MUS APPRECIATION MUS 1751
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Chapter 4 from Encarta from ch 3 Adagio Italian word meaning at ease or slowly used in musical notation to indicate a slow pace Adagio is slightly faster than or Historical and Stylistic overview For the most part labels of musical periods correspond to periods in history We may properly refer for example to music of the Middle Ages or music of the Elizabethan era without confusion Similarly when a musical period is named to re ect its style it is normally referring to a time period label which the other arts also use So the Romantic Period of music is in the l9t century just as that century is labeled in literature However there may be subtle differences such as impressionism in music beginning twenty years or so after the Impressionist Period in visual art In addition the label quotClassical Periodquot in music may be misleading to individuals versed in early history but lacking in music history knowledge Page 2 quotClassicalquot is a style as well as a label for early Greek and Roman history while in music the label is used for a short but major period of the last half of the 18th century Finally it should be recognized that music as we know and hear it today has an unclear history before the Middle Ages Simply stated then the periods of history and even of visual art history may start with the Stone Age but very few indications of musical style before the Middle Ages are in eXistence Page 3 It seems logical to refer to the earliest periods of music simply and collectively as quotEarly Musicquot Almost all of the music heard today was written after 1650 When we hear on rare occasions music written before that time it sounds rather strange to our ears As we move back in time before 1650 this is especially evident It is natural for us to more fully enjoy the music of our time whether it be classical or popular And it is clear that more and more music was written as history evolved adding eXponentially to the quantity of music available to us Page 4 With that growing wealth of musical resources comes an increasing problem and for some of us responsibility We must make decisions not just about what type of music we choose to listen to but what speci c piece should occupy our quotsoundquot time For some the decision is based on familiarity others are hoping for new and challenging sounds Still others combine intellectual curiosity with maturing musical sensitivity to form their musical tastes It is this intellectual and mature sensitivity to music which stimulates the love of music from earlier times as well as our own music which otherwise would simply be considered quotmuseum piecesquot Indeed musical examples written in the 18th and 19th centuries are the staple of classical music concerts today When we are asked to name the great music masters we usually mention composers of that time Page 5 Viewing the evolution of new periods in music as a reaction to the past period is encouraged That is periods are re ected not only in time slots but in contrasting styles Without such change there would be no need to have a new period label At the same time evolution implies a link with and indeed dependence on what has gone on before Page 6 Apart from the various compositional techniques and discrete musical characteristics the singular contrast which repeats itself over and over throughout history is between what we call the quotclassica quot and quotromanticquot styles These labels are etched in history because of the two sonamed periods in the 18th and 19th century but their contrasting presence can be recognized throughout music history There have been musicologists for example who have analyzed the evolution of music as an alternation between quotclassicalquot and quotromanticquot style supremacy Most notable is the tendency to analyze contemporary music as either leaning toward romantic or classical ideals This is useful since a single and meaningful label for music of our time has not yet been established Page 7These two style labels also have similar status in other arts throughout the ages When one recognizes the contrast between romantic and classical ideals whether or not it is a musical conteXt it is clear that a very basic concept regarding the evolution of music literature visual arts and drama is understood This suggests that serious music students need not be overwhelmed by classicalromantic differences they are understood by all who have a basic understanding of history So a period of revolution is usually linked to romanticism in the arts a period characterized by increased respect for order is frequently re ected in the classical nature of the arts of the period Much has been written and can be said about classicalromantic contrast But for our purposes it should be simply stated The classical style implies quotart for arts sakequot and a respect for order and symmetry The romantic style emphasizes emotional eXpression it frequently stretches the boundaries of control and re ects eXtramusical meaning Page 8Historical periods in music history can properly be identi ed with speci c dates one after the other if it is understood that evolution tends to be more gradual than such a chart indicates Also the old style period almost always is carried on to some eXtent into the time span of the new More simply stated period demarcation is somewhat arbitrary and simpli es the style evolutionary process for easier analysis Some period labels such as the Baroque Period have been used traditionally for time spans which contain two or more distinctly different styles It has been accepted practice then to identify subperiods within them Another irregularity in period labels occurs with the great master composer Beethoven whose life and style embraced two periods the late Classical and the early Romantic Page 9 Period Labels to be used in this Tethook Early Music before 1400 Renaissance 14001600 Baroque 16001750 Classical 17501820 Romantic 18201890 Impressionist 18901918 Contemporary 19182001 Subperiod Labels to be used in this Textbook B aro que 16001675 18001820 18501890 Page 10 MiniQuiz Compare the romantic and classical styles How are style changes related to period labels What style is re ected in quotart for art s sakequot What style emphasizes emotional expression Name the historical periods and subperiods Page 11 If you can answer most of the following questions as well as those in the last frame go ahead and take the practice quiz If