charter with him so that the private company rules for themselves not for England They are not responsible to the Crown Full autonomy Every male church member can vote but only those in the elect 0 Elect governor and representative government It s self government but more a THEOCRACY NOT a democracy Most government decisions were based on the bible or God s will not people Members of churches were told who to vote for 2 Religious rules and behaviors All laws were based on Puritan beliefs ex Blasphemy Not everyone followed rules punishments were severe B Communal Towns Towns traveled as a whole from England to Massachusetts Congregational Churches independent entities with unified set of core beliefs Everyone in the colony had to attend church if you didn t you were punished Very tig ht knit family units Small houses very close together Lots of gossip Tended to be very hostile to outsiders and foreign influences Town government was set up much like colony government only male elect church members could vote and preachers told them who to vote for Everyone in the town is required to participate in communal activities to maintain town infrastructure etc C Subsistence agriculture Most residents were small time farmers who grew enough for their family and just a little more so they could sell it subsistence Divisions in wealth are much less stark than Virginia 3 initial stages of development in Mass Bay Colony 1V Early instability amp founding of other colonies Not everyone that came over early on was fully committed to the same vision not everyone was sure which version of Puritanism should be followed Same basic belief system but different ideas for how to achieve it Many towns were break away communes of different pu ritan sects EX Roger Williams arrived in 1631 upset with Mass Bay that Indians were displaced wanted total separation of Church and State and didn t believe anyone should tell you how to worship Leaves his colony and starts Rhode Island with total religious freedom EX Anne Hutchinson puritan midwife and healer 13 children says that God told her that many of the ministers weren t preaching correct that members of the elect did n t have to follow whatever the preacher told them also said members of the elect could recognize each other Taken to court and accused of heresy said God did n t speak directly to humans Banished from her colony settled a new colony in New Hampshire Sometime later Anne Hutchinson and her family were killed by Indians John Winthrope pronounced it as God s judgment V Stability 16405 505 colonies become very stable Early dissenters are thrown out Everyone has a shared goal More communal towns are created Subsistence agriculture wealth equality VI Sources of change 16605 undergoes a series of change that altars the colonies completely Generational change early founders die off second generation shows less Iquot commitment to goal of being a city on a hil less religious fervor Big problem Far fewer people are claiming they re elect Half Members innovation where you were baptized at birth and could gain more rights like voting if you became a member of the elect Didn t work Communal nature of the towns breaks down as younger siblings move out of communal areas to get land Royal Colony Crown becomes interested and takes over all of Massachusetts Bay government imposes a series of changes Changes structure of the colonies o Impose religious toleration so that dissent was allowed 0 Allowed ALL male property owners to vote Rise of Merchants 0 Merchant class emerges in Boston with much higher ambitions Colony starts to commercialize and look more like England and Virginia These changes create a great deal of anxiety in NE 0 Where is this shown Witch Hunts Witchcraft Hysteria is derived from the drastic changes in society that led to tension and division They believed that the devil was constantly targeting the devil because it was a city on a hill 0 Most famous outbreak Salem Massachusetts In colonies 300 people were accused 30 were hung 20 were hung in Salem alone 9192010 54000 PM Middle and Southern Colonies 1 Different context processes of settlement For the first 50 years of settlement Virginia and Massachusetts were the only British colonies that were inhabited Massachusetts breaks into New England Colonies Why was there no colonization spread earlier Civil Wars in England Once the wars end the crown becomes actively involved in 2 settlements Push for religious toleration and representative assemblies to advice the crown II The Middle Colonies New York Pennsylvania New Jersey Delaware land between Virginia and NE This space was originally claimed by the Netherlands Dutch still inhabit it However England John Cabbot had claimed all of North America years before never really recognized New Netherlands as a legitimate colony King of England decides he wants to give away most of this land to his brother the Duke of York Duke of York arrives with British fleet Dutch immediately surrender their lands The Duke however implores the Dutch to stay put He promises them religious toleration a political voice and right Many do stay Very quickly New York becomes a major urban center with cultural diversity PENNSYLVANIA is a completely different story than NY and NJ 0 William Penn Quaker owner of Pennsylvania Had been jailed in England wanted religious autonomy British crown owed Penn s deceased father 1600 pounds Penn negotiates for land in new world rather than debt King generously grants Penn 45000 acres in America Pennsylvania is named for Penn s father the Admiral Set up first colony in Philadelphia 0 Quakers society of friends protestant religion founded in NE 0 Very small sect of English Protestantism very different than others 0 Quakers are not reformers like Puritans who want to set an example 0 They believe everyone is born with an inner light and the purpose of life is to bring that light out Not as concerned with conversion 0 Unlike Puritans Quakers believe everyone can be saved innate goodness of men everyone is equal in the eyes of God no hierarchical titles Their church has no clergy no ministers or rituals They meet in small meeting houses and sit in silence and wait for God to speak to them When God spoke to them they would shake hence Quaker Believed everyone should dress equal to reflect equality and humility Pacifist never fig ht Very strong moral code forbid lying drunkenness gambling etc Quakers were persecuted in England and NE for being heretics Quakers also opened land to everyone else in line with religious tolerance in order to make money Penn tends to attract obscure religious groups like the Amish French Huguenots German Lutherans DELAWARE O O A The Colonies Originally part of Pennsylvania that broke away and became a royal colony Colonies tend to be more urban and capitalistic than NE farmers who want to move beyond simple subsistence Philadelphia and New York become largest cities in colonies roughly 30000 in each followed by Boston 15000 Begin as proprietary colonies privately owned by one person rather than 1 single investor Reasoning behind these colonies was different 0 One of the goals of Virginia and NE is to offload population to avoid crowding but there is no obvious need for these people to come over and live in these places Private owners of new colonies have one primary goal to make money How do they make