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by: Jimmie Smith


Jimmie Smith
GPA 3.81

W. Delony

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W. Delony
Class Notes
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jimmie Smith on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MUS 1751 at Louisiana State University taught by W. Delony in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/222487/mus-1751-louisiana-state-university in Music at Louisiana State University.




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Date Created: 10/13/15
Chapter 3 Melody Chapter 3 Elements of music A melody is what we sing hum or whistle as we recall a familiar tune or improvise a new one Like interesting rhythms melodies are captivating and memorable they may be immediately appealing A melody ordinarily has a particular rhythm and without it the specific melody may be difficult to identify Generally it does not need its usual harmonic accompaniment to be recognized however In addition to recognizing that a melody is major or minor there are other adjectives which can accurately describe the characteristics ofa particular melody without having a good deal of technical knowledge Some of these are as follows lyrical quiet disjunct aggressive angular high jagged low ascending tentative descending smooth Without regard to rhythm and the other elements such as harmony usually associated with it we may say that a melody is a linear succession of pitchessome repeated and some different Obviously these pitches occur over time if they sound at the same time then what is being heard is harmony and not melody The foundation ofmelody as well as harmony is a scale Scales are traditionally played from a particular pitch in one octave to the same pitch in the neXt Descriptions ofmelodies including major and minor require a degree of technical knowledge in music or at least some definitions in order to use them appropriately Some of them are given below and will be defined in the neXt few pages Others will need to be added later to this list brokenchord scalewise major minor inverted augmented Listen to how a threenote chord triad is transformed by Louis Armstrong into the first phrase ofa familiar melody A brokenchord melody takes its shape from the accompanying harmony Since chord pitches are not adjacent a brokenchord melody will not be as smooth as a scalewise one and yet it will not seem overly angular A scalewise melody is easy to identify since it moves smoothly up ascending or down descending the scale It may take additional time to recognize a broken chord melody For now at least remember the definitions of scalewise and broken chord melodies Usually we call melodies quotlyricalquot or songlike when they use scalewise and brokenchord melodic intervals The range of a lyrical melody for an instrument is limited to the range of that particular instrument but singable melodies have a range limited to one of the vocal ranges soprano alto tenor or bass Depending on voice development vocal ranges vary but in general each of the different voice classifications has a bit more than an octave range Listen now to a melody which is considered lyrical In other words it is songlike and moves either in scalewise or brokenchord motion Notice that in this particular piano piece by Schumann the melody is supported by a brokenchord accompaniment The labels quotmajorquot and quotminorquot are equally descriptive for melodies and harmonies but understanding them may be easier within an harmonic context A full discussion then will be delayed until the upcoming topic on harmony It will also be easier to grasp the importance of the labels majorminor after hearing musical examples where they are clearly identified Inverted and augmented melodies should be easy to understand but identifying them aurally may be more difficult After a melody is first presented its repetition is considered to be quotinvertedquot if its melodic motion is in the opposite direction The repetition is called quotaugmentedquot if its notes are lengthened rhythm In other words it is the same melody but moving slower When is a melody considered to be lyrical N am e four vocal range classifications De ne octave W hatare broken chord and scalewise melodies W hatare inve I th and augmented melodies G ive 1w 0 exam p Ies of a m ode A re you able 11 define 1he following In elody lyrical octave broken chord melody scalewise melody inverted melody augmented melody four vocal classi cations ranges two modes Your next listening assignment will be Samuel Barber s Adagio For Strings Many people describe this melody as beautifulquot or quotsoothingquot but there are certainly other ways to describe it Here are other adjectives listed earlier in this topic Which ones might you use from this list lyrical quiet disjunct aggressive angular high may on could have been considered more appropriate than others but your choices may be equally acceptable So after you nish this topic listen in its entirety to this wonderful work by Samuel Barber In addition to the adjectives just presented you may place your own descriptive terms in the listening guide that is provided near bottom of left navigational bar They may be even more appropriate Samual Barber 19101981 American composer Samuel Barber often confuses critics He founded no school he stuck to no one style