not go through this topic once again Identify a composer who bridged the ClassicalRomantic periods all periods an d sub periods used in this textbook the c lass ica Irom antic sty Ie d ifferences Speci c Period Summaries The information for this topic Period Summaries is taken primarily from a single web site Of course you need to be logged on to the intemet before a connection can take place Those who may desire to work directly on the site rather than through this text can nd the address in the intemet index in the left navigational bar Link to Period Summaries It is important to read the original quotloadingquot of this site about four pages with photos which concludes with an introduction to quotThe Twentieth Century quot before returning to this page of this textbook Except for one the provided hyperlinks are optional at this time The single link to pursue is in the last section on the 20th centurythe composer Bartokin preparation for the next page of this textbook While the title of each historical period in this brief summary is hyperlinked to a more comprehensive description of the period you need not go into this detail at this time This site will again be available for such detail later in this textbook Sound clips especially should be skipped since their quality is inferior to those contained in this electronic textbook and many may be inactive INTERNET LINK INFO The Middle Ages After the collapse of the Roman Empire in the 5th century AD Western Europe entered a time known as quotThe Dark Agesquot 7 a period when invading hordes of Vandals Huns and Visigoths overran Europe These years were marked by constant warfare the absence of a Holy Roman Emperor and the virtual disappearance of urban life Over the next next nine centuries the newly emerging Christian Church came to dominate Europe administering justice instigating quotHolyquot Crusades against the East establishing Universities and generally dictating the destiny of music art and literature It was during this time that Pope Gregory I is generally believed to have collected and codi ed the music known as Gregorian Chant which was the approved music of the Church Much later the University at Notre Dame in Paris saw the creation of a new kind of music called organum Secular music was performed throughout Europe by the troubadours and trouveres of France And it was during these quotMiddle Agesquot that Western culture saw the appearance of the rst great name in music Guillaume de Machaut The Renaissance Generally considered to be from cal420 to 1600 the Renaissance which literally means quotrebirthquot was a time of great cultural awakening and a owering of the arts letters and sciences throughout Europe With the rise of humanism sacred music began for the rst time to break free of the con nes of the Church and a school of composers trained in the Netherlands mastered the art of polyphony in their settings of sacred music One of the early masters of the Flemish style was Josguin des Prez These polyphonic traditions reached their culmination in the unsurpassed works ofGiovanni da Palestrina 0 fcou rse secu lar m usic thrived during ll l is period and instrumental and dance music was performed in abundance if not always written down It was left for others to collect and notate the wide variety of irrepressible instrumental music of the period The late Renaissance also saw in England the ourishing of the English madrigal the best known of which were composed by such masters as John Dowland William Byrd Thomas Morley and others The Barogue Age Named after the popular ornate architectural style of the time the Baroque period ca 1600 to 1750 saw composers beginning to rebel against the styles that were prevalent during the High Renaissance This was a time when the many monarchies of Europe vied in outdoing each other in pride pomp and pageantry Many monarchs employed composers at their courts where they were little more than servants expected to churn out music for any desired occasions The greatest composer of the period Johann Sebastian Bach was such a servant Yet the best composers of the time were able to break new musical ground and in so doing succeeded in creating an entirely new style ofmusic Itw as during the early partofthe seventeenth century thatthe genre of opera was rst created by a group of composers in Florence Italy and the earliest operatic masterpieces were composed by Claudio Monteverdi The instrumental concerto became a staple of the Baroque era and found its strongest exponent in the works of the Venetian composer Antonio Vivaldi Harpsichord music achieved new heights due to the works of such masters as Domenico Scarlatti and others Dances became formalized into instrumental suites and were composed by virtually all composers of the era But vocal and choral music still reigned supreme during this age and culminated in the operas and oratorios of Germanbom composer George Frideric Handel The Classical Period From roughly 1750 to 1820 artists architechts and musicians moved away from the heavily ornamented styles of the Baroque and the Rococo and instead embraced a clean uncluttered style they thought reminiscent of Classical Greece The newly established aristocracies were replacing monarchs and the church as patrons of the arts and were demanding an impersonal but tuneful and elegant music Dances such as the minuet and the gavotte were provided in the forms of entertaining serenades and divertimenti At this time the Austrian capital of Vienna became the musical center of Europe and works of the period are often referred to as being in the Viennese style Composers came from all over Europe to train in and around Vienna and gradually they developed and formalized the standard musical forms that were to predominate European musical culture for the neXt several decades A reform of the extravagance of Baroque opera was undertaken by Christoph von Gluck Johann Stamitz contributed greatly to the growth of the orchestra and developed the idea of the orchestral symphony The Classical period reached its majestic culmination with the masterful symphonies sonatas and string quartets by the three great composers of the Viennese school Franz Joseph Haydn Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Ludwig van Beethoven During the same period the rst voice of the burgeoning Romantic musical ethic can be found in the music of Viennese composer Franz Schubert The Romantic Era As the many sociopolitical revolutions of the late eighteenthcentury