money Taxing land and attracting colonists As a result of this competition for colonists they start looking beyond England 0 Much more ethnically and religiously diverse All of these colonies have representative governments B Nature of society in Colonies Pattern of settlement more people flowed into colonies Government representative governments male landowners can vote Religion very diverse Pennsylvania was the exception at first because it started as a religious settlement not merchant but they all transformed Ethnic Diversity very diverse III The other southern colonies A South a I I B Georgia nd North Carolina Carolina was initially one giant colony encompassing NC SC TN and FLA Carolina was a privately owned proprietary colony with 8 different owners There are already some English living in the area but mainly it s just space occupied by natives that are going to be pushed away There s plenty of space but TWO big questions 1 How to get there and 2 How to get money Sugar Cane in the west Indies Caribbean is very lucrative but the islands run out of space Planters flee for Carolina with slaves Originally French Huguenots settle soon after there is plenty diversity 0 Charlestown is home to the largest Jewish population in colonies Originally there is very few ways to make money living in Carolina Naval stores industry became a big hit War ships were made from wood Carolina has long leaf pines with tons of tar that can be harvested into pitch to seal ships They also make Turpentine out of this All this tar production leads to waterproof ships Hence Tarheels Tar is the first cash crop Rice is the second Rice eventually becomes the cash crop in NC harvested by slaves Charlestown becomes big city in the south In 1700 NC splits into NC and SC Both are made Royal Colonies SC takes off faster due to rice production Settled in 1732 carved out of SC Proprietary colony operated by English Reformer James Oglethorpe who is interested in helping people who are down in their luck Named for King George rationale was to reform debtors convicts etc Because of this goal the laws were a bit strange 0 You could only own 200 acres of land designed to keep rich planters out o No slaves or alcohol allowed TOTAL FAILURE Too many English people are excited about settling Georgia colony starts at Savannah Eventually Oglethorpe gives up on his stated goal and the lands fill up with rich planters from further up the east coasts It becomes a Royal Colony By the end of all this settlement we have all 13 colonies represented by male assemblies that advice the royal government Very religiously and ethnically diverse Lots of autonomy Southern colonies decide to base their colonies on slave labor Slavery in the Colonies I Slavery and Racism in Europe and England Slavery is an ancient institution that has been around for millennia It had pretty much died out in most of Europe by the 15th century Although it had died out in much of Europe it was still seen as legitimate First Europeans who owned African Slaves were the Portuguese during their expeditions around Africa The Dutch followed soon after England doesn t get involved in slavery until late 16505 150 years later Estimated 10 million slaves were brought from west coast of Africa to Americas 0 Roughly 05 million in North America Slavery had originated largely in Africa as tribal conquerors would enslave their subjects but not for their entire life Entirely different institution However when the Europeans began trading for slaves the dynamic changes Rather than just enslaving opponents in battle tribal leaders start hunting and capturing people just to trade them off to Europeans Tribes provided the slaves Europeans built slave castles or slave forts on African coast to contain slaves There they are held until ships arrive and herd them to America Most go to South America or the Caribbean Only 5 percent go to America 0 At least 30 percent of slaves would die during ship transport alone South American slaves were worked to death in sugar cane fields in brutal heat 0 High death rate hence higher number of slaves North American slaves mainly produced Tobacco and Rice much less harsh 0 Most of 05 million N American slaves lived became self reproducing o By 1860 there are 45 million slaves in N America RACISM There s lots of color coded thinking in coloniesEurope before slavery Westerners associated the color black with sin and evil Immediately Europeans begin defining the battle as Us Vs Them Belief in a hierarchical taxonomy of races putting whites atop above blacks Europeans don t discern any African religions declare them heathens Major cultural differences also incited hegemonic structuring uncivilized savages o Fascinated and horrified by Africans lack of clothing naked heathens Africans were essentially identified as subhuman heathens and savages II Origins of Slavery in Virginia A Early Years First slaves arrived in Virginia in 1619 There were only 20 of them At the time Slavery was in flux Africans weren t inherently slaves 0 Many blacks in colonies were free some were indentured servants o Slavery is not a solidified color based institution Both free and enslaved blacks some of whom had white indentured servants There are far more indentured European servants than enslaved Africans But these two groups often spent a lot of times together Also evidence of interracial sex and children Lots of interaction took place between whites and blacks By 1650 there are roughly 500 Africans in Virginia 23 are slaves 13 free At this time slaves and indentured servants were equal under the law B Decision for Slavery In 16605 there is a conscious decision made that Africans should be slaves At the end of this process the color black infers slave and blackwhite interactions cease Virginia then imports a massive number of African slaves How is this accomplished Laws that institutionalize slavery 0 Laws designed to reduce or eliminate blackwhite interactions Laws making it illegal for interracial sex and marriage Illegal for free blacks to own Christian servants Illegal for slaves or free blacks to injure or fight back with free white English Christians Whiteblack marriages banished from Virginia If you free a slave you have to pay for their export from VA Only free blacks and slaves can be whipped or dismembered Not allowed to vote or take office Slave holders were exempt from murdering their slaves Slaves go from 1 or 2 of Virginian population to roughly 30 Virginia went from being a society with slaves to being a slave society where slavery is fundamental to everything that goes on in the colony C Why 4 1 Fear of the disgruntled landless poor whites who were former servants 0 They had been abused and worked doggedly by planters for no land where they work on the frontier Who do they encounter Natives o Planters see this group as a very dangerous class because they could unite with slaves and overthrow the Virginian government o Bacon s Rebellion 1676 frontier rebellion of landless whites who attack natives for retribution of captured whites William Berkley Virginian colonial governor tries to end fighting between English and Natives Some listened some did n t Landless whites continued hunting and killing natives Nathaniel Bacon aristocratic planter in colony who emerges as leader of white settler rebellion against Natives u Raised a militia including