As a public figure he seemed aloof from the various critical fights of American music tonal vs atonal Igor Stravinsky vs Amold Schoenberg and old guard vs modern Almost all the other big names of American modernism 7 Aaron Copland Roy Harris Walter Piston David Diamond Leonard Bernstein Virgil Thomson Roger Sessions and Milton Babbitt 7 allied themselves with particular camps Barber seemed just to write music and in so doing became controversial someone to be attacked or defended Barber distinguished himself as a melodist Almost everything he wrote has at least one gorgeous tune or memorable theme This alone got him into trouble in certain circles as a stickinthemud or even as a panderer to the vulgar However his gift also genuinely puzzled people There is nothing in a Barber piece that instantly proclaims the composer as a Copland Ralph Vaughan Williams or Serge Prokofieff work surely does His melodic emphasis led certain critics to label him quotneoRomanticquot a word that doesn t mean all that much Almost nothing he wrote could have been produced in the Romantic era The harmonies are too complex and sometimes extremely dissonant the approach to form is as modern as Igor Stravinsky s and the orchestration is usually quite experimental That his music sounds full and rich simply means that the experiment succeeds Although no prodigy Barber nevertheless made his mark early Op 1 Serenade for string quartet later orchestrated for strings he wrote while attending the Curtis Institute De nitely a student work it can fairly be called quotRomanticquot in the tradition of Edvard Grieg s Holberg Suite Carl Nielsen39s Little Suite also an Op 1 and Edward Elgar s Serenade in e However by Op 5 Overture to the School for Scandal we have own far beyond the nineteenth century The orchestration and opening bitonal harmonies may derive from Richard Strauss although they sound clearer but the second pastoral tune 7 as diatonic as Robert Schumann 7 is something new It seems to come from nowhere and yet it sings in a fullthroated natural way In his early work Barber taps into this new lyricism in piece after piece Outstanding examples include Music for a Scene from Shelley Symphony No 1 First Essay for Orchestra cello sonata string quartet from which Barber orchestrated the Adagio for Strings his bestknown piece the choral classic Reincarnations and the violin concerto The violin concerto 1939 is a transitional work the rst two movements sing sweetly and intently the last movement burns the barn down with complex meters and new dissonances From here Barber moves de nitely into the modern period to some extent in uenced by Stravinsky but absorbing these in uences into new idioms The works of the 1940s most clearly the Capricorn Concerto for ute oboe trumpet and strings lean very strongly to neo classicism Yet none of them shows a consistent approach These works include S r No 2 Second Essay for Orchestra the cello concerto the ballet Medea Souvenirs a suite of nineteenthcentury ballroom dances the piano sonata Commando March for band and the glorious Knoxville Summer of 1915 for soprano and orchestra Despite the broadening of his musical language Barber never loses his lyrical gift Each of these works is stuffed with themes that stick in the memory Postwar Barber continued going his own way Some major works of the period are the Toccata F estiva for organ and orchestra Summer Music for woodwind quintet the quotWondrous Lovequot variations for organ Hermit Songs the choral Prayers of Kierkegaard a magni cent piano concerto Andromache39s Farewell for soprano and orchestra and three operas Vanessa A Hand of Bridge and Antony and Cleopatra the rst two with libretti by the composer Gian Carlo Menotti the last using much of the Shakespeare play Antony and Cleopatra 1966 revised 1974 cut Barber s composing activities short He never had written all that much although what he did publish usually entered standard repertoire Further he published much less than he wrote For example of more than 100 songs he published only 38 Antony and Cleopatra a highpro le commission from the Metropolitan Opera to inaugurate its new house at Lincoln Center opped miserably due mainly to a bloated incompetent production from the director and original librettist Zef relli The production occasioned a fury of critical attack essentially condemning Barber as irrelevant to the music of the time whatever that may mean Barber never recovered his stride after this He continued to compose but very sporadically and to revise Antony Works from this period include F adograph of a Y estern Scene 1971 Third Essay for Orchestra 1978 and Canzonetta for oboe and strings 1978 The later pieces were not performed much during his lifetime The major organizations which had competed to commission him lost interest However his music never completely out of public regard has begun to come back Almost all his output has made it to CD in various performances The critical wars during his life have to a large extent ceased to matter The music continues to matter Steve Schwartz Regarding the composer Samuel Barber 1 W hatare his dates 2 H is m tim aliiy 3 Name a work other than quotAdagioquot 4 W h at does adagio mean Check Glossary if you need assistance from the internet Rhythm What holds rhythm together regardless of the simplicity or the complexity of the patterns is the