established new social orders and new ways of life and thought so composers of the period broke new musical ground by adding a new emotional depth to the prevailing classical forms Throughout the remainder of the nineteenthcentury from ca 1820 to 1900 artists of all kinds became intent in eXpressing their subjective personal emotions quotRomanticismquot derives its name from the romances of medieval times long poems telling stories of heroes and chivalry of distant lands and far away places and often of unattainable love The romantic artists are the rst in history to give to themselves the name by which they are identi ed The earliest Romantic composers were all born within a few years of each other in the early years of the nineteenth century These include the great German masters FeliX Mendelssohn and Robert Schumann the Polish poet of the piano Frederic Chopin the French genius Hector Berlioz and the greatest pianistic showman in history the Hungarian composer Franz Liszt During the early nineteenth century opera 1 such as Carl Maria von Weber turned to German folk stories for the stories of their operas while the Italians looked to the literature of the time and created what is known as Bel canto opera literally quotbeautiful singingquot Later in the century the eld of Italian opera was dominated by Giuseppe Verdi while German opera was virtually monopolized by Richard Wagner During the nineteenth century composers from nonGermanic countries began looking for ways in which they might eXpress the musical soul of their homelands Many of these Nationalist composers turned to indigenous history and legends as plots for their operas and to the popular folk melodies and dance rhythms of their homelands as inspiration for their symphonies and instrumental music Others developed a highly personal harmonic language and melodic style which distinguishes their music from that of the AustroGermanic traditions The continued modi cation and enhancement of existing instruments plus the invention of new ones led to the further expansion of the symphony orchestra throughout the century Taking advantage of these new sounds and new instrumental combinations the late Romantic composers of the second half of the nineteenthcentury created richer and ever larger symphonies ballets and concertos Two of the giants of this period are the Germanbom Johannes Brahms and the great Russian melodist Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky The TwentiethCentury By the turn of the century and for the next few decades artists of all nationalities were searching for exciting and different modes of expression Composers such as Arnold Schoenberg explored unusual and unorthodox harmonies and tonal schemes French composer Claude Debussy was fascinated by Eastern music and the wholetone scale and created a style of music named after the movement in French painting called Impressionism Hungarian composer Bela Bartok continued in the traditions of the still strong Nationalist movement and fused the music of Hungarian peasants with twentieth century forms Avantgarde composers such as Edgard Varese explored the manipulation of rhythms rather than the usual melodicharmonic schemes The tried andtrue genre of the symphony albeit somewhat modi ed by this time attracted such masters as Gustav Mahler and Dmitri Shostakovich while Igor Stravinsky gave full rein to his manipulation of kaleidoscopic rhythms and instrumental colors throughout his extremely long and varied career While many composers throughout the twentiethcentury experimented in new ways with traditional instruments such as the quotprepared pianoquot used by American composer John Cage many of the twentiethcentury s greatest composers such as Italian opera composer Giacomo Puccini and the Russian pianistcomposer Sergei Rachmaninoff remained true to the traditional forms of music history In addition to new and eclectic styles of musical trends the twentieth century boasts numerous composers whose harmonic and melodic styles an average listener can still easily appreciate and enjoy Page 2 Bartok was one of the great composers of the 20th century His nationalistic style as a characteristic from the 19th century is mixed with modern compositional techniques resulting in a rich contemporary sound To conclude this periodsummary topic perhaps an introduction to his music will begin to demonstrate how a modern composer may cling to past traditions while helping to pave the way for new sounds in this century After nishing this topic quotPeriod Summariesquot you should listen to Bartok s Concerto for Orchestra 4th movement Listening Library CD2 track 1 Be sure to use the appropriate Listening Guide Page 3 MiniQuiz The following information should have been found at the intemet site Name the period whic h this text calls quotearly musicquot T he quotV iennese sty Iequot is m entioned in which period W hat period emphasizes emotional expression N ationalistcom posersw ere a link in w hatperiod The following information should have been found on the Bartok link His nationality H is birth and death dates T he nam e of at leastone ofh isw ems Page 4 Since this is such an important topic before moving on to a more indepth study of each period below is another miniquiz on this topic of quot Speci c Period Summariesquot You may choose to print out this page and then return to the intemet link provided on page 1 to check your answers Reminders Left click your mouse on this teXt frame before executing your print routine and use a blackwhite setting rather than color Identify and Match with Correct Period Terms troubadours oraiDrios Berlioz 39m pression ism Puccini M endelssohn V ivaldi Palestrina JS Bach Shos akov ich Chop ir Pope G regory H aydn Sym phon ies John Cage M acha ut B rahm s M onieverdi organum madrigal W agner Periods Middle Ages R enaissance B aroque C lass ical Rom antic 20th Century Standard Music Genres Page 1 Most dictionaries de ne quotgenrequot as a distinctive class or category Those researchers who categorize creative artistic works literature visual arts music etc use the label when they are grouping in nonhistorical terms It is clear for instance that music of more than one historical period could t into the genre called quotchamber musicquot Although musicologists indeed use the term especially to group according to performance medium such as with chamber music this tethook will apply the term more generally for grouping musical works in any way other than historical So