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by: Jimmie Smith


Jimmie Smith
GPA 3.81

R. Harris

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R. Harris
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jimmie Smith on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MUS 1751 at Louisiana State University taught by R. Harris in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/222483/mus-1751-louisiana-state-university in Music at Louisiana State University.




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Date Created: 10/13/15
MUS 1751 Final Chapter 18 American Popular Music Blues Jazz and Rock 0 Blues 0 Origins I A form of black folk song I Originated in the South sometime during the 1880 s and 1890 s I Passed along by oral tradition I Two immediate ancestors 0 Work song and field holler of black laborists o Wailing vocal solo 0 Blues scale 0 General subject matter of the lyrics AngloAmerican Folk Ballad 0 Regular predictable pattern of chord changes First printed as sheet music in 1912 First recorded in 1920 0 Structure I Lyrics Gives expression to feelings of pain and anger relieves melancholy 3 to 6 stanzas are common 0 Each stanza consist of 3 lines in AAB form 0 A llThe blues is a lowdown achin heart disease 0 A llThe blues is a lowdown achin heart disease 0 B lllt s like consumption killin you be degress o The instrumental break 0 A short response that relies to the voice 0 Occurs at the end of each line I Scale 0 Features blue notes 0 3 notes that fall between diatonic notes of the scale 0 Used in virtually all AfricanAmerican folk song 0 Blues scale used in place of a major or minor I 12Bar Blues 0 Pattern repeats for each stanza of text 0 Additional chords can be inserted for greater harmonic interest 0 Jazz 0 American classical music 0 A mixture of many different musical influences I Spirituals and blues of American blacks in the South 0 Complex rhythms pervasive sounds and blending vocal style 0 These styles can be traced to traditional musical practices of Africa I European elements 0 Marches and hymns 0 Folk music I Originated around 1910 in many Southern and Midwestern cities 0 General definition I Lively energetic music with pulsating rhythms and scintillating syncopations I Played by a combo or a big band I Tends to be polyphonic I Strong element of improvisation o Ragtime 0 Immediate precursor of Jazz 0 Musical style I Characterized by a steady bass and a syncopated Jazzy treble I Heavily syncopated I Jaunty upbeat sound contrasted with the Blues 0 Originated during the 1890 s I Primarily piano music I Emerged from the saloons and brothels I Soon accepted into middleclass homes I Lost popularity after WWI 0 Scott Joplin 18681917 I llKing of Ragtime I Maple Leaf Rag his most successful composition 0 Composed in 1899 0 Sold more than a million copies 0 Provided Joplin with a measure of financial security 0 ND Jazz 0 Also known as Traditional Jazz 0 Many of the great early Jazz artists lived in ND 0 Style I Syncopation combined with a true treatment of melody I Melody played by the trumpet I Clarinet supported by the melody and embellished the tune I Trombone added a lower contrapuntal line I Rhythm section set the harmony and the tempo I Improvised never written down 0 Louis Armstrong trumpet I Hot 5 and Hot 7 recordings 0 A tremendous commercial success 0 Highly inventible o The group only performed in the recording studio I Invented quotscatquot singing o Nonsense syllables in a Jazz style 0 Appearances in numerous movies 0 Toured the world for the US state day 0 Big Bands and Swing 0 Height of popularity in the 1930 s and early 1940 s 0 Larger ensemble than NO Jazz I Multiple trumpets trombone and sax I Rhythm section still consisted of single instrument I quotChartsquot rather than improvisation 0 Everything planned out 0 Played from notation o Resulted in a more disciplined polished sound 0 Major Ensembles I Duke Ellington Count Basie Glenn Miller Benny Goodman 0 20h Century Harry Conic Jr llShe Belongs to Me 0 Bebop o Def n A complex harddriving style of Jazz that emerged shortly after WWII played wo notation by a small ensemble I Named from snappy tunes of melody o Emsemble I Quintet of trumpet saxophone piano double bass and drums I Played at breakneck pace 0 Improv more important than composition 0 quotJammedquot in small elite groups 0 Charlie Parker Dizzy Gillespie Theloneous Monk 0 Cool Jazz 0 Style emerged in the 1950 s 0 Direct response to bebop I Softer more relaxed and less frenzied than bebop o Emphasized lyricism restraint and instruments in the lower part of their range 0 Miles Davis 0 Jazz Fusion 0 Mixture of Jazz and Rock cultivated by American bands in the 1970 s I Rock rhythms and repetitious harmonies 0 Big band brass sound and improvisation o Economicallysuccessful 0 Church Mangrove Chicago and Kenny G 0 Rock 0 Appeared in the mid1950 s 0 Characteristic sound I Pounding beat I Heavy amplified guitar sound I Driving bass I Simple repetitive harmonies 0 Elvis Presley 19351977 I llKing of Rock and Roll I Able to sing in rhythm and blue style I Had the best vocal quality of any male rock singer past or present 0 Rhythm and Blues 0 Makes use of the lZbar blues harmony pattern 0 Rapid driving tempo 0 Shouting vocal style 0 Chuck Berry and Little Richard prominent black artists 0 Bill Haley Jerry Lee Lewis Carl Perkins 0 British Invasion 0 Rejuvenated a lackluster industry o The British interpretation of rhythm and blues I The Beetles 0 Each member was a songwritten as well as performer o Adopted a variety of musical styles 0 Disbanded in 1970 0 Recent decades marked by splintery movements no one style dominates 0 Rock joins the AARP I Mick Jagger I Peter Paul and Mary Part 2 Rhapsody in Blue has 7 themes that represent different cultures 0 Diversity and Experimentation 0 Lack of Cohesion 0 Earlier periods more stylistically uniform 0 20h Century I Multiple styles of musical expression 0 Atorial o 12 tone 0 Electronic music 0 Chance 0 NeoClassic o Minimalism fewest notes possible to create an image No one style dominated the others Many styles occurred simultaneously Composers rarely maintained a single style but shifted between them A continuous search for new means of musical expression I Rejected German Romanticism I Characterized by distortion and dissonance I Increasing riff between composer and the audience 0 Twentieth Century Musical Style 0 Melody I Angular o Wideranging lines o Fragmented 0 Used octave displacement o Avoiding a simpler interval for a more distant one an octave above or below 0 A means of avoiding conjunct movement 0 Chromatic and Dissonant I Harmony 0 Dissonance o No longer needs to resolve to a consonance 0 Can more to another dissonance o Triad reduced in importance as the basic element of harmony 000 New chords created by superimposing more thirds The more thirds included in the chord the greater the dissonance Tone chister striking a group of adjacent keys on the piano with the fist or forearm o Polytonality two conflicting but equal tonal centers sounding simultaneously 0 Atonality no audible tonal center I Rhythm 0 Vigorous energetic themes 0 Polymeter conflicting simultaneous meters 0 Polyrhythms conflicting simultaneous rhythmic patterns between different instruments I Tone Color 0 Composers rejected the stringdominated timbre of the Romantic Orchestra 0 Composers seek new sounds 0 Traditional acoustical instruments played as a pervasive rather than lyrical manner 0 Creation of electrone and computer music 0 Incorporation of environmental noise I Texture VARIED I Form 0 A range of extremes o Neoclassical revival reinvigorated traditional symphonic forms 0 12 tone allowed for mathematical control 0 Chance based on random events 0 Influence from other genres ie Jazz Pop World Music 0 O


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