heat A heat simply defined is a regularly recurring pulse its regularity so evenly spaced that its continuation is easily predicted and felt It seems natural for human beings to instinctively feel the beat of music This is because of the measured nature pulses or cycles of our human system the most obvious being our heart beat We know that our heart may beat faster with increased activity but the intervals between pulses remain regular Interestingly the range of speed of our heart beat is similar to the range of musical tempos In general we perceive a musical tempo of 72 beats per minute as being moderate neither strikingly fast nor slow Clearly if the musical tempo were half of that we would perceive it as extremely slow Conversely a tempo of 120 beats per minute would be quite fast without question just as it is with our heart beat You may enjoy hearing a recording of an actual heart beat presented on the web as an instructional module to compare different heartbeat symptoms The speed ofyour heart when you are not moving about much is probably in the range of 72 beats per minute or slower That is an easy speed to identify since this is simply a bit faster than one heat per second This moderate speed of 72 beats per minute is very common in music Because it is within the range of the normal heart beat as well as a popular walking speed it seems to be a natural division between what we might perceive as slow or fast The musical term for the speed of the beat is tempo Similarly there are other terms related to how the beat functions Most of these terms still in common use today in our country are of Italian origin This is not to say that other languages such as English German or French are not also used But the Italian terms are so widely used in our printed music that a knowledge of their meanings at least those most frequently used is helpful The tempo of music may be at any one of a variety of speeds Thus the following Italian terms are often used Adagio and Lento slow Moderato and Andante moderate Allegro fast Vivace very fast Remember that an approximation of a moderate tempo might be at the rate of a normal heartbeat a Vivace tempo might be double that speed Some composers and music editors choose to be more specific for a tempo This is particularly true of music written in the 20th century In this case a metronome marking is given in beats per minute quarter note120 There is no need then to indicate the tempo with a term such as allegro One other natural perception regarding tempo or the speed of the beat should be recognized Tempo is perceived by and large in a relative sense That is when we listen one after the other to first a rather slow and then a second somewhat faster tempo the second tempo may be identified as quotfastquot That same quotfastquot tempo when heard after a still faster one may then be labeled as quotslowquot The tempo of the music may gradually speed up or slow down This may be done in a transition from one speed to another or it may be introduced for expressiveness or for dramatic effect Music which slows down gradually is often marked ritardando or simply rit Accelerando or accel indicates a gradually faster tempo We now understand that rhythm depends on combined lengths of sounds moving through time with measured though not necessarily audible pulses we call beats This instructional module on the internet provides more related information Much of our everyday activity quotmovesquot in duple meter with walking being an obvious example Many types of dancing are in duple time We could safely say that the major rhythmic characteristic of a march is that it is in duple time Now listen to the Beethoven march you heard earlier Whether you count or feel the beat as ri ht left right or 1 2 1 2 there is no doubt regarding the meter lumbar hasle ehalaelemslae ullhylhm wlueh we have alleaay alseussea sepalales a mplerm zr malehllum ulhelpleees lll auple melel Thal ls lls lempu malehesale laalallaullally lll lhe lallge ll lzu healspelmlllule as ls llus muslual llample Muse llllalple melel ls almusl as easylu llllaallalaelllalyas musle lll allple sume laaallaullal dances suehas awalla ul lhe mule slalely mllluel ale llllalple melel lll aaallaull lhe musleal vallelyalla eumaasl prnwdzdby lalple melel make llpu mall cnmpn sels rellelally Weslelll musle gves equa lmpullame lu lhese lwu gmuplllgs Muslual lluualaulllllaluales lhe melelllllhe tame slgllalule gvm allhe heplllllllg ulalllle ulmusle Msn mlleel melel slgllalule lheselwu llumhelswhlle lnnhng h ulh MUSIE nnmhnnm atesthemetennthe gvm e e nfalmznfmugc lsna e melel tun e ullumhelswhlleluu g lke l malele ymdep demuleashulhel Thelup y a almleswhelhellhe uselslllaupleul el llespullaslu ul 4 lll m m m s lhe llumhel ulheals lll ameasllle The hullum llumhel whlle less lmpumam lu pulpuses ullhlsleluhuuhlelelslu lhelype ulllule wl39nchrecewes ulleheal EDJH39EJHMMI 2JJJHJJHJMMI mepl ls cnmpnundhme llla musl usual example 55 lhe healallalls amslullale lmalealea llllhe lup llumhel lll ales lhal lhel ale slx amaulls lll ameasule ll lh emphasls aeeems ull 1 and 4 le lame A mule eumplex melauael cn lame ala lasllempu hulh 61115 st gxanuz y lll lwu heals Thus cnunhngqmddy l 2 34 5 5 M gvesthemeterafedmgnfmple lame emheaaealll dup Benat a sluwel lempu whell lhe cn EL maylllaleale all slxhe s leel gulmelellsslalllhe samewsubynups ula Wllhlll gmups