quotpopular musicquot implies no particular medium of performance nor is its use limited to a particular historical period Popular music but its very nature is a product of every period although it is natural to think of popular music in a contemporary conteXt Page 2 One could say that such free use of the term genre is quotrisky businessquot since there are so many ways to group art works In addition there is a problem with broad terms such as quotpopularquot and quotclassicalquot music since the terms have different meanings in different contexts And too a genre label may have more than one unique meaning such as with quotclassica quot But for a textbook which is designed as an introduction to music appreciation accepting a few of these more philosophical problems seems preferable to more compleX analyses We may place a musical work into a speci c historical period and at the same time we may categorize the work into one or more genres By knowing these historical periods as previously introduced and the genre types we have an acceptable basis for musical description Page 3 Because of their common usage some genre labels such as quotpopularquot and quotclassicalquot have become misleading and therefore debatable This has led some musicologists to nd other labelsquotartquot or quotseriousquot music for quotclassicalquot musicfor example But this has created equally debatable issues some of which are especially obvious to those who feel popular music is just as serious as quotclassicalquot music Just as there is no quality implication when separating music into historical periods there should be no quality implication when dividing music into genres The implication is that the various genres are in some way uniquely different not quotbad good better or best quot The list of genres which appears on the next page is not allinclusive They are presented in a selective way for their relevance to musical discussion throughout the book By applying a genre label then to a musical work it is possible to project a good amount of information about it assuming that we know the meaning of the genre It is a simpli ed way of communicating information Page 4 Genres in Music U sad in th is T exibook Print as you wish classical music cham berm usic popularm usic nonwestem music jazz program In usic sym phon ic m usic concertband m usic choralm usic instrum enial solo works operas Lieder B roadw ay show s com m ercialm usic Yes these genres overlap have other comparable labels and have a variety of breadth Some may even be considered subgenres But for the purposes of this textbook these genres will cover all discussed music For example earlier you listened to Britten s quotYoung Person s Guide to the Orchestra quot It is written during the period called quotcontemporaryquot and falls into the genres quotclassical musicquot and quotsymphonic musicquot Page 5 Classical Music is a broad genre in which a majority of the musical examples for this textbook falls Sometimes referenced as quotartquot or quotseriousquot music the genre label quotclassicalquot may be erroneously confused with the historical Classical Period 17501820 There are several reasons for using a majority of the musical examples from this genre Classical music has a complexity of musical thought and technique which is not clearly understood without study It uses musical elements common to the other genres By understanding classical music then one understands much of the techniques found in the other genres Page 6 Popular music is generally understood as a label for music which is immediately and broadly appealing and listened to It changes with the time on a continuing basis although some popular works have gained longterm acceptance as quotstandardsquot Depending on the times there are many quotsubgenresquot of popular music from the troubadour songs of the middle ages to the dance music of the 20th century to presentday varieties There are few students who do not know an array of popular music styles they are well aware that their favorites will soon give way to other choices What may be interesting in addition to this knowledge are the commonalities between popular and classical music For instance use the listening guide sheet on the neXt page prepared for a classical piece to analyze a popular song from the intemet Page 7 This embedded Listening Guide below has a white background so that it may easily be printed It is a copy of a listening guide prepared for Haydn s Symphony 87 4th Movement Listening Library CD1 track 12 However it is to be used now to analyze a popular song You may use this intemet link wwwneworleansradiocom and select a popular song or choose a popular song from another source For the basic musical elements of any popular song simply circle the adjectives which may describe them Also feel free to add your own adjective at the bottom of each column Of course you need to print out this page in order to mark on the form In this generic form adjectives may be appropriate at any given moment and then change to something else For instance under timbre you may hear voices the rst minute and instruments the neXt There is no way then to evaluate the accuracy of your reponses over time It is simply a guide to center your attention on the speci c elements and how they might be described Tlmbre EXpressio Harmony Form n Rhythm hlgh simple repetitious voices 1011 d duple meter compleX symmetrica low so triple meter voices dlssonam consistent s1mple asymmetr1c 1nstrumen consonant a1 ts tempo 1 t complex changing P 6353 AB keyboard I predictable Melody angular lyrlcal hemophonj ABA brass tempo m apr m inor repeated c unpredictab agitated m otives renhtive le Rondo woodwind 1 agg ress ive qu iet polyphomc S 03 In em otional add add a fast Theme amp dd quick Strings somber Changes Slow lighthearte Vanatlons percuss1o d predictable add n add dd unpredictab add add a le add add add add add add add add add add add add add add add add add add Page 8 Nonwestern music also called quotworld musicquot is a genre applied to music which does not have its basis in Western European traditions It does not normally include jazz even though many 10 nonwestem elements are found there but it does include some of the eastembased popular music heard today as well as traditional oriental music Because of greatlyincreased communication nonwestem music is more and more a part of what we hear today Still nonwestem music may seem strange to our ears This is primarily because of the