free blacks and some slaves Berkley eventually issued a warrant for Bacon s arrest Bacon takes his militia and marches on Jamestown VA burning it to the ground Berkley flees for his life Bacon then issues his Declaration of Virginia condemning Berkley s taxes and weak defense But soon after Bacon dies the offensive dwindles and his followers are hung This rebellion confirms that landless whites are a dangerous class How do you make poor whites hate blacks You pass racist laws that create separation between the races to diffuse volatility 2 Change in the disease climate of Virginia 0 Disease rate dwindles rapidly More and more people are surviving o Indentured Servants were much less expensive so when disease stopped it became more efficient to buy lifelong slaves who were more expensive 3 Change in Supply 0 Few indentured servants are coming to America while at the same time African slaves are more readily available by English ships 4 Racism 0 Biggest factor English tried to enslave Natives and poor people but because Africans were seen as subhuman and fit for slavery it took hold 0 Virginia rapidly transforms from a society with slaves to a slave society 0 Primary slave cash crop Tobacco 0 Institutional slavery makes many Virginians incredibly rich 111 Lower South South Carolina Slavery takes a very different path in SC than VirginiaNC There is no fux period SC is a slave society from day 1 Many original settlers arrived w slaves 30 40 of its early population was African Slave owners realize African Slaves are best suited for cultivating Rice 0 Slaves have immunity to mosquito illnesses and other wetland His 0 Many slaves had experience cultivating rice in Africa Highly sought after Rice takes off as the major Cash Crop in SC Importation of slaves skyrockets 50 of SC is Africans by 1750 SC Slave owners held many more slaves often times hundreds because rice takes longer to harvest and requires more manpower African slaves were also used in gang labor in Virginia but task labor in SC Entire SC economy is based on Slave Labor Georgia soon becomes a slave based society just like thriving South Carolina N Slave Communities A Resistance Resistance was a constant during slavery years Some times there were slave revolts on ships Many would commit suicide Once slaves arrived in the colonies resistance took a different form At this time slaves who escaped to Spanish Florida were granted freedom Many obstacles to running away no shoes constant speculation no families Slave patrols and watchmen caught thousands of slaves 0 Once caught slaves faced brutal punishment castration whipped etc Other forms of resistance feigning illness breaking tools poisoning etc Most dramatic form of resistance organized revolt consequence death Organized revolt is always futile White have guns slave patrols O Stono Rebellion 1739 outside Charleston SC near Stono River 0 Group of 20 slaves gathered on Stono River and attacked a general store 0 killing both workers and confiscating guns and knives They moved through the countryside killing slave owners and setting blacks free Very quickly a militia squashed the rebellion They killed 44 in combat O and hung and decapitated the rest in public as a reminder to others New laws were passed promising rewards to any slaves forewarning them 0 about future revolts forcing slave owners to hold guns etc B Culture Slave culture is another form of resistance because it went against the dehumanization process Having a culture was a way to make the best out of a terrible situation Music and dancing were common forms of cultural expression V Slavery Outside the South A New England Only 2 of NE s population were enslaved Africans vs 50 in SC NE slaves tend to be house slaves in urban setting not farms Africans had a hard time adjusting to bitterly cold climate in NE There was NO questioning of slavery in NE though only a few slaves B Middle Colonies Very little slavery in middle colonies also Too cold No practical use Racism and slavery are hopelessly intertwined Racism is the lifeblood of slavery Each reinforce each other Sexual abuse of slaves occurred often Children of these mixed race slaves were treated as slaves Slave women were accused of being oversexualized Slaves were instrumental to early America They were the people building roads houses state capitals etc They were here before the Pilgrims 1620 Long legacy in America Enlightenment and Great Awakening 9192010 54000 PM Enliqhtenment amp First Great Awakening I Overview of Colonies mid 17005 Incredibly diverse population of Africans Sweds Dutch Germans Scot Irish 0 Religious diversity continues to grow Lots of toleration All the colonies were now Royal Colonies with Royal governors and legislative assemblies Thriving Economy Middle colonies specialize in wheat Southern colonies specialize in tobacco and rice Disparity of wealth in colonies is increasing Settlement remains right along the coast Only Scot Irish live in back country Slavery exist in every colony 10 of population live in big cities high rural population Most colonies see themselves as English not colonists II American Enlightenment Enlightenment Age of Reason a rebellion against superstition and religion 0 Goal was to apply scientific reasoning rather than mindless dogma Did n t make it to the USA until the 17405 intellectual movement Only the wealthy eliteintellectual classes really grabbed hold of the movement But those who did participate set up our system of gov t founding fathers A Extent of Influence French Enlightenment thinkers was very much anti clerical anti religious and ambitious in terms of trying to change the world America s enlightenment was more enlightenment lite American thinkers did n t want to remake the world and were less concerned with attacking religion B Intellectual Principles Foundation of the movement natural laws were governed by order and reason Intellectual thinkers wanted to figure out natural laws so they could apply them to other things see Gov t C Impact Political o Republicanism government in line with natural rights and order Religious o Deism was very popular amongst American enlightenment thinkers 0 Most of the founding fathers were deist different from Christians and Atheists Their vision of God however is that God set the world in motion with laws and natural order and then departed ex great clockmaker o Deist believe however than most people are inherently good and their iniquities are caused by wrong information which can be erased through reason and understanding of the world Very different concept of God 0 Deist are not antagonistic to evangelical Christian system III The First Great Awakeninq Wave of evangelism that occurs inside Christian Evangelican movement 17505 A Extent of influence Middle and Low classes v Wealthy elites Enlightenment mostly for elites More popular in the back country Especially prominent amongst women Great Awakening was first real attempt to Christianize Africans B Principles Style of Preaching was very different 0 George Whitfield left Church of England and became a renegade Anglican preacher traveling all over colonies Very critical of the Church of England Dead men preaching to lifeless cong regations Very popular and influential 0 Jonathan Edwards Heavily influenced by Whitfield First great American Theologian Graduated top of his class from Harvard as a