ll 2 Teaause cnmpnundmeter lslalhel eumplexlll llulalaullas well aslllllsaulal allalysls llus lessull ll cnmpnund lame ls ullly lheulelaual mph melel ls allaeeeplahle lahel whellheallm sa lame MiniQuiz Which are you not yet able to answer Abouthow fast is a slow beat a fast one W hat islhe difference betu een dup le and tip le tin e Classify le times ofa march awaltz a minuet W hat is m eantby quotcom pound tim e Define tern po adagiom oderato andante allegro vivaceri13rdando accelerando meter t39m e signam rem eter signam re George Gershwin thought rhythm was fascinating and this beliefwas obviously the basis for his popular tune Fascinating Rhythm As you listen get to know why Gershwin was so important to American music on the internet What are Gershwin39s dates His nationality What else did he write Is Fascinating Rhythm in duple or triple time Rhythm may be described with the following terms simple complex strong weak repetitious captivating even uneven slow fast unpredictable driving duple meter triple meter dotted rhythms syncopated shifting meter triplets dominates subtle waltz march allegro andante chapter 3 still Harmony in order to gain a basic understanding of harmony in music four related terms need to be identi ed intervals scales modes and keys This does not suggest that you be able to read music but written notes on the staff as well as a view of a piano keyboard may be good visual aids for this understanding A scale contains the quotbuilding blocksquot actually an orderly succession of pitches for melodies and harmonies All note names in our system of notation contain the seven letters A through G When we go above G then we use the letter A again So quotMiddle Cquot on the staff is eight notes or an octave higher than the lower C The interval this link is an instructional module between each adjacent white note is either a half step no black key in between or a whole step a black key in between There are no black notes between E and F or between B and C The structure of a scale then is that it moves eight notes up or down with the distance between scale degrees being either a half or a whole step By starting the scale on a note other than C but avoiding any use of black keys the half steps are shifted to different scale degrees therefore the scale is no longer a major one A major scale must have half steps between 3 4 amp 7 8 half steps in minor scales are between scale degrees 2 3 amp 5 6 While there were several popular modes in early music before 1600 the two modes which continue to be used in our music today are major and minor The difference between major and minor is fundamental to both the elements of melody and harmony The major mode or scale places two half steps between the 3rd4th and 7th8th scale degrees This happens without using black keys when the scale begins and ends on the pitch C This is why the key signature of C Major has no sharps or ats If a major mode must start on F for example then a black key is needed to place the half steps between the proper scale degrees A at b lowers the pitch by onehalf step The minor mode scale places the two available half steps between the 2nd3rd and the 5th6th scale degrees This happens without black keys when the scale begins and ends on A A minor scale starting on E then needs a black key F in order for the half steps to fall between the correct scale degrees Note that a sharp moves the pitch up onehalf step How can you recognize the difference in major and minor by ear Listening to major and minor in a variety of settings while knowing in advance what you will be listening to should accomplish the task Although is it not very dif cult it does take practice And since it is such an important feature of all types of music its mastery will be bene cial However aural identi cation of major and minor is not a requirement in this textbook We will have many other times to practice identifying majorminor during this study of music but listen again to a simple major scale followed by a minor one Click the play button to listen to it several times Some people think of major as happy and minor as sad but there are many musical selections which prove to be just the opposite A better way to differentiate might be to have an example of a familiar tune which you know to be major and a second one which is minor These may become your points of reference until maj orminor discrimination becomes easier Can you think of a familiar tune which is minor How about major Listen to two melodies you may know one after the other Remembering a familiar melody as it relates to either major or minor should assist in identifying the modality of less familiar melodies The rst melody is quotAmericaquot It is in a major key The second is the opening motive of Beethoven s Fifth Symphony it is in a minor key If you don t have your own quotpoints of referencequot for major and minor melodies use these They should be easy to remember Listen to these two melodies one more time before turning the page So most melodies as well as harmonies that we hear today whether in classical music jazz or popular music are either major or minor The tune may be played in a mode other than its original one but if that is done with a familiar song the change may be so dramatic that the song becomes almost unrecognizable Knowing simple chord structure assists in understanding harmonies