difference between the very basics of musical structure including tuning systems scale arrangements and rhythmic complexities We should not forget however that those different fundamental elements are just as valid as those in western music M more about world music from a particular area of Africa Internet link Sahara Music For the Tuareg music is a binding force amid endless dunes Its callandresponse patterns are derived from subSaharan music Its hypnotic vocal range and rhythm are similar to Arab and Berber music In general Tuareg music is the domain of women Women are the most accomplished players of the imzhad a very popular Tuareg instrument similar to the violin The highpitched cries used by Bedouin women to mark auspicious events are also present in Tuareg music Music can accompany any activity from formal celebrations to impromptu social gatherings where voices and hands create an orchestra of desert sounds Camel Song Tuareg This song performed by Tuareg women from Damegru Niger tells the story of two camels The rhythm mimics the pace of a camel moving across the desert It is played with a tendi a wooden drum made from gazelle skin and a water drum Listen to the song Music credit From the recording entitled Tuareg Music of the Southern Sahara Folkways 04470 provided courtesy of Smithsonian Folkways Recordings 1960 Used by Permission Wedding Song Tuareg The Tuareg take marriage seriously Celebrations last eight days and are held at the camp of the bride s family During the festivities there is much singing and the ilkan or slaves dance in honor of the occasion Distinctive in this song is the trilling by Tuareg women a cry also used by Bedouin women at milestone events such as funerals or weddings Listen to the song Music credit quotWedding Song of the Kel Issekenerenquot from the recording entitled Tuareg Music of the Southern Sahara Folkways 04470 provided courtesy of Smithsonian Folkways Recordings 1960 Used by Permission Tohimo Dance Tuareg Sung by women the Tohimo dance is part of an exorcism ritual performed for a person believed possessed by the devil Though the Tuareg are Muslim such traditional beliefs persist earning them the Arab sobriquet of Tawarik or quotdeserters of Allahquot Listen to the song Music credit quotTohimo Dancequot from the recording entitled Tuareg Music of the Southern Sahara Folkways 04470 provided courtesy of Smithsonian Folkways Recordings 1960 Used by Permission 11 Photo and Object Credit American Museum of Natural History Cymbals 1973 Flute 1973 Page 9 As you listen to an excerpt from a jazz selection consider that jazz is an important genre in American music and in the 20th century It has many commonalities with the classical genre and it has had such major in uence on popular music that in many cases jazz works may be classi ed also in the popular genre Fundamentally jazz is a rich mixture of two heritages the African and European cultures Many characteristics of jazz can be recognized but it may be said that the essence of jazz is found in its syncopated rhythms its improvisatory content its bluesbased melodies and its unique instrumentation Page 10 Listen to a short excerpt from Schubert s Symphony 8 Movement One as an example of symphonic music In one context this genre may be considered a subgenre of classical music since symphonic music is also found in popular music and even in jazz Therefore its validity as a separate genre seems justi ed Instrumental music for a large ensemble using instrumentation and size at least as large as 18th century orchestras is the extent of this genre This implies the presence of strings brass woodwind and percussion instruments Use this intemet link for a biography of Schubert Later listen to the entire movement Listening Library CD1 Track 4 A formal Listening Guide may be found in the quotListening Guidequot folder Page 11 Listen to a short excerpt from a choral work by Norman Dello Joio who is a ne contemporary composer The work is Holy Infant s Lullaby The genre choral music is present in almost all historical periods Its major characteristic of course is that it is music for a vocal ensemble This is as opposed to solo voices duets and trios and small chamber groups Choral music may be written for any combination of voices male andor female and it may have a piano or orchestral accompaniment Group size ranges greatly from 20 or so to over 100 Also read Dello Joio s biography on this intemet link before turning to the next page After nishing this topic listen to the entire work which is found on CD2 track 2 Page 12 A Broadway show is a staged production which combines dramatic elements with vocal music usually of the popular genre An orchestra almost always accompanies Except for the absence of recitative and the use of a more populargenre style of song a Broadway show is much like an opera These two genresBroadway show and operahave become more similar during the last half of this century A full understanding and appreciation of a Broadway show comes only through attending a live performance But many of the songs may stand alone musically Indeed some become popular songs independent of the show which spawned them Read more about Broadway shows provided through this intemet link Page 13 Brahms Rhapsody is an instrumental solo work which is a rather broad genre in that various instrumentsin fact any instrumentmay be the solo instrument The works may be short or long they may be single or multimovement Whenever the solo instrument is not harmonicallybased a second performer on keyboard is almost always included Before turning to the next page read Brahms biography on this intemet link After completing this topic listen to the entire work found on CD3 track 10 Page 14 Chamber music includes music written for a small ensemble of vocalists or instrumentalists and combinations Its purpose is not to feature a soloist nor is it meant to include larger symphonic works Usually included are from three to nine performers For example a chamber work titled Quintet would be written for ve performers Chamber music is an intimate type of music usually performed in a small recital hall or room and often for 1 2 a rather small audience Chamber music literature includes works with titles that frequently suggest the groups for which they were written including string quartets and woodwind quintets Page 15 Concert Band music sometimes referenced as military music because of its origins is a genre which includes music for the instrumentation called the