teenager Biggest player in Americas first Great Awakening o Sinners in the hands of an Angry God 0 Both men traveled from town to town preached outside in fields 0 Spoke in plain English that the common man could understand Primary Beliefs o Theology was very similar to Pilgrims Going to hell 0 Believed preachers in established churches were not concerned enough with saving souls 0 Provide a very emotion personal message in plain talk Believe that people that are saved experienced a rebirth so they experience a total and absolute conversion Entire sermon was designed to provoke an excited emotional reaction A lot like a crazed evangelical church C Why First Great Awakening Happens This is a period of incredible religious diversity People begin wondering which religion is correct The Great Awakening offers a profound answer you go to a revival and feel zapped by God Other churches were very formulaic and stale Great Awakening was exciting Also as commercial success and wealth grew people began to feel guilty about their wealth 1V Implications of both movements A Greater Diversity Many new denominations arrive during the Great Awakening Drove a split between new style and old style establishments Great Awakening led to higher church attendance etc B Differences Deist concept of God is completely different absent God v active God C Shared Values The movements are in many ways complementary and very influential in formation of the American government Deist and Great Awakening reformers have more in common than not both focus on the individual Both focus heavily on morality 9192010 54000 PM Government amp Deferential Politics in the Colonies I England s government of the colonies A Structure Crown is at the top of government control apparatus 0 Although at this time the crown shares power with Parliament 0 Parliament really manages daily activities in colonies Crown appoints a Royal Governor which every colony has Reciprocal relationship citizens respect crown crown protects them B Mercantilism Belief that English citizenscolonies exist for the benefit of England Navigation Acts colonial exports must leave colonies on English ships 0 Numerated Goods goods that can only go to England or colonies England only allowed the American colonies to manufacture certain goods Anything else had to be manufactured in England to boost English markets C Presence in the colonies 11 Government within the colonies A Governors B Assemblies C Struggle for Control 111 Political Culture deferential politics A Rule by Elite B Nature of Electorate C Deferential Society 1V Overview August 24 2011 Key Terms Hohokam Cahokia Great League of Peace and Power The First Americans August 31 2011 Key Terms and Readings Bacon s Rebellion John Smith Jamestown House of Burgesses Powhatan Proprietary Colony Headright Read pages 4045 for Friday Settling Virginia and Maryland Motivations for Leaving Europe Characteristics ofa Chesapeake settlement 0 Series of trading posts 0 Primarily men 0 Company would establish rules 0 Premised on friendly Native relations All white settlements Leave for religious freedom Ioint stock companies are very important Virginia Company is the first and most important joint stock company 0 Interested in trading and in gold 0 They establish the rules the company is there to govern you 0 They plan on having friendly relations with the Native Americans 0 It is planned on being an allwhite society no slaves Settlement of Virginia 0 Will become a tobacco colony Sir Walter Raleigh and Roanoke Jamestown 1607 Powhatan Native Americans 0 Don t have much fir or gold what the VA company was originally searching for o Newly formed organization Powhatan s brother gets taken from the Spanish when they raided this area and took him back to Spain but he is able to get back to VA but he speaks Spanish 0 John Smith and Powhatan 0 People of England are used to peasants and serfs doing their work for them 0 The rich people were the ones who had the money to invest in this new world so that is why the rich people went to America Getting food is a challenge for them No one owns the land they are settling in VA The VA company owns the land They are just trying to get a profit by trading gold and silver with the Indians They also try making iron fails I They try citrus orchards fails I They tried glassmaking but it is a problem to ship it across the ocean I So when they cant find the precious metals they lay around and not working or doing anything with any real aim they just sort of hang out 0 John Smith takes over the colony in 1608 I Army officer by trade uses discipline to try to retain order in Jamestown Captured by the Native Americans I He marries Pocahontas daughter of Powhatan Powhatan feels bad for him and releases him I He puts people to work and they remove him from power 0 The Starving Winter 0 People are digging up bodies of dead colonists and eating them for survival I They are hungry and limited in their options I They are totally reliant on the Native Americans because they re not growing it themselves Sir Thomas Dale1611 makes people work and it makes people not want to move there because of his strict laws 1619 Sir Edward Sanded governing from a distance not in VA governs from 0 Sets up system to encourage people to migrate o Gives people 50 acres if they pay there travel to get there 0 Ifyou pay for someone else to get there you get 50 acres for each person O 0000 O 0 John Rolfe smoothes over the NAAnglo relations by marrying Pocahontas she moves to England and converts to Christianity then on her way back home on the ship dies VA Company helps assort authority I Starts to enslave NA s o Justification They are not Christian 0 Con icting ofinterpretations over the concept ofland ownership 0 NA s have nonverbal agreements English have deeds and contracts Land starts to be worth more money as the area starts to stabilize under subsequent governors I They start farming tobacco VA company grants 150 acres to each person who farms tobacco 0 They start making money finally 0 1000s ofsettlers are moving 0 Disease and sickness is still a problem for many decades 0 1640 20000 people have arrived but 8000 live there because some move and some die 0 Mostly men are coming to VA difficult to stimulate population because oflack ofwomen Con ict with NA s is always on the horizon I As more colonists come they need more land NA s live on it 0 They sense that the English are going to stay and that it s not going to get any better he Opecanough encourages the local tribes to unify in 1622 and they disagree with Christianity and any European beliefs 0 He kills 14 of the colonists in VA in 1622 and a war breaks out for 10 years 0 1632 peace returns English blames VA company for not being prepared crown takes control from VA company and it becomes a royal company in 1634 House of Burgesses I Set many laws from Iamestown o Affectively rule over the government 0 Crown encourages further expansion and production of tobacco 0 Tobacco boom from 16181632 1644 Powhatan attacks I Opecanough camptured and killed I Peace treaty says they have to live in specific landgranted to them and have to provide tribute ofbeaver skin Bacon s Rebellion 1676 I More colonists are coming to VA they need more land I Dictates the labor system and the way that VA power structure looks at class and power far reaching scope