as well as melodies This instructional module provides a basic introduction Remember that harmony is a simultaneous use of different pitches while melody takes place over time In addition there is a rather simple principle for putting the notes together We normally skip one letter name between members of the chord an isolated harmony So C skip D E skip F G is a simple chord made up of three notes In fact this speci c structure is the norm And this simple chord is called a triad n U ll II I II II ms I I n II n H U39 n quot H H I Q 9 V 5 C E G CMajorChord Root position Finally to complete this set of terms for our basic harmonic structure the bottom note is the quotrootquot the next note up is the quotthirdquot and the top note is the quot fthquot When a chord is C Major Cho d r chord r Second Inverslon C Majo First Inversion en more complex harmonles can occur ln tertizn harmony Wlth a root thlrd and a nlnth a lth a trla brtmre l members ofcourse you can no longer call these complex chords mads l An acceptable collectlve tam ls exmnded churds n Of course l texture ls used ln 3 technlcal sense the reference ls to one ofthree cholces h monophonic homophonlc nr polyp Dmc p whlstle a tune lnterestrngly the lwhlstlen may not be concelylng the tune as monophonlc at all Wlth the harmony probably lmaglned found as solopassages composedwlthout harmony Most ofthe classlcal and popular muslc we hear today IS homophonlc Homophonlc e harmony composer to weave the melodles together la H tum N w eavlng where a slngle melody oyerlaps ltself this textbook knowledge of all three textures is required and will assist in describing and identifying music that is heard Admittedly there is a good deal more to harmony than recognizing texture modes triads and extended chords but that information is basic to understanding harmony in Western music With these basics you may gradually come to a broader understanding of harmony especially as you continue to listen actively Having a grasp of the basics of harmony could provide many new and exciting listening experiences Use an Encarta search to supplement your knowledge of the following terms monophonic homophonic polyphonic modes and chords Encarta Search There may be times when a direct link from this textbook is impossible or you may find it more convenient to access the assigned intemet material in an independent manner Therefore domain addresses are listed as an index in the left navigational bar Mini Quiz Where do the half steps fall in maj orminor scales What pitches letter names occur in a C triad Define harmony chord triad and extended chords What is tertian harmony polyphony Define the relationship between the chord root third and fifth Harmony may be described with the following words While you may not know all of these descriptors yet you are encouraged to use the ones with which you are familiar or other ones you feel are appropriate harsh pleasant dissonant static unpredictable 111ick 111 in m abr m inor modal pr39m ary chords extended chords com p lex changes quick Iy changes slowly modulates After completing this topic on harmony listen again to Samuel Barber s Adagio for Strings CD2 Track 4 with the provided listening guide near bottom of left navigational panel Enter in the quotHarmonyquot column some of the terms listed above or other descriptors you feel are valid Formal listening guides are an important part of this book They present or ask you to enter written analyses of musical segments as you listen to them The tracks of music are chosen to correspond to what you have been learning through reading Chapter 3 FORM In literature we find structures in poetry novels short stories plays and essays They grow out of the building blocks available to literary writerswords phrases sentences stanzas paragraphs chapters acts and the like While a direct comparison is neither possible nor desirable form and the building blocks of music may be generally compared to literary types There is also a similar comparison between form in the visual arts especially architecture and music The need for repetition in musical forms is especially pronouncedmuch more so than in literatureand in that regard the musicvisual art relationship is stronger Music also has its building blocks of notes motives phrases themes and sections to create complex musical structures called for instance theme and variations sonatas symphonies and rondos Above all repetition and contrast come into play at the most basic levelthat of combining single notesand continue undiminished into the highest levels of symphonic structures A composer through a natural instinct or a purposeful act provides a melodic shape and rhythmical character to a very small group of notes three or four are enough to make a motive The motive is then repeated placed in various harmonic and textural contexts and altered through various permutations to make a phrase a theme and eventually an entire work To be sure other similar and contrasting motives are put into play but a superior characteristic of aestheticallysatisfying music is not in the number of motives that are presented but in how they are treated Most musical phrases are balanced in length As a matter of symmetry a four or eight measure phrase sometimes repeated and sometimes followed by a contrasting phrase is the norm When a composer breaks from that mold it is