MUS APPRECIATION MUS 1751
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Catharine Reilly on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MUS 1751 at Louisiana State University taught by K. Houser in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/222482/mus-1751-louisiana-state-university in Music at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
930 Chapter 10 introduction to baroque art and music 1600northern Italy Birth of baroque music born out of Italian madrigal tradition of virtuosic solo singing A new style of music born that deemphasized older equal voiced choral polyphony This new style was flamboyant so it earned the name baroque term meaning pearl of irregular shape The word baroque has some negative connotations meaning distortion excess and extravagance It was critically used to describe excessive ornamentation of visual art and rough bold instrumental sound in music Baroque architecture shows style of design that is constructed on grandest scale Buildings fountains gardens everything is massive and highly decorated Palace of Versailles and st peters basilica are examples of design philosophy Large spaces required larger groups of musicians and led to larger choirs and bigger orchestras Decoration also translates in a love of highly ornamental melodies based on solid chordal foundation This homophonic texture would for a while displace highly polyphonic texture of renaissance Homophonic texture is when there is a clear melody line with accompaniment of chords By the end of baroque we have 3 musical textures to play with listen to hallelujah chorus from Messian Listening guide pg 54 intro CD T18 required listening It had been noticed in renaissance that music had particular ability to sway emotions Led to baroque period notion called doctrine of affections Doctrine of Affection Different musicals moods could be used to affect listener N Each work of baroque art tends to confine itself to one specific emotion keeping each unit of space and expression separate from last 3 Unity of mood in each art work lmportant characteristics of baroque music 1 Expressive melody voices are no longer equal instead topbottom lines become more important New type of soclo singing emerges called monody In monody single singer steps forward accompanied by few instruments and sings highly charged emotional text lead to emergence of virtuoso solo soloists Singers became starts in courts and on newly invented operatic stage Virtuoso is instrumental or singer w highly developed technical facility Basso continuo emerged from concept that monody need to be accompanied Ex soprano came melody line and bass provides harmonic support in between middle voices fill in texture Chords spring up vertically from bass line Bass driven chordal support became known as basso continue lts usually formed from harpsichord and some low string instruments such as cello or viola de gamba Also a form of lute used called theorbo Harpsochord built upon bass line by improvising using numerical short hand placed below bass line This is called figured bass Chapter 11 Early Baroque vocal music drama scenery costumes and even dance All words in an opera and sung Text is called libretto or little book Opera means work which evolved in lldramatic work set to music 1 Opera all parts are sung 2 Major roles go to best singers 3 Cost is enormous It all started in Italy Florence Mantual and Venica Group of intellectuals still exploring idea of humanism Led to the fact that ancient Greece drama was sung and that is what lend it its power So in an attempt to recreate sung drama opera was born Several experimented with new idea and in 1607 first grand opera written quotorfeoquot by Claudio monteveral Tradition of using greek legends stayed until the mid classical period 102 Reading chapters 1013 lmportant things Opera The orchestra The violin The organ First opera Listen to orfeo quotOrfeoquot by Claudio Monteverdi First grand opera was written in 1607 written by Claudio Monteverdi Toccata a touched thing an instrumental piece that requires great technical dexterity of performers This little instrumental quotoverturequot will evolve into a new genre or type of composition later in music history Listen to Toccata for quotOrfeoquot Pg 112 The singing style of orfeo are mainly monody There are different types of monody Recitative llsomething recited is musically heightened speech In baroque opera when the voice is just accompanied by the basso continuo it is called simple recitative Aria quotsongquot lyrical type of monody with regular rhythm Passionate expansive and tuneful Recitative moves the plot along Uses rapid text Aria communicated an emotional state Text moves along leisurely Arioso is a style of monody that is halfway between aria and recitative Listen to Act II recitative llat the bitter news and arioso llthou art dead Listen to Act III Aria llpowerful spirit Opera spread all over Europe and made it to germany france and England We will now listen to a bit of opera from the great English composer Henry Purcell Opera dido and aeneas 1689 In this aria Purcell uses a device called a basso ostinatio that was popular in the baroque The English for basso ostinato is ground bass This is a constantly repeated bass line that the rest of the music is built over Aria llWhen lam laid in earth The emergence of the orchestra An orchestra is an ensemble of musicians organized around a core of strings playing under a leader Baroque orchestras had a round 