concert band wind band or wind ensemble and in a few cases wind symphony Regardless of the variant name of the performing group the instrumentation brass 39 39 39 and l 39 is rather la 30 and frequently 60 or more Note the distinction between a concert band and an orchestra the inclusion and dominance of string instruments in an orchestra While concert band music may be lighter and more varied both groups often perform the same music with different instrumentation Also note that there is a clear difference between the generic use of the term band and this Page 16 Operas are staged works which combine vocal music orchestral accompaniment and all the dramatic elements of costumes scenery and acting You are listening to an excerpt of an aria from an opera by Mozart Usually the musical elements of an opera are arias solo songs recitatives halfsung dialogue vocal ensembles duets etc choruses and orchestral accompaniment The story may come from a variety of sources and is frequently subordinate to singing Like a Broadway production a full understanding and appreciation of opera comes only through attending a live performance Page 17 Lieder plural for Lied is the German term for solo songs Whether called lieder or simply solo songs this body of literature became prevalent during the 19th century and after As opposed to an aria a lied is independent of any broader work such as an opera It stands alone performed by solo voice and piano Usually short it is based on a text traditionally a previously written poem and has signi cant emotional content Page 18 Listen to a short excerpt from a lied by Franz Schubert In its original version an aria is accompanied by an orchestra while a lied is accompanied by piano But if an aria is performed on recital rather than in an operatic production it is also accompanied by piano From aural identi cation alone then it is easy to confuse a lied with an aria Page 19 Program music such as Mussorgsky s Great Gate of Kiev is music which has quotextra musicalquot meaning The intent of the composer is to paint a musical picture tell a musical story or set a particular mood Almost always the extramusical intent is laid out verbally and printed as program notes Thus we have in the genre such works as tone paintings symphonic poems and program symphonies Page 20 Commercial music is another genre which may be misleading It is possible that any other genre may be considered quotcommercialquot if its performance results in economic gain However it is generally understood that commercial music is written speci cally to be successful economically This includes not only much of the popular music of today but especially the music written for TV motion pictures and commercials This does imply that the motivation for all popular music is economic gain But that motivation clearly dominates that industry At the same time there are some ne examples of jazz and classical music which were economically motivated Indeed the delicate balance of artistic integrity and economic motivation is bringing in some cases more audiences to classical music and more quality to contemporary popular mus1c Page 21 MiniQuiz 13 Name at least 10 of the 14 genres of music in this textbook When do instrumental solo works include 2 performers Describe the nonwestem example you heard Give 2 alternate labels for the classical genre What is the genre for most military music Page 22 As a reminder now at the conclusion of this topic you should listen off line to the following works in their entirety Schubert Symphony 8 mvt 1 CD1 track 4 listening guide Dello Joio Holy Infant s Lullaby CD2 track 2 generic listening guide Brahms Rhapsody CD3 track 10 listening guide Page 23 Brahms Dello Joio Schubert Mussorgsky Haydn and Mozart have been mentioned in this topic You should read a short biography for each of them if you have not already done so From those biographies determine as a minimum the composers nationalities the period of time in which they lived and the names of one or more of their compositions Composer Master Index This is the end of this topic A practice quiz is available for your use LISTENING TO STYLE CONTRAST Classical vs Romantic Contrasts in style between periods may be rather dramatic Musical textures compositional techniques and the evolution of musical instruments contribute to these contrasts and variety Homophonic or polyphonic textures dominate certain periods examples being the polyphonic style of the later Baroque Period and the more homphonic style of the Classical Period which followed Even the traditional instruments such as the violin evolved from pre18th century instruments which were played and sounded differently than their modern counterparts Some instruments such as the trumpet were strikingly different after the industrial revolution of the early 19th century as a result of new and improved manufacturing techniques Furthermore new instruments invented as a result of our electronic age of the 20th century have contributed to the shape of contemporary style Page 2 In the same evolutionary process composers over the centuries honed their skill and re ned their process many times discovering sounds which contrasted to the past and which in turn became a part of the standard set of compositional techniques Just about all quotmasterquot composers contributed to that evolution with Beethoven being especially recognized for it Out of necessity and because evolution of this type is rather complex an understanding of this process is best gained over time as one places stylistic changes in historical context This understanding then will be a primary goal of the chapters of this textbook which follow Page 3 In this present chapter of overview a more basic stylistic comparison will be studiedthat of the aural differences evolving from classical and romantic ideals This difference is most striking when examples from the Classical and Romantic Periods are heard But there are similar yet usually more subtle classicalromantic differences found in the other periods as well 14 The related musical examples in this topic of style contrast then will come from either the Classical or the Romantic Period They should be heard several times to provide a model for comparison as well as an insight into the style Page 4 Listen now to an excerpt from Haydn s Symphony 87 mvt 3 The listening guide below describes in a general sense the musical elements you are hearing What you are hearing and reading are typical of the classical style Later