noticeable to the ear as something unexpected and may be delightful when used artistically Good music does not need to follow the norm in form or in other characteristics It is the creative use of tradition mixed with originality which generates the evolution of music as we observe it over time Listen now to a repeated threemeasure phrase It seems a bit different and yet has a feeling of completeness Whatever symmetry is lost is made up in a unique appealing character Also symmetry may be present in many ways other than the length of a phrase Phrases are combined to make sentences or periods the terms taken from verbal structures Themes which usually take on a special character and often are repeated throughout a work result These larger structures repeat and include other varied themes to shape even larger and more complex musical structures Thus we have entire pieces or movements which we recognize as complex structures and we call them sonatas symphonies and sonata allegro forms as well as the more formallysuggestive theme and variations and rondos ost traditional and popular A form with A representing mple with each theme Larger more complex forms may also follow these A andB having subsections Notice that and how these themes repeat or relate to each other M songs for example are in either binary AB or temary AB the iirst e andB the second These forms are very si containing only a phrase or two patterns in the broad sense with both the B ecnon me uriuge A ectim together 39 rather en 39 39 A building for instance can be seen as a broad AB or ABA form some may take on the characteristics oftheme and variations or rondo l O 39 1 mi Mame mm meme r O o I Virillname mm m mmquot u t o huildinn39 fnrm form is grasped For this reason a thorough study and understanding of form will come over time and n a out characteristics an 8measure phrase A is followedby a contrasting one B So itis a bit like a sentence with two contrasting phases This AB anangement whether with two sh phrases or two long sections of music is called binary folm ABA temarvwnrm A reneated 39 39 39 0 39ce that u s c 7 u A t A 39 L quot The conic 39 3 39 nu mi in min uu uic in binary form Compare the two Although these basic forms are different both are aesthetically satisfying Form may be described with the following terms Although a few of these descriptors are adjectives some of them as elements within a form are nouns ABA AB theme amp variation fugue sonata sonataallegro exposition development use terms some you Others will be introduced later in this textbook Occasionally a listening guide will ask you to listen and describe what you hear Many times you will find this list a useful reference The table is presented in a light color for ease of printing When printing directly from this etextbook which is not recommended except when specifically suggested be sure to preclick the text frame this one as opposed to one of the navigational frames and set your printer for quotblack and whitequot rather than color On this page you are listening to a movement of a Beethoven piano sonata which is in rondo form The major characteristic of rondo form is the alternation of a primary theme with other themes The number and order of other themes B C etc may vary but you can expect A always to return after a departure and to be the concluding theme So typical thematic structures for rondo form are ABACA ABABACA ABACABA etc Rondo forms normally cover an entire movement or pieceThe form of this Beethoven sonata movement is pointed out on the recording ABACA it concludes with a short coda Theme and Variations is also a popular form for an entire movement or work Its structure is not unlike the music performed by jazz groups who introduce a tune and then repeat the tune in various ways The thematic scheme is simply A1 A2 A3 A4 etc quotAquot itselfis usually in a simple AB 0r ABA form A good example is the last movement of Beethoven39s 3rd Symphony The Eroica When you are asked to read about Beethoven 0n the internet later in this topic see ifyou can determine the reason his third symphony was subtitled erol39ca heroic Mini Quiz Compare form in music with poetry and architecture Give two examples of thematic alterations Name three complex musical forms Compare binary ternary and rondo forms What is a quotnormalquot musical phrase length There is a practice quiz for this topic but before taking it determine if you need to review a bit more If you can answer most of the following questions as well as those in the previous quotcontrol framequot go ahead now and take the practice quiz If not go through this topic once again Identify normal phrase length two examples of thematic alterations musical phrases sentences periods themes three complex musical structures theme schematics for binary ternary theme schematics for rondo theme and variations the bridge similar formal elements in musicpoetry music architecture The composers Beethoven Barber and Dvorak have been recently introduced You should read a short biography of them From it determine as a minimum their nationality the period of time in which they lived and the names of one or more of their compositions A Composer Master Index is available on the internet to provide this information about these composers Find these composers there and read about them


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