Colonial officials prevent them from taking land from NA s bc of the con ict I Many colonists feel the colonial officials are holding them back I 1675 dispute breaks out over the hog thieves o Settlers lash out on hog thieves as an excuse to fight I Nathanial Bacon 0 Comes to Iamestown bc his brother got all of his family s land and establishes his own fortune Officials prevent him from moving into lands he becomes the leader of the rebellion 0 Makes changes in the House of Burgesses to give them more freedom Bacon s followers attack and burn Iamestown governor escapes Bacon dies of illness Rebellion ends Rebellion marks moment when the power structure takes freedom away instead of giving more centralizes the power Forces boom in importation of African slaves Settlement of Maryland Very similar to VA but with a Catholic twist And it was a proprietary colony Becomes a major part of the Chesapeake the foundation ofAmerican slavery George Calvert gets permission to King to settle north of Jamestown Holds the title of Lord of Baltimore he is Catholic Catholics were unpopular in England Wants to set up futile system lord and manor Maryland becomes the first proprietary colony futile state Slow in development protestants have problems being ruled by a Catholic lord English civil war breaks out causes changes in colony Period of con ict ofhow it will be ruledProtestant or Catholic Baltimore takes control but says it will not be a Catholic socirty won t be forced The economy will be similar tobacco System spreads through the South slaves September 2 2011 Key Terms and Readings Puritans Pilgrims Massachusetts Bay Colony John Winthrop Roger Williams New England The Pilgrims and the Puritans Plymouth and the Pilgrims Why did they come 0 Motivations 0 Religious turmoil that s going on in England they re unhappy with what is going on in England I Christianity split 0 Puritans disagree with one another and also with the quotnormquot in England I Focused on purification and getting rid of the differences in the Church of England I They want to purify some of the corruption that the CoE Church of England is suffering form 0 Pilgrims are separatists 0 Both groups have differentideas about the CoE Want to go to the New World to practice religion the way they see fit and want to set up a model in the New World that then England can use as an example of society governed correctly I Thinking England will adopt some of their customs and ways of practicing religion I Want to show England how successful they can be 0 1620 They set out aboard the May ower from Plymouth England 0 They land in the area that will become Plymouth named after where they came from o 102 Pilgrims Will increase to 1500 in the coming years They have support from the VA company joint stock group of investors driving the settlement in VA 0 They are supposed to be going to VA but they end up on Cape Cod in Massachusetts due to a storm I Their charter is for them to settle in VA I They agree that bc they don t have the authority to settle in MA they sign the May ower Compact to agree to form their own government and abide by it s own laws together 0 Still loyal to the King of England 0 Decide to settle in MA where they already are 0 OO 0 They struggle through the first winter 0 Occupy an abandoned Native American village disease had spread through this area already and it was not deserted o Squanto helps them make it through the winter by teaching them how to grow crops 0 He is a lifesaver to them 0 Had been captured by earlier explorers and had been taken back to England 0 When he comes back everyone had deserted his city but he had been saved from the disease 0 0 They learn how to grow certain crops Some of Squanto s people come and have the first Thanksgiving I Europeans are thanking God for giving them the passage The storm They make it through and have someone that can help them Native Americans are thanking nature for sustaining them They are all focusing on and experiencing their own beliefs 0 The colony grows more steadily than Iamestown VA I Focus on growing food and survian I Ready to work different from the Virginians I Given personal plots ofland where they are required to provide for their own families They initially remain small and don t expand too far not wanting to come into con ict with the Native Americans in the area William Bradford becomes the governor of Plymouth more elite Pilgrims and is a leader to them Encourages distribution ofland and other things Some things are shared they share a single plow and use it as you need for farming Expand up to 1500 people Not going to be a place that people are ooding into just yet It s going to be a specific group ofpeople that is going to want to come settle with them Massachusetts Bay and the Puritans Massachusetts Bay is near Boston geographically north of Cape Cod and Plymouth 1630s John Winthrop comes over with a group of Puritans 0 He is working class 0 Abides by Puritan faith 0 Wants to get rid of corruption 700 Puritans on 11 ships Massachusetts Bay Company charters them They will actually be based in Massachusetts VA company is governing from London 0 Operate locally and are responsible for themselves 0 Plan to build a city on a hill 0 Perceive that the world is heading in a direction counter to good 0 Want to build a city that will save people and make people want to reform themselves and save themselves from eternal damnation 0 Want to create the colony as an example for the world MA Bay Co sets up radical laws governing them everything is governed by religion 0 Set up a government involving all adult males 0 They all abide by the Puritan Covenant the agreement that everyone is in it together working for a common good It s a republic that they re setting up which is unique They can elect their leaders they are not appointed by a King or governing figure 0 70 of males could vote bc they were considered saints I Puritan faith is governed by predestination 0 God has already decided ifyou are going up or down 0 In your life it will be revealed ifyou are a saint or not and you have to go in front of the community and talk about the experience and they would decide if you were saved or not I They had an elected governor and a bicameral legislative body 0 John Winthrop wins governor until 1649 the year he dies 0 The Puritans settle Massachusetts Bay north of Plymouth 0 Both Plymouth and Boston just slowly build and are not concerned with getting more land 0 They are concerned with setting up the community as an example for the old world 0 They don t want con ict with the Native Americans New colonies spawn off Problem becomes over time bc there are disagreements over the religious foundation in Massachusetts which leads to settlement should gov t be based strictly on religious coherence or should it be more lenient 0 MA CT NH RI four colonies that form before 1700 o Proprietary colonies vs Royal Colonies 0 VA Royal Colony 0 The rest proprietary colonies I They grow faster and over time begin to expand I They are living in a less swampy and wet more healthy to live area 00 OO 0 Most colonists in England paid their own way they work harder don t make as much money as in VA is more malefemale balance actual ability to grow your community through reproduction Conflict and War Come to New England Society is living very close to the Native Americans and at some time o quotPequots war 0 Essentially a massacre 0 They surround the town set it on fire anyone that doesn t die in the fire they kill on the way out of the village 600 die and the rest are sold into slavery o Wampanoags o Metacom their leader they call King Phillip They are upset with the settlers treatment of the natives They are encroaching on the Wampanoag land Settlers make it worse bc when the tension starts they take vengeance on neutral groups they don t know the difference between the different types of tribes and don t take the time to learn 0 52 ofNE s 90 towns are attacked and 12 are destroyed completely I Guerrilla attacks they raid then they re out I They re outnumbered but kill 1000 people in these attacks I Target anything they see as a sign of New England culture 0 Fences houses etc o Fences represent ownership and not sharing 0 Churches 0 Barns I This destruction makes people wonder if they re on the right path it becomes a religious war I The Native Americans are seemingly taking away from their forming of their ideal city on the hill I Taking place the same time as Bacon s Rebellion in VA Soon Metacom is dead and the colonists treat the NA s more harshly after and make more effort to take native land now that he is gone the rebellion comes to a hault I Fallout of King Phillip s war 0 Shows the Native Americans are thinking across tribal lines and knowing they want to get the Europeans out together 0 Weakens the NA s against the English when they think in terms of individual tribes 0 Now the English try to recognize the identities of each tribe to play the groups against each other Puritans question themselves and start to turn on themselves with the Salem Witch Trials if God had favored us why did this happen I They start to wonder about their mission and if they re doing it in the right wa The crown in England is starting to worry if these towns can handle governing themselves OOO I They play closer attention to this part of the world now Outlying New England Colonies Connecticut and Rhode Island Connecticut CT comes into the picture when people get unhappy with the Puritans and the way they are ruling the community OR just new settlers that had nothing to do with the Puritans I Those who couldn t vote in Puritan society leave I Where they go is fertile land I John Davenport forms a haven New Haven 0 One of those blip on the radar colonies that will be taken over Thomas Hooker founded CT in 1627 founded much more liberally but with similar governing structures don t use religious principles you don t have to be a saint to vote just in good character The Dutch are in New York and have claims to this area In 1635 CT is an official colony Rhode Island Rhode Island will also come about as an avenue for people who don t want to buy into the Puritan model of government I Roger Williams is important he lives in Salem MA for a period of time but John Winthrop considered him a heretic I Believes the MA church should be totally separate form the Church of England I He s a separatist like the pilgrims I Believes in the separation of Church and State I Providence is a place that attracts other settlers to this area I 1644 Rhode Island gets a charter and becomes a colony I Iews could move unharrassed and live in Rhode Island September 12 2011 Key Terms Indentured Servitude Stono Rebellion Iames Oglethorpe Middle Passage Servitude v Slavery The Southern Colonies Indentured Servitude The Initial Answer to the Labor Question You indenture yourself as a servant on a farm or plantation 0 Sometimes you would indenture yourself in order to get out ofprison 0 England and other European powers use servitude to get rid of the kind of people in England that they don t necessarily want to be there the poor people and the criminals o It answers the labor need and gets rid of the part of society that is unwanted in England 0 You get something for investing in other people coming across working for you 0 Indentured servitude is an important labor source in all of the colonies 0 Society is stabilizing in England people are less likely to indenture themselves Slavery The Eventual Solution to the Labor Question 0 By 1775 on the Eve of the Revolution the population is almost 50 black because they answered the Labor Question with Slavery there are several free blacks living in the Chesapeake at this time too 0 Historians have debated but approximated 10 million slaves come across the middle passage 0 About 278000 went to US but the rest went to the West Indies because they were needed there the most 0 Cheaper to bring new slaves than to heal sick ones 0 Only 5 of the slaves are brought to US directly from Africa 0 Up to 1690 the Royal African Company is the only company that can bring slaves across the Atlantic Ocean group ofinvestors created a monopoly 0 After the 1690s the slave trade is essentially wide open and there is no longer a monopoly Maryland and VA expand exponentially in there slave ownership 0 More slaves in the Chesapeake are being born than brought over after a period of time conditions are better here than the West Indies climate and natural things as well as laborintensive work are worse in WI slaves normally live 57 years 0 In North America it s easier for slaves to have a natural form of reproduction to expand different form the WI in which it s easier to bring new slaves in 0 Look up percentages of slave populations in 1760s 0 Slaves in the North had a milder environment but one area where this will hurt the slave population is that they lose more of their traditional identity and community because the amount of slaves will be smaller BUT it is better living conditions 0 The MIDDLE PASSAGE look at pictures on slides Servitude and Slavery and the Deveiopment of the Southern Colonies 0 John Locke important for the establishment and representation of the English system of government 0 Male can vote ifhe held 50 acres ofland September 14 2011 Key Terms and Readings Read pages 4548 Smallpox Inoculation The Great Awakening Jonathan Edwards A ReAwakening in the Great Awakening By 1730s and 40s we see the first religious revivals in the American colonies Sparks the Great Awakening Brings women and children into the religious fold Before this it was essentially the male having the relationship with God The Great Awakening is extremely popular among the lower class It was easier to be a priest ifyou were a part of the upper crust before but now these people argue that this isn t working 0 The second sons who don t have a promise ofland from their fathers are especially interested o Secondtier citizens women children second sons poor are pumped up about it o This was desperately important for people because religion was important for people in their every day lives it was this communal excitement It is made possible through Evangelical methods that spread from England 0 Spreading the word 0 Going out preaching discovering interacting with each other and talking about religion 0 John Wesley and his brother Charles I Evangelists I Found Methodism Methodists I Make faith more accessible and approachable to all I Religion of the people I Bring it to the New World I Travel to GA in the 1730s it s a very young colony 0 They spread this religion that is now accessible to everyone of every class 0 George Whitfield is an integral player in the Great Awakening I Orator I Speaks in open fields in GA and PA I Shouts in a pasture for hours to several thousand people to those who didn t have access 0 Jonathan Edwards I One of the most famous theologians I Also a preacher I His most famous sermon Sinners in the Hand ofan Angry God 0 Not very promising or uplifting I Very visual sermons tries to get the people to SEE what he is talking about I So visual personal and forward that people scream and physically react because they think they are going to be eternally damned I He s saying we re on a slippery slope and are all capable of slipping and that we need to walk the straight and narrow and not put ourselves in the position 0 Why even go to a bar There s alcohol and temptations there that we should avoid 0 We are all prone to failure avoid even putting themselves in the situation 0 Put yourselves in a situation where he WILL save you I He does this on behalf of the people who think they failed I He wants to get people on the right track 0 Splits up different congregations into quotNew Lights and quotOld Lights I They see one strategy over another I New Lights are the revivalists 0 Believe in the training ofnew ministers in an educational environment formal education I Old Lights are the traditionalists 0 Believe that books hinder ones ability to learn 0 More pulled back from education The Enlightenment begins in Europe at this time and is sparked by the Scientific Revolution 0 They are looking more seriously at science and away from religion 0 Before this the Church dictated why and how things worked and happened around you Traditional Church authority is challenged by the Enlightenment Old Lights see that New Lights wanting to focus on education could also challenge the Church s authority 0 More people are interested in politics and government as a result of the Enlightenment 0 Traditionally you are not supposed to question authority because the Catholic Church will govern everything for you I Geocentricism Earth is the center of the universe Church I Heliocentric Sun is the center Church is challenged by civilians Enlightenment Leaders 0 John Locke important thinker about government and natural relationships 0 Frances Bacon 0 Ben Franklin 00 OOO leader Thomas Jefferson Thomas Paine All good thinkers that started to question things and became the s and founders of the ideology of our great nation Enlightenment s effects on society 0 Education Sc ience and Law and Politics 0 Education 0 Scienc I American Colonists has always placed a high mark on education The Enlightenment makes this mark even stronger Knowledge is good and everyone should question everything Believes everyone should have access to an education Literacy rates are always higher in the colonies than in Europe By the revolution in 1770s over half ofwhite males can read and write Women lag behind Encourages and makes useful political documents Colleges and universities will start to be established in the colonies By 1763 there are 6 official colleges and universities 4 being founded to train preachers and ministers including Harvard founded in 163 6 Yale in 1701 as an effort to push against the perceived liberal idea of Harvard Yale and Harvard are founded in different ideologies and are forever rivals Founded to train preachers in the religious art Liberal arts degrees can be pursued O 0 e There are departments geared toward astronomy at the universities too Other sciences too Groups of amateurs pool their money together to conduct experiments Through the avenue of science Ben Franklin is ying his kite and discovering electricity People are looking at the human body and treatment of disease in a questioning manner Small Pox Inoculation 0 Cotton Mather learns from slaves on how to treat it Give small amount to build immune system If small pox is in the area give yourself and the family a small dose and when it reaches your family you will be more immune and your body will be more ready to handle it and you will survive OO 0 Law and Politics I MOST IMPORTANT I Early colonists lacked English trained lawyers I Based on English principles but court preceding were more easily done and not as elaborate I Punishments also differed in American colonies capital punishment was much less likely Political system also diverges from English tradition 0 Americans developed the House of Burgeses in VA 0 Located in Jamestown 0 People can elect the members to govern for them 0 Government by your peers instead of someone far away 0 Much more localized close and selfcontrolled 0 Royal government is too far away to effectively govern 0 Higher tendency toward selfgovernment without having to answer to higher authority I We are left here to fend on our own and we are now more likely to question authority natural independence is being formed by Enlightenment and The Great Awakening I Problems will arise after 1763 when it becomes necessary for parliament to become more involved in colonial society September 16 2011 Key Terms and Readings Page 8992 Navigation Acts Dominion of New England Edmund Andros Iohn Wise Society and Government in Colonial America Colonial America Society to 1750 The wealthy are few 0 The wealthiest 5 of Bostonians own half of the total towns wealth 0 At the same time the poorest twothirds owns less than 10 o 97 are white Merchants and traders have replaced puritan ministers as the center of the society They are driving society Shifting now to the middle colonies 0 Most of the immigrants moving to PA are going to be German and ScotsIrish Going to bring the Conestoga wagon vehicle popular with the German settlers 0 Huge wagon that you can pile lots of stuffwith 0 Move the frontier backwards from East to West Land of good opportunity is in PA Differs form NE in that we see more instances of slavery because of larger farms 7 of the population is slaves Arsoninduced fires Will develop as the breadbasket ofAmerica growing a large amount of wheat Flour is the number one commodity and export in NE it is fish The middle colonies enjoyed a high standard of living climate availability of land Philadelphia will rise in this environment to be the largest city in the British Empire worldwide outside of London The southern colonies will thrive with a boost in the slave trade Stono South Carolina 0 Rebellion o 20 slaves attacked a store killed 2 and took guns ammunition and powder 0 Encouraged other slaves to join them in quest of freedom 0 Killed more than 20 whites 0 Group ofwhites on horseback took them down 0 The rebellion also encouraged SC to crack down on the movement of slaves so that they can t collaborate on rebellion plans Louisiana 0 Traders in LA are going to work to try indigo rice tobacco timber anything they can get off of and from the land to sell back to France to the merchants to make money Most of these things will not make enough money 0 The colony fails to take off 0 People don t want to leave France as often as English people want to leave England so there are not many colonists New Government Policies The Navigation Act In 1650 and 1651 the Navigation Act is passed These are meant to funnel the bolt of goods and make sure it stays in British hands from start to finish the money English ships worked by English crews were the only ones that could carry goods Tightened later and now the English ships worked by English crews have to travel through English