listen to the entire movement CD1 track 2 with this same guide Print this page and save it for later usually smooth Melody sometimes following the chordal outline brokenchord melody strong key center Harmony expected harmonic progressions infrequent harmonic changes consistent 3 beats per measure 3 or 4 is usual Rhythm steady tempo predictable and uncomplicated Form traditional 3rd movement form minuet and trio strings with winds Timbre small traditional orchestra subtle dynamic changes Expression limited extremes Page 5 Turn your attention now to the 4th movement of the same work CD1 track 3 As with the 3rd movement listen now to the excerpt using the listening guide below You may play it again so go ahead and read this as you listen the rst time through After you have nished this topic listen to the entire movement in the same way from the listening library This embedded Listening Guide below has a white background so that it may easily be printed Circle the adjectives which may describe the musical elements in each column Also feel free to add your own adjective at the bottom Of course you need to print out this page in order to mark on the form In this generic form adjectives may be appropriate at any given moment and then may not apply soon after For instance under timbre you may hear strings one minute and woodwinds the next There is no way then to evaluate the accuracy of your reponses over time It is simply a guide to center your attention on the speci c elements and how they might be described Repeat the excerpt several times by clicking Play at the top of this page You may nd success in concentrating on one column at a time 15 Timbre Harmony Form I EXpress1o Rhythm hlgh n simple repetitious voices duple meter loud complex symmetrica low so triple meter 1 voices dlssonam consistent s1mple asymmetric 1nstrumen consonant a1 ts tempo complex 13163159111t AB keyboard Changmg predictable Melody angular lyrlcal homophonj ABA brass tempo m abr m inor repeated c unpredictab agltated m 0th83 lBHlHthS le Rondo woodwind 1 agg ress ive qu iet polyphomc S 03 m emotional add add a fast Theme amp qulck Strings somber changes slow lighthea e Variations percussio d predictable add n add dd unpredictab add add a 39 le add add add add add add add add add add add add add add add add add add Page 6 From this listening assignment of the 3rd and 4th movements of Haydn s Symphony No 87 it should be obvious that the work re ects strong quotclassicalquot ideals and is from the Classical Period 17501820 An understanding of style was encouraged by asking you to describe the musical elements which were employed Emotional eXpression while present and sometimes recognized by general terms such as somber or lighthearted was secondary to true musical content Patterns and form were generally clear simple and predictable These observations re ect the essence of what the classical ideal represents fully projected in the phrase quotart for arts sakequot Page 7 On the other hand quotromantic idealsquot bring the emotional characteristics to the forefront they are no longer secondary nor are they subtle Having a predictable form becomes far less important in fact such an ideal may quotget in the wayquot of the frequentlychanging emotional projection Not at all unusual in the romantic style is the composer s desire to re ect speci c nonmusical meanings This not only provides the basis for a large body of orchestral literature called quotprogram musicquot it suggests the possibility of an alternative approach to its analysisthat of contemplating the intended speci c story or image 16 Page 8 While it is possible to describe the elements of music in romantic music using the same technique as we have done with classical listening but with other descriptive terms it is equally valid to analyze the compositional techniques which re ect the eXtramusical meanings In some cases this alternative approach to listening analysis may be more effective Simply stated romantic music uses the building blocks of the elements of music we have identi ed but in addition understanding its eXtramusical meaning is paramount Page 9 One of the most wonderful pieces to demonstrate this point is Mussorgsky s Pictures at an Exhibition Listening Library CD1 tracks 519 With neither brush nor palette Mussorgsky paintedrather he literally reproduced in a different mediuma set of ten paintings he previously viewe The work was so effective that an equallynoted composer Maurice Ravel orchestrated the piece for a large symphony orchestra The work in this quotthirdgenerationquot medium from canvas to piano to orchestra has become a staple in the repertoire of contemporary orchestras Nevertheless the piano version is often performed in recital and that original version is the one being used in this textbook Without bene t of a wide variety of timbres to enhance eXtramusical meanings such as Ravel enjoyed in his orchestration Mussorgsky presents ten vivid and distinctly different musical paintings Of course the audience needs at least a cursory introduction to the visual counterpart of the music that comes in the printed program that accompanies program music Page 10 As the listeners we may simply follow a synopsis of a story or we may read an entire poem on which the music is based We may study in detail the painting which inspired a musical work or we may be given a brief verbal description of it More important than the depth of study of the eXtramusical source however is the stimulation of our imagination these images may vary greatly from person to person and from time to time This additional dimension in creativitythat of visual imagerytends to have a dramatically positive impact on the audience They are more involved they may enjoy without knowing minute musical details they are interacting with composer and performer and they are challenged to listen actively Perhaps these are among the reasons music of the 19th century has a timeless appeal Page 11 The ten pictures which Mussorgsky was projecting through music were visual works by a wellknown artist of the time Victor Hartmann Hartmann was a close friend whose eXposition Mussorgsky viewed in 1874 The paintings were vivid and unique providing not only musical inspiration to Mussorgsky but an artistic bond with his recentlydeceased friend As we shall soon observe these ten musical paintings were also arranged as an eXhibition presented with musical interludes which represent the time and thought that might occur at the visual