20 players each playing a single line of music Listen to Baroque Orchestra Jean baptiste lully overture to armide only composer to die of composing gangrene in foot from pounding The violin The most important string instrument of the baroque period Reaches its perfection in the baroque particularly in the hands of Antonio Stradivari 16441737 The composer arcangelo corelli 16531713became a great composer virtuoso for the violin He worked out of rome and did a lot of teaching of violin techniques as well as writing sonatas Sonata means llsomething sounded these baroque sonatas consisted of a collecton of movements or smaller secions each with its own mood and tempo but all in the same key They were naed after dances such as Allemande Sarabande Gavotte Gigue Listen to trio sonata in C major opus 4 No 1 1694 For 2 violins cello and harpsichord 107 Concerto llto strive together a musical composition that features a soloist and an orchestra in a friendly contest or competition When there is one soloist solo concerto When there is a solo group concerto grosso In the concerto grosso the full orchestra is called the tutti and the solo group is called the concertino These concertos consist of three movements A fast 1 a slow 2nd and a 3 fast Fastslowfast The first tend to be serious or grand The second lyrical and tender The third lighter and more dancelike Block architecture Clearly delineated sections Ritornello form A main theme called the ritornello is played by the tutti In between statements of this theme the soloist inserts fragments of the themem and extends them in virtuosic fashion Listen to spring concerto for Ritornello Form Vivaldi Spring from The Four Seasons Anotonio Vivaldi 16761741priestthe red priest Venice Ospedale della pieta The hospice of mercy The late baroque and bach and handel Summer in G minor by Vivaldi an the doctrine of affections The same composer that exemplifies the tradition also breaks with it The music of the late baroque is more about refinement than about innovation The music tends to be very rhythmic with continuous movement Melodies are usually sequenced Melodic sequencing is when the melody or a fragment of the melody is repeated 2 or more time at different pitch levels The texture is dense As the composers worked out the filling in of the inner voices polyphony returns The greatest expression of polyphonic writing is a form called fugue Of all composers JS Bach is considered a master of this form It is a way to show off technical skill in contrapuntal writing Fugue is a contrapuntal form and procedure The word itself means quotflightquot First there is a main theme called the subject Each voice enters with the subject This section is called the exposition Then this is followed by a free writing section called an episode These two ideas then alternate Usually fugues are for 25 voices or parts They have been written for as many as 32 Another technique preferred by bach and certainly well suited to the organ The pedal point A sustained note in the bass with the harmonies shifting over it The organ was a main instrument of the baroque and bach was considered a virtuoso organist Listen to JS Bach organ fugue in 3 min required listening Brandenburg concerto no 5 Mvtl 109 The classical period 17501820 Coincides with a period in philosophy called llthe enlightenment also called the Age of Reason It was a time of scientific advances and revolution The American Revolution The French Revolution Writers Voltaire and Rousseau Changes came in the world of Music these things included A Comic Opera as opposed to Opera seria Opera Seria grandiose and about gods and legends Comic Opera or Opera Buffa uses everyday characters and middle class values Comic Opera would use spoken dialogue simple songs and things like sight gags and slap stick comedy B Public Concerts The middle class start to be able to afford organize and attend public concerts Music became accessible to everyone not just the nobility or at church C The advent of the Piano The piano was invented in Italy in 1700 The new pianoforte as it was called could be played both loud and soft lt gradually replaces the harpsichord lt gains a lot of popularity as a parlor instrument Training on the piano knowledge of French and the ability to do needlepoint were all signs of gentility and status that made a young woman suitable for marriage Classical music has the following attributes Formal order Clarity Balance Lighter in tone More natural Simple shorter melodies Greater emphasis on homophonic texture Lesser use of counterpoint The mood can be changeable within the movements OWNQWPP Nquot Form becomes very important in classical music Form in music is created but the following Repetition Contrast Variation Form is discussed by giving different musical ideas letter names such as A B or C Ternary form has a simple arrangement of a A section a contrasting B section then a return of the A section ABA The classical composers loved to use ternary form in relation to a type of dance called the minuet A minuet is a dance in a moderate tempo and in a triple meter There are actually 3 little ABA forms inside of a big ABA form Minuet ABA Trio CDC Minuet ABA Let us listen to Mozart llA Little Night Music 3 movement Minuet and Trio That is a simple Ternary form now we look at a complex one Sonata Allegro Form Exposition 1st theme tonic key Transition theme modulates 2quotd theme new key Closing theme Development Themes are elaborated on moved to new keys pulled