ports The mercantile system using the colonies to grow raw materials that can be made into goods Dictates that money is going to be made through the production of goods not through extracting silver and gold like the Spanish did 0 What is good for the mother country is good for its colonies 0 Navigation acts are a way to make the mercantile system stronger 0 Import taxes are made on goods The Dominion of NE 1687 King James II creates a single colony out of NH MA CT and RI the Dominion of NE 0 King James is at the heart of the back and forth between Catholicism and Protestantism James is forced to ee his position because he was Catholic King William a protestant assumes the position of King Edmund Andros is appointed as governor by King James and is a former military commander 0 At first people are excited to sit on council 0 Then he writes laws by himself and the council is ignored 0 Now people are not so excited The crown wanted to protect their land from France this is why Iames made the dominion Iames thought it would make them more powerful ifthey were grouped together not independent of one another Iohn Wise a reverend o No taxation without representation 0 Has a small council that works with him 0 Unless I have someone on the council you have no right to tax me o Maypoles Salem Witch Trials 1692 Mass hysteria where Puritans are upset with themselves for bad luck their city on a hill is failing along with their crops People are dying nervous tense and blaming it on bad luck Some girls in the town of Salem MA begin to exhibit strange behavior and a westIndian slave Tituba is accused ofwitchcraft They would shift the blame to other women so that they were not accused The government would torture them and eventually they would confess to blaming other women just to get out of trouble At the end of the day 19 people were killed 18 of those 19 being hung and one dying by being tortured One way they would torture you was placing a door on your body and adding stones on top until you confess ofbeing a witch Then someone accuses the governor s wife ofbeing a witch and he steps in The evidence ofwitchcraft would be anything quotI saw someone poling around in the garden and I think that s why the crop was bad This is evidence that their vision city on a hill dies Two families that were prominent were really accusing each other and it spread and the thoughts and fears in the back of their mind solidified these families accusations in the minds of the people September 19 2011 Readings for Wed 9596 97100 Robert Dinwiddie Albany plan Braddock s defeat Treaty of Paris Proclamation of 1763 Pontiac Rebellion French British Rivalry in the Ohio Valley English are pushing onto more Native American land across the Cumberland Gap French built a series of forts to encroach the English citizens and colonies In 1753 Robert Dinwiddie Royal governor and member of Ohio Company sends representatives to warn the French that they are trespassing George Washington is the messenger that warns the French Dinwiddie is impressed by him and sends him on another mission to protect the Virginian land from the French French and Indian War after the Mingho Chief attacks the French Washington tries to talk to the French commander but the chief scalps and kills all of the French commanders He is trying to play the rivalry up and fuel it Dinwiddie wanted Washington to get the French out without a violent big deal Washington builds Fort Necessity it s very small and not built well it was not his finest hour The allies have abandoned him 2 months later many French soldiers attack Ft Necessity and they kill or wound 13 ofWashington s people that were in the Fort Delegates from 7 colonies meet in Albany NY to make the Albany plan Suggested a unified colonial government Important because it s a group of delegates working together for these colonies to have a central cohesive group to wage war make plans for defenses and dictate relations with the Native Americans No one is able to sign for the plan because they felt as though it was taking away from individual power Colony cohesion is in the picture now Seven Years War and Colonial Consequences Braddock s Defeat General Braddock 1000 of his British soldiers were killed or wounded September 23 2011 Key Terms and Readings Boston Massacre Tea Act of 1773 Coercive Intolerable Acts First Continental Congress Lord Dunmore s Proclamation 1 What interest did English explorers initially have in the native peoples of North America What was their image of those natives before colonization efforts began They hoped to make their fortunes in trade with the savages pg 6 That they were savage simple people who could be used to the advantage of the English The English decided to capture a native bring it to London teach it English and then get the native to tell them about the new world 2 What did Queen Elizabeth do to assist Walter Raleigh in his colonization efforts Why did Raleigh initially have difficulty attracting potential colonists How did Raleigh attract investors in his colonization scheme She gave him his brother s American grant pg 51 She gave her name Virginia and she knighted him pg 7273 She gave him her ship the Tiger and gunpowder pg 76 The astronomers had declared that year a bad year for travel and Elizabethan Londoners took that extremely seriously pg 74 Survivors from a previous expedition returned with horrible stories that scared potential colonist pg 86 The Spanish were capturing people for the autodefa the Spanish inquisition pg 88 Raleigh promised England merchants a summer season of piracy on the high seas if they invested pg76 3 Why were women included in the second effort to found an English colony on Roanoke Island Women were in possession of many more practical skills that would be important to the colony than men were pg 188 4 What problems did the second Roanoke colonists face What conclusion did John White come to when he returned to Roanoke Island and found the word Croatoan carved on a tree I I 1 1 White was a weak leader the they were r quot was a group of Indians that did not want them there attacked and killed one of the colonist White mistakenly led an attack on Indians they were friendly with the supply ship was headed for Chesapeake Bay not Roanoke where they were pgs 193 194 209 213 He assumed that the colonist had moved themselves to Croatoan pg 236 264 5 What impact did the marriage of John Rolfe and Pocahontas have on Jamestown The marriage was the turning point in the colony s fortunes It brought peace friendly commerce and trade to Jamestown It had saved the colony from death famine and utter confusion pgs 318 323 6 According to John Smith how did Powhatan explain the fate of the lost colonists of Roanoke Island What are some of the other explanations about their fate that Milton offers Powhatan told Smith that the settlers had moved to the shores of Chesapeake Bay and lived there for nearly two decades until most of them had been murdered by his tribe in 1607 because the tribe s priest had prophesied that they would destroy his tribe pg 335336 Milton tells about a tribe of Indians found inl701 that had light skin gray eyes and light brown hair He believes that a small group of the colonist survived by living and eventually interbreeding with this tribe of Indians pg 343
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