eXhibition Musically they stretched the bounds of piano style used for re ecting eXtra musical meaning Indeed this work in uenced the visuallybased impressionist style in music well established by the end of the 19th century Each of the following ten pages of this tethook will be devoted to a brief description of one of the pictures A sound clip will provide a bit of Mussorgsky s corresponding music Listen to each one after the other without break and then return to the rst picture for a second quotviewingquot Later you will be asked to listen to the complete work from the listening library 17 Page 12 Gnomus This painting which was actually a design for a nutcracker was of a gnome running on crooked legs His movements are obviously uneven and jerky suggested by uneven and syncopated rhythms Page 13 Il Vecchio Castello This painting is of a medieval castle enhanced by a troubadour singing in front of it As expected the melody is a lyrical one with a soft and pleasant accompaniment This must have been an ideal scene for Mussorgsky to conceive musically with music eXplicitly suggested in the visual content Is quot11 Vecchio Castelloquot a pleasant place Can you hear the troubadour singing Page 14 Tuileries quotTuileriesquot are wellknown and impressive gardens in Paris Actually the full title of this work is quotTuileries disput d enfants d apres jeuXquot The gardens are alive wit squabbling children and their nursemaids Is the music active to suggest the activity in the gardens Do you quotseequot children at play Pg 15 Bydlo Bydlo is Polish for oxcart Hartmann had pictured the oxcart rolling on enormous wheels obviously plodding along at a very slow but even pace This was a simple but eXtremely eXpressive scene depicted by Hartmann Mussorgsky had the additional advantage in music over time to move the oxcart toward and then away from the listener Listen to the oxcart rolling rather slowly Page 16 Ballet of Chicks in their Shells It takes some imagination both from Hartmann and from Mussorgsky to imagine chicks dancing while still in their shells Hartmann s was a costume design for a ballet Mussorgsky s is playful and active The sounds of pecking and chirping are as colorful as they are descriptive Are the chicks active or sleeping Does a low or a high sound represent the sounds a chick might make Pg 17 Two Polish Jews rich and poor Samuel Goldenberg is arrogant rich and successful Schmuyle is poor pathetic and whiny This divergency in personalities is easy to portray They converse but they neither make sense nor listen to the other It is an amusing picture and one to which listeners may be able to relate One man is projected with low and deliberate sounds The other is represented by sounds which are higher and more frantic What one is Samuel Schmuyle Page 18 Limoges the MarketPlace Mussorgsky himself tells us about this picture quotThe French market is full of women in agitated discussion about a cow which has disappeared a despicable neighbor and their bad teeth quot The mood of the market place is lively just as you undoubtedly have observed when you have been in similar situations Page 19 Catacombae Sepulchrum romanum Hartmann himself is carrying a lantern to eXplore the Roman catacombs Mussorgsky seems to be joining in on the quest This is a musical description of a place that is strange and haunting Does this brief excerpt suggest such a place Imagine what the music might be if you saw this scene in a modern TV or movie setting Page 20 The Hut on Fowl s Legs Hartmann s design was for a clock in the form of a witch s hut The witch BabaYaga is a mythical character in Russian folklore We see her ying through the air What an imagination Hartmann must have had What is this thinga hut on fowl s legs Mussorgsky chose to make the music active and rather dramatic Of course we would never have guessed what the picture was simply by hearing the music But once we read the program notes we may be captivated with the musical images Page 21 The Great Gate of Kiev The Great Gate of Kiev is impressive and it takes impressive music to re ect its presence Hartmann sketched it in ancient Russian style with a 18 cupola shaped like a war helmet Actually while it was designed to commemorate Tsar Alexander II s escape from an assassin in 1866 this city gate was never built Listen to an excerpt of this nal quotpicturequot Is it a suitable conclusion for what has been heard before Pg 22 As soon as you nish this topic listen to all of Mussorgsky s Pictures at an Exhibition Listening Library CD1 tracks 519 In addition to the ten quotpicturesquot there are ve quotpromenadesquot which lead the listener from picture to picture The musical character of the promenades changes in keeping with the changing mood re ected in the pictures Sometimes the promenade links with the pictures at other times it doesn t Pictures at an Exhibition does not have a guide sheet to accompany it Rather you have been exposed to each picture in order and you have their titles printed on Listening Library CD1 Above all it is important that you enjoy imagining the scenes that are being depicted by Mussorgsky Pg 23 MiniQuiz What is a contrast to polyphonic texture W hat is 1118 contrastt quotrom anticquot ideals Is program In usic re lated 1D rom antic ideals W ho w rote P ictu res atan Exhibition W ho orch estrain P icm res atan Exh ib 39rtion N am e at least quotPicturesquot As a reminder now at the conclusion of this topic you should listen off line to the following works in their entirety Mussorgsky Pictures at an Exhibition 0 D 1 tracks 5 19 no listening guide recall the pictures descriptions Haydn Symphony 87 mvts 3 and 4 CD1 tracks 23 You should have printed the listening guides earlier This is the end of this topic An appropriate practice quiz Q12 is available along with an addition one Q13 Practice Quiz 13 is a composite of the practice quizzes you have taken since Practice Quiz 9 It is a good quiz for review 1 Have you read and studied this etextbook through the end of the topic Standard Musical Genres answer yes or no yes 2 Have you satisfactorily completed Practice Quizzes through 11 answer yes or no yes 3 What type of musician might have been the popular musician of the middle ages choices jazz musician troubadour tame musician TROUBADOUR 4 Along with opera oratorios rst appeared at the beginning of what period The Baroque Age 19 5 The year 1850 falls in what historical period in music Romantic Age
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