apart put together in new ways etc Recapitulation everything in the exposition must return in the tonic key 1st theme tonic key Transition theme no modulation 2quotd theme tonic key Closing theme tonic key Coda Losten to Mozart quotA Little Night Music 1st mvt Mozart Symphony No40 in 3 min Sonata Allegro is preferred for first movements of classical multimovement works 2quotd movements often use theme and variation form Listen to Haydn Symphony No 94 2nd 1014 Third movements usually used minuet and trio 4 h movements would often use Rondo Form Rondo can be graphed out as ABACA or ABACABA or ABACADA All are characterized by a return of the A section with contrasting material in between It is similar to the Ritornello form of the Baroque Listen to Rondo Mozart Horn Concerto in Eb Major K 495 Multimovements works Alternating fast slow fast Symphony Franz Joseph Haydn 17321809 1st Sonata Allegro 2quotd Theme and Variations 3rd Minuet and Trio 4 h Rondo Conce rto 3 movements Sonata Allegro Form Double exposition Cadenza Sonata multi movement work for a solo instrument Fast slow fast 3 movements String Quartet 2 violins viola cello Form movements genres Haydn Sonata in Eb major Mozart Sonata in Bb maj K 333 Beethoven quotPathetiquequot Sonata 10 16 Classical Genres o Sonata 3 movements Arrangement tempo fast slow fast Written for solo instrument ex just a piano playing Or piano with violin Piano Sonata No Sin C minor Op 13 quotpathetiquequot Beethoven A B A C A coda A trans B closing repeat maybe not A Trans development A B A Rondo Allegro form Symphony 4 movements Arrangement tempo fastslowdance like fast Written for an orchestra Concerto 3 movements Arrangement tempo fastslowfast Written for soloist and orchestra Mozart Violin Concerto No 4 in D K218 Double exposition Theme 1 Theme 2 closing Repeat with violin Development Recapitulation Candenza String Quartet 35 movements tend to be arranged like the symphony but they vary Composers like to experiment Arrangement tempo fastslowminuet triofast Can vary Written for 2 violins viola cello 1021 Lecture 10 The classical composers Franz Joseph Haydn 17321809 First of the great composers to move to Vienna Vienna became the city of musicians Rags to riche story Born in 1732 in Rohrau Austria Young Haydn did some singing as a boy soprano and was heard by a choir director from Vienna who brought Haydn back with him to Vienna While working as a choirboy Haydn was trained in composition keyboards and piano He was dismissed from the cathedral when his voice changed 10 years later He then made his living as a freelance musician teaching and accompanying singers and playing in several different churches He was finally discovered by Prince Nikolaus Esterhazy 17141790 and was brought to the Esterhazy estate Esterhazam to be the music director there He was well treated and respected but he did have servant status and a lot was expected of him Also he was not allowed to publish or circulate his music without the Princes permission After the prince died Haydn retained his position but was allowed to travel After staying a time in Vienna he went to London where he was paid a considerable amount to conduct and compose The results of this are a collection of 12 symphonies known as the London Symphonies He returned to Vienna a very wealthy man and when he died in 180 he was considered the most respected composer in Europe his output as a composer includes 104 symphonies 70 string quartets About 12 operas 52 piano sonatas 14 masses 2 oratorios Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 17561791 Born in Salzberg Austria Father Lepold was a violinist in the court of the Archbishop Mozart was playing piano violin and organ by the age of 6 He also started composing about the same time He and his sister were taken on a tour of Europe by their father that lasted 3 years stopping in Munich Brussels Paris London Amsterdam and Geneva All of this travel exposed the young Mozart to the Musical traditions and styles of all of Europe After the touring Mozart received a position in the same orchestra as his father serving as organist violinst and composer But he and the archbishop did not see eye to eye and Mozart did not see himself as a servant as he was treated He broke his bonds of service and made his way to Vienna at the age of 25 to work freelance He struggled to make it mostly bc he was not good with money and liked to have fun He also worked very hard The years of 17851787 were when he created his greatest works In the last year of his life despite being ill he started work on his Requiem Mass which he never completed Mozarts finest work can be fond in the Genre of Opera Opera over the older style Opera Seria These operas liked to poke fun at the nobility for its pompousness and incompetence or critize it for being heartless This kind of subject matter really appealed to Mozart so he would risk the censors and mount Operatic productions that he knew would get him in trouble Mozart was a master of the Vocal Ensemble which was a newer addition to the Opera where you could have several characters all talking about different things at the same time but you could make them all harmonize with the music Also the regular phrase lengths tuneful melodies and emotional flexibility of the classical style lends itself well to opera Listen to lllf you want to dance from The Marriage of Figaro Act 1 Scene 1 from Don Giovanni Act